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Sample records for zonal drift velocity

  1. Theoretical and experimental zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift velocity observations and their comparison with model calculations. The bubble zonal velocities were measured using airglow OI630 nm all-sky digital images and the model calculations were performed taking into account flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and conductivity weighted neutral zonal winds. The digital images were obtained from an all-sky imaging system operated over the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (Geogr. 22.5S, 45W, dip angle 31.5S) during the period from October 1998 to August 2000. Out of the 138 nights of imager observation, 29 nights with the presence of plasma bubbles are used in this study. These 29 nights correspond to geomagnetically rather quiet days (∑K P < 24+) and were grouped according to season. During the early night hours, the calculated zonal drift velocities were found to be larger than the experimental values. The best matching between the calculated and observed zonal velocities were seen to be for a few hours around midnight. The model calculation showed two humps around 20 LT and 24 LT that were not present in the data. Average decelerations obtained from linear regression between 20 LT and 24 LT were found to be: (a) Spring 1998, -8.61 ms -1 h -1; (b) Summer 1999, -0.59 ms -1 h -1; (c) Spring 1999, -11.72 ms -1 h -1; and (d) Summer 2000, -8.59 ms -1 h -1. Notice that Summer and Winter here correspond to southern hemisphere Summer and Winter, not northern hemisphere.

  2. Zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over brazilian region using oi630nm airglow digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, D. C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, V. M.; Takahashi, H.

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region are analyzed in this study that is based on OI630nm airglow digital images. These digital images were obtained by an all-sky imager system between October 1998 and August 2000, at Cachoeira Paulista (22.5°S, 45°W), a low latitude region. In this period, 138 nights of OI 630 nm airglow experiments were carried out of which 30 nights detected the ionospheric plasma bubbles. These 30 nights correspond to magnetically quiet days (ΣK_P<24+) and were grouped according approximately to their season. KEY WORDS: Imager System, Ionospheric Plasma Bubbles, Zonal drift velocities, OI630nm.

  3. Unusual behavior of quiet-time zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities over Jicamarca during the recent extended solar minimum of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ângela M.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, José H. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the recent deep and prolonged solar minimum on the daytime zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities during quiet time is investigated in this work. Analyzing the data obtained from incoherent scatter radar from Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W) we observe an anomalous behavior of the zonal plasma drift during June 2008 characterized by lower than usual daytime westward drift and its early afternoon reversal to eastward. As a case study the zonal drift observed on 24 June 2008 is modeled using a realistic low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE (SUPIM-INPE). The results show that an anomalously low zonal wind was mainly responsible for the observed anomalous behavior in the zonal drift. A comparative study of the vertical plasma drifts obtained from magnetometer data for some periods of maximum (2000-2002) and minimum solar activity (1998, 2008, 2010) phases reveal a considerable decrease on the E-region conductivity and the dynamo electric field during 2008. However, we believe that the contribution of these characteristics to the unusual behavior of the zonal plasma drift is significantly smaller than that arising from the anomalously low zonal wind. The SUPIM-INPE result of the critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) over Jicamarca suggested a lower radiation flux than that predicted by solar irradiance model (SOLAR2000) for June 2008.

  4. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocity and tilt based on Hong Kong GPS CORS network: From 2001 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Weng, Duojie; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-08-01

    Hong Kong (22.3°N, 114.2°E, dip: 30.5°N; geomagnetic 15.7°N, 173.4°W, declination: 2.7°W) is a low-latitude area, and the Hong Kong Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network has been developed and maintained by Lands Department of Hong Kong government since 2001. Based on the collected GPS observations of a whole solar cycle from 2001 to 2012, a method is proposed to estimate the zonal drift velocity as well as the tilt of the observed plasma bubbles, and the estimated results are statistically analyzed. It is found that although the plasma bubbles are basically vertical within the equatorial plane, the tilt can be as big as more than 60° eastward or westward sometimes. And, the tilt and the zonal drift velocity are correlated. When the velocity is large, the tilt is also large generally. Another finding is that large velocity and tilt generally occur in spring and autumn and in solar active years.

  5. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation.

    PubMed

    Balescu, R

    2003-10-01

    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows.

  6. On the Longitudinal Morphology of Zonal Irregularity Drift Measured using Networks of GPS Scintillation Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Valladares, C. E.; Delay, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    A complete characterization of field-aligned ionospheric irregularities responsible for the scintillation of satellite signals includes not only their spectral properties (power spectral strength, spectral index, anisotropy ratio, and outer-scale) but also their horizontal drift velocity. From a system impacts perspective, the horizontal drift velocity is important in that it dictates the rate of signal fading and also, to an extent, the level of phase fluctuations encountered by the receiver. From a physics perspective, studying the longitudinal morphology of zonal irregularity may lead to an improved understanding of the F region dynamo and regional electrodynamics at low latitudes. The irregularity drift at low latitudes is predominantly zonal and is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of satellite signals made by a pair of closely-spaced antennas. The AFRL-SCINDA network operates a small number of VHF spaced-antenna systems at low latitude stations for this purpose. A far greater number of GPS scintillation monitors are operated by AFRL-SCINDA (25-30) and the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are situated too far apart to monitor the drift using cross-correlation techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory (Rino, Radio Sci., 1979) to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GPS measurements of S4, sigma-phi, and the propagation geometry alone. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this technique requires assumptions for the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment show that the ratio of sigma-phi to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift, and hence the zonal drift can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. In

  7. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by the WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. We also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.

  8. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  9. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; ...

    2018-05-29

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  10. Low-latitude zonal and vertical ion drifts seen by DE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical ion drift data from the DE 2 spacecraft have been used to determine average zonal and vertical plasma flow (electric field) characteristics in the +/- 26-deg dip latitude region during a time of high solar activity. The 'average data' local time profile for an apex height bin centered at 400 km indicates westward plasma flow from 0600 to 1900 solar local time ((SLT) with a maximum westward velocity of 80 m/s in the early afternoon. There is a sharp change to eastward flow at approximately 1900 hours with an early evening peak of 170 m/s. A secondary nighttime maximum exists at 0430 SLT preceeding the reversal to westward flow. This profile is in good agreement with Jicamarca, Peru, radar measurements made under similar solar maximum conditions. Haramonic analysis indicates a net superrotation which is strongest at lower apex altitudes. The diurnal term is dominant, but higher order terms through the quatradiurnal are significant.

  11. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  12. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  13. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T. D.; I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 2 University Str., 0186 Tbilisi; Shad, M.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift wavesmore » and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less

  14. Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.

    2013-04-15

    Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allowsmore » to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.« less

  15. Triple Cascade Behavior in Quasigeostrophic and Drift Turbulence and Generation of Zonal Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2009-09-11

    We study quasigeostrophic (QG) and plasma drift turbulence within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. We focus on the zonostrophy, an extra invariant in the CHM model, and on its role in the formation of zonal jets. We use a generalized Fjoertoft argument for the energy, enstrophy, and zonostrophy and show that they cascade anisotropically into nonintersecting sectors in k space with the energy cascading towards large zonal scales. Using direct numerical simulations of the CHM equation, we show that zonostrophy is well conserved, and the three invariants cascade as predicted by the Fjoertoft argument.

  16. Electron drift velocity and mobility in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hai-Ming; Duan, Yi-Feng; Huang, Fei; Liu, Jin-Long

    2018-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electric transport properties of graphene-substrate systems. The drift velocity, mobility, and temperature of the electrons are self-consistently determined using the Boltzmann equilibrium equations. It is revealed that the electronic transport exhibits a distinctly nonlinear behavior. A very high mobility is achieved with the increase of the electric fields increase. The electron velocity is not completely saturated with the increase of the electric field. The temperature of the hot electrons depends quasi-linearly on the electric field. In addition, we show that the electron velocity, mobility, and electron temperature are sensitive to the electron density. These findings could be employed for the application of graphene for high-field nano-electronic devices.

  17. The climatology of low-latitude ionospheric densities and zonal drifts from IMAGE-FUV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, T. J.; Sagawa, E.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Patel, J.

    2004-12-01

    The IMAGE satellite was the first dedicated to magnetospheric imaging, but has also provided numerous images of the nightside ionosphere with its Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) spectrographic imager. Nightside emissions of O I at 135.6-nm originating away from the aurora are due to recombination of ionospheric O+, and vary in intensity with (O+)2. IMAGE-FUV, operating in a highly elliptical orbit with apogee at middle latitudes and >7 Re altitude, measures this emission globally with 100-km resolution. During each 14.5 hour orbit, IMAGE-FUV is able to monitor nightside ionospheric densities for up to 6-7 hours. Hundreds of low-latitude ionospheric bubbles, their development and drift speed, and a variety of other dynamical variations in brightness and morphology of the equatorial anomalies have been observed during this mission. Furthermore, the average global distribution of low-latitude ionospheric plasma densities can be determined in 3 days. Imaging data collected from February through June of 2002 are used to compile a dataset containing a variety of parameters (e.g., latitude and brightness of peak plasma density, zonal bubble drift speed) which can be drawn from for climatological studies. Recent results indicate that the average ground speed of low-latitude zonal plasma drifts vary with longitude by up to 50%, and that a periodic variation in ionospheric densities with longitude suggests the influence of a lower-thermospheric non-migrating tide with wave number = 4 on ionospheric densities. An excellent correlation between zonal drift speed and the magnetic storm index Dst is also found.

  18. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  19. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-26

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  20. Occurrence and zonal drifts of small-scale ionospheric irregularities over an equatorial station during solar maximum - Magnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muella, M. T. A. H.; de Paula, E. R.; Kantor, I. J.; Rezende, L. F. C.; Smorigo, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    A statistical study of L-band amplitude scintillations and zonal drift velocity of Fresnel-scale ionospheric irregularities is presented. Ground-based global positioning system (GPS) data acquired at the equatorial station of São Luís (2.33°S, 44.21°W, dip latitude 1.3°S), Brazil, during the solar maximum period from March 2001 to February 2002 are used in the analysis. The variation of scintillations and irregularity drift velocities with local time, season and magnetic activity are reported. The results reveal that for the near overhead ionosphere (satellite elevation angle >45°) a broad maximum in the occurrence of scintillation is seen from October to February. In general, weak scintillations (S 4 < 0.4) dominated (>90%) during equinox (March-April; September-October) and December solstice (November-February) quiet time conditions and, many of the scintillations, occurred during pre-midnight hours. The mean zonal velocities of the irregularities are seen to be ˜30 m s -1 larger near December solstice, while during the equinoctial period the velocities decay faster and the scintillations tend to cease earlier. On geomagnetically disturbed nights, scintillation activity seems to be strongly affected by the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric fields and disturbance dynamo effects. On disturbed days, during the equinox and December solstice seasons, the scintillations tend to be suppressed in the pre-midnight hours, whereas during June solstice months (May-August) the effect is opposite. In the post-midnight period, the mostly marked increase in the scintillation occurrence is observed during the equinox months. The results show that during disturbed conditions only one type of storm (when the main phase maximum takes place during the daytime hours) agrees with the Aarons' description, that is the suppression of L-band scintillations in the first recovery phase night. The results also reveal that the storm-time irregularity drifts become more

  1. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  2. A Simulation Model for Drift Resistive Ballooning Turbulence Examining the Influence of Self-consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon

    2015-11-01

    Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).

  3. Zonal Drift Variations and Suppression of Ionospheric Scintillation During St. Patrick's Day Storm Observed by Pingtung SCINDA Station in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S. Y.; Nayak, C.; Tsai, L. C.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Variations of zonal drift and ionospheric VHF scintillations observed by a SCINDA station in Southern Taiwan during the St. Patrick's day geomagnetic storm are studied. Although scintillations were observed for 6 consecutive days before the storm, they were absence during the storm period. Data from VHF receivers, ionosonde and in situ plasma density observations from ESA's SWARM constellation are used to study the ionospheric irregularity/scintillation events in the Taiwanese sector to compare with what happened in the Indian sectors. The absence of scintillation in the Taiwanese sector during the storm period seems to be caused by a reduced pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) electric field from a westward prompt-penetration electric field (PPEF) during the storm. A low post-sunset ionosphere thus becomes unfavorable for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to occur. On the contrary, the PPEFs were found to strongly enhance the PRE electric field in the Indian sector to cause the ionospheric irregularities/scintillations in the post-sunset sector. Zonal drift variations during the storm time are also discussed in conjunction with the irregularity/scintillation occurrences.

  4. A technique for inferring zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of intensity (S4) and phase (σφ) scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Groves, Keith M.; Rino, Charles L.; Doherty, Patricia H.

    2016-08-01

    The zonal drift of ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of a scintillating satellite signal made with a pair of closely spaced antennas. The Air Force Research Laboratory-Scintillation Network Decision Aid (AFRL-SCINDA) network operates a small number of very high frequency (VHF) spaced-receiver systems at low latitudes for this purpose. A far greater number of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) scintillation monitors are operated by the AFRL-SCINDA network (25-30) and the Low-Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are too widely separated from each other for cross-correlation techniques to be effective. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of S4, σφ, and the propagation geometry. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this approach requires assumptions regarding the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment suggest that the ratio of σφ to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift. We validate the technique using VHF spaced-receiver measurements of zonal irregularity drift obtained from the AFRL-SCINDA network. While the spaced-receiver technique remains the preferred way to monitor the drift when closely spaced antenna pairs are available, our technique provides a new opportunity to monitor zonal irregularity drift using regional or global networks of widely separated GNSS scintillation monitors.

  5. Periodical oscillation of zonal wind velocities at the cloud top of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyama, T.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Satoh, T.; Futaana, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Zonal wind velocity of Venus increases with height and reaches about 100 m s-1 at the cloud top level (~70km). The speed is approximately 60 times faster than the rotation speed of the solid body of Venus (~1.6 m s-1, at the equator) and this phenomenon is called a "super-rotation". From previous observations, it is known that the super-rotation changes on a long timescale. At the cloud top level, it was suggested that the super-rotation has a few years period oscillation based on observations made by Pioneer Venus orbiter of USA from 1979 to 1985 (Del Genio et al.,1990). However, the period, the amplitude, the spatial structure and the mechanism of the long period oscillation have not been understood well. Venus Express (VEX) of European Space Agency has been observing Venus since its orbital insertion in April 2006. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard VEX has an ultra violet (UV) filter (365 nm), and VMC has taken day-side cloud images at the cloud top level with this filter. Such images exhibit various cloud features made by unknown UV absorber in the atmosphere. For investigating the characteristics of long-timescale variations of the super-rotation, we analyzed zonal velocity fields derived from UV cloud images from May 2006 to January 2010 using a cloud tracking method. UV imaging of VMC is done when the spacecraft is in the ascending portion of its elongated polar orbit. Since the orbital plane is nearly fixed in the inertial space, the local time of VMC/UV observation changes with a periodicity of one Venus year. As a result, periods when VMC observation covered day-side areas of Venus, large enough for cloud trackings, are not continuous. For deriving wind velocities we were able to use cloud images taken in 280 orbits during this period. The derived zonal wind velocity from 10°S to 40°S latitude shows a prominent year-to-year variation, and the variation is well fitted by a periodical oscillation with a period of about 260 Earth days, although not all

  6. Tertiary instability of zonal flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The stability of zonal flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2009-04-15

    The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determinedmore » not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.« less

  8. The drift velocity monitoring system of the CMS barrel muon chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenhöfer, Georg; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Reithler, Hans; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The drift velocity is a key parameter of drift chambers. Its value depends on several parameters: electric field, pressure, temperature, gas mixture, and contamination, for example, by ambient air. A dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) with 1-L volume has been built at the III. Phys. Institute A, RWTH Aachen, in order to monitor the drift velocity of all CMS barrel muon Drift Tube chambers. A system of six VDCs was installed at CMS and has been running since January 2011. We present the VDC monitoring system, its principle of operation, and measurements performed.

  9. The electron drift velocity, ion acoustic speed and irregularity drifts in high-latitude E-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M. V.; Pellinen, R. J.; Janhunen, P.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the STARE irregularity drift velocity dependence on the EISCAT line-of-sight (los or l-o-s) electron drift velocity magnitude, VE×Blos, and the flow angle ΘN,F (superscript N and/or F refer to the STARE Norway and Finland radar). In the noon-evening sector the flow angle dependence of Doppler velocities, VirrN,F, inside and outside the Farley-Buneman (FB) instability cone (|VE×Blos|>Cs and |VE×Blos|velocities are equal to the component of the electron drift velocity. We found (b) that if the data points are averages over 100 m/s intervals (bins) of l-o-s electron velocities and 10 deg intervals (bins) of flow angles, then the largest STARE Doppler velocities always reside inside the bin with the largest flow angle. In the flow angle bin 80° the STARE Doppler velocity is larger than its driver term, i.e. the EISCAT l-o-s electron drift velocity component, |VirrN,F|>|VE×Blos|. Both features (a and b) as well as the weak flow angle velocity dependence indicate that the l-o-s electron drift velocity cannot be the sole factor which controls the motion of the backscatter ~1-m irregularities at large flow angles. Importantly, the backscatter was collected at aspect angle ~1° and flow angle Θ>60°, where linear fluid and kinetic theories invariably predict negative growth rates. At least qualitatively, all the facts can be reasonably explained by nonlinear wave-wave coupling found and

  10. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    PubMed

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  11. Negative Ion Drift Velocity and Longitudinal Diffusion in Mixtures of Carbon Disulfide and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Michael P.; Son, S.; Hunter, S. D.; deNolfo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Negative ion drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion has been measured for gas mixtures of carbon disulfide (CS2) and methane (CH4)' Measurements were made as a function of total pressure, CS2 partial pressure and electric field. Constant mobility and thermal-limit longitudinal diffusion is observed for all gas mixtures tested. Gas gain for some of the mixtures is also included.

  12. On The Ion Drift Contribution To The Phase Velocity of Electrojet Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M.; Koustov, A.; Janhunen, P.; Pellinen, R.; Danskin, D.; Nozawa, S.

    The ion drift effect is often ignored in the interpretation of VHF Doppler measure- ments. For example, in the STARE experiment it is assumed that the line-of-sight velocity measured at large flow angles is simply a cosine component of the true elec- tron drift. Previous studies seem to support this assumption, though only to a certain degree. In this study we consider a 3.5-hour morning event of joint STARE-EISCAT observa- tions for which the STARE-Finland radar velocity was mainly larger than the EISCAT convection component. A moderate 5-20 deg offset between the EISCAT convection azimuth and its STARE estimate was also observed. We show that both the STARE- Finland radar velocity "over-speed" and the azimuthal offset between the EISCAT and STARE convection vectors can be explained by fluid plasma theory arguments if the ion drift contribution to the irregularity phase velocity under the condition of moder- ate backscatter off-orthogonality is taken into account. The ion effects were enhanced because of a lifting up of the entire E-region seen by the EISCAT. It perhaps resulted in an increase of the STARE echo heights and aspect angles. The latter are of the order of 1 deg at the top of the electrojet layer. We also compare STARE convection magni- tudes and true velocities measured by the EISCAT to study the potential impact of the ion motions on the STARE velocity estimates.

  13. Deuterium temperature, drift velocity, and density measurements in non-Maxwellian plasmas at ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Abramovic, I.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, B.; Madsen, J.; McDermott, R. M.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nocente, M.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Weiland, M.; The EUROfusion MST1 Team; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2018-03-01

    We measure the deuterium density, the parallel drift velocity, and parallel and perpendicular temperatures (T_\\Vert , T_\\perp ) in non-Maxwellian plasmas at ASDEX Upgrade. This is done by taking moments of the ion velocity distribution function measured by tomographic inversion of five simultaneously acquired spectra of D_α -light. Alternatively, we fit the spectra using a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. The measured kinetic temperatures (T_\\Vert =9 keV, T_\\perp=11 keV) reveal the anisotropy of the plasma and are substantially higher than the measured boron temperature (7 keV). The Maxwellian deuterium temperature computed with TRANSP (6 keV) is not uniquely measurable due to the fast ions. Nevertheless, simulated kinetic temperatures accounting for fast ions based on TRANSP (T_\\Vert =8.3 keV, T_\\perp=10.4 keV) are in excellent agreement with the measurements. Similarly, the Maxwellian deuterium drift velocity computed with TRANSP (300 km s-1) is not uniquely measurable, but the simulated kinetic drift velocity accounting for fast ions agrees with the measurements (400 km s-1) and is substantially larger than the measured boron drift velocity (270 km s-1). We further find that ion cyclotron resonance heating elevates T_\\Vert and T_\\perp each by 2 keV without evidence for preferential heating in the D_α spectra. Lastly, we derive an expression for the 1D projection of an arbitrarily drifting bi-Maxwellian onto a diagnostic line-of-sight.

  14. On Drift Effects in Velocity and Displacement of Greek Uncorrected Digital Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarlatoudis, A.; Margaris, B.

    2005-12-01

    Fifty years after the first installation of analog accelerographs, digital instruments recording the strong-motion came in operation. Their advantages comparing to the analog ones are obvious and they have been described in detail in several works. Nevertheless it has been pointed out that velocity and displacement values derived from several accelerograms, recorded in various strong earthquakes worldwide (e.g. 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, Hector Mine, 2002 Denali) by digital instruments, are plagued by drifts when only a simple baseline correction derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed. In Greece a significant number of accelerographic networks and arrays have been deployed covering the whole area. Digital accelerographs now constitute a significant part of the National Strong Motion network of the country. Detailed analyses of the data processing of accelerograms recorded by digital instruments exhibited that the same drifts exist in the Greek strong motion database. In this work, a methodology proposed and described in various articles (Boore, 2001; 2003; 2005) for removing the aforementioned drifts of the accelerograms is applied. It is also attempted a careful look of the nature of the drifts for understanding the noise characteristics relative to the signal. The intrinsic behaviour of signal to noise ratio is crucial for the adequacy of baseline corrections applied on digital uncorrected accelerograms. Velocities and displacements of the uncorrected and corrected accelerograms are compared and the drift effects in the Fourier and response spectra are presented.

  15. Post-midnight equatorial irregularity distributions and vertical drift velocity variations during solstices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S.-Y.; Liu, C. H.; Chao, C.-K.

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal distributions of post-midnight equatorial ionospheric irregularity occurrences observed by ROCSAT-1 (1st satellite of the Republic of China) during moderate to high solar activity years in two solstices are studied with respect to the vertical drift velocity and density variations. The post-midnight irregularity distributions are found to be similar to the well-documented pre-midnight ones, but are different from some published distributions taken during solar minimum years. Even though the post-midnight ionosphere is sinking in general, longitudes of frequent positive vertical drift and high density seems to coincide with the longitudes of high irregularity occurrences. Large scatters found in the vertical drift velocity and density around the dip equator in different ROCSAT-1 orbits indicate the existence of large and frequent variations in the vertical drift velocity and density that seem to be able to provide sufficient perturbations for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to cause the irregularity occurrences. The need of seeding agents such as gravity waves from atmospheric convective clouds to initiate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may not be necessary.

  16. Intersaccadic drift velocity is sensitive to short-term hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Cabestrero, Raúl; McCamy, Michael B; Ríos, Francisco; Catena, Andrés; Quirós, Pilar; Lopez, Jose A; Saez, Carolina; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia, defined as decreased availability of oxygen in the body's tissues, can lead to dyspnea, rapid pulse, syncope, visual dysfunction, mental disturbances such as delirium or euphoria, and even death. It is considered to be one of the most serious hazards during flight. Thus, early and objective detection of the physiological effects of hypoxia is critical to prevent catastrophes in civil and military aviation. The few studies that have addressed the effects of hypoxia on objective oculomotor metrics have had inconsistent results, however. Thus, the question of whether hypoxia modulates eye movement behavior remains open. Here we examined the effects of short-term hypobaric hypoxia on the velocity of saccadic eye movements and intersaccadic drift of Spanish Air Force pilots and flight engineers, compared with a control group that did not experience hypoxia. Saccadic velocity decreased with time-on-duty in both groups, in correlation with subjective fatigue. Intersaccadic drift velocity increased in the hypoxia group only, suggesting that acute hypoxia diminishes eye stability, independently of fatigue. Our results suggest that intersaccadic drift velocity could serve as a biomarker of acute hypoxia. These findings may also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between hypoxia episodes and central nervous system impairments.

  17. Increasing Saturated Electron-Drift Velocity in Donor-Acceptor Doped pHEMT Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, D. Yu.; Gulyaev, D. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Erofeev, E. V.; Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    Field dependences of the electron-drift velocity in typical pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT) heteroepitaxial structures (HESs) and in those with donor-acceptor doped (DApHEMT) heterostructures with quantum-well (QW) depth increased by 0.8-0.9 eV with the aid of acceptor layers have been studied by a pulsed technique. It is established that the saturated electron-drift velocity in DA-pHEMT-HESs is 1.2-1.3 times greater than that in the usual pHEMT-HESs. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of DA-pHEMT-HESs do not contain emission bands related to the recombination in widebandgap layers (QW barriers). The EL intensity in these HESs is not saturated with increasing electric field. This is indicative of a suppressed real-space transfer of hot electrons from QW to barrier layers, which accounts for the observed increase in the saturated electron-drift velocity.

  18. OBSERVATIONAL DETECTION OF DRIFT VELOCITY BETWEEN IONIZED AND NEUTRAL SPECIES IN SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, Elena; Collados, Manuel; Díaz, Antonio J., E-mail: khomenko@iac.es, E-mail: mcv@iac.es, E-mail: aj.diaz@uib.es

    2016-06-01

    We report the detection of differences in the ion and neutral velocities in prominences using high-resolution spectral data obtained in 2012 September at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife). A time series of scans of a small portion of a solar prominence was obtained simultaneously with high cadence using the lines of two elements with different ionization states, namely, Ca ii 8542 Å and He i 10830 Å. The displacements, widths, and amplitudes of both lines were carefully compared to extract dynamical information about the plasma. Many dynamical features are detected, such as counterstreaming flows, jets, andmore » propagating waves. In all of the cases, we find a very strong correlation between the parameters extracted from the lines of both elements, confirming that both lines trace the same plasma. Nevertheless, we also find short-lived transients where this correlation is lost. These transients are associated with ion-neutral drift velocities of the order of several hundred m s{sup −1}. The patches of non-zero drift velocity show coherence in time–distance diagrams.« less

  19. Cathode signal in a TPC directional detector: implementation and validation measuring the drift velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, C.; Riffard, Q.; Sauzet, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Naraghi, F.; Santos, D.

    2017-11-01

    Low-pressure gaseous TPCs are well suited detectors to correlate the directions of nuclear recoils to the galactic Dark Matter (DM) halo. Indeed, in addition to providing a measure of the energy deposition due to the elastic scattering of a DM particle on a nucleus in the target gas, they allow for the reconstruction of the track of the recoiling nucleus. In order to exclude the background events originating from radioactive decays on the surfaces of the detector materials within the drift volume, efforts are ongoing to precisely localize the track nuclear recoil in the drift volume along the axis perpendicular to the cathode plane. We report here the implementation of the measure of the signal induced on the cathode by the motion of the primary electrons toward the anode in a MIMAC chamber. As a validation, we performed an independent measurement of the drift velocity of the electrons in the considered gas mixture, correlating in time the cathode signal with the measure of the arrival times of the electrons on the anode.

  20. The dispersion analysis of drift velocity in the study of solar wind flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyak, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    In this work I consider a method for the study of the solar wind flows at distances from the Sun more than 1 AU. The method is based on the analysis of drift velocity dispersion that was obtained from the simultaneous scintillation observations in two antennas. I considered dispersion dependences for different models of the solar wind, and I defined its specificity for each model. I have determined that the presence of several solar wind flows significantly affects the shape and the slope of the dispersion curve. The maximum slope angle is during the passage of the fast solar wind flow near the Earth. If a slow flow passes near the Earth, the slope of the dispersion curve decreases. This allows a more precise definition of the velocity and flow width compared to the traditional scintillation method. Using the comparison of experimental and theoretical dispersion curves, I calculated the velocity and width of solar wind flows and revealed the presence of significant velocity fluctuations which accounted for about 60% of the average velocity.

  1. Role of ionization and electron drift velocity profile to Rayleigh instability in a Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhmander; Malik, Hitendra K.

    Role of ionization to Rayleigh instability is clarified in a Hall thruster plasma under the variety of profiles of electron drift velocity, namely, step-like profile (SLP) and two different super-Gaussian profiles (SGP1 and SGP2). For this, a relevant Rayleigh equation is derived and solved numerically using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Interestingly, an upper cutoff frequency of oscillations {omega}{sub max} is realized for the occurrence of the instability that shows dependence on the ionization rate {alpha}, electron drift velocity u{sub 0}, electron cyclotron frequency {Omega}, azimuthal wave number k{sub y}, plasma density n{sub 0}, density gradient {partial_derivative}n{sub 0}/{partial_derivative}x, ion (electron) thermal speedmore » V{sub thI}(V{sub thE}), and ion (electron) plasma frequency {omega}{sub pi}({omega}{sub pe}). The frequency {omega}{sub max} follows the trend {omega}{sub max} (for SGP2) >{omega}{sub max} (for SLP) >{omega}{sub max} (for SGP1) and shows a similar behaviour with ionization for all types of the velocity profiles. The instability is found to grow faster for the higher {alpha} and the ion temperature but it acquires lower rate under the effect of the higher electron temperature; the perturbed potential also varies in accordance with the growth rate. The electron temperature influences the growth rate and cutoff frequency less significantly in comparison with the ion temperature.« less

  2. Toroidal momentum pinch velocity due to the coriolis drift effect on small scale instabilities in a toroidal plasma.

    PubMed

    Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Strintzi, D

    2007-06-29

    In this Letter, the influence of the "Coriolis drift" on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torque on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiments.

  3. Toroidal Momentum Pinch Velocity due to the Coriolis Drift Effect on Small Scale Instabilities in a Toroidal Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, A. G.; Angioni, C.; Strintzi, D.

    In this Letter, the influence of the ''Coriolis drift'' on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torquemore » on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiment000.« less

  4. Field dependence of the electron drift velocity along the hexagonal axis of 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A., E-mail: Pavel.Ivanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.

    The forward current–voltage characteristics of mesa-epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diodes are measured in high electric fields (up to 4 × 10{sup 5} V/cm) in the n-type base region. A semi-empirical formula for the field dependence of the electron drift velocity in 4H-SiC along the hexagonal axis of the crystal is derived. It is shown that the saturated drift velocity is (1.55 ± 0.05) × 10{sup 7} cm/s in electric fields higher than 2 × 10{sup 5} V/cm.

  5. Zonal pressure gradient, velocity and transport in the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent from focal cruises (July 1982-February 1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisard, Philippe; Hénin, Christian

    The zonal pressure gradient (ZPG) along the Atlantic equator and the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transport are discussed for four cruises representative of each season. A very clear sea surface slope reversal occurred in the eastern area during autumn as far west as 14°W. An early onset of the equatorial thermocline rising was evident during spring 1983. An eastward equatorial surface jet clearly distinct from the EUC was observed at 35°W and 29°W. The greatest ZPG but the lowest EUC transport were observed during summer 1983. A nearly total absence of the ZPG and a large surfacing of the EUC as far as 10°W characterized the 1984 winter.

  6. Influence of residual plasma drift velocity on the post-arc sheath expansion of vacuum circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli

    The residual plasma in the inter-contact region of a vacuum circuit breaker moves towards the post-arc cathode at current zero, because the residual plasma mainly comes from the cathode spots during the arc burning process. In the most previous theoretical researches on the post-arc sheath expansion process of vacuum circuit breakers, only the thermal motion of residual plasma was taken into consideration. Alternately, the residual plasma was even assumed to be static at the moment of current zero in some simplified models. However, the influence of residual plasma drift velocity at current zero on the post-arc sheath expansion process wasmore » rarely investigated. In this paper, this effect is investigated by a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model. Simulation results indicate that the sheath expands slower with higher residual plasma drift velocity in the initial sheath expansion stage. However, with the increase of residual plasma drift velocity, the overall plasma density in the inter-contact region decreases faster, and the sheath expansion velocity increases earlier. Consequently, as a whole, it needs shorter time to expel the residual plasma from the inter-contact region. Furthermore, if the residual plasma drift velocity is high enough, the sheath expansion process ceases before it develops to the post-arc anode. Besides, the influence of the collisions between charges and neutrals is investigated as well in terms of the density of metal vapor. It shows that the residual plasma drift velocity takes remarkable effect only if the density of the metal vapor is relatively low, which corresponds to the circumstance of low-current interruptions.« less

  7. Influence of residual plasma drift velocity on the post-arc sheath expansion of vacuum circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yongpeng; Shi, Zongqian; Bai, Zhibin; Jia, Shenli; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    The residual plasma in the inter-contact region of a vacuum circuit breaker moves towards the post-arc cathode at current zero, because the residual plasma mainly comes from the cathode spots during the arc burning process. In the most previous theoretical researches on the post-arc sheath expansion process of vacuum circuit breakers, only the thermal motion of residual plasma was taken into consideration. Alternately, the residual plasma was even assumed to be static at the moment of current zero in some simplified models. However, the influence of residual plasma drift velocity at current zero on the post-arc sheath expansion process was rarely investigated. In this paper, this effect is investigated by a one-dimensional particle-in-cell model. Simulation results indicate that the sheath expands slower with higher residual plasma drift velocity in the initial sheath expansion stage. However, with the increase of residual plasma drift velocity, the overall plasma density in the inter-contact region decreases faster, and the sheath expansion velocity increases earlier. Consequently, as a whole, it needs shorter time to expel the residual plasma from the inter-contact region. Furthermore, if the residual plasma drift velocity is high enough, the sheath expansion process ceases before it develops to the post-arc anode. Besides, the influence of the collisions between charges and neutrals is investigated as well in terms of the density of metal vapor. It shows that the residual plasma drift velocity takes remarkable effect only if the density of the metal vapor is relatively low, which corresponds to the circumstance of low-current interruptions.

  8. Measurement of the drift velocity and transverse diffusion of electrons in liquid xenon with the EXO-200 detector

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, J. B.; Barbeau, P. S.; Beck, D.; ...

    2017-02-14

    The EXO-200 Collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double β decay using a liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chamber. This measurement relies on modeling the transport of charge deposits produced by interactions in the LXe to allow discrimination between signal and background events. In this paper, we present measurements of the transverse diffusion constant and drift velocity of electrons at drift fields between 20 V/cm and 615 V/cm using EXO-200 data. Finally, at the operating field of 380 V/cm EXO-200 measures a drift velocity of 1.705 +0.014 –0.010 mm/μs and a transverse diffusion coefficient of 55 ± 4 cm 2/s.

  9. Measurement of Effective Drift Velocities of Electrons and Holes in Shallow Multiple Quantum Well P-I Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ching-Mei

    1995-01-01

    P-i-n diodes containing multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the i-region are the building blocks for photonic devices. When we apply electric field across these devices and illuminate it with light, photo-carriers are created in the i-region. These carriers escape from the wells and drift toward the electrodes; thus photo-voltage is created. The rise- and decay-times of photo-voltages are related to the transport of carriers. In this dissertation, we present theoretical and experimental studies on carrier transport mechanisms of three shallow MQW GaAs/Al _{x}Ga_{1-x}As p-i-n diodes (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.08) at various bias voltages. We start with the description of the sample structures and their package. We then present the characteristics of these samples including their transmission spectra and responsivity. We will demonstrate that the over-all high quality of these samples, including a strong exciton resonant absorption, ~100% internal quantum efficiencies and completely depleted i-region at bias between +0.75 V to -5 V bias. In our theoretical studies, we first discuss the possible carrier sweep-out mechanisms and estimate the response times associated with these mechanisms. Based on our theoretical model, we conclude that only the drift times of carriers and enhanced diffusion times are important for shallow MQW p-i-n diodes: at high bias, the fast drift times of electrons and holes control the rise-times; at low bias, the slow drift times of holes and the enhanced diffusion times control the decay-times. We have performed picosecond time-resolved pump/probe electro-absorption measurements on these samples. We then obtained the drift times, effective drift velocities and effective mobilities of electrons and holes for these devices. We find that the carrier effective drift velocities (especially for holes) seemed insensitive to the Al concentration in the barriers (in the range of x = 2% to 8%), even though the x = 2% sample does show an overall faster response

  10. Water velocity influences prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus)

    Treesearch

    John J. Piccolo; Nicholas F. Hughes; Mason D. Bryant

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of water velocity on prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (sea-run rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) in laboratory experiments. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the effects of velocity, species, and the velocity x species interaction on prey capture...

  11. How pattern is selected in drift wave turbulence: Role of parallel flow shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The role of parallel shear flow in the pattern selection problem in drift wave turbulence is discussed. Patterns of interest here are E × B convective cells, which include poloidally symmetric zonal flows and radially elongated streamers. The competition between zonal flow formation and streamer formation is analyzed in the context of modulational instability analysis, with the parallel flow shear as a parameter. For drift wave turbulence with k⊥ρs ≲ O (1 ) and without parallel flow coupling, zonal flows are preferred structures. While increasing the magnitude of parallel flow shear, streamer growth overcomes zonal flow growth. This is because the self-focusing effect of the modulational instability becomes more effective for streamers through density and parallel velocity modulation. As a consequence, the bursty release of free energy may result as the parallel flow shear increases.

  12. A Comparison of Swarm Cross-Track Ion-Drifts and SuperDARN Line-of-Sight Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koustov, A. V.; Lavoie, D. B.; Kouznetsov, A.; Burchill, J. K.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Cross-track ion drifts measured by the Swarm-A satellite are compared with line-of-sight SuperDARN HF velocities in approximately the same directions. More than 200 Swarm-A passes over four polar cap SuperDARN radars in the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. Overall, the radar velocities are found to be smaller than the Swarm-derived velocities with the slope of the best linear fit line on the order of 0.5. Such relationship is in effect only for points with good quality of measurements by both instruments. In a number of cases, disagreements not only in the magnitude but also in the direction of the velocity are found. Potential reasons for disagreements are discussed. The comparison implies that Swarm cross-track velocity data are often compatible with those from SuperDARN radars and thus can be used for research. However, a careful examination of each piece of Swarm data is still highly desirable.

  13. Exact representation of the asymptotic drift speed and diffusion matrix for a class of velocity-jump processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascia, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a class of linear hyperbolic systems which generalizes the Goldstein-Kac model to an arbitrary finite number of speeds vi with transition rates μij. Under the basic assumptions that the transition matrix is symmetric and irreducible, and the differences vi -vj generate all the space, the system exhibits a large-time behavior described by a parabolic advection-diffusion equation. The main contribution is to determine explicit formulas for the asymptotic drift speed and diffusion matrix in term of the kinetic parameters vi and μij, establishing a complete connection between microscopic and macroscopic coefficients. It is shown that the drift speed is the arithmetic mean of the velocities vi. The diffusion matrix has a more complicate representation, based on the graph with vertices the velocities vi and arcs weighted by the transition rates μij. The approach is based on an exhaustive analysis of the dispersion relation and on the application of a variant of the Kirchoff's matrix tree Theorem from graph theory.

  14. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices – intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan; Cheng, Zengguang; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|EF| = 2.93 kBT) or intrinsic carrier density (nin = 3.87 × 106 cm−2K−2·T2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of the intrinsic G mode phonon energy. Above knowledge is vital in understanding the physical phenomena of graphene under high power or high temperature. PMID:25044003

  15. Self-consistent analysis of high drift velocity measurements with the STARE system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinleitner, L. A.; Nielsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the STARE and SABRE coherent radar systems as valuable tools for geophysical research has been enhanced by a new technique called the Superimposed-Grid-Point method. This method permits an analysis of E-layer plasma irregularity phase velocity versus flow angle utilizing only STARE or SABRE data. As previous work with STARE has indicated, this analysis has clearly shown that the cosine law assumption breaks down for velocities near and exceeding the local ion acoustic velocities. Use of this method is improving understanding of naturally-occurring plasma irregularities in the E-layer.

  16. Equinoctial asymmetry in the zonal distribution of scintillation as observed by GPS receivers in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Husin, A.; Liu, Huixin; Saito, S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the azimuthal distribution of amplitude scintillation observed by Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at Pontianak (0.0°S, 109.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.8°S) and Bandung (6.9°S, 107.6°E; magnetic latitude: 16.7°S) in Indonesia in March and September from 2011 to 2015. The scintillation is found to occur more to the west than to the east in March at both stations, whereas no such zonal difference is found in September. We also analyze the zonal scintillation drift as estimated using three closely spaced single-frequency GPS receivers at Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.9°S) in Indonesia during 2003-2015 and the zonal thermospheric neutral wind as measured by the CHAMP satellite at longitudes of 90°-120°E during 2001-2008. We find that the velocities of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind decrease with increasing latitudes. Interestingly, the latitudinal gradients of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind are steeper in March than in September. These steeper March gradients may be responsible for the increased westward altitudinal and latitudinal tilting of plasma bubbles in March. This equinoctial asymmetry could be responsible for the observed westward bias in scintillation in March, because the scintillation is more likely to occur when radio waves pass through longer lengths of plasma irregularities in the plasma bubbles.

  17. Comparison of vertical E × B drift velocities and ground-based magnetometer observations of DELTA H in the low latitude under geomagnetically disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, M.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, we analyzed the daytime vertical E × B drift velocities obtained from Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Ionosphere Atmosphere (JULIA) radar and ΔH component of geomagnetic field measured as the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal (H) components between two magnetometers deployed at two different locations Jicamarca, and Piura in Peru for 22 geomagnetically disturbed events in which either SC has occurred or Dstmax < -50 nT during the period 2006-2011. The ΔH component of geomagnetic field is measured as the differences in the magnitudes of horizontal H component between magnetometer placed directly on the magnetic equator and one displaced 6-9° away. It will provide a direct measure of the daytime electrojet current, due to the eastward electric field. This will in turn gives the magnitude of vertical E × B drift velocity in the F region. A positive correlation exists between peak values of daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and peak value of ΔH for the three consecutive days of the events. It was observed that 45% of the events have daytime vertical E × B drift velocity peak in the magnitude range 10-20 m/s and 20-30 m/s and 20% have peak ΔH in the magnitude range 50-60 nT and 80-90 nT. It was observed that the time of occurrence of the peak value of both the vertical E × B drift velocity and the ΔH have a maximum (40%) probability in the same time range 11:00-13:00 LT. We also investigated the correlation between E × B drift velocity and Dst index and the correlation between delta H and Dst index. A strong positive correlation is found between E × B drift and Dst index as well as between delta H and Dst Index. Three different techniques of data analysis - linear, polynomial (order 2), and polynomial (order 3) regression analysis were considered. The regression parameters in all the three cases were calculated using the Least Square Method (LSM), using the daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH. A formula

  18. Comparison of size, terminal fall velocity, and density of bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp eggs for use in drift modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Garcia, Tatiana; Chapman, Duane C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Asian carp established in the United States spawn in the turbulent water of rivers, and their eggs and early larvae develop while drifting in the current. The eggs, which are believed to perish if they settle before hatching, are slightly denser than water and are held in suspension by water turbulence. It is possible to use egg drift modeling to assess the capability of a river to support the survival of Asian carp eggs. Detection of spawning and estimation of egg abundance in the drift are typically assessed by ichthyoplankton trawls. Correct sampling design and interpretation of trawl data require knowledge of the vertical distribution of eggs in the drift, which can be accomplished with particle transport models. Data that are required to populate models of egg drift and vertical distribution include physical properties of assessed rivers and information on egg size, density, and terminal fall velocity, but data on these egg characteristics have not been previously available. Physical characteristics of the eggs are presented as a function of postfertilization time. We recorded mean egg diameter and terminal fall velocity for eggs from each Asian carp species during the first 5 h of development and at approximately 12 and 22 h postfertilization. Eggs of all species reached their maximum size before 4 h. Water-hardened eggs of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were similarly sized in our trials, and water-hardened eggs of Bighead Carp H. nobilis were the largest. After water hardening, Silver Carp eggs sank slowest, and Bighead Carp eggs sank fastest. For a given species, smaller-diameter eggs generally had faster terminal fall velocities and higher specific gravity than larger eggs. We provide regression models of egg density and diameter for all three species, discuss usage of these data in modeling the drift and dispersion of Asian carp eggs, and discuss implications for egg sampling design.

  19. Stokes drift.

    PubMed

    van den Bremer, T S; Breivik, Ø

    2018-01-28

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8 , 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Stokes drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.

    2017-12-01

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  1. Notes on drift theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, R. A.; Moraal, H.; Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there is a simpler way to derive the average guiding center drift of a distribution of particles than via the so-called single particle analysis. Based on this derivation it is shown that the entire drift formalism can be considerably simplified, and that results for low order anisotropies are more generally valid than is usually appreciated. This drift analysis leads to a natural alternative derivation of the drift velocity along a neutral sheet.

  2. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of ion velocity and temperature of drift turbulence driven sheared plasma flow in a linear helicon plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.

    2012-08-15

    Using laser induced fluorescence (LIF), radial profiles of azimuthal ion fluid velocity and ion temperature are measured in the controlled shear de-correlation experiment (CSDX) linear helicon plasma device. Ion velocities and temperatures are derived from the measured Doppler broadened velocity distribution functions of argon ions. The LIF system employs a portable, high power (>300 mW), narrowband ({approx}1 MHz) tunable diode laser-based system operating at 668.614 nm. Previous studies in CSDX have shown the existence of a radially sheared azimuthal flow as measured with time delay estimation methods and Mach probes. Here, we report the first LIF measurements of sheared plasmamore » fluid flow in CSDX. Above a critical magnetic field, the ion fluid flow profile evolves from radially uniform to peaked on axis with a distinct reversed flow region at the boundary, indicating the development of a sheared azimuthal flow. Simultaneously, the ion temperature also evolves from a radially uniform profile to a profile with a gradient. Measurements in turbulent and coherent drift wave mode dominated plasmas are compared.« less

  3. Electron emission from deep level defects EL2 and EL6 in semi-insulating GaAs observed by positron drift velocity transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsia, J. M.; Ling, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2002-09-01

    A plus-or-minus100 V square wave applied to a Au/semi-insulating SI-GaAs interface was used to bring about electron emission from and capture into deep level defects in the region adjacent to the interface. The electric field transient resulting from deep level emission was studied by monitoring the positron drift velocity in the region. A deep level transient spectrum was obtained by computing the trap emission rate as a function of temperature and two peaks corresponding to EL2 (Ea=0.81plus-or-minus0.15 eV) and EL6 (Ea=0.30plus-or-minus0.12 eV) have been identified.

  4. Radar studies of midlatitude ionospheric plasma drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherliess, L.; Fejer, B. G.; Holt, J.; Goncharenko, L.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Buonsanto, M. J.

    2001-02-01

    We use incoherent scatter radar measurements from Millstone Hill and Saint Santin to study the midlatitude F region electrodynamic plasma drifts during geomagnetically quiet and active periods. We present initially a local time, season, and solar flux dependent analytical model of the quiet time zonal and meridional E×B drifts over these stations. We discuss, for the first time, the Saint Santin drift patterns during solar maximum. We have used these quiet time models to extract the geomagnetic perturbation drifts which were modeled as a function of the time history of the auroral electrojet indices. Our results illustrate the evolution of the disturbance drifts driven by the combined effects of prompt penetration and longer lasting perturbation electric fields. The meridional electrodynamic disturbance drifts have largest amplitudes in the midnight-noon sector. The zonal drifts are predominantly westward, with largest amplitudes in the dusk-midnight sector and, following a decrease in the high-latitude convection, they decay more slowly than the meridional drifts. The prompt penetration and steady state zonal disturbance drifts derived from radar measurements are in good agreement with results obtained from both the ion drift meter data on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite and from the Rice Convection Model.

  5. Transport in zonal flows in analogous geophysical and plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    1999-11-01

    Zonal flows occur naturally in the oceans and the atmosphere of planets. Important examples include the zonal flows in Jupiter, the stratospheric polar jet in Antarctica, and oceanic jets like the Gulf Stream. These zonal flows create transport barriers that have a crucial influence on mixing and confinement (e.g. the ozone depletion in Antarctica). Zonal flows also give rise to long-lasting vortices (e.g. the Jupiter red spot) by shear instability. Because of this, the formation and stability of zonal flows and their role on transport have been problems of great interest in geophysical fluid dynamics. On the other hand, zonal flows have also been observed in fusion plasmas and their impact on the reduction of transport has been widely recognized. Based on the well-known analogy between Rossby waves in quasigeostrophic flows and drift waves in magnetically confined plasmas, I will discuss the relevance to fusion plasmas of models and experiments recently developed in geophysical fluid dynamics. Also, the potential application of plasma physics ideas to geophysical flows will be discussed. The role of shear in the suppression of transport and the effect of zonal flows on the statistics of transport will be studied using simplified models. It will be shown how zonal flows induce large particle displacements that can be characterized as Lévy flights, and that the trapping effect of vortices combined with the zonal flows gives rise to anomalous diffusion and Lévy (non-Gaussian) statistics. The models will be compared with laboratory experiments and with atmospheric and oceanographic qualitative observations.

  6. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  7. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-15

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  8. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  9. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  10. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  11. The Relation between Relaxation Time, Mean Free Path, Collision Time and Drift Velocity--Pitfalls and a Proposal for an Approach Illustrating the Essentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    The collision model is frequently introduced to describe electronic conductivity in solids. Depending on the chosen approach, the introduction of the collision time can lead to erroneous results for the average velocity of the electrons, which enters the expression for the electrical conductivity. In other textbooks, correct results are obtained…

  12. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  13. Temporal Variability and Latitudinal Jets in Venus's Zonal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Bullock, M. A.; Tavenner, T.; Coyote, S.; Murphy, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We have observed Venus's night hemisphere from NASA's IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) during each inferior conjunction since 2001 to quantify the motion of features in Venus's lower and middle cloud decks. We now present latitudinal profiles from 11 nights, obtained in May and July 2004, February 2006 and September 2007. In about 7 of the 11 nights there are zonal jets near 45N and/or -50S, with speed differentials of 5 to 15 m/s relative to the adjacent equatorward latitude bands. These jets may be evidence of episodic Hadley cell-type circulation. About half of the nights show relatively constant velocity profiles between the latitudes of 50N to 50S, suggesting that considerable mixing is taking place between latitudes. Our most remarkable result is the temporal variability in the median zonal speeds from day to day. For example, the median velocity near the equator increases from 53 to 65 m/s over the period from July 11 - 13, 2004, and increases from 65 to 82 m/s over the period from Sept. 9 - 11, 2007. These velocity changes are too great to be due to the tracking of clouds that are in the middle vs. lower cloud deck, nor can they be caused by clouds that occupy different altitudes; a velocity variation of 25% corresponds to an altitude difference of 15 km, based on vertical profiles of zonal windspeeds from tracking of Pioneer Venus and Venera descent probes. Fifteen km is greater than the expected variation in either cloud base. VIRTIS observations of Venus's southern hemisphere were also obtained in September 2007 and should be able to corroborate or contradict the observed variations. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Atmospheres programs.

  14. Deep Zonal Flow and Time Variation of Jupiter’s Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the entire planet. The electrical conductivity increases rapidly yet smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn. Deep zonal flows will advect the non-axisymmetric component of the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity, and create time variations in the magnetic field.The observed time variations of the geomagnetic field has been used to derive surface flows of the Earth’s outer core. The same principle applies to Jupiter, however, the connection between the time variation of the magnetic field (dB/dt) and deep zonal flow (Uphi) at Jupiter is not well understood due to strong radial variation of electrical conductivity. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the connection between dB/dt and Uphi for Jupiter adopting realistic interior electrical conductivity profile, taking the likely presence of alkali metals into account. This provides a tool to translate expected measurement of the time variation of Jupiter’s magnetic field to deep zonal flows. We show that the current upper limit on the dipole drift rate of Jupiter (3 degrees per 20 years) is compatible with 10 m/s zonal flows with < 500 km vertical scale height below 0.972 Rj. We further demonstrate that fast drift of resolved magnetic features (e.g. magnetic spots) at Jupiter is a possibility.

  15. A simple inertial model for Neptune's zonal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Lumetta, James T.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of zonal cloud-tracked winds on Neptune revealed a strongly subrotational equatorial jet with a speed approaching 500 m/s and generally decreasing retrograde motion toward the poles. The wind data are interpreted with a speculative but revealingly simple model based on steady gradient flow balance and an assumed global homogenization of potential vorticity for shallow layer motion. The prescribed model flow profile relates the equatorial velocity to the mid-latitude shear, in reasonable agreement with the available data, and implies a global horizontal deformation scale L(D) of about 3000 km.

  16. Drift of continental rafts with asymmetric heating.

    PubMed

    Knopoff, L; Poehls, K A; Smith, R C

    1972-06-02

    A laboratory model of a lithospheric raft is propelled through a viscous asthenospheric layer with constant velocity of scaled magnitude appropriate to continental drift. The propulsion is due to differential heat concentration in the model oceanic and continental crusts.

  17. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  18. Corrections to the Thomson cross section caused by relativistic effects and by the presence of the drift velocity of a classical charged particle in the field of a monochromatic plane wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perestoronin, A. V.

    2017-03-01

    An approach to the solution of the relativistic problem of the motion of a classical charged particle in the field of a monochromatic plane wave with an arbitrary polarization (linear, circular, or elliptic) is proposed. It is based on the analysis of the 4-vector equation of motion of the charged particle together with the 4-vector and tensor equations for the components of the electromagnetic field tensor of a monochromatic plane wave. This approach provides analytical expressions for the time-averaged square of the 4-acceleration of the charge, as well as for the averaged values of any quantities periodic in the time of the reference frame. Expressions for the integral power of scattered radiation, which is proportional to the time-averaged square of the 4-acceleration of the charge, and for the integral scattering cross section, which is the ratio of the power of scattered radiation to the intensity of incident radiation, are obtained for an arbitrary inertial reference frame. An expression for the scattering cross section, which coincides with the known results at the circular and linear polarizations of the incident waves and describes the case of elliptic polarization of the incident wave, is obtained for the reference frame where the charged particle is on average at rest. An expression for the scattering cross section including relativistic effects and the nonzero drift velocity of a particle in this system is obtained for the laboratory reference frame, where the initial velocity of the charged particle is zero. In the case of the circular polarization of the incident wave, the scattering cross section in the laboratory frame is equal to the Thompson cross section.

  19. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Howard, N. T.

    2016-06-15

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  20. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Staebler, Gary M.; Candy, John; Howard, Nathan T.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. Finally, the zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ionscale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  1. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  2. Global view of the E region irregularity and convection velocities in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2017-02-01

    Occurrence of the E region plasma irregularities is investigated using two Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) South Pole (SPS) and Zhongshan (ZHO) radars that sample the same magnetic latitude deep within the high-latitude plasma convection pattern but from two opposite directions. It is shown that the SPS and ZHO velocity distributions and their variations with the magnetic local time are different, with each distribution being asymmetric; i.e., a particular velocity polarity is predominant. This asymmetry in the E region velocity distribution is associated with the bump-on-tail of the distribution near the nominal ion acoustic speed Cs that is most likely due to the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) echoes or an inflection point of the distribution below nominal Cs that is most likely due to the gradient drift instability echoes. In contrast, the distribution of the convection velocity component was found to be symmetric, i.e., with no bump-on-tail or an inflection point, but with a bias (i.e., uniform shift) toward a particular polarity. It is demonstrated that the asymmetry in the convection pattern between the eastward and westward zonal components is unexpectedly strong, with the westward zonal component being predominant, especially at lower latitudes, while also exhibiting a strong interplanetary magnetic field By dependence. The observations are consistent with the notion that the asymmetry in the E region velocity distribution is highly sensitive to the bias in the convection component caused by the zonal convection component asymmetry and that the bump-on-tail or inflection point features may also depend on the irregularity height and the presence of strong density gradients modifying the FBI threshold value.

  3. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  5. Precursor wave structure, prereversal vertical drift, and their relative roles in the development of post sunset equatorial spread-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil; Sobral, José; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of large-scale wave structure in the equatorial bottomside F region that are present during daytime as precursor to post sunset development of the spread F/plasma bubble irregularities are investigated in this paper. Digisonde data from three equatorial sites in Brazil (Fortaleza, Sao Luis and Cachimbo) for a period of few months at low to medium/high solar activity phases are analyzed. Small amplitude oscillations in the F layer true heights, representing wave structure in polarization electric field, are identified as upward propagating gravity waves having zonal scale of a few hundred kilometers. Their amplitudes undergo amplification towards sunset, and depending on the amplitude of the prereversal vertical drift (PRE) they may lead to post sunset generation of ESF/plasma bubble irregularities. On days of their larger amplitudes they appear to occur in phase coherence on all days, and correspondingly the PRE vertical drift velocities are larger than on days of the smaller amplitudes of the wave structure that appear at random phase on the different days. The sustenance of these precursor waves structures is supported by the relatively large ratio (approaching unity) of the F region-to- total field line integrated Pedersen conductivities as calculated using the SUPIM simulation of the low latitude ionosphere. This study examines the role of the wave structure relative to that of the prereversal vertical drift in the post sunset spread F irregularity development.

  6. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few diskmore » scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.« less

  7. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  8. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  9. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-02-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  10. Relativistic satellite orbits: central body with higher zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanner, Maximilian; Soffel, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Satellite orbits around a central body with arbitrary zonal harmonics are considered in a relativistic framework. Our starting point is the relativistic Celestial Mechanics based upon the first post-Newtonian approximation to Einstein's theory of gravity as it has been formulated by Damour et al. (Phys Rev D 43:3273-3307, 1991; 45:1017-1044, 1992; 47:3124-3135, 1993; 49:618-635, 1994). Since effects of order (GM/c^2R) × J_k with k ≥ 2 for the Earth are very small (of order 7 × 10^{-10} × J_k) we consider an axially symmetric body with arbitrary zonal harmonics and a static external gravitational field. In such a field the explicit J_k/c^2-terms (direct terms) in the equations of motion for the coordinate acceleration of a satellite are treated first with first-order perturbation theory. The derived perturbation theoretical results of first order have been checked by purely numerical integrations of the equations of motion. Additional terms of the same order result from the interaction of the Newtonian J_k-terms with the post-Newtonian Schwarzschild terms (relativistic terms related to the mass of the central body). These `mixed terms' are treated by means of second-order perturbation theory based on the Lie-series method (Hori-Deprit method). Here we concentrate on the secular drifts of the ascending node <{\\dot{Ω }}> and argument of the pericenter <{\\dot{ω }}>. Finally orders of magnitude are given and discussed.

  11. Drift and Behavior of E. coli Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micali, Gabriele; Colin, Rémy; Sourjik, Victor; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-12-01

    Chemotaxis of the bacterium Escherichia coli is well understood in shallow chemical gradients, but its swimming behavior remains difficult to interpret in steep gradients. By focusing on single-cell trajectories from simulations, we investigated the dependence of the chemotactic drift velocity on attractant concentration in an exponential gradient. While maxima of the average drift velocity can be interpreted within analytical linear-response theory of chemotaxis in shallow gradients, limits in drift due to steep gradients and finite number of receptor-methylation sites for adaptation go beyond perturbation theory. For instance, we found a surprising pinning of the cells to the concentration in the gradient at which cells run out of methylation sites. To validate the positions of maximal drift, we recorded single-cell trajectories in carefully designed chemical gradients using microfluidics.

  12. Multiple zonal jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.

  13. Characteristics of the equatorial plasma drifts as obtained by using Canadian Doppler ionosonde over southern tip of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram; Banola, S.; Sreekumar, Sreeba; Emperumal, K.; Selvaraj, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present here characteristics of the Doppler drift measurements over Tirunelveli (8.73°N, 77.70°E; dip 0.5°N), an equatorial site over Southern India using Doppler interferometry technique of Canadian ionosonde. Three-dimensional bulk motions of the scatterers as reflected from the ionosphere are derived by using Doppler interferometry technique at selected frequencies using spaced receivers arranged in magnetic E-W and N-S directions. After having compared with Lowell's digisonde drifts at Trivandrum, we studied the temporal and seasonal variabilities of quiet time drifts for the year 2012. The observations showed higher vertical drifts during post sunset in the equinox followed by winter and summer seasons. The comparison of Doppler vertical drifts with the drifts obtained from (a) virtual height and (b) Fejer drift model suggests that Doppler vertical drifts are relatively higher as compared to the drifts obtained from model and virtual height methods. Further, it is seen that vertical drifts exhibited equinoctial asymmetry in prereversal enhancement quite similar to such asymmetry observed in the spread F in the ionograms and GPS L band scintillations. The zonal drifts, on the other hand, showed westward during daytime with mean drifts of ~150-200 m/s and correlated well with equatorial electrojet strength indicating the role of E region dynamo during daytime, while they are eastward during nighttime with mean drifts of ~100 m/s resembling F region dynamo process. Also, zonal drifts showed large westward prior to the spread F onset during autumn equinox than vernal equinox, suggesting strong zonal shears which might cause equinoctial asymmetry in spread F.

  14. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  15. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  16. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  17. Zonal wavefront sensing with enhanced spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array. This eventually leads to a wavefront estimation with an enhanced spatial resolution without much sacrifice on the sensor frame rate, thus making the scheme suitable for high spatial resolution measurement of transient wavefronts. We present experimental and numerical simulation results to demonstrate the importance of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  18. Adiabatic particle motion in a nearly drift-free magnetic field - Application to the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is made of the adiabatic particle motion occurring in an almost drift-free magnetic field. The dependence of the mean drift velocity on the equatorial pitch angle and the variation of the local drift velocity along the trajectories is studied. The fields considered are two-dimensional and resemble the geomagnetic tail. Derivations are presented for instantaneous and average drift velocities, bounce times, longitudinal invariants, and approximations to the adiabatic Hamiltonian. As expected, the mean drift velocity is significantly smaller than the instantaneous drift velocities found at typical points on the trajectory. The slow drift indicates that particles advance in the dawn-dusk direction rather slowly in the plasma sheet of the magnetospheric tail.

  19. The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin

    1998-09-01

    During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.

  20. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2014-09-01

    A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.

  1. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  2. Direct evidence of stationary zonal flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, Jon

    2015-11-01

    High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  3. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  4. Comparison of ionospheric plasma drifts obtained by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Daniel; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Toker, Cenk; Mosna, Zbysek; Gok, Gokhan; Rejfek, Lubos; Ari, Gizem

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice (Czech Republic, 50N, 14.9E) provides regular ionospheric sounding using Digisonde DPS-4D. The paper is focused on F-region vertical drift data. Vertical component of the drift velocity vector can be estimated by several methods. Digisonde DPS-4D allows sounding in drift mode with direct output represented by drift velocity vector. The Digisonde located in Pruhonice provides direct drift measurement routinely once per 15 minutes. However, also other different techniques can be found in the literature, for example the indirect estimation based on the temporal evolution of measured ionospheric characteristics is often used for calculation of the vertical drift component. The vertical velocity is thus estimated according to the change of characteristics scaled from the classical quarter-hour ionograms. In present paper direct drift measurement is compared with technique based on measuring of the virtual height at fixed frequency from the F-layer trace on ionogram, technique based on variation of h`F and hmF. This comparison shows possibility of using different methods for calculating vertical drift velocity and their relationship to the direct measurement used by Digisonde. This study is supported by the Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  5. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; ...

    2016-10-10

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  6. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  7. Dike/Drift Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses ofmore » the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).« less

  8. Adiabatic particle motion in a nearly drift-free magnetic field: Application to the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The guiding center motion of particles in a nearly drift free magnetic field is analyzed in order to investigate the dependence of mean drift velocity on equatorial pitch angle, the variation of local drift velocity along the trajectory, and other properties. The mean drift for adiabatic particles is expressed by means of elliptic integrals. Approximations to the twice-averaged Hamiltonian W near z = O are derived, permitting simple representation of drift paths if an electric potential also exists. In addition, the use of W or of expressions for the longitudinal invariant allows the derivation of the twice averaged Liouville equation and of the corresponding Vlasov equation. Bounce times are calculated (using the drift-free approximation), as are instantaneous guiding center drift velocities, which are then used to provide a numerical check on the formulas for the mean drift.

  9. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  10. Symmetry Breaking Drift of Particles Settling in Homogeneous Shear Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsberg, M. A. T.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Toschi, Federico

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of shear on the gravitational settling of heavy inertial particles in homogeneous shear turbulence (HST). In addition to the well-known enhanced settling velocity, observed for heavy inertial particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT), a horizontal drift velocity is also observed in the shearing direction due to the presence of a nonzero mean vorticity (introducing symmetry breaking due to the mean shear). This drift velocity is due to the combination of shear, gravity, and turbulence, and all three of these elements are needed for this effect to occur. We extend the mechanism responsible for the enhanced settling velocity in HIT to the case of HST. Two separate regimes are observed, characterized by positive or negative drift velocity, depending on the particle settling velocity.

  11. On the utility of the ionosonde Doppler derived EXB drift during the daytime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Joshi, Lalit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle

    2016-07-01

    Vertical EXB drift measured using the ionosonde Doppler sounding during the daytime suffers from an underestimation of the actual EXB drift. This is due to the photochemistry that determines the height of the F layer during the daytime, in addition to the zonal electric field. Systematic investigations have indicated a fair/good correlation to exist between the C/NOFS and ionosonde Doppler measured vertical EXB drift during the daytime over magnetic equator. A detailed analysis, however, indicated that the linear relation between the ionosonde Doppler drift and C/NOFS EXB drift varied with seasons. Thus, solar, seasonal and also geomagnetic variables were included in the Doppler drift correction, using the artificial neural network based approach. The RMS error in the neural network was found to be lesser than that in the linear regression analysis. Daytime EXB drift was derived using the neural network which was also used to model the ionospheic redistribution in the SAMI2 model. SAMI2 model reproduced strong (/weak) equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) for cases when neural network corrected daytime vertical EXB drift was high (/low). Similar features were also observed in GIM TEC maps. Thus, the results indicate that the neural network can be utilized to derive the vertical EXB drift from its proxies, like the ionosonde Doppler drift. These results indicate that the daytime ionosonde measured vertical EXB drift can be relied upon, provided adequate corrections are applied to it.

  12. Free Drifting Buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information was exchanged between people directly involved with the development, use, and/or potential use of free drifting buoys. Tracking systems and techniques, where methods and accuracy of optical, radio, radar, satellite, and sonic tracking of free-drifting buoys were discussed. Deployment and retrieval covering methods currently used or planned in the deployment and retrieval of free-drifting buoys from boats, ships, helicopters, fixed platforms, and fixed-wing aircraft were reported. Simulation, sensors, and data emphasizing the status of water circulation modeling, and sensors useful on free-drifting buoys, and data display and analysis were described.

  13. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on secondary structures in drift-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, California 92093

    2011-08-15

    Recent experiments showed a decrease of long range correlations during the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) [Y. Xu et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 063020 (2011)]. This finding suggests that RMPs damp zonal flows. To elucidate the effect of the RMPs on zonal structures in drift wave turbulence, we construct a generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model including RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large RMP amplitude. A predator-prey model coupling the primarymore » drift wave dynamics to the zonal modes evolution is derived. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. The novel regime has a power threshold which increases with RMP amplitude as {gamma}{sub c}{approx}[({delta}B{sub r}/B)]{sup 2}.« less

  14. Booktalking: Avoiding Summer Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Jeff; Rickman, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Summer drift, otherwise known as loss of reading comprehension skills or reading achievement, has been a well-known and well-documented phenomenon of public education for decades. Studies from the late twentieth century to the present have demonstrated a slowdown in summer drift attributed to specific summer reading programs addressing motivation…

  15. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  16. Wave-induced drift of large floating sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, K. H.; Weber, J. E.

    In this article we study the wave-induced drift of large, flexible shallow floating objects, referred to as sheets. When surface waves propagate through a sheet, they provide a mean stress on the sheet, resulting in a mean drift. In response, the sheet generates an Ekman current. The drift velocity of the sheet is determined by (i) the wave-induced stress, (ii) the viscous stress due to the Ekman current, and (iii) the Coriolis force. The sheet velocity and the current beneath the sheet are determined for constant and depth-varying eddy viscosities.

  17. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpal S.; Serrano, Leona W.; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K.; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. Objective To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. Design, Setting, and Participants A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). Results The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Conclusions and Relevance Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

  18. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  19. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.

    2005-07-01

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  20. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.

  1. Ionospheric vertical plasma drift perturbations due to the quasi 2 day wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-05-01

    The thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics-general circulation model is utilized to study the vertical E × B drift perturbations due to the westward quasi 2 day wave with zonal wave numbers 2 and 3 (W2 and W3). The simulations show that both wind components contribute directly and significantly to the vertical drift, which is not merely confined to low latitudes. The vertical drifts at the equator induced by the total wind perturbations of W2 are comparable with that at middle latitudes, while the vertical drifts from W3 are much stronger at middle latitudes than at the equator. The ion drift perturbations induced by the zonal and meridional wind perturbations of W2 are nearly in-phase with each other, whereas the phase discrepancies of the ion drift induced by the individual wind component of W3 are much larger. This is because the wind perturbations of W2 and W3 have different latitudinal structures and phases, which result in different ionospheric responses through wind dynamo.

  2. Results of a zonally truncated three-dimensional model of the Venus middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equatorial rotational speed of the solid surface of Venus is only 4 m s(exp-1), the atmospheric rotational speed reaches a maximum of approximately 100 m s(exp-1) near the equatorial cloud top level (65 to 70 km). This phenomenon, known as superrotation, is the central dynamical problem of the Venus atmosphere. We report here the results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the mechanism for maintaining the equatorial cloud top rotation. Maintenance of an equatorial rotational speed maximum above the surface requires waves or eddies that systematically transport angular momentum against its zonal mean gradient. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is driven thermally and acts to reduce the rotational speed at the equatorial cloud top level; thus wave or eddy transport must counter this tendency as well as friction. Planetary waves arising from horizontal shear instability of the zonal flow (barotropic instability) could maintain the equatorial rotation by transporting angular momentum horizontally from midlatitudes toward the equator. Alternatively, vertically propagating waves could provide the required momentum source. The relative motion between the rotating atmosphere and the pattern of solar heating, which as a maximum where solar radiation is absorbed near the cloud tops, drives diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that propagate vertically away from the cloud top level. The effect of this wave propagation is to transport momentum toward the cloud top level at low latitudes and accelerate the mean zonal flow there. We employ a semispectral primitive equation model with a zonal mean flow and zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. These waves correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, but they can also be excited by barotropic or baroclinic instability. Waves of higher wavenumbers and interactions between the waves are neglected. Symmetry about the equator is assumed, so the model applies to one hemisphere and covers the altitude range 30 to

  3. Mapping potential vorticity dynamics on saturn: Zonal mean circulation from Cassini and Voyager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Gierasch, P. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Zuchowski, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    Maps of Ertel potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces (IPV) and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) are well established in dynamical meteorology as powerful sources of insight into dynamical processes involving 'balanced' flow (i.e. geostrophic or similar). Here we derive maps of zonal mean IPV and QGPV in Saturn's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by making use of a combination of velocity measurements, derived from the combined tracking of cloud features in images from the Voyager and Cassini missions, and thermal measurements from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument. IPV and QGPV are mapped and compared for the entire globe between latitudes 89∘S-82∘N. As on Jupiter, profiles of zonally averaged PV show evidence for a step-like "stair-case" pattern suggestive of local PV homogenisation, separated by strong PV gradients in association with eastward jets. The northward gradient of PV (IPV or QGPV) is found to change sign in several places in each hemisphere, however, even when baroclinic contributions are taken into account. The stability criterion with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem may be violated near the peaks of westward jets. Visible, near-IR and thermal-IR Cassini observations have shown that these regions exhibit many prominent, large-scale eddies and waves, e.g. including 'storm alley'. This suggests the possibility that at least some of these features originate from instabilities of the background zonal flow.

  4. Zonal Flows and Long-lived Axisymmetric Pressure Bumps in Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.

  5. On the Variation of Zonal Gravity Coefficients of a Giant Planet Caused by Its Deep Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients \\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, \\Delta {J}_{2n}={J}_{2n}-\\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J 2 coefficient and 0.7% of J 4. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., \\Delta {J}_{2n} \\,{\\ge}\\, \\bar{J}_{2n} for n >= 5.

  6. Zonal wavefront reconstruction in quadrilateral geometry for phase measuring deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo

    2017-06-14

    There are wide applications for zonal reconstruction methods in slope-based metrology due to its good capability of reconstructing the local details on surface profile. It was noticed in the literature that large reconstruction errors occur when using zonal reconstruction methods designed for rectangular geometry to process slopes in a quadrilateral geometry, which is a more general geometry with phase measuring deflectometry. In this paper, we present a new idea for the zonal methods for quadrilateral geometry. Instead of employing the intermediate slopes to set up height-slope equations, we consider the height increment as a more general connector to establish themore » height-slope relations for least-squares regression. The classical zonal methods and interpolation-assisted zonal methods are compared with our proposal. Results of both simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed idea. In implementation, the modification on the classical zonal methods is addressed. Finally, the new methods preserve many good aspects of the classical ones, such as the ability to handle a large incomplete slope dataset in an arbitrary aperture, and the low computational complexity comparable with the classical zonal method. Of course, the accuracy of the new methods is much higher when integrating the slopes in quadrilateral geometry.« less

  7. Optical drift effects in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzyński, Mikołaj; Kopiński, Jarosław

    2018-03-01

    We consider the question of determining the optical drift effects in general relativity, i.e. the rate of change of the apparent position, redshift, Jacobi matrix, angular distance and luminosity distance of a distant object as registered by an observer in an arbitrary spacetime. We present a fully relativistic and covariant approach, in which the problem is reduced to a hierarchy of ODE's solved along the line of sight. The 4-velocities and 4-accelerations of the observer and the emitter and the geometry of the spacetime along the line of sight constitute the input data. We build on the standard relativistic geometric optics formalism and extend it to include the time derivatives of the observables. In the process we obtain two general, non-perturbative relations: the first one between the gravitational lensing, represented by the Jacobi matrix, and the apparent position drift, also called the cosmic parallax, and the second one between the apparent position drift and the redshift drift. The applications of the results include the theoretical study of the drift effects of cosmological origin (so-called real-time cosmology) in numerical or exact Universe models.

  8. The spaced antenna drift method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    The spaced antenna drift method is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determination of atmospheric wind velocities using radars. The technique has been extensively tested in the mesosphere at high and medium frequencies, and found to give reliable results. Recently, the method has also been applied to VHF observations of the troposphere and stratosphere, and results appear to be reliable. This paper discusses briefly the principle of the method, and investigates both its strengths and weaknesses. Some discussions concerning criticisms of the technique are also given, and it is concluded that while these criticisms may be of some concern at times, appropriate care can ensure that the method is at least as viable as any other method of remote wind measurement. At times, the technique has definite advantages.

  9. Drift of suspended ferromagnetic particles due to the Magnus effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S. I.; Pedchenko, B. O.

    2017-01-01

    A minimal system of equations is introduced and applied to study the drift motion of ferromagnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to a time-periodic driving force and a nonuniformly rotating magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the synchronized translational and rotational oscillations of these particles are accompanied by their drift in a preferred direction, which occurs under the action of the Magnus force. We calculate both analytically and numerically the drift velocity of particles characterized by single-domain cores and nonmagnetic shells and show that there are two types of drift, unidirectional and bidirectional, which can be realized in suspensions composed of particles with different core-shell ratios. The possibility of using the phenomenon of bidirectional drift for the separation of core-shell particles in suspensions is also discussed.

  10. Zonally Asymmetric Ozone and the Morphology of the Planetary Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    sections for the 271 troposphere , J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2600-2616. 272 Eyring, V., et al. (2007), Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone ...GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, JULY 15, 2011 Zonally asymmetric ozone and the morphology of the 1 planetary waveguide...that zonally asymmetric 6 ozone (ZAO) profoundly changes the morphology of the Northern Hemisphere planetary 7 waveguide (PWG). ZAO causes the PWG to

  11. Velocity profiles of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    1983-01-01

    The type 2 radio burst was identified as a shock propagating through solar corona. Radio emission from shocks travelling through the interplanetary (IP) medium was observed. Using the drift rates of IP type II bursts the velocity characteristics of eleven shocks were investigated. It is indicated that shocks in the IP medium undergo acceleration before decelerating and that the slower shocks take longer to attain their maximum velocity.

  12. VLF Source Localization with a Freely Drifting Sensor Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Simultaneous Measurement of Infra - sonic Acoustic Particle Velocity and Acoustic Pressure in the Ocean by F-ely Drifting Swallow Floats," IEEEJ. Ocean. Eng., vol...Pacific. Marine Physical Laboratory’s set of nine freely drifting, infrasonic sensors, capable of recording ocean ambient noise in the 1- to 25-Hz range...Terms. 15. Number of Pages, Swallow float, matched-field processing, infrasonic sensor, vlf source localization 153 16. Price Code. 17. Seorlity

  13. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  14. Impact of resonant magnetic perturbations on nonlinearly driven modes in drift-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, California 92093

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows, and confinement in the framework of resistive drift wave turbulence. We extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large ({delta}B{sub r}/B{sub 0}). Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress) and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolutionmore » of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find states that are similar to the ZF-dominated state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude, the energy of zonal flows decreases and the turbulence energy increases with ({delta}B{sub r}/B{sub 0}), corresponding to a damping of zonal flows.« less

  15. Effects of particle drifts on the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Levy, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    Gradient and curvature drifts in an Archimedean-spiral magnetic field are shown to produce a significant effect on the modulation of galactic cosmic rays by the solar wind. The net modulation, heliocentric radial gradient, and average energy change of particles which reach the inner solar system are significantly reduced. The effects of drifts are due to the fact that cosmic rays for which the drift velocity is comparable to the wind velocity or larger, have more rapid access to the inner solar system than in the absence of drifts.

  16. DRIFT COMPENSATED DIRECT COUPLED AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Windsor, A.A.

    1959-05-01

    An improved direct-coupled amplifier having zerolevel drift correction is described. The need for an auxiliary corrective-potential amplifier is eliminated thereby giving protection against overload saturation of the zero- level drift correcting circuit. (T.R.H.)

  17. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on secondary structures in Drift-Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study the effects of RMPs on turbulence, flows and confinement, in the framework of two paradigmatic models, resistive ballooning and resistive drift waves. For resistive ballooning turbulence, we use 3D global numerical simulations, including RMP fields and (externally-imposed) sheared rotation profile. Without RMPs, relaxation oscillations of the pressure profile occur. With RMPs, results show that long-lived convection cells are generated by the combined effects of pressure modulation and toroidal curvature coupling. These modify the global structure of the turbulence and eliminate relaxation oscillations. This effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of residual magnetic island chains. Hence convection-cell generation increases for increasing δBr/B0. For RMP effect on zonal flows in drift wave turbulence, we extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large δBr/B0. Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress), and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters, and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find a novel set of system states that are similar to the Hmode-like state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude and low collisionality, both the ambient turbulence and zonal flow energy increase with δBr/B0. For larger RMP strength, the turbulence energy increases, but the energy of zonal flows decreases with δBr/B0, corresponding to a damping of zonal flows. At high

  18. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-07-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling time-scale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  19. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  20. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

  1. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-04-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  2. Future Effects of Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Zonal Asymmetries on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, K.; Solomon, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Fyfe, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric zonal asymmetries in the Southern Hemisphere have been shown to have significant influences on both stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics and climate. Accurate representation of stratospheric ozone in particular is important for realistic simulation of the polar vortex strength and temperature trends. This is therefore also important for stratospheric ozone change's effect on the troposphere, both through modulation of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and more localized climate. Here, we characterization the impact of future changes in Southern Hemisphere zonal asymmetry on tropospheric climate, including changes to future tropospheric temperature, and precipitation. The separate impacts of increasing GHGs and ozone recovery on the zonal asymmetric influence on the surface are also investigated. For this purpose, we use a variety of models, including Chemistry Climate Model Initiative simulations from the Community Earth System Model, version 1, with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)) and the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model (ACCESS-CCM). These models have interactive chemistry and can therefore more accurately represent the zonally asymmetric nature of the stratosphere. The CESM1(WACCM) and ACCESS-CCM models are also compared to simulations from the Canadian Can2ESM model and CESM-Large Ensemble Project (LENS) that have prescribed ozone to further investigate the importance of simulating stratospheric zonal asymmetry.

  3. On the fast zonal transport of the STS-121 space shuttle exhaust plume in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jia; Liu, Han-Li; Meier, R. R.; Chang, Loren; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Russell, James, III

    2013-03-01

    Meier et al. (2011) reported rapid eastward transport of the STS-121 space shuttle (launch: July 4, 2006) main engine plume in the lower thermosphere, observed in hydrogen Lyman α images by the GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite. In order to study the mechanism of the rapid zonal transport, diagnostic tracer calculations are performed using winds from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) simulation of July, 2006. It is found that the strong eastward jet at heights of 100-110 km, where the exhaust plume was deposited, results in a persistent eastward tracer motion with an average velocity of 45 m/s. This is generally consistent with, though faster than, the prevailing eastward shuttle plume movement with daily mean velocity of 30 m/s deduced from the STS-121 GUVI observation. The quasi-two-day wave (QTDW) was not included in the numerical simulation because it was found not to be large. Its absence, however, might be partially responsible for insufficient meridional transport to move the tracers away from the fast jet in the simulation. The current study and our model results from Yue and Liu (2010) explain two very different shuttle plume transport scenarios (STS-121 and STS-107 (launch: January 16, 2003), respectively): we conclude that lower thermospheric dynamics is sufficient to account for both very fast zonal motion (zonal jet in the case of STS-121) and very fast meridional motion to polar regions (large QTDW in the case of STS-107).

  4. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

  5. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, J.H.

    1996-11-26

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

  6. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Zonal Flows and Turbulence in Fluids and Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking `zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetricmore » coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type Is instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the

  8. Nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation. I - Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Ka Kit

    1986-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations (mass conservation, thermodynamics, and zonal momentum) on a sphere. The relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate is studied. Differences between results of nongeostropic theory and the geostrophic formulation concerning the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation and the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit versus the geostrophic limit are discussed. Consideration is given to the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence, the Eliassen-Palm pseudodivergence, the nonacceleration theorem, and the nonlinear nongeostrophic Taylor relationship.

  9. Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear

  10. The Electron Drift Technique for Measuring Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschmann, G.; McIlwain, C. E.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Whipple, E. C.; Christensen, John (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The electron drift technique is based on sensing the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that is caused by electric fields and/or gradients in the magnetic field. These quantities can, by use of different electron energies, in principle be determined separately. Depending on the ratio of drift speed to magnetic field strength, the drift velocity can be determined either from the two emission directions that cause the electrons to gyrate back to detectors placed some distance from the emitting guns, or from measurements of the time of flight of the electrons. As a by-product of the time-of-flight measurements, the magnetic field strength is also determined. The paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the method as well as technical constraints.

  11. Laboratory modeling of multiple zonal jets on the polar beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Zonal jets observed in the oceans and atmospheres of planets are studied in a laboratory rotating tank. The fluid layer in the rotating tank has parabolic free surface and dynamically simulates the polar beta-plane where the Coriolis parameter varies quadratically with distance from the pole. Velocity and surface elevation fields are measured with an optical altimetry method (Afanasyev et al., Exps Fluids 2009). The flows are induced by a localized buoyancy source along radial direction. The baroclinic flow consisting of a field of eddies propagates away from the source due West and forms zonal jets (Fig. 1). Barotropic jets ahead of the baroclinic flow are formed by radiation of beta plumes. Inside the baroclinic flow the jets flow between the chains of eddies. Experimental evidence of so-called noodles (baroclinic instability mode with motions in the radial, North-South direction) theoretically predicted by Berloff et al. (JFM, JPO 2009) was found in our experiments. Beta plume radiation mechanism and the mechanism associated with the instability of noodles are likely to contribute to formation of jets in the baroclinic flow.

  12. Spaced antenna drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royrvik, O.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that the spaced antenna drift (SAD) technique could be successfully used by VHF radars and that it would be superior to a Doppler-beam-swinging (DBS) technique because it would take advantage of the aspect sensitivity of the scattered signal, and might also benefit from returns from single meteors. It appears, however, that the technique suffers from several limitations. On the basis of one SAD experiment performed at the very large Jicamarca radar, it is concluded that the SAD technique can be compared in accuracy to the DBS technique only if small antenna dimensions are used.

  13. Spacecraft Interactions Studies with a 1 Kw Class Closed-Drift Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-31

    Closed Drift Hall thruster plume with spacecraft surfaces and systems. Two basic interaction modes were investigated: (1) the influence of the plume...Spectrometer (MBMS) capable of discerning both the mass and energy of Hall thruster plume species, and the ion acoustic wave probe to measure the drift velocity of the plume plasma.

  14. Gravitational Anomalies Caused by Zonal Winds in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Kong, D.; Zhang, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an accurate three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the gravitational anomalies caused by zonal winds in Jupiter. The calculation is based on a three-dimensional finite element method and accounts for the full effect of significant departure from spherical geometry caused by rapid rotation. Since the speeds of Jupiter's zonal winds are much smaller than that of its rigid-body rotation, our numerical calculation is carried out in two stages. First, we compute the non-spherical distributions of density and pressure at the equilibrium within Jupiter via a hybrid inverse approach by determining an a priori unknown coefficient in the polytropic equation of state that results in a match to the observed shape of Jupiter. Second, by assuming that Jupiter's zonal winds extend throughout the interior along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis, we compute gravitational anomalies produced by the wind-related density anomalies, providing an upper bound to the gravitational anomalies caused by the Jovian zonal winds.

  15. Eastern Tropical Pacific Precipitation Response to Zonal SPCZ events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Quesada, A. M.; Lintner, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme El Niño events and warming conditions in the eastern tropical Pacific have been linked to pronounced spatial displacements of the South Pacific Convergence Zone known as "zonal SPCZ" events.. Using a global dataset of Lagrangian back trajectories computed with the FLEXPART model for the period 1980-2013, comprehensive analysis of the 3D circulation characteristics associated with the SPCZ is undertaken. Ten days history of along-trajectory specific humidity, potential vorticity and temperature are reconstructed for zonal SPCZ events as well as other states,, with differences related to El Niño intensity and development stage as well as the state of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. How zonal events influence precipitation over the Eastern Tropical Pacific is examined using back trajectories, reanalysis, TRMM precipitation, and additional satellite derived cloud information. It is found that SPCZ displacements are associated with enhanced convection over the Eastern Tropical Pacific in good agreement with prior work. The connection between intensification of precipitation over the eastern Tropical Pacific during zonal events and suppression of rainfall over the Maritime continent is also described.

  16. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  17. Subsurface Zonal and Meridional Flows from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We study the solar-cycle variation of the zonal and meridional flows in the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone from the surface to a depth of about 16 Mm. The flows are determined from SDO/HMI Dopplergrams using the HMI ring-diagram pipeline. The zonal and meridional flows vary with the solar cycle. Bands of faster-than-average zonal flows together with more-poleward-than-average meridional flows move from mid-latitudes toward the equator during the solar cycle and are mainly located on the equatorward side of the mean latitude of solar magnetic activity. Similarly, bands of slower-than-average zonal flows together with less-poleward-than-average meridional flows are located on the poleward side of the mean latitude of activity. Here, we will focus on the variation of these flows at high latitudes (poleward of 50 degree) that are now accessible using HMI data. We will present the latest results.

  18. Fingermark ridge drift.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené

    2016-01-01

    Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperature effects on drift of suspended single-domain particles induced by the Magnus force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S. I.; Lyutyy, T. V.; Reva, V. V.; Yermolenko, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the drift velocity of single-domain ferromagnetic particles induced by the Magnus force in a dilute suspension. A set of stochastic equations describing the translational and rotational dynamics of particles is derived, and the particle drift velocity that depends on components of the average particle magnetization is introduced. The Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density of magnetization orientations is solved analytically in the limit of strong thermal fluctuations for both the planar rotor and general models. Using these solutions, we calculate the drift velocity and show that the out-of-plane fluctuations of magnetization, which are not accounted for in the planar rotor model, play an important role. In the general case of arbitrary fluctuations, we investigate the temperature dependence of the drift velocity by numerically simulating a set of effective stochastic differential equations for the magnetization dynamics.

  20. TIME-GCM study of the ionospheric equatorial vertical drift changes during the 2006 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A.; Hagan, M. E.; Richmond, A. D.; Roble, R. G.

    2014-02-01

    This modeling study quantifies the daytime low-latitude vertical E×B drift changes in the longitudinal wave number 1 (wn1) to wn4 during the major extended January 2006 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) period as simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM), and attributes the drift changes to specific tides and planetary waves (PWs). The largest drift amplitude change (approximately 5 m/s) is seen in wn1 with a strong temporal correlation to the SSW. The wn1 drift is primarily caused by the semidiurnal westward propagating tide with zonal wave number 1 (SW1), and secondarily by a stationary planetary wave with zonal wave number 1 (PW1). SW1 is generated by the nonlinear interaction of PW1 and the migrating semidiurnal tide (SW2) at high latitude around 90-100 km. The simulations suggest that the E region PW1 around 100-130 km at the different latitudes has different origins: at high latitudes, the PW1 is related to the original stratospheric PW1; at midlatitudes, the model indicates PW1 is due to the nonlinear interaction of SW1 and SW2 around 95-105 km; and at low latitudes, the PW1 might be caused by the nonlinear interaction between DE2 and DE3. The time evolution of the simulated wn4 in the vertical E×B drift amplitude shows no temporal correlation with the SSW. The wn4 in the low-latitude vertical drift is attributed to the diurnal eastward propagating tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3), and the contributions from SE2, TE1, and PW4 are negligible.

  1. A zonal computational procedure adapted to the optimization of two-dimensional thrust augmentor inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction methodology based on a zonal description of the flowfield is developed as a mean of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. An inviscid zone comprising the irrotational flow about the device is patched together with a viscous zone containing the turbulent mixing flow. The inviscid region is computed by a higher order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. A non-linear, constrained optimization study is undertaken for the design of the inlet region. In this study, the viscous-inviscid analysis is complemented with a boundary layer calculation to account for flow separation from the walls of the inlet region. The thrust-based Reynolds number as well as the free stream velocity are shown to be important parameters in the design of a thrust augmentor inlet.

  2. Repository Drift Backfilling Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, I.; Dubois, J.Ph.; Bauer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The 'Backfilling Demonstrator' is one of the technological demonstrators developed by ANDRA in the framework of the feasibility studies for a geological repository for high-level long-lived (HL-LL waste) within a clay formation. The demonstrator concerns the standard and supporting backfills as defined in Andra's 2005 design. The standard backfill is intended to fill up almost all drifts of the underground repository in order to limit any deformation of the rock after the degradation of the drift lining. The supporting backfill only concerns a small portion of the volume to be backfilled in order to counter the swelling pressure of themore » swelling clay contained in the sealing structures. The first objective of the demonstrator was to show the possibility of manufacturing a satisfactory backfill, in spite of the exiguity of the underground structures, and of reusing as much as possible the argillite muck. For the purpose of this experiment, the argillite muck was collected on Andra's work-site for the implementation of an underground research laboratory. Still ongoing, the second objective is to follow up the long-term evolution of the backfill. Approximately 200 m{sup 3} of compacted backfill material have been gathered in a large concrete tube simulating a repository drift. The standard backfill was manufactured exclusively with argillite. The supporting backfill was made by forming a mixture of argillite and sand. Operations were carried out mostly at Richwiller, close to Mulhouse, France. The objectives of the demonstrator were met: an application method was tested and proven satisfactory. The resulting dry densities are relatively high, although the moduli of deformation do not always reach the set goal. The selected objective for the demonstrator was a dry density corresponding to a relatively high compaction level (95% of the standard Proctor optimum [SPO]), for both pure argillite and the argillite-sand mixture. The plate-percussion compaction

  3. Suppression of phase mixing in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J. T., E-mail: joseph.parker@stfc.ac.uk; OCIAM, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG; Brasenose College, Radcliffe Square, Oxford OX1 4AJ

    2016-07-15

    Transfer of free energy from large to small velocity-space scales by phase mixing leads to Landau damping in a linear plasma. In a turbulent drift-kinetic plasma, this transfer is statistically nearly canceled by an inverse transfer from small to large velocity-space scales due to “anti-phase-mixing” modes excited by a stochastic form of plasma echo. Fluid moments (density, velocity, and temperature) are thus approximately energetically isolated from the higher moments of the distribution function, so phase mixing is ineffective as a dissipation mechanism when the plasma collisionality is small.

  4. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    DOE PAGES

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-10

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in anmore » $$\\boldsymbol{E}\\times \\boldsymbol{B}$$ nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.« less

  5. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  6. Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

    2007-11-01

    A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

  7. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-15

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxesmore » to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.« less

  8. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  9. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirablemore » to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.« less

  10. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  11. Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2011-12-09

    The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.

  12. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  13. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  14. Gyrophase drifts and the orbital evolution of dust at Jupiter's Gossamer Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northrop, T. G.; Mendis, D. A.; Schaffer, Les

    1989-01-01

    The 'gyrophase drift' phenomenon in Jupiter's fine-dust 'gossamer ring' is presently shown to exceed the plasma-drag drift, and may be able to move small, charged grains either toward or away from synchronous radius. The grain gyrophase drifts toward the higher temperature in the presence of a radial gradient in plasma temperature; gyrophase drift will also occur in conjunction with a radial gradient in the relative concentrations of different plasma ion species, or even due to plasma-grain velocity variation associated with the grain's cycloidal motion through the plasma. The Poynting-Robertson drift is noted to be diminutive by comparison with either the plasma-drag or gyrophase drifts.

  15. Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.

  16. Influence of tungsten fiber's slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Xue, Chao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Zhan, Wen-Ze; Wu, Jun-Fei; Milyukov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.

  17. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    DOE PAGES

    Flauger, Raphael; McAllister, Liam; Silverstein, Eva; ...

    2017-10-31

    In this paper, we study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effectsmore » of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. Finally, we use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.« less

  18. About the Drift Reduction Technology Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The new voluntary Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) Program will encourage the manufacture, marketing, and use of safer spray technology and equipment scientifically verified to reduce pesticide drift.

  19. Velocity diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Stewart, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of velocity diagrams for axial flow turbines are considered. Application is treated in two parts which includes: (1) mean-section diagrams, and (2) radial variation of diagrams. In the first part, the velocity diagrams occurring at the mean section are assumed to represent the average conditions encountered by the turbine. The different types of diagrams, their relation to stage efficiency, and their selection when staging is required are discussed. In the second part, it is shown that in certain cases the mean-section diagrams may or may not represent the average flow conditions for the entire blade span. In the case of relatively low hub- to tip-radius ratios, substantial variations in the velocity diagrams are encountered. The radial variations in flow conditions and their effect on the velocity diagrams are considered.

  20. Zonal subdivision of marine sequences: achievements and discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    It was 150 years ago when a notion of zone was introduced into stratigraphy. By the present time zonal units with a duration of 0.3-3.0 M.y. in average have been established virtually for all systems and stages of the Phanerozoic. Their quantity reached 300. It is not a chance that zonal stratigraphy is considered to be one of the most significant achievement of the modern geology. There are different interpretations of essence and goals of zonal stratigraphy, techniques of separation of zones, and evaluation of zones as stratigraphic units. Particularly it is reflected in International Stratigraphic Guide (Murphy, Salvador, 1999), Russian Stratigraphic Code (Zhamoida, 2006), and a number of stratigraphic reports of the last years. It concerns different approaches to: (a) establishment of different types of zones (biostratigraphic zones and chronozones, oppel-zones and biohorizons, etc.); (b) assessment of spatial distribution of zones (global or provincial) and a role of sedimentological factor; (c) definition of zones as stratigraphic units (relationships with geostratigraphic units of the standard and regional scales). The latest publications show that because of the different interpretations of zones, authors should explain usage of certain type of zone (for example, when they use the terms "interval-zone" or "assemblage-zone", what limitations stem from application of datum-levels, and others). It is common opinion, that biostratigraphic zones used widely by paleontologists and stratigraphers cannot be a final goal of stratigraphy although they provide a base for solution of many important problems (definition of certain stratigraphic levels, correlation of different biofacies, and others). At the same time, the most important stratigraphic units are chronozones, which correspond to stages or phases of geological evolutio of basins and are marked by distinct fossil assemblages and other properties (magnetic and other characteristics) in the type sections

  1. Drift and pseudomomentum in bounded turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. R. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of two Lagrangian measures which arise in oscillatory or fluctuating shear flows when the fluctuating field is rotational and the spectrum of wave numbers which comprise it is continuous. The measures are the drift and pseudomomentum. Phillips [J. Fluid Mech. 430, 209 (2001), 10.1017/S0022112000002858] has shown that the measures are, in such instances, succinctly expressed in terms of Lagrangian integrals of Eulerian space-time correlations. But they are difficult to interpret, and the present work begins by expressing them in a more insightful form. This is achieved by assuming the space-time correlations are separable as magnitude, determined by one-point velocity correlations, and spatial diminution. The measures then parse into terms comprised of the mean Eulerian velocity, one-point velocity correlations, and a family of integrals of spatial diminution, which in turn define a series of Lagrangian time and velocity scales. The pseudomomentum is seen to be strictly negative and related to the turbulence kinetic energy, while the drift is mixed and strongly influenced by the Reynolds stress. Both are calculated for turbulent channel flow for a range of Reynolds numbers and appear, as the Reynolds number increases, to approach a terminal form. At all Reynolds numbers studied, the pseudomomentum has a sole peak located in wall units in the low teens, while at the highest Reynolds number studied, Reτ=5200 , the drift is negative in the vicinity of that peak, positive elsewhere, and largest near the rigid boundary. In contrast, the time and velocity scales grow almost logarithmically over much of the layer. Finally, the drift and pseudomomentum are discussed in the context of coherent wall layer structures with which they are intricately linked.

  2. Zonal evolution of Alaskan Stream structure and transport quantified with Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Paige D.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2017-02-01

    The Alaskan Stream (AS) flows west-southwestward along the south side of Alaska and the Aleutian Island Arc; a western boundary current at the northern edge of the North Pacific subpolar gyre. The Argo float array has improved sampling of the Gulf of Alaska, allowing quantification of the AS's zonal evolution from 140°W to 175°W. Geostrophic alongshore transport of the AS in the upper 1000 dbar referenced to an assumed level of no motion at 1000 dbar shows little change from east to west. However, alongshore absolute geostrophic transports in the top 2000 dbar (obtained by combining mean absolute 1000-dbar velocities from float displacements with the geostrophic velocity fields) generally increase to the west. We estimate full-depth transports by fitting a barotropic and the first two baroclinic modes calculated from a climatology to the absolute geostrophic velocities in the upper 2000 dbar and applying the velocities from these fits from 2000 dbar to the seafloor. Flowing west from its formation region at 140°W-145°W the full-depth AS becomes stronger, more barotropic, and also narrower once it reaches ˜160°W, with along-shore transports increasing from -16.4 ± 4.9 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) at 140°W to -32.6 ± 5.2 Sv at 175°W. Mean concentrations of relatively warm, salty, oxygen-poor, and nutrient-rich Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) in the AS decrease from 17.8% ± 0.3% to 8.5% ± 0.5% between 140°W and 175°W. However, the volume transport of PEW by the AS exhibits little change over the PEW density range between these longitudes.

  3. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Stanton, Philip L.; Sweatt, William C.; Crump, Jr., O. B.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  4. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Oyvind; Bidlot, Jea-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons against parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. Of the two Stokes drift profiles explored here, the profile based on the Phillips spectrum is by far the best. In particular, the shear near the surface is almost identical to that influenced by the f-5 tail of spectral wave models. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. The ECWMF coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system now includes these wave effects in the ocean model component (NEMO).

  5. Learning From Short Text Streams With Topic Drifts.

    PubMed

    Li, Peipei; He, Lu; Wang, Haiyan; Hu, Xuegang; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Lei; Wu, Xindong

    2017-09-18

    Short text streams such as search snippets and micro blogs have been popular on the Web with the emergence of social media. Unlike traditional normal text streams, these data present the characteristics of short length, weak signal, high volume, high velocity, topic drift, etc. Short text stream classification is hence a very challenging and significant task. However, this challenge has received little attention from the research community. Therefore, a new feature extension approach is proposed for short text stream classification with the help of a large-scale semantic network obtained from a Web corpus. It is built on an incremental ensemble classification model for efficiency. First, more semantic contexts based on the senses of terms in short texts are introduced to make up of the data sparsity using the open semantic network, in which all terms are disambiguated by their semantics to reduce the noise impact. Second, a concept cluster-based topic drifting detection method is proposed to effectively track hidden topic drifts. Finally, extensive studies demonstrate that as compared to several well-known concept drifting detection methods in data stream, our approach can detect topic drifts effectively, and it enables handling short text streams effectively while maintaining the efficiency as compared to several state-of-the-art short text classification approaches.

  6. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  7. Dynamics of zonal shear collapse with hydrodynamic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theory for the collapse of the edge zonal shear layer, as observed at the density limit at low β. This paper investigates the scaling of the transport and mean profiles with the adiabaticity parameter α, with special emphasizes on fluxes relevant to zonal flow (ZF) generation. We show that the adiabaticity parameter characterizes the strength of production of zonal flows and so determines the state of turbulence. A 1D reduced model that self-consistently describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the mean density n ¯ , the azimuthal flow v¯ y , and the turbulent potential enstrophy ɛ=⟨(n˜ -∇2ϕ˜ ) 2/2 ⟩ —related to fluctuation intensity—is presented. Quasi-linear analysis determines how the particle flux Γn and vorticity flux Π=-χy∇2vy+Πre s scale with α, in both hydrodynamic and adiabatic regimes. As the plasma response passes from adiabatic (α > 1) to hydrodynamic (α < 1), the particle flux Γn is enhanced and the turbulent viscosity χy increases. However, the residual flux Πres—which drives the flow—drops with α. As a result, the mean vorticity gradient ∇2v¯ y=Πre s/χy —representative of the strength of the shear—also drops. The shear layer then collapses and turbulence is enhanced. The collapse is due to a decrease in ZF production, not an increase in damping. A physical picture for the onset of collapse is presented. The findings of this paper are used to motivate an explanation of the phenomenology of low β density limit evolution. A change from adiabatic ( α=kz2vth 2/(|ω|νei)>1 ) to hydrodynamic (α < 1) electron dynamics is associated with the density limit.

  8. The Drifting Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  9. A Stokes drift approximation based on the Phillips spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.

    2016-04-01

    A new approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile based on the exact solution for the Phillips spectrum is explored. The profile is compared with the monochromatic profile and the recently proposed exponential integral profile. ERA-Interim spectra and spectra from a wave buoy in the central North Sea are used to investigate the behavior of the profile. It is found that the new profile has a much stronger gradient near the surface and lower normalized deviation from the profile computed from the spectra. Based on estimates from two open-ocean locations, an average value has been estimated for a key parameter of the profile. Given this parameter, the profile can be computed from the same two parameters as the monochromatic profile, namely the transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity.

  10. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  11. Dynamic Stall Computations Using a Zonal Navier-Stokes Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL lotMonterey ,California CD Lj STATF ,-S THESIS DYNAMIC STALL CALCULATIONS USING A ZONAL.-,_ % 0 NVETESISDE by Jack H...Conroyd, Jr. June 1988 Thesis Co-advisors: M.F. Platzer Lawrence W. Carr Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitedDOTIC , ~~~~~~~~ELECT...OINT %, Master s Thesis OM To June 212 6 SLP;’LEENTARY NOTATION ri The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the

  12. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  13. Absolute wind velocities in the lower thermosphere of Venus using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey J.; Mumma, Michael J.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Deming, Drake; Espenak, Fred; Zipoy, David

    1991-01-01

    NASA's IR Telescope Facility and the McMath Solar Telescope have yielded absolute wind velocities in the Venus thermosphere for December 1985 to March 1987 with sufficient spatial resolution for circulation model discrimination. A qualitative analysis of beam-integrated winds indicates subsolar-to-antisolar circulation in the lower thermosphere; horizontal wind velocity was derived from a two-parameter model wind field of subsolar-antisolar and zonal components. A unique model fit common to all observing periods possessed 120 m/sec subsolar-antisolar and 25 m/sec zonal retrograde components, consistent with the Bougher et al. (1986, 1988) hydrodynamical models for 110 km.

  14. 6. West elevation of Drift Creek Bridge, view looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West elevation of Drift Creek Bridge, view looking east from new alignment of Drift Creek Road - Drift Creek Bridge, Spanning Drift Creek on Drift Creek County Road, Lincoln City, Lincoln County, OR

  15. Implementing Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications Using MPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. Unfortunately, simple message passing models, like Intel's NX library, only allow point-to-point and global communication within a single system-defined partition. This makes implementation of these applications quite difficult, if not impossible. In this report it is shown that the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard is a viable portable library for implementing the message passing portion of multidisciplinary applications. Further, with the extension of a portable loader, fully portable multidisciplinary application programs can be developed. Finally, the performance of MPI is compared to that of some native message passing libraries. This comparison shows that MPI can be implemented to deliver performance commensurate with native message libraries.

  16. Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin

    2007-04-01

    Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.

  17. A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-03-01

    A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  18. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    PubMed

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.

  20. An analytical model of iceberg drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenman, I.; Wagner, T. J. W.; Dell, R.

    2017-12-01

    Icebergs transport freshwater from glaciers and ice shelves, releasing the freshwater into the upper ocean thousands of kilometers from the source. This influences ocean circulation through its effect on seawater density. A standard empirical rule-of-thumb for estimating iceberg trajectories is that they drift at the ocean surface current velocity plus 2% of the atmospheric surface wind velocity. This relationship has been observed in empirical studies for decades, but it has never previously been physically derived or justified. In this presentation, we consider the momentum balance for an individual iceberg, which includes nonlinear drag terms. Applying a series of approximations, we derive an analytical solution for the iceberg velocity as a function of time. In order to validate the model, we force it with surface velocity and temperature data from an observational state estimate and compare the results with iceberg observations in both hemispheres. We show that the analytical solution reduces to the empirical 2% relationship in the asymptotic limit of small icebergs (or strong winds), which approximately applies for typical Arctic icebergs. We find that the 2% value arises due to a term involving the drag coefficients for water and air and the densities of the iceberg, ocean, and air. In the opposite limit of large icebergs (or weak winds), which approximately applies for typical Antarctic icebergs with horizontal length scales greater than about 12 km, we find that the 2% relationship is not applicable and that icebergs instead move with the ocean current, unaffected by the wind. The two asymptotic regimes can be understood by considering how iceberg size influences the relative importance of the wind and ocean current drag terms compared with the Coriolis and pressure gradient force terms in the iceberg momentum balance.

  1. Impact of disturbance electric fields in the evening on prereversal vertical drift and spread F developments in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Nogueira, Paulo A. B.; Santos, Angela M.; de Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, Jose H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble/spread F irregularity occurrence can present large variability depending upon the intensity of the evening prereversal enhancement in the zonal electric field (PRE), that is, the F region vertical plasma drift, which basically drives the post-sunset irregularity development. Forcing from magnetospheric disturbances is an important source of modification and variability in the PRE vertical drift and of the associated bubble development. Although the roles of magnetospheric disturbance time penetration electric fields in the bubble irregularity development have been studied in the literature, many details regarding the nature of the interaction between the penetration electric fields and the PRE vertical drift still lack our understanding. In this paper we have analyzed data on F layer heights and vertical drifts obtained from digisondes operated in Brazil to investigate the connection between magnetic disturbances occurring during and preceding sunset and the consequent variabilities in the PRE vertical drift and associated equatorial spread F (ESF) development. The impact of the prompt penetration under-shielding eastward electric field and that of the over-shielding, and disturbance dynamo, westward electric field on the evolution of the evening PRE vertical drift and thereby on the ESF development are briefly examined.

  2. Radiation stress and mean drift in continental shelf waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jan Erik H.; Drivdal, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E̅̅ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S̅11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio S̅11/E̅ depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of latter depends on ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deepwater drilling accidents.

  3. Benchmark of the local drift-kinetic models for neoclassical transport simulation in helical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Satake, S.; Kanno, R.; Sugama, H.; Matsuoka, S.

    2017-02-01

    The benchmarks of the neoclassical transport codes based on the several local drift-kinetic models are reported here. Here, the drift-kinetic models are zero orbit width (ZOW), zero magnetic drift, DKES-like, and global, as classified in Matsuoka et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 072511 (2015)]. The magnetic geometries of Helically Symmetric Experiment, Large Helical Device (LHD), and Wendelstein 7-X are employed in the benchmarks. It is found that the assumption of E ×B incompressibility causes discrepancy of neoclassical radial flux and parallel flow among the models when E ×B is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic drift velocities. For example, Mp≤0.4 where Mp is the poloidal Mach number. On the other hand, when E ×B and the magnetic drift velocities are comparable, the tangential magnetic drift, which is included in both the global and ZOW models, fills the role of suppressing unphysical peaking of neoclassical radial-fluxes found in the other local models at Er≃0 . In low collisionality plasmas, in particular, the tangential drift effect works well to suppress such unphysical behavior of the radial transport caused in the simulations. It is demonstrated that the ZOW model has the advantage of mitigating the unphysical behavior in the several magnetic geometries, and that it also implements the evaluation of bootstrap current in LHD with the low computation cost compared to the global model.

  4. Solar Drift-Pair Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.

  5. Saturn’s gravitational field induced by its equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-level zonal winds of Saturn are marked by a substantial equatorially antisymmetric component with a speed of about 50ms‑1 which, if they are sufficiently deep, can produce measurable odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4. This study, based on solutions of the thermal-gravitational wind equation, provides a theoretical basis for interpreting the odd gravitational coefficients of Saturn in terms of its equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow. We adopt a Saturnian model comprising an ice-rock core, a metallic dynamo region and an outer molecular envelope. We use an equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow that is parameterized, confined in the molecular envelope and satisfies the solvability condition required for the thermal-gravitational wind equation. The structure and amplitude of the zonal flow at the cloud level are chosen to be consistent with observations of Saturn. We calculate the odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4 by regarding the depth of the equatorially antisymmetric winds as a parameter. It is found that ΔJ 3 is ‑4.197 × 10‑8 if the zonal winds extend about 13 000 km downward from the cloud tops while it is ‑0.765 × 10‑8 if the depth is about 4000 km. The depth/profile of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds can eventually be estimated when the high-precision measurements of the Cassini Grand Finale become available.

  6. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  7. A Zonal Approach for Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    A zonal approach for direct computation of sound generation and propagation from a supersonic jet is investigated. The present work splits the computational domain into a nonlinear, acoustic-source regime and a linear acoustic wave propagation regime. In the nonlinear regime, the unsteady flow is governed by the large-scale equations, which are the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the linear acoustic regime, the sound wave propagation is described by the linearized Euler equations. Computational results are presented for a supersonic jet at M = 2. 1. It is demonstrated that no spurious modes are generated in the matching region and the computational expense is reduced substantially as opposed to fully large-scale simulation.

  8. Convection driven zonal flows and vortices in the major planets.

    PubMed

    Busse, F. H.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamical properties of convection in rotating cylindrical annuli and spherical shells are reviewed. Simple theoretical models and experimental simulations of planetary convection through the use of the centrifugal force in the laboratory are emphasized. The model of columnar convection in a cylindrical annulus not only serves as a guide to the dynamical properties of convection in rotating sphere; it also is of interest as a basic physical system that exhibits several dynamical properties in their most simple form. The generation of zonal mean flows is discussed in some detail and examples of recent numerical computations are presented. The exploration of the parameter space for the annulus model is not yet complete and the theoretical exploration of convection in rotating spheres is still in the beginning phase. Quantitative comparisons with the observations of the dynamics of planetary atmospheres will have to await the consideration in the models of the effects of magnetic fields and the deviations from the Boussinesq approximation.

  9. Biohazards Assessment in Large-Scale Zonal Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, C. L.; Lemp, J. F.; Barbeito, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biohazards associated with use of the large-scale zonal centrifuge for purification of moderate risk oncogenic viruses. To safely and conveniently assess the hazard, coliphage T3 was substituted for the virus in a typical processing procedure performed in a National Cancer Institute contract laboratory. Risk of personnel exposure was found to be minimal during optimal operation but definite potential for virus release from a number of centrifuge components during mechanical malfunction was shown by assay of surface, liquid, and air samples collected during the processing. High concentration of phage was detected in the turbine air exhaust and the seal coolant system when faulty seals were employed. The simulant virus was also found on both centrifuge chamber interior and rotor surfaces. Images PMID:1124921

  10. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  11. On radiating baroclinic instability of zonally varying flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Catherine A.; Nathan, Terrence R.

    1993-01-01

    A quasi-geostrophic, two-layer, beta-plane model is used to study the baroclinic instability characteristics of a zonally inhomogeneous flow. It is assumed that the disturbance varied slowly in the cross-stream direction, and the stability problem was formulated as a 1D initial value problem. Emphasis is placed on determining how the vertically averaged wind, local maximum in vertical wind shear, and length of the locally supercritical region combine to yield local instabilities. Analysis of the local disturbance energetics reveals that, for slowly varying basic states, the baroclinic energy conversion predominates within the locally unstable region. Using calculations of the basic state tendencies, it is shown that the net effect of the local instabilities is to redistribute energy from the baroclinic to the barotropic component of the basic state flow.

  12. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999).more » This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.« less

  13. The role of zonal flows in reactive fluid closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, WEILAND

    2018-07-01

    We will give an overview of results obtained by our reactive fluid model. It is characterised as a fluid model where all moments with sources in the experiment are kept. Furthermore, full account is taken for the highest moments appearing in unexpanded denominators also including full toroidicity. It has been demonstrated that the strength of zonal flows is dramatically larger in reactive fluid closures than in those which involve dissipation. This gives a direct connection between the fluid closure and the level of excitation of turbulence. This is because zonal flows are needed to absorb the inverse cascade in quasi 2D turbulence. This also explains the similarity in structure of the transport coefficients in our model with a reactive closure in the energy equation and models which have a reactive closure because of zero ion temperature such as the Hasegawa–Wakatani model. Our exact reactive closure unifies several well-known features of tokamak experiments such as the L–H transition, internal transport barriers and the nonlinear Dimits upshift of the critical gradient for onset of transport. It also gives transport of the same level as that in nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Since these include the kinetic resonance this confirms the validity of the thermodynamic properties of our model. Furthermore, we can show that while a strongly nonlinear model is needed in kinetic theory a quasilinear model is sufficient in the fluid description. Thus our quasilinear fluid model will be adequate for treating all relevant problems in bulk transport. This is finally confirmed by the reproduction by the model of the experimental power scaling of the confinement time τ E ∼ P ‑2/3. This confirms the validity of our reactive fluid model. This also gives credibility to our ITER simulations including the H-mode barrier. A new result is here, that alpha heating strongly reduces the slope of the H-mode barrier. This should significantly reduce the effects of ELM’s.

  14. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lyle

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mudmore » losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability

  15. Combining zonal refractive and diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Albarrán-Diego, César; Javaloy, Jaime; Sakla, Hani F; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    To assess visual performance with the combination of a zonal refractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) (Lentis Mplus, Oculentis GmbH) and a diffractive aspheric MIOL (Acri.Lisa 366, Acri.Tech GmbH). This prospective interventional cohort study comprised 80 eyes from 40 cataract patients (mean age: 65.5±7.3 years) who underwent implantation of the Lentis Mplus MIOL in one eye and Acri.Lisa 366 MIOL in the fellow eye. The main outcome measures were refraction; monocular and binocular uncorrected and corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; monocular and binocular defocus curves; binocular photopic contrast sensitivity function compared to a monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) control group (40 age-matched pseudophakic patients implanted with the AR-40e [Abbott Medical Optics]); and quality of vision questionnaire. Binocular uncorrected visual acuities were 0.12 logMAR (0.76 decimal) or better at all distances measured between 6 m and 33 cm. The Lentis Mplus provided statistically significant better vision than the Acri.Lisa at distances between 2 m and 40 cm, and the Acri.Lisa provided statistically significant better vision than the Lentis Mplus at 33 cm. Binocular defocus curve showed little drop-off at intermediate distances. Photopic contrast sensitivity function for distance and near were similar to the monofocal IOL control group except for higher frequencies. Moderate glare (15%), night vision problems (12.5%), and halos (10%) were reported. Complete independence of spectacles was achieved by 92.5% of patients. The combination of zonal refractive aspheric and diffractive aspheric MIOLs resulted in excellent uncorrected binocular distance, intermediate, and near vision, with low incidence of significant photic phenomena and high patient satisfaction. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Rossby waves and two-dimensional turbulence in a large-scale zonal jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Theodor G.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous barotropic beta-plane turbulence is investigated, taking into account the effects of spatial inhomogeneity in the form of a zonal shear flows. Attention is given to the case of zonal flows that are barotropically stable and of larger scale than the resulting transient eddy field. Numerical simulations reveal that large-scale zonal flows alter the picture of classical beta-plane turbulence. It is found that the disturbance field penetrates to the largest scales of motion, that the larger disturbance scales show a tendency to meridional rather than zonal anisotropy, and that the initial spectral transfer rate away from an isotropic intermediate-scale source is enhanced by the shear-induced transfer associated with straining by the zonal flow.

  17. Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residuala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William

    2007-05-01

    Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.

  18. Definitive test of the Rh = ct universe using redshift drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2016-11-01

    The redshift drift of objects moving in the Hubble flow has been proposed as a powerful model-independent probe of the underlying cosmology. A measurement of the first- and second-order redshift derivatives appears to be well within the reach of upcoming surveys using as the Extremely Large Telescope high resolution spectrometer (ELT-HIRES) and the Square Kilometer Phase 2 Array (SKA). Here we show that an unambiguous prediction of the Rh = ct cosmology is zero drift at all redshifts, contrasting sharply with all other models in which the expansion rate is variable. For example, multiyear monitoring of sources at redshift z = 5 with the ELT-HIRES is expected to show a velocity shift Δv = -15 cm s-1 yr-1 due to the redshift drift in Planck ΛCDM, while Δv = 0 cm s-1 yr-1 in Rh = ct. With an anticipated ELT-HIRES measurement error of ±5 cm s-1 yr-1 after 5 yr, these upcoming redshift drift measurements might therefore be able to differentiate between Rh = ct and Planck ΛCDM at ˜3σ, assuming that any possible source evolution is well understood. Such a result would provide the strongest evidence yet in favour of the Rh = ct cosmology. With a 20-yr baseline, these observations could favour one of these models over the other at better than 5σ.

  19. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, O.; Biblot, J.; Janssen, P. A. E. M.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. I will show some results from the coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system of ECMWF where these wave effects are now included in the ocean model component.

  20. Influence of tungsten fiber’s slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Zhan, Wen-Ze

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value ofmore » G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.« less

  1. The relation between invertebrate drift and two primary controls, discharge and benthic densities, in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Theodore A.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Grams, Paul E.; Yard, Michael D.; Copp, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invertebrate drift is a fundamental process in streams and rivers. Studies from laboratory experiments and small streams have identified numerous extrinsic (e.g. discharge, light intensity, water quality) and intrinsic factors (invertebrate life stage, benthic density, behaviour) that govern invertebrate drift concentrations (# m−3), but the factors that govern invertebrate drift in larger rivers remain poorly understood. For example, while large increases or decreases in discharge can lead to large increases in invertebrate drift, the role of smaller, incremental changes in discharge is poorly described. In addition, while we might expect invertebrate drift concentrations to be proportional to benthic densities (# m−2), the benthic–drift relation has not been rigorously evaluated. 2. Here, we develop a framework for modelling invertebrate drift that is derived from sediment transport studies. We use this framework to guide the analysis of high-resolution data sets of benthic density and drift concentration for four important invertebrate taxa from the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (mean daily discharge 325 m3 s−1) that were collected over 18 months and include multiple observations within days. Ramping of regulated flows on this river segment provides an experimental treatment that is repeated daily and allowed us to describe the functional relations between invertebrate drift and two primary controls, discharge and benthic densities. 3. Twofold daily variation in discharge resulted in a >10-fold increase in drift concentrations of benthic invertebrates associated with pools and detritus (i.e. Gammarus lacustris and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). In contrast, drift concentrations of sessile blackfly larvae (Simuliium arcticum), which are associated with high-velocity cobble microhabitats, decreased by over 80% as discharge doubled. Drift concentrations of Chironomidae increased proportional to discharge. 4. Drift of all four taxa was

  2. Aerial spray adjuvants for herbicidal drift control.

    Treesearch

    Gratkowski H.; Stewart R.

    1973-01-01

    Increased public concern about pesticides requires that foresters reduce drift and insure precise application of herbicides to the areas requiring treatment. Drift control is necessary near waterways and other ecologically sensitive areas. This publication discusses available drift control adjuvants for herbicidal sprays. These include invert emulsions, thickening...

  3. New advances in the partial-reflection-drifts experiment using microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggerio, R. L.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Improvements to the partial reflection drifts experiment are completed. The results of the improvements include real time processing and simultaneous measurements of the D region with coherent scatter. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between drift velocities calculated by both methods during a two day interval. The possibility now exists for extended observations between partial reflection and coherent scatter. In addition, preliminary measurements could be performed between partial reflection and meteor radar to complete a comparison of methods used to determine velocities in the D region.

  4. Identifying sturgeon spawning locations through back-calculations of drift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulliner, Edward A.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; George, Amy E.; Delonay, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Unfavorable spawning habitat conditions have been identified as a potential limiting factor for recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon on the Missouri River and its tributaries. After successful spawning, incubation, and hatching, sturgeon free embryos passively drift downstream and are sometimes captured by sampling crews. While spawning habitat has been identified at time of spawning through field investigations, captured pallid and shovelnose (used as a surrogate species) sturgeon free embryos in the Missouri River often do not come from genetically-known telemetered fish and may be useful to identify additional areas of spawning habitat. We developed a routing model to identify potential spawning locations for captured free embryos of known age based on channel velocity estimates. To estimate velocity we compared use of at-a-station hydraulic geometry relations to empirical estimates of velocity form a 15-year archive of hydroacoustic measurements on the Missouri River.

  5. Generalized banana-drift transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynick, H. E.

    1985-10-01

    The theory of tokamak ripple transport in the banana-drift and ripple-plateau is extended in a number of directions. The theory is valid for small values of the toroidal periodicity number n of the perturbation, as well as for the moderate values (n approx. 10 - 20) previously assumed. It is shown that low-n perturbations can produce much greater transport than the larger-n perturbations usually studied. In addition, the ripple perturbation is allowed arbitrary values of poloidal mode number m and frequency omega, making it applicable to the transport induced by MHD modes. Bounce averaging is avoided, so the theory includes the contributions to transport from all harmonics of the bounce frequency, providing a continuous description of the transition from the banana drift to the ripple-plateau regime. The implications of the theory for toroidal rotation in tokamaks are considered.

  6. Coupled nonlinear drift and ion acoustic waves in dense dissipative electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Karim, S.

    2009-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation characteristics of drift ion acoustic waves are investigated in an inhomogeneous electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) quantum magnetoplasma with neutrals in the background using the well known quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equations are obtained. Furthermore, the solutions of KdVB and KPB equations are presented by using the tangent hyperbolic (tanh) method. The variation in the shock profile with the quantum Bohm potential, collision frequency, and the ratio of drift to shock velocity in the comoving frame, v{sub *}/u, is also investigated. It is found that increasing the positron concentration and collisionmore » frequency decreases the strength of the shock. It is also shown that when the localized structure propagates with velocity greater than the diamagnetic drift velocity (i.e., u>v{sub *}), the shock strength decreases. However, the shock strength is observed to increase when the localized structure propagates with velocity less than that of drift velocity (i.e., u

  7. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  8. Role of zonal flows in trapped electron mode turbulence through nonlinear gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. R.; Lang, J.; Nevins, W. M.; Hoffman, M.; Chen, Y.; Dorland, W.; Parker, S.

    2009-05-01

    Trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of collisional and zonal flow physics. This work explores the parametric variation of zonal flows and underlying mechanisms through a series of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, using both particle-in-cell and continuum methods. A new stability diagram for electron modes is presented, identifying a critical boundary at ηe=1, separating long and short wavelength TEMs. A novel parity test is used to separate TEMs from electron temperature gradient driven modes. A nonlinear scan of ηe reveals fine scale structure for ηe≳1, consistent with linear expectation. For ηe<1, zonal flows are the dominant saturation mechanism, and TEM transport is insensitive to ηe. For ηe>1, zonal flows are weak, and TEM transport falls inversely with a power law in ηe. The role of zonal flows appears to be connected to linear stability properties. Particle and continuum methods are compared in detail over a range of ηe=d ln Te/d ln ne values from zero to five. Linear growth rate spectra, transport fluxes, fluctuation wavelength spectra, zonal flow shearing spectra, and correlation lengths and times are in close agreement. In addition to identifying the critical parameter ηe for TEM zonal flows, this paper takes a challenging step in code verification, directly comparing very different methods of simulating simultaneous kinetic electron and ion dynamics in TEM turbulence.

  9. On the tertiary instability formalism of zonal flows in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Seiferling, F.; Weikl, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the so-called tertiary instabilities driven by the zonal flow in gyro-kinetic tokamak core turbulence. The Kelvin Helmholtz instability is first considered within a 2D fluid model and a threshold in the zonal flow wave vector kZF>kZF,c for instability is found. This critical scale is related to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by flux-surfaces, which is incorporated into the modified adiabatic electron response. The stability of undamped Rosenbluth-Hinton zonal flows is then investigated in gyro-kinetic simulations. Absolute instability, in the sense that the threshold zonal flow amplitude tends towards zero, is found above a zonal flow wave vector kZF,cρi≈1.3 ( ρi is the ion thermal Larmor radius), which is comparable to the 2D fluid results. Large scale zonal flows with kZFzonal temperature perturbations on the tertiary instability is examined. Although temperature perturbations favor instability, the realistic values of gradient-driven gyro-kinetic simulations still lie deeply in the stable parameter regime. Therefore, the relevance of the tertiary instability as a saturation mechanism to the zonal flow amplitude is questioned, as most of the zonal flow intensity is concentrated in modes satisfying kZF≪kZF,c as well as ωE×B≪ωE×B,c .

  10. Quantifying Particle Numbers and Mass Flux in Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, Philip; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Lehning, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We compare two of the most common methods of quantifying mass flux, particle numbers and particle-size distribution for drifting snow events, the snow-particle counter (SPC), a laser-diode-based particle detector, and particle tracking velocimetry based on digital shadowgraphic imaging. The two methods were correlated for mass flux and particle number flux. For the SPC measurements, the device was calibrated by the manufacturer beforehand. The shadowgrapic imaging method measures particle size and velocity directly from consecutive images, and before each new test the image pixel length is newly calibrated. A calibration study with artificially scattered sand particles and glass beads provides suitable settings for the shadowgraphical imaging as well as obtaining a first correlation of the two methods in a controlled environment. In addition, using snow collected in trays during snowfall, several experiments were performed to observe drifting snow events in a cold wind tunnel. The results demonstrate a high correlation between the mass flux obtained for the calibration studies (r ≥slant 0.93) and good correlation for the drifting snow experiments (r ≥slant 0.81). The impact of measurement settings is discussed in order to reliably quantify particle numbers and mass flux in drifting snow. The study was designed and performed to optimize the settings of the digital shadowgraphic imaging system for both the acquisition and the processing of particles in a drifting snow event. Our results suggest that these optimal settings can be transferred to different imaging set-ups to investigate sediment transport processes.

  11. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  12. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  13. Heterodyne detection of CO2 emission lines and wind velocities in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Johnson, M. A.; Mclaren, R. A.; Sutton, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Strong 10 micrometer line emission from (c-12)(o-16)2 in the upper atmosphere of Venus was detected by heterodyne techniques. Observations of the absolute Doppler shift of the emission features indicate mean zonal wind velocities less than 10 m/sec in the upper atmosphere near the equator. No evidence was found of the 100 m/sec wind velocity implied by the apparent 4-day rotation period of ultraviolet cloud features.

  14. Comments on "extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Barrett, Christopher D.

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, Li et al. (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006) used results of atomistic simulations to advance a growth mechanism of ? ? twinning in titanium based on the concept of two elementary twinning dislocations which nucleate and glide in pairs but separately and sequentially on two neighbouring planes. This new Comment was stimulated after A. Serra, D.J. Bacon and R.C. Pond privately raised concerns on this growth model to one of the present authors, H. El Kadiri, who This was a co-author of the original paper (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006). We repeated the simulations and obtained nearly the same simulations results as Li et al. However, after re-analysing these results, we have concluded that the extended extrinsic zonal dislocation mechanism claimed to be that for twin growth in titanium is in fact false, confirming the accuracy of the Comment by Serra et al that results of Li and co-authors were misinterpreted.

  15. Generation of zonal flows through symmetry breaking of statistical homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2014-03-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows (ZFs) are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from homogeneous turbulence without ZFs to inhomogeneous turbulence with steady ZFs. Starting from the equation for barotropic flow on a β plane, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking zonostrophic instability and show that it is an example of a Type {{\\text{I}}_{s}} instability within the pattern formation literature. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the ZF wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of ZF wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system. We also conclude that the stability of the equilibria near the bifurcation point, which is governed by the Eckhaus instability, is independent of the Rayleigh-Kuo criterion.

  16. Equatorial superrotation in a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    Near the equator where the Coriolis force vanishes, the momentum balance for the axially symmetric circulation is established between horizontal and vertical diffusion, which, a priori, does not impose constraints on the direction or magnitude of the zonal winds. Solar radiation absorbed at low latitudes is a major force in driving large scale motions with air rising near the equator and falling at higher latitudes. In the upper leg of the meridional cell, angular momentum is redistributed so that the atmosphere tends to subrotate (or corotate) at low latitudes and superrotate at high latitudes. In the lower leg, however, the process is reversed and produces a tendency for the equatorial region to superrotate. The outcome depends on the energy budget which is closely coupled to the momentum budget through the thermal wind equation; a pressure (temperature) maximum is required to sustain equatorial superrotation. Such a condition arises in regions which are convectively unstable and the temperature lapse rate is superadiabatic. It should arise in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; planetary energy from the interior is carried to higher altitudes where radiation to space becomes important. Upward equatorial motions in the direct and indirect circulations (Ferrel-Thomson type) imposed by insolation can then trap dynamic energy for equatorial heating which can sustain the superrotation of the equatorial region.

  17. How Far is Far Enough? Invertebrate Responses to Physical Constraints on Drift Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, T. M.; Yonemitsu, N.; Richardson, J. S.

    2005-05-01

    Many stream insects enter the drift and disperse downstream. Once entrained, however, the probability of settling in a patch of suitable habitat is a function of the physical properties and behavior of the drifting insect, as well as the hydrodynamic characteristics of the habitat through which the insect is drifting. The roles that taxa-specific morphology and behavior play in determining drift distance were examined for four mayflies with different habitat requirements; two rheophilous taxa (Baetis and Epeorus) and two pool-dwelling taxa (Ameletus and Paraleptophlebia). Larvae were released in an experimental channel in low and high water velocities. The total distances traveled by live mayfly larvae (+ behavior, + morphology) were compared to heat-killed larvae (- behavior, + morphology), and a series of low-density tracer particles (- behavior, - morphology). Live Baetis and Epeorus drifted similar distances, whereas the drift distances of the two pool taxa differed substantially (Ameletus < Epeorus, Baetis < Paraleptophlebia). The settlement distributions of dead larvae and passive tracer particles show that settlement behaviors allow drifting larvae to avoid becoming entrained in large-scale turbulent flow structures. These results suggest that stream insects have evolved strategies that facilitate dispersal between patches of suitable habitat.

  18. Dynamics in the Modern Upper Atmosphere of Venus: Zonal Wind Transition to Subsolar-to-Antisolar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Fast, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    We observed Venus on 19-23 Aug 2010 (UT) to investigate equatorial wind velocities from above the cloud tops through the lower thermosphere. Measurements were made from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition. High-resolution spectra were acquired on a CO2 pressure-broadened absorption feature that probes the lower mesosphere ( 70 km altitude) with a non-LTE core emission of the same transition that probes the lower thermosphere ( 110 km). The resolving power of λ/Δλ≈3×107 determines line-of-sight velocity from Doppler shifts to high precision. The altitude differential between the features enables investigating the transition from zonal wind flow near the cloud tops to subsolar-to-antisolar flow in the thermosphere. The fully-resolved carbon dioxide transition was measured near 952.8808 cm-1 (10.494 µm) rest frequency at the equator with 1 arcsec field-of-view on Venus (24 arcsec diameter) distributed about the central meridian and across the terminator at ±15° intervals in longitude. The non-LTE emission is solar-pumped and appears only on the daylight side, probing subsolar-to-antisolar wind velocity vector flowing radially from the subsolar point through the terminator, which was near the central meridian in these observations and had zero line-of-sight wind projection at the terminator. The velocity of the zonal flow is approximately uniform, with maximum line-of-sight projection at the limb, and can be measured by the frequency of the absorption line on both the daylight and dark side. Variations in Doppler shift between the observable features and the differing angular dependence of the contributing wind phenomena thus provide independent mechanisms to distinguish the dynamical processes at the altitude of each observed spectral feature. Winds up to >100 m/s were determined in previous investigations with uncertainties of order 10 m/s or less.

  19. Suppression of Phase Mixing in Drift-Kinetic Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. T.; Dellar, P. J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Highcock, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind and interstellar medium are examples of strongly magnetised, weakly collisional, astrophysical plasmas. Their turbulent fluctuations are strongly anisotropic, with small amplitudes, and frequencies much lower than the Larmor frequency. This regime is described by gyrokinetic theory, a reduced five-dimensional kinetic system describing averages over Larmor orbits. A turbulent plasma may transfer free energy, a measure of fluctuation amplitudes, from injection at large scales, typically by an instability, to dissipation at small physical scales like a turbulent fluid. Alternatively, a turbulent plasma may form fine scale structures in velocity space via phase-mixing, the mechanism that leads to Landau damping in linear plasma theory. Macroscopic plasma properties like heat and momentum transport are affected by both mechanisms. While each is understood in isolation, their interaction is not. We study this interaction using a Hankel-Hermite velocity space representation of gyrokinetic theory. The Hankel transform interacts neatly with the Bessel functions that arise from averaging over Larmor orbits, so the perpendicular velocity space is decoupled for linearized problems. The Hermite transform expresses phase mixing as nearest-neighbor coupling between parallel velocity space scales represented by Hermite mode numbers. We use this representation to study transfer mechanisms in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence, the long wavelength limit of gyrokinetic theory. We show that phase space is divided into two regions, with one transfer mechanism dominating in each. Most energy is contained in the region where the fluid-like nonlinear cascade dominates. Moreover, in that region the nonlinear cascade interferes with phase mixing by exciting an "anti phase mixing" transfer of free energy from small to large velocity space scales. This cancels out the usual phase mixing, and renders the overall behavior fluid-like. These results profoundly change our understanding

  20. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge E r. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge E r well with a wave number k rρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-modemore » transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  1. Parameterization of eddy sensible heat transports in a zonally averaged dynamic model of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genthon, Christophe; Le Treut, Herve; Sadourny, Robert; Jouzel, Jean

    1990-01-01

    A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a general circulation model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear appoximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.

  2. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger thanmore » or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.« less

  3. Rossby Wave Propagation into the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere: The Role of Zonal Phase Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Martius, Olivia; Jiménez-Esteve, Bernat

    2018-02-01

    Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are to a dominant part induced by upward propagating planetary waves. While theory predicts that the zonal phase speed of a tropospheric wave forcing affects wave propagation into the stratosphere, its relevance for SSW events has so far not been considered. This study shows in a linear wave diagnostic and in reanalysis data that phase speeds tend eastward as waves propagate upward, indicating that the stratosphere preselects eastward phase speeds for propagation, especially for zonal wave number 2. This also affects SSW events: Split SSW events tend to be preceded by anomalously eastward zonal phase speeds. Zonal phase speed may indeed explain part of the increased wave flux observed during the preconditioning of SSW events, as, for example, for the record 2009 SSW event.

  4. Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, E.; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis withmore » respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.« less

  5. Theory of Fine-scale Zonal Flow Generation From Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρθ¡ << 1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρθ¡ is the ion poloidal gyrora- dius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρθ¡ ~ 1 [Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN/TH/P2-8 (2006); D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009)]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarizationmore » shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2009)] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit is applied.« less

  6. Consequences of systematic model drift in DYNAMO MJO hindcasts with SP-CAM and CAM5

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, Walter M.; Maloney, Eric D.; Pritchard, Michael S.

    Hindcast simulations of MJO events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign are conducted with two models, one with conventional parameterization (CAM5) and a comparable model that utilizes superparameterization (SP–CAM). SP–CAM is shown to produce a qualitatively better reproduction of the fluctuations of precipitation and low–level zonal wind associated with the first two DYNAMO MJO events compared to CAM5. Interestingly, skill metrics using the real–time multivariate MJO index (RMM) suggest the opposite conclusion that CAM5 has more skill than SP–CAM. This inconsistency can be explained by a systematic increase of RMM amplitude with lead time, which results frommore » a drift of the large–scale wind field in SP–CAM that projects strongly onto the RMM index. CAM5 hindcasts exhibit a contraction of the moisture distribution, in which extreme wet and dry conditions become less frequent with lead time. SP–CAM hindcasts better reproduce the observed moisture distribution, but also have stronger drift patterns of moisture budget terms, such as an increase in drying by meridional advection in SP–CAM. This advection tendency in SP–CAM appears to be associated with enhanced off–equatorial synoptic eddy activity with lead time. In conclusion, systematic drift moisture tendencies in SP–CAM are of similar magnitude to intraseasonal moisture tendencies, and therefore are important for understanding MJO prediction skill.« less

  7. Time-spatial drift of decelerating electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Nerukh, Alexander G; Nerukh, Dmitry A

    2013-07-15

    A time dependent electromagnetic pulse generated by a current running laterally to the direction of the pulse propagation is considered in paraxial approximation. It is shown that the pulse envelope moves in the time-spatial coordinates on the surface of a parabolic cylinder for the Airy pulse and a hyperbolic cylinder for the Gaussian. These pulses propagate in time with deceleration along the dominant propagation direction and drift uniformly in the lateral direction. The Airy pulse stops at infinity while the asymptotic velocity of the Gaussian is nonzero.

  8. Atomic physics effects on tokamak edge drift-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of ionization and charge exchange on the linear stability of drift-tearing modes are analytically investigated. In particular, the linear instability threshold {Delta}{sup Th}, produced by ion sound wave coupling is modified. In the strongly collisional regime, the ionization breaks up the near cancellation of the perturbed electric field and the pressure gradient along the magnetic field, and increases the threshold. In the semi-collisional regime, both ionization and charge exchange act as drag on the ion parallel velocity, and consequently decrease the threshold by reducing the effectiveness of ion sound wave propagation.

  9. Atomic physics effects on tokamak edge drift-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of ionization and charge exchange on the linear stability of drift-tearing modes are analytically investigated. In particular, the linear instability threshold [Delta][sup Th], produced by ion sound wave coupling is modified. In the strongly collisional regime, the ionization breaks up the near cancellation of the perturbed electric field and the pressure gradient along the magnetic field, and increases the threshold. In the semi-collisional regime, both ionization and charge exchange act as drag on the ion parallel velocity, and consequently decrease the threshold by reducing the effectiveness of ion sound wave propagation.

  10. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  11. The Role of Reversed Equatorial Zonal Transport in Terminating an ENSO Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Hu, Z. Z.; Huang, B.; Sui, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a sudden reversal of anomalous equatorial zonal current at the peaking ENSO phase triggers the rapid termination of an ENSO event. Throughout an ENSO cycle, the anomalous equatorial zonal current is strongly controlled by the concavity of the anomalous thermocline meridional structure near the equator. During the ENSO developing phase, the anomalous zonal current in the central and eastern Pacific generally enhances the ENSO growth through its zonal SST advection. In the mature phase of ENSO, however, the equatorial thermocline depth anomalies are reflected in the eastern Pacific and slowly propagate westward off the equator in both hemispheres. As a result, the concavity of the thermocline anomalies near the equator is reversed, i.e., the off-equatorial thermocline depth anomalies become higher than that on the equator for El Niño events and lower for La Niño events. This meridional change of thermocline structure reverses zonal transport rapidly in the central-to-eastern equatorial Pacific, which weakens the ENSO SST anomalies by reversed advection. More importantly, the reversed zonal mass transport weakens the existing zonal tilting of equatorial thermocline and suppresses the thermocline feedback. Both processes are concentrated in the eastern equatorial Pacific and can be effective on subseasonal time scales. These current reversal effects are built-in to the ENSO peak phase and independent of the zonal wind effect on thermocline slope. It functions as an oceanic control on ENSO evolution during both El Niño and La Niña events.

  12. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  13. Climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density anomaly with zonal wind and large-scale FAC based on CHAMP observations: IMF By and solar cycle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Lühr, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    We present climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density enhancement with the neutral zonal wind velocity, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC), small-scale FAC, and electron temperature using the superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method. The dependence of these variables on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component orientation and solar cycle are of particular interest. In addition, the obtained results of relative density enhancement (ρrel), zonal wind, electron temperature and FAC are subdivided into three local seasons of 130 days each: local winter (1 January ±65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April ±32 days and 1 October ±32 days), and local summer (1 July ±65 days). Our investigation is based on CHAMP satellite observations and NASA/GSFC's OMNI online data set for solar maximum (Mar/2002-2007) and minimum (Mar/2004-2009) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA technique uses the time and location of the thermospheric mass density anomaly peaks as reference parameters. The relative amplitude of cusp-related density enhancement does on average not depend on the IMF By orientation, solar cycle phase, and local season. Also, it is apparent that the IMF By amplitude does not have a big influence on the relative amplitude of the density anomaly. Conversely, there exists a good correlation between ρrel and the negative amplitude of IMF Bz prevailing about half an hour earlier. In the cusp region, both large-scale FAC distribution and thermospheric zonal wind velocity exhibit a clear dependence on the IMF By orientation. In the case of positive (negative) IMF By there is a systematic imbalance between downward (upward) and upward (downward) FACs peaks equatorward and poleward of the reference point, respectively. The zonal wind velocity is directed towards west i.e. towards dawn in a geomagnetic latitude-magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. This is true for all local seasons and solar conditions. The thermospheric density

  14. Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Drøsdal, Lene; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel

    2014-07-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variationsmore » are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.« less

  15. Blobs and drift wave dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanzeng; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2017-09-29

    The modified Hasegawa-Mima equation retaining all nonlinearities is investigated from the point of view of the formation of blobs. The linear analysis shows that the amplitude of the drift wave packet propagating in the direction of decreasing background plasma density increases and eventually saturates due to nonlinear effects. Nonlinear modification of the time averaged plasma density profile results in the formation of large amplitude modes locked in the radial direction, but still propagating in the poloidal direction, which resembles the experimentally observed chain of blobs propagating in the poloidal direction. Such specific density profiles, causing the locking of drift waves,more » could form naturally at the edge of tokamak due to a neutral ionization source. Thus, locked modes can grow in situ due to plasma instabilities, e.g., caused by finite resistivity. Furthermore, the modulation instability (in the poloidal direction) of these locked modes can result in a blob-like burst of plasma density.« less

  16. Zonally Symmetric Oscillations of the Thermosphere at Planetary Wave Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Maute, Astrid; Hagan, Maura E.

    2018-05-01

    New mechanisms for imposing planetary wave (PW) variability on the ionosphere-thermosphere system are discovered in numerical experiments conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. First, it is demonstrated that a tidal spectrum modulated at PW periods (3-20 days) entering the ionosphere-thermosphere system near 100 km is responsible for producing ±40 m/s and ±10-15 K PW period oscillations between 110 and 150 km at low to middle latitudes. The dominant response is broadband and zonally symmetric (i.e., "S0") over a range of periods and is attributable to tidal dissipation; essentially, the ionosphere-thermosphere system "vacillates" in response to dissipation of the PW-modulated tidal spectrum. In addition, some specific westward propagating PWs such as the quasi-6-day wave are amplified by the presence of the tidal spectrum; the underlying mechanism is hypothesized to be a second-stage nonlinear interaction. The S0 total neutral mass density (ρ) response at 325 km consists of PW period fluctuations of order ±3-4%, roughly equivalent to the day-to-day variability associated with low-level geomagnetic activity. The variability in ρ over short periods (˜< 9 days) correlates with temperature changes, indicating a response of hydrostatic origin. Over longer periods ρ is also controlled by composition and mean molecular mass. While the upper-thermosphere impacts are modest, they do translate to more significant changes in the F region ionosphere.

  17. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  18. Jet and storm track variability and change: adiabatic QG zonal averages and beyond... (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The zonally averaged structures of extratropical jets and stormtracks, their slow variations, and their responses to climate change are all tightly constrained on the one hand by thermal wind balance and the necessary application of eddy torques to produce zonally averaged meridional motion, and, on the other hand, by the necessity that eddies propagate upshear to extract energy from the mean flow. Combining these constraints with the well developed theory of linear Rossby-wave propagation on zonally symmetric basic states has led to a large and growing number of plausible mechanisms to explain observed and modeled jet/storm track variability and responses to climate change and idealized forcing. Hidden within zonal averages is the reality that most baroclinic eddy activity is destroyed at the same latitude at which is generated: from one end to another of the fixed stormtracks in the Northern Hemisphere and baroclinic wave packets in the Southern Hemisphere. Ignored within adiabatic QG theory is the reality that baroclinic eddies gain significant energy from latent heating that involves sub-syntopic scale structures and dynamics. Here we use results from high-resolution regional and global simulations of the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to explore the importance of non-zonal and diabatic dynamics in influencing jet change and variability and their influences on the much-studied zonal means.

  19. Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2003-10-01

    Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST variations with a meridionally confined structure are placed at various latitudes. Having these SST variations centered at 30°N leads to a zonally localized storm track, while the storm track becomes nearly zonally uniform when the same SST forcing is moved farther north at 40° and 50°N. Large (small) baroclinic energy conversion north of the warm (cold) SST anomaly near the axis of the storm track (near 40°N) is responsible for the large (small) storm growth. The equatorward transfer of eddy kinetic energy by the ageostrophic motion and the mechanical damping are important to diminish the storm track activity in the zonal direction.Significant stationary eddies form in the upper troposphere, with a ridge (trough) northeast of the warm (cold) SST anomaly at 30°N. Heat and vorticity budget analyses indicate that zonally localized condensational heating in the storm track is the major cause for these stationary eddies, which in turn exert a positive feedback to maintain the localized storm track by strengthening the vertical shear near the surface. These results indicate an active role of synoptic eddies in inducing deep, tropospheric-scale response to midlatitude SST variations. Finally, the application of the model results to the real atmosphere is discussed.

  20. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  1. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth's angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are shearedmore » flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.« less

  2. Measurements verifying the optics of the Electron Drift Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Vanessa M.

    This thesis concentrates on laboratory measurements of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI), focussing primarily on the EDI optics of the system. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This drift velocity is determined using two electron beams directed perpendicular to the magnetic field returning to be detected by the spacecraft. The EDI will be used on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission. The EDI optic's testing process takes measurements of the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state via simulation. The optics state tables were created in simulations and we are using these measurements to confirm their accuracy. The setup consisted of an apparatus made up of the EDI's optics and sensor electronics was secured to the two axis gear arm inside a vacuum chamber. An electron beam was projected at the apparatus which then used the EDI optics to focus the beam into the micro-controller plates and onto the circular 32 pad annular ring that makes up the sensor. The concentration of counts per pad over an interval of 1ms were averaged over 25 samples and plotted in MATLAB. The results of the measurements plotted agreed well with the simulations, providing confidence in the EDI instrument.

  3. Drift and separation in collisionality gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Ochs, I. E.; Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; ...

    2017-07-20

    Here we identify a single-particle drift resulting from collisional interactions with a background species, in the presence of a collisionality gradient and background net flow. We also analyze this drift in different limits, showing how it reduces to the well known impurity pinch for high-Zi impurities. We find that in the low-temperature, singly ionized limit, the magnitude of the drift becomes mass-dependent and energy-dependent. Furthermore, by solving for the resulting diffusion-advection motion, we propose a mass-separation scheme that takes advantage of this drift, and analyze the separative capability as a function of collisionally dissipated energy.

  4. Drift and separation in collisionality gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, I. E.; Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.

    Here we identify a single-particle drift resulting from collisional interactions with a background species, in the presence of a collisionality gradient and background net flow. We also analyze this drift in different limits, showing how it reduces to the well known impurity pinch for high-Zi impurities. We find that in the low-temperature, singly ionized limit, the magnitude of the drift becomes mass-dependent and energy-dependent. Furthermore, by solving for the resulting diffusion-advection motion, we propose a mass-separation scheme that takes advantage of this drift, and analyze the separative capability as a function of collisionally dissipated energy.

  5. Geographic distribution of zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level from VMC camera on Venus Express: Influence of Venus topography through stationary gravity waves vertical propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Marcq, Emmanuel; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top collected with VMC camera on board Venus Express allowed to derive a large number of wind measurements at altitude 67±2 km from tracking of cloud features in the period 2006-2012. Both manual (45,600) and digital (391,600) individual wind measurements over 127 orbits were analyzed showing various patterns with latitude and local time. A new longitude-latitude geographic map of the zonal wind shows a conspicuous region of strongly decreased zonal wind, a remarkable feature that was unknown up to now. While the average zonal wind near equator (from 5°S to 15°s) is -100.9 m/s in the longitude range 200-330°, it reaches -83.4 m/s in the range 60-100°, a difference of 17.5 m/s. When compared to the altimetry map of Venus, it is found that the zonal wind pattern is well correlated with the underlying relief in the region of Aphrodite Terra, with a downstream shift of about 30° (˜3,200 km). We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. A similar phenomenon is known to operate on Earth with an influence on mesospheric winds. The LMD-GCM for Venus was run with or without topography, with and without a parameterization of gravity waves and does not display such an observed change of velocity near equator. The cloud albedo map at 365 nm varies also in longitude and latitude. We speculate that it might be the result of increased vertical mixing associated to wave breaking, and decreased abundance of the UV absorber which makes the contrast in images. The impact of these new findings on current super rotation theories remains to be assessed. This work was triggered by the presence of a conspicuous peak at 117 days in a time series of wind measurements. This is the length of the solar day as seen at the

  6. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result ismore » of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.« less

  7. Does the vorticity flux from Agulhas rings control the zonal pathway of NADW across the South Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Erik; Johns, William E.; Beal, Lisa M.

    2012-05-01

    As part of the global thermohaline circulation, some North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) exits the Atlantic basin to the south of Africa. Observations have shown that there is a quasi-zonal pathway centered at 25°S carrying NADW eastward, connecting the Deep Western Boundary Current to the Cape Basin. However, it has been unclear what sets this pathway. In particular, waters must move southward through the Cape Basin, thereby crossing isolines of planetary vorticity, in order to exit the basin. Here, we find that an eddy thickness flux induced by Agulhas rings moving northwestward forces a circulation of NADW through the Cape Basin. The pathway at 25°S feeds the southeastward flow of this circulation while conserving potential vorticity. Using Lagrangian floats advected for 300 years in a 1/10° resolution ocean model, we show that the most common pathway for NADW in our model lies directly below the Agulhas ring corridor. By analyzing the velocity and density fields in the model, we find that the decay of these rings, and their forward tilt with depth, results in a southward velocity, across isolines of planetary vorticity, of 1 to 2 cm/s in the deep waters. The associated stream function pattern yields a deep circulation transporting 4 Sv of NADW from the Deep Western Boundary Current at 25°S to the southern tip of Africa.

  8. Causes of the longitudinal differences in the equatorial vertical E × B drift during the 2013 SSW period as simulated by the TIME-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A.; Hagan, M. E.; Yudin, V.; Liu, H.-L.; Yizengaw, E.

    2015-06-01

    During stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) periods large changes in the low-latitude vertical drift have been observed at Jicamarca as well as in other longitudinal sectors. In general, a strengthening of the daytime maximum vertical drift with a shift from prenoon to the afternoon is observed. During the January 2013 stratospheric warming significant longitudinal differences in the equatorial vertical drift were observed. At Jicamarca the previously reported SSW behavior prevails; however, no shift of the daytime maximum drift was exhibited in the African sector. Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) the possible causes for the longitudinal difference are examined. The timing of the strong SSW effect in the vertical drift (15-20 January) coincides with moderate geomagnetic activity. The simulation indicates that approximately half of the daytime vertical drift increase in the American sector may be related to the moderate geophysical conditions (Kp = 4) with the effect being negligible in the African sector. The simulation suggests that the wind dynamo accounts for approximately 50% of the daytime vertical drift in the American sector and almost 100% in the African sector. The simulation agrees with previous findings that the migrating solar tides and the semidiurnal westward propagating tide with zonal wave number 1 (SW1) mainly contribute to the daytime wind dynamo and vertical drift. Numerical experiments suggest that the neutral wind and the geomagnetic main field contribute to the presence (absence) of a local time shift in the daytime maximum drift in the American (African) sector.

  9. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures…

  10. The DRIFT Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric

    2010-11-01

    The DRIFT dark matter detector is a 1 cubic meter scale TPC with direction sensitivity to WIMP recoils operating in the Boulby Mine in England. Results on a spin-dependent limit from data taken underground with a 30 Torr CS2 - 10 Torr CF4 gas mixture will be presented. The primary source of backgrounds in this data are from low-energy nuclear recoil events due to radon progeny plated out on the detector's wire central cathode. Here we describe a dramatic background reduction resulting from the installation of a new thin-film central cathode. We also describe a new technique which promises to fully fiducialize the chamber, potentially eliminating this source of background entirely.

  11. Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2009-09-01

    This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25

  12. Spray drift reduction test method correlation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ASTM Standard E609 Terminology Relating to Pesticides defines drift as “The physical movement of an agrochemical through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter to any non or off target site.” Since there are many commercial tank mix adjuvants designed to reduce spray drift, ASTM esta...

  13. Evolution: drift will tear us apart.

    PubMed

    Maderspacher, Florian

    2012-11-06

    That the widely scattered geographical distribution of some animals could be due to continental drift is a neat idea. Now, cave animals provide evidence for extreme long-term persistence on continents drifting apart. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  15. Propeller wash effects on spray drift

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Thompson; Alvin R. Womac; Joseph Mulrooney; Sidney Deck

    2005-01-01

    for aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switching and propeller wash direction on aerial spray drift from a turbine-...

  16. Effects of repeated insecticide pulses on macroinvertebrate drift in indoor stream mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Mohr, Silvia; Hübner, Verena; Schmiediche, Ronny; Schmiedling, Ina; Svetich-Will, Erkki; Schmidt, Ralf

    2012-10-15

    Pesticide contaminations via run-off or spray drift have been reported to result in the mass drift of macroinvertebrates as well as causing structural and functional changes of the corresponding stream sections. However, pesticide pulses in the field are associated with sudden increases in flow velocity, water turbidity, and changes in water temperature, which can also induce drift. Only through replicated community testing under highly controlled conditions can these effects be disentangled. In a stream mesocosm study, 12-h pulses of 12 μg/L imidacloprid were set three times at weekly intervals and are considered a "pulse series". Two pulse series of this neonicotinoid insecticide were run in both spring and summer with 4 treatment and 4 control stream mesocosms used in each pulse series. Prior to the start of the mesocosm experiment, both pulse concentration and duration had been screened for drift responses in larval Baetidae, Chironomidae and adult Gammarus roeseli in laboratory experiments. In the subsequent mesocosm study, each pulse caused a pronounced increase in the drift of insect larvae and gammarids. The drift response was taxon-specific, which was related to preferred habitat and exposure to other stressors like current velocity, in addition to imidacloprid sensitivity. Activity measurements employing a Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor(®) revealed that in Baetis sp. the diurnal activity pattern became more pronounced even 12h after the pulse though with slightly decreased mean physical activity. Adult G. roeseli showed a drastic pulse by pulse decrease in physical activity which after the 3rd pulse lasted longer than 24h. In conclusion, drift is a sensitive, ecologically relevant endpoint and should be regarded when a specific risk assessment for lotic surface waters is done, e.g. in the context of a spatially explicit risk assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Drift ion acoustic shock waves in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional quantum magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Karim, S.

    2009-04-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation characteristics of drift ion acoustic waves are investigated in an inhomogeneous quantum plasma with neutrals in the background employing the quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) model. In this regard, a quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived for the first time. It is shown that the ion acoustic wave couples with the drift wave if the parallel motion of ions is taken into account. Discrepancies in the earlier works on drift solitons and shocks in inhomogeneous plasmas are also pointed out and a correct theoretical framework is presented to study the one-dimensional as well as the two-dimensional propagation ofmore » shock waves in an inhomogeneous quantum plasma. Furthermore, the solution of KPB equation is presented using the tangent hyperbolic (tanh) method. The variation of the shock profile with the quantum Bohm potential, collision frequency, and ratio of drift to shock velocity in the comoving frame, v{sub *}/u, are also investigated. It is found that increasing the number density and collision frequency enhances the strength of the shock. It is also shown that the fast drift shock (i.e., v{sub *}/u>0) increases, whereas the slow drift shock (i.e., v{sub *}/u<0) decreases the strength of the shock. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.« less

  18. A simple model for testing the effects of gravity-wave-produced vertical oscillations of scattering irregularities on spaced-antenna, horizontal drift measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, C. E.; Reid, I. M.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that the velocities produced by the spaced antenna partial-reflection drift experiment may constitute a measure of the vertical oscillations due to short-period gravity waves rather than the mean horizontal flow. The contention is that the interference between say two scatterers, one of which is traveling upward, and the other down, will create a pattern which sweeps across the ground in the direction (or anti-parallel) of the wave propagation. Since the expected result, viz., spurious drift directions, is seldom, if ever, seen in spaced antenna drift velocities, this speculation is tested in an atmospheric model.

  19. Cascaded Kalman and particle filters for photogrammetry based gyroscope drift and robot attitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Sadaghzadeh N, Nargess; Poshtan, Javad; Wagner, Achim; Nordheimer, Eugen; Badreddin, Essameddin

    2014-03-01

    Based on a cascaded Kalman-Particle Filtering, gyroscope drift and robot attitude estimation method is proposed in this paper. Due to noisy and erroneous measurements of MEMS gyroscope, it is combined with Photogrammetry based vision navigation scenario. Quaternions kinematics and robot angular velocity dynamics with augmented drift dynamics of gyroscope are employed as system state space model. Nonlinear attitude kinematics, drift and robot angular movement dynamics each in 3 dimensions result in a nonlinear high dimensional system. To reduce the complexity, we propose a decomposition of system to cascaded subsystems and then design separate cascaded observers. This design leads to an easier tuning and more precise debugging from the perspective of programming and such a setting is well suited for a cooperative modular system with noticeably reduced computation time. Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed for the linear and Gaussian subsystem consisting of angular velocity and drift dynamics together with gyroscope measurement. The estimated angular velocity is utilized as input of the second Particle Filtering (PF) based observer in two scenarios of stochastic and deterministic inputs. Simulation results are provided to show the efficiency of the proposed method. Moreover, the experimental results based on data from a 3D MEMS IMU and a 3D camera system are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. © 2013 ISA Published by ISA All rights reserved.

  20. T he Faint Drifting Decameter Radio Bursts From The Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.; Zaslavsky, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Maksimovic, M.; Mangeney, A.

    2007-01-01

    The radio observations of solar corona at decameter wavelengths reveal the presence of numerous faint, frequency drifting structures. We analyse observations performed on July 13th , 2002 with the DSP wideband spectrometer instrument implemented at the UTR-2 radiote- lescope. The main characteristics of these structures are statistically studied. Three populations of bursts are iden- tifies. The largest one presents negative frequency drifts of about -0.89 MHz.s-1 and a lifetime extending up to 11 sec (median value 2.72 sec). A second one shows positive frequency drifts of about +0.95 MHz.s-1 and a life- time extending up to 3 sec. The last population consists in structures with very small frequency drifts of about -0.1 MHz.s-1 and a shorter lifetime (about 1 sec). Assuming that those emissions are the signature of elec- tron beams propagating through the solar corona, we deduce that they have a velocity of about 3-5 times the electron thermal velocity. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of plasma waves with such low beam velocity: spatially localized, temporal fluctuations of the electron distribution function width (heating).

  1. The Role of Monsoon-Like Zonally Asymmetric Heating in Interhemispheric Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gang; Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn

    2017-01-01

    While the importance of the seasonal migration of the zonally averaged Hadley circulation on interhemispheric transport of trace gases has been recognized, few studies have examined the role of the zonally asymmetric monsoonal circulation. This study investigates the role of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating on interhemispheric transport using a dry atmospheric model that is forced by idealized Newtonian relaxation to a prescribed radiative equilibrium temperature. When only the seasonal cycle of zonally symmetric heating is considered, the mean age of air in the Southern Hemisphere since last contact with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude boundary layer, is much larger than the observations. The introduction of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating not only reduces the mean age of tropospheric air to more realistic values, but also produces an upper-tropospheric cross-equatorial transport pathway in boreal summer that resembles the transport pathway simulated in the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Chemistry Transport Model driven with MERRA meteorological fields. These results highlight the monsoon-induced eddy circulation plays an important role in the interhemispheric transport of long-lived chemical constituents.

  2. Frequency-dependent behavior of the barotropic and baroclinic modes of zonal jet variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Stratosphere-troposphere interactions are frequently described in terms of the leading modes of variability, i.e. the annular modes. An idealized dynamical core model is used to explore the differences between the low- and high- frequency (periods greater and less than 30 days) behavior of the first two principal components of zonal mean zonal wind and eddy kinetic energy, i.e., the barotropic/baroclinic annular modes of variability of the extratropical circulation. The modes show similar spatial characteristics in the different frequency ranges considered, however the ranking of the modes switches in some cases from one range to the other. There is some cancelation in the signatures of eddy heat flux and eddy kinetic energy in the leading low-pass and high-pass filtered zonal wind mode, partly explaining their small signature in the total. At low frequencies, the first zonal wind mode describes latitudinal shifts of both the midlatitude jet and its associated storm tracks, and the persistence of zonal wind anomalies appears to be sustained primarily by a baroclinic, rather than a barotropic, feedback. On shorter time scales, the behavior is more complicated and transient.

  3. Analysis of solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition by zonal elution affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pingyang; Poddar, Saumen; Sun, Zuchen; Hage, David S; Chen, Jianzhong

    2018-02-02

    Many biological processes involve solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition for protein binding. One method that has been developed to examine these interactions is zonal elution affinity chromatography. This review discusses the theory and principles of zonal elution affinity chromatography, along with its general applications. Examples of applications that are examined include the use of this method to estimate the relative extent of solute-protein binding, to examine solute-solute competition and displacement from proteins, and to measure the strength of these interactions. It is also shown how zonal elution affinity chromatography can be used in solvent and temperature studies and to characterize the binding sites for solutes on proteins. In addition, several alternative applications of zonal elution affinity chromatography are discussed, which include the analysis of binding by a solute with a soluble binding agent and studies of allosteric effects. Other recent applications that are considered are the combined use of immunoextraction and zonal elution for drug-protein binding studies, and binding studies that are based on immobilized receptors or small targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amplification of warming due to intensification of zonal circulation in the mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kharlanenkova, Natalia; Kuzmina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new index to evaluate the impact of atmospheric zonal transport oscillations on inter-annual variability and trends of average air temperature in mid-latitudes, Northern Hemisphere and globe. A simple model of mid-latitude channel "ocean-land-atmosphere" was used to produce the analytic relationship between the zonal circulation and the land-ocean temperature contrast which was used as a basis for index. An inverse relationship was found between indexes and average mid-latitude, hemisphere and global temperatures during the cold half of year and opposite one in summer. These relationships keep under 400 mb height. In winter relationship describes up to 70, 50 and 40 % of surface air temperature inter-annual variability of these averages, respectively. The contribution of zonal circulation to the increase in the average surface air temperature during warming period 1969-2008 reaches 75% in the mid-latitudes and 40% in the Northern Hemisphere. Proposed mid-latitude index correlates negatively with surface air temperature in the Arctic except summer. ECHAM4 projections with the A1B scenario show that increase of zonal circulation defines more than 74% of the warming in the Northern Hemisphere for 2001-2100. Our analysis confirms that the proposed index is an effective indicator of the climate change caused by variations of the zonal circulation that arise due to anthropogenic and/or natural global forcing mechanisms.

  5. Indian Ocean zonal mode activity in 20th century observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendelbeck, Anja; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Ocean zonal mode (IOZM) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with anomalous cooling in the east, warming in the west and easterly wind anomalies, resulting in a complete reversal of the climatological zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The IOZM has a strong influence on East African climate by causing anomalously strong October - December (OND) precipitation. Using observational data and historical CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) model output, the September - November (SON) dipole mode index (DMI), OND East African precipitation and SON zonal wind index (ZWI) are calculated. We pay particular attention to detrending SSTs for calculating the DMI, which seems to have been neglected in some published research. The ZWI is defined as the area-averaged zonal wind component at 850 hPa over the central Indian Ocean. Regression analysis is used to evaluate the models' capability to represent the IOZM and its impact on east African climate between 1948 and 2005. Simple correlations are calculated between SST, zonal wind and precipitation to show their interdependence. High correlation in models implies a good representation of the influence of IOZM on East African climate variability and our goal is to detect the models with the highest correlation coefficients. In future research, these model data might be used to investigate the impact of IOZM on the East African climate variability in the late 20's century with regard to anthropogenic causes and internal variability.

  6. ARCTIC SEA ICE EXTENT AND DRIFT, MODELED AS A VISCOUS FLUID.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Parkinson, Claire L.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic/thermodynamic numerical model of sea ice has been used to calculate the yearly cycle of sea ice thicknesses, concentrations, and velocities in the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas. The model combines the formulations of two previous models, taking the thermodynamics and momentum equations from the model of Parkinson and Washington and adding the constitutive equation and equation of state from the model of Ling, Rasmussen, and Campbell. Simulated annually averaged ice drift vectors compare well with observed ice drift from the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program.

  7. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by low-frequency dispersive electromagnetic waves in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K

    2004-04-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields can be parametrically excited by low-frequency dispersive driftlike compressional electromagnetic (DDCEM) modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma. For this purpose, we derive a pair of coupled equations which exhibits the nonlinear coupling between DDCEM modes and zonal magnetic fields. The coupled mode equations are Fourier analyzed to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation. The latter depicts that zonal magnetic fields are nonlinearly generated at the expense of the low-frequency DDCEM wave energy. The relevance of our investigation to the transfer of energy from short scale DDCEM waves to long scale zonal magnetic field structures in dark molecular clouds is discussed.

  8. The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): drift morphology and Plio-Quaternary stratigraphic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Cattaneo, Antonio; Jouet, Gwenael; Thereau, Estelle; Thomas, Yannick; Rovere, Marzia; Cauquil, Eric; Trincardi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (CDS) is located in the Corsica Trough (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea), a confined basin dominated by mass transport and contour currents in the eastern flank and by turbidity currents in the western flank. The morphologic and stratigraphic characterisation of the Pianosa CDS is based on multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection data (multi-channel high resolution mini GI gun, single-channel sparker and CHIRP), sediment cores and ADCP data. The Pianosa CDS is located at shallow to intermediate water depths (170 to 850 m water depth) and is formed under the influence of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). It is 120 km long, has a maximum width of 10 km and is composed of different types of muddy sediment drifts: plastered drift, separated mounded drift, sigmoid drift and multicrested drift. The reduced tectonic activity in the Corsica Trough since the early Pliocene permits to recover a sedimentary record of the contourite depositional system that is only influenced by climate fluctuations. Contourites started to develop in the Middle-Late Pliocene, but their growth was enhanced since the Middle Pleistocene Transition (0.7-0.9 Ma). Although the general circulation of the LIW, flowing northwards in the Corsica Trough, remained active all along the history of the system, contourite drift formation changed, controlled by sediment influx and bottom current velocity. During periods of sea level fall, fast bottom currents often eroded the drift crest in the middle and upper slope. At that time the proximity of the coast to the shelf edge favoured the formation of bioclastic sand deposits winnowed by bottom currents. Higher sediment accumulation of mud in the drifts occurred during periods of fast bottom currents and high sediment availability (i.e. high activity of turbidity currents), coincident with periods of sea level low-stands. Condensed sections were formed during sea level high-stands, when bottom currents were more sluggish

  9. Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.

  10. Nonlinear saturation of the slab ITG instability and zonal flow generation with fully kinetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Sturdevant, Benjamin J.; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E.

    2018-05-01

    Fully kinetic turbulence models are of interest for their potential to validate or replace gyrokinetic models in plasma regimes where the gyrokinetic expansion parameters are marginal. Here, we demonstrate fully kinetic ion capability by simulating the growth and nonlinear saturation of the ion-temperature-gradient instability in shearless slab geometry assuming adiabatic electrons and including zonal flow dynamics. The ion trajectories are integrated using the Lorentz force, and the cyclotron motion is fully resolved. Linear growth and nonlinear saturation characteristics show excellent agreement with analogous gyrokinetic simulations across a wide range of parameters. The fully kinetic simulation accurately reproduces the nonlinearly generated zonal flow. This work demonstrates nonlinear capability, resolution of weak gradient drive, and zonal flow physics, which are critical aspects of modeling plasma turbulence with full ion dynamics.

  11. Jupiter: New estimates of mean zonal flow at the cloud level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reexamine the magnitude differences of the Jovian atmosphere's jets, as determined by Voyager 1 and 2 images, a novel approach is used to ascertain the zonal mean east-west component of motion. This technique is based on digital pattern matching, and is applied on pairs of mapped images to yield a profile of the mean zonal component that reproduces the exact locations of the easterly and westerly jets between + and 60 deg latitude. Results were obtained for all of the Voyager 1 and 2 cylindrical mosaics; the correlation coefficient between Voyagers 1 and 2 in mean zonal flow between + and - 60 deg latitude, determined from violet filter mosaics, is 0.998.

  12. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  13. The Relationship Between the Zonal Mean ITCZ and Regional Precipitation during the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda, K.; Noone, D.; Konecky, B.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of the zonal mean Tropical Rain Belt (TRB, i.e. the ITCZ + the land-based monsoons) are often inferred from individual proxy records of precipitation or other hydroclimatic variables. However, these inferences can be misleading. Here, an isotope-enabled climate model simulation is used to evaluate metrics of the zonal mean ITCZ vs. regional hydrological characteristics during the mid-Holocene (MH, 6 kya). The MH provides a unique perspective on the relationship between the ITCZ and regional hydrology because of large, orbitally-driven shifts in tropical precipitation as well as a critical mass of proxy records. By using a climate model with simulated water isotopes, characteristics of atmospheric circulation and water transport processes can be inferred, and comparison with isotope proxies can be made more directly. We find that estimations of the zonal-mean ITCZ are insufficient for evaluating regional responses of hydrological cycles to forcing changes. For example, one approximation of a 1.5-degree northward shift in the zonal-mean ITCZ position during the MH corresponded well with northward shifts in maximum rainfall in tropical Africa, but did not match southward shifts in the tropical Pacific or longitudinal shifts in the Indian monsoon region. In many regions, the spatial distribution of water vapor isotopes suggests that changes in moisture source and atmospheric circulation were a greater influence on precipitation distribution, intensity, and isotope ratio than the average northward shift in ITCZ latitude. These findings reinforce the idea that using tropical hydrological proxy records to infer zonal-mean characteristics of the ITCZ may be misleading. Rather, tropical proxy records of precipitation, particularly those that record precipitation isotopes, serve as a guideline for regional hydrological changes while model simulations can put them in the context of zonal mean tropical convergence.

  14. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classification model.

    PubMed

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Allen, Bryan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Ercole, Cesar E; Sexton, Wade J; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of the first standardized renal tumor complexity system, many subsequent scoring systems have been introduced, many of which are complicated and can make it difficult to accurately measure data end points. In light of these limitations, we introduce the new zonal NePhRO scoring system. The zonal NePhRO score is based on 4 anatomical components that are assigned a score of 1, 2, or 3, and their sum is used to classify renal tumors. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is made up of the (Ne)arness to collecting system, (Ph)ysical location of the tumor in the kidney, (R)adius of the tumor, and (O)rganization of the tumor. In this retrospective study, we evaluated patients exhibiting clinical stage T1a or T1b who underwent open partial nephrectomy performed by 2 genitourinary surgeons. Each renal unit was assigned both a zonal NePhRO score and a RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) score, and a blinded reviewer used the same preoperative imaging study to obtain both scores. Additional data points gathered included age, clamp time, complication rate, urine leak rate, intraoperative blood loss, and pathologic tumor size. One hundred sixty-six patients underwent open partial nephrectomy. There were 37 perioperative complications quantitated using the validated Clavien-Dindo system; their occurrence was predicted by the NePhRO score on both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .0008). Clinical stage, intraoperative blood loss, and tumor diameter were all correlated with the zonal NePhRO score on univariate analysis only. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is a simpler tool that accurately predicts the surgical complexity of a renal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Su, T. J. Kneafsey, T. A. Ghezzehei, B. D. Marshall, and P. J. Cook

    The ''Drift Shadow'' is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project they plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies they have an identified suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to developmore » the field scale tests.« less

  16. Field investigation of the drift shadow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, G.W.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ghezzehei, T.A.; Cook, P.J.; Marshall, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    The "Drift Shadow" is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project we plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies we have an identified a suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to develop the field scale tests.

  17. The Electron Drift Instrument for Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschmann, G.; Melzner, F.; Frenzel, R.; Vaith, H.; Parigger, P.; Pagel, U.; Bauer, O. H.; Haerendel, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Scopke, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) measures the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that, when emitted in certain directions, return to the spacecraft after one or more gyrations. This drift is related to the electric field and the gradient in the magnetic field, and these quantities can, by use of different electron energies, be determined separately. As a by-product, the magnetic field strength is also measured. The present paper describes the scientific objectives, the experimental method, and the technical realization of the various elements of the instrument.

  18. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Generation of large-scale eddies and zonal winds in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Astafieva, N. M.

    2008-06-01

    The review deals with a theoretical description of the generation of zonal winds and vortices in a turbulent barotropic atmosphere. These large-scale structures largely determine the dynamics and transport processes in planetary atmospheres. The role of nonlinear effects on the formation of mesoscale vortical structures (cyclones and anticyclones) is examined. A new mechanism for zonal wind generation in planetary atmospheres is discussed. It is based on the parametric generation of convective cells by finite-amplitude Rossby waves. Weakly turbulent spectra of Rossby waves are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the results of satellite microwave monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere.

  19. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of vertical drift on the equatorial F-region stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Cragin, B. L.; Dennis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Time-dependent ionospheric model calculations for day-time and night-time solutions are presented. The behavior of the growth rate and ion-electron recombination rate for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the F-region bottomside is examined as a function of the vertical eastward electric field-magnetic field strength drift velocity. It is observed that on the bottomside F-layer the growth rate exceeds the ion-electron recombination rate even without vertical drift; however, an eastward electric field-magnetic field strength drift can produce an increase in the growth rate by an order of magnitude. The calculated data are compared with previous research and good correlation is detected. The formation of bubbles from a seeding mechanism is investigated.

  1. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ami, S. Ben; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Silva, P. V. M.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S. J.; Daly, C. H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de La Taille, C.; de Mora, L.; de Oliveira Branco, M.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; de Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D. V.; Defay, P. O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S. P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Domenico, A.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, D. J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Yildiz, H. Duran; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V. S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M. J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S. T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goggi, V.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N. P.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Granado Cardoso, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Groer, L. 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P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R. A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E. R.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchis Lozano, M. A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmid, P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y. D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O. V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, S. M.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M. D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-12-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0.54^{+0.06}_{-0.04})% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61±0.07 mm/μs at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  2. The Electron Drift Instrument for MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Granoff, M.; Widholm, M.; Gaidos, J. A.; Briggs, B. H.; Dors, I. G.; Chutter, M. W.; Macri, J.; Argall, M.; Bodet, D.; Needell, J.; Steller, M. B.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Ottacher, H.; Hasiba, J.; Hofmann, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Dvorsky, R. T.; Sigsbee, K.; Kooi, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission measures the in-situ electric and magnetic fields using the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that, when emitted in certain directions, return to the spacecraft after one or more gyrations. This drift is related to the electric field and, to a lesser extent, the gradient in the magnetic field. Although these two quantities can be determined separately by use of different electron energies, for MMS regions of interest the magnetic field gradient contribution is negligible. As a by-product of the drift determination, the magnetic field strength and constraints on its direction are also determined. The present paper describes the scientific objectives, the experimental method, and the technical realization of the various elements of the instrument on MMS.

  3. Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Jones, David Alexander

    2016-04-26

    The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.

  4. Predator prey oscillations in a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Berionni, V.; Guercan, Oe. D.

    2011-11-15

    A reduced three shell limit of a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence, which emphasizes nonlocal interactions with a large scale mode, is considered. It is shown to describe both the well known predator prey dynamics between the drift waves and zonal flows and to reduce to the standard three wave interaction equations. Here, this model is considered as a dynamical system whose characteristics are investigated. The analytical solutions for the purely nonlinear limit are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. An approximate analytical solution involving Jacobi elliptic functions and exponential growth is computed using scale separationmore » for the case of unstable solutions that are observed when the energy injection rate is high. The fixed points of the system are determined, and the behavior around these fixed points is studied. The system is shown to display periodic solutions corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, apparently chaotic phase space orbits, as well as unstable solutions that grow slowly while oscillating rapidly. The period doubling route to transition to chaos is examined.« less

  5. Generation of parasitic axial flow by drift wave turbulence with broken symmetry: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, R.; Li, J. C.; Hajjar, R.; Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of intrinsic axial flow generation parallel to the magnetic field in the controlled shear decorrelation experiment linear plasma device with no axial momentum input are presented and compared to theory. The results show a causal link from the density gradient to drift-wave turbulence with broken spectral symmetry and development of the axial mean parallel flow. As the density gradient steepens, the axial and azimuthal Reynolds stresses increase and radially sheared azimuthal and axial mean flows develop. A turbulent axial momentum balance analysis shows that the axial Reynolds stress drives the radially sheared axial mean flow. The turbulent drive (Reynolds power) for the azimuthal flow is an order of magnitude greater than that for axial flow, suggesting that the turbulence fluctuation levels are set by azimuthal flow shear regulation. The direct energy exchange between axial and azimuthal mean flows is shown to be insignificant. Therefore, the axial flow is parasitic to the turbulence-zonal flow system and is driven primarily by the axial turbulent stress generated by that system. The non-diffusive, residual part of the axial Reynolds stress is found to be proportional to the density gradient and is formed due to dynamical asymmetry in the drift-wave turbulence.

  6. Zonal Winds Between 25 and 120 Km Retrieved from Solar Occultation Spectra. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancleef, Garrett Warren; Shaw, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric winds at heights between 25 and 120 km have been retrieved with precisions of 5/ms from the Doppler shifts of atmospheric absorption lines measured from a satellite-borne instrument. Lines of the upsilon 3 CO2 and upsilon 2 H2O rotation-vibration bands caused by gases in the instrument allowed the instrumental frequency scale to be absolutely calibrated so that accurate relative speeds could be obtained. By comparing the positions of both sets of instrumental lines the calibration of the frequency scale was determined to be stable to a precision of less than 2 x 10(-5) cm during the course of each occultation. It was found that the instrumental resolution of 0.015 cm after apodization, the signal to noise ratio of about 100 and stable calibration allowed relative speeds to be determined to a precision of 5 ms or better by using small numbers of absorption lines between 1600 and 3200 cm. Absolute absorption line positions were simultaneously recovered to precisions of 5 x 10(-5) cm or better. The wind speed profiles determined from four sunset occultations and one sunrise occultation show remarkable similarities in the magnitudes and directions of the zonal wind velocities as functions of height. These wind profiles appear to be manifestations of atmospheric tides.

  7. Supply-limited horizontal sand drift at an ephemerally crusted, unvegetated saline playa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Dale A.; Niemeyer, T.C.; Helm, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    A site at Owens Dry Lake was observed for more than 4 years. The site was a vegetation-free saline playa where the surface formed "ephemeral crusts," crusts that form after rainfall. Sometimes these crusts were destroyed and often a layer of particles on the crust would engage in vigorous aeolian activity. Three "phases" of active sand drifting are defined as almost no movement (extreme supply limitation), loose particles on crust with some degree of sand drift (moderate supply limitation), and unlimited source movement corresponding to a destroyed surface crust (unlimited supply). These "phases" occurred 45, 49, and 6% of the time, respectively. The accumulation of loose particles on the crust was mostly the result of in situ formation. Crusted sediments with loose particles on top can exhibit mass flux rates about the same as for noncrusted sediments. Crusted sediments limit or eliminate sand drift in two conditions: for rough crusts that effect a sufficiently high threshold friction velocity (above the wind friction velocity) and for limited amounts of loose particles on the crust where particle supply is less than would be transported in normal saltation for a thick sandy surface. These "supply-limited" cases are similar to wind erosion of limited spilled material on a hard concrete surface. We quantified "supply limitation" by defining a "potential" or "supply unlimited" sand drift function Q = AG where A represents supply limitation that decreases as the particle source is depleted. Here Q is the mass of sand transported through a surface perpendicular to the ground and to the wind and having unit width during time period t, and G = ??? u*(u*2 - u*t2) dt for u* > u*t. G is integrated for the same time period t as for Q, u* is the friction velocity of the wind, and u*t is the threshold friction velocity of the wind. Hard crusts (usually formed in the summer) tended to show almost no change of threshold friction velocity with time and often gave total

  8. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Coupling of Electrostatic Drift and Acoustic Perturbations in a Nonuniform Bi-Ion Plasma with Non-Maxwellian Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Gul-e.; Ahmad, Ali; Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2017-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear coupling of drift and ion acoustic waves are studied in a nonuniform magnetized plasma comprising of Oxygen and Hydrogen ions with nonthermal distribution of electrons. It has been observed that different ratios of ion number densities and kappa and Cairns distributed electrons significantly modify the linear dispersion characteristics of coupled drift-ion acoustic waves. In the nonlinear regime, KdV (for pure drift waves) and KP (for coupled drift-ion acoustic waves) like equations have been derived to study the nonlinear evolution of drift solitary waves in one and two dimensions. The dependence of drift solitary structures on different ratios of ion number densities and nonthermal distribution of electrons has also been explored in detail. It has been found that the ratio of the diamagnetic drift velocity to the velocity of the nonlinear structure determines the existence regimes for the drift solitary waves. The present investigation may be beneficial to understand the formation of solitons in the ionospheric F-region.

  10. Time-varying zonal asymmetries in stratospheric nitrous oxide and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Previously analyses of Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data of atmospheric constituent gases have dealt almost exclusively with zonal means (and mostly monthly means), owing perhaps to concern over data quality. The purpose of this note is to show that, with care, time-dependent zonally-asymmetric features may be recovered from the SAMS nitrous oxide and methane data. As an example, we demonstrate the existence of zonal wave-1 constituent perturbations with periods of a few weeks in the middle and upper stratosphere. When the perturbations are normalized by the constituent zonal-mean mixing ratio to compensate for the slowly varying (in both space and time) background concentration of constituents, wavepacket-like features are found over all latitudes and seasons in the three-year SAMS record. One specific low-latitude case discussed had features which appear to be consistent with constituent oscillations induced by episodic equatorial Kelvin waves. Further studies are needed to better identify the nature of the plethora of observed wave-like phenomena.

  11. Numerical simulation of phenomenon on zonal disintegration in deep underground mining in case of unsupported roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengshan; Wu, Xinli; Li, Xia; Zhu, Dekang

    2018-02-01

    Zonal disintegration phenomenon was found in deep mining roadway surrounding rock. It seriously affects the safety of mining and underground engineering and it may lead to the occurrence of natural disasters. in deep mining roadway surrounding rock, tectonic stress in deep mining roadway rock mass, horizontal stress is much greater than the vertical stress, When the direction of maximum principal stress is parallel to the axis of the roadway in deep mining, this is the main reasons for Zonal disintegration phenomenon. Using ABAQUS software to numerical simulation of the three-dimensional model of roadway rupture formation process systematically, and the study shows that when The Direction of maximum main stress in deep underground mining is along the roadway axial direction, Zonal disintegration phenomenon in deep underground mining is successfully reproduced by our numerical simulation..numerical simulation shows that using ABAQUA simulation can reproduce Zonal disintegration phenomenon and the formation process of damage of surrounding rock can be reproduced. which have important engineering practical significance.

  12. Self-Organization of Zonal Jets in Outer Planet Atmospheres: Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechnical theory of a two-dimensional Euler fluid is appleid for the first time to explore the spontaneous self-oganization of zonal jets in outer planet atmospheres. Globally conserved integralls of motion are found to play a central role in defining jet structure.

  13. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  14. Educational Change Leadership through a New Zonal Theory Lens: Using Mathematics Curriculum Change as the Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen; Branson, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines actions that educational change leaders can take to better meet their curriculum change obligations and responsibilities. In order to do this we extend Vygotsky's (1978) zonal theory and its many extensions and elaborations by positioning educational change leadership within this theory. We rename the zones to Zone of Principal…

  15. Isolation of Intact Chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis by Zonal Centrifugation 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Aurea; Pollack, Marilyn; Mendiola, Leticia R.; Hoffmann, H.-P.; Brown, D. H.; Price, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Chloroplasts were separated from Euglena gracilis by zonal centrifugation at low speed in density gradients of Ficoll or dextran. The chloroplasts were intact by the criteria of ultrastructure and their content of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and soluble protein. The chloroplasts also contained ribosomes and ribosomal RNA uncontaminated by the corresponding cytoplasmic particles. Images PMID:16657599

  16. Drift Reduction in Pedestrian Navigation System by Exploiting Motion Constraints and Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-09-09

    Pedestrian navigation systems (PNS) using foot-mounted MEMS inertial sensors use zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) to reduce drift in navigation solutions and estimate inertial sensor errors. However, it is well known that ZUPTs cannot reduce all errors, especially as heading error is not observable. Hence, the position estimates tend to drift and even cyclic ZUPTs are applied in updated steps of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). This urges the use of other motion constraints for pedestrian gait and any other valuable heading reduction information that is available. In this paper, we exploit two more motion constraints scenarios of pedestrian gait: (1) walking along straight paths; (2) standing still for a long time. It is observed that these motion constraints (called "virtual sensor"), though considerably reducing drift in PNS, still need an absolute heading reference. One common absolute heading estimation sensor is the magnetometer, which senses the Earth's magnetic field and, hence, the true heading angle can be calculated. However, magnetometers are susceptible to magnetic distortions, especially in indoor environments. In this work, an algorithm, called magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) and compensation is designed by incorporating only healthy magnetometer data in the EKF updating step, to reduce drift in zero-velocity updated INS. Experiments are conducted in GPS-denied and magnetically distorted environments to validate the proposed algorithms.

  17. Drift Reduction in Pedestrian Navigation System by Exploiting Motion Constraints and Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation systems (PNS) using foot-mounted MEMS inertial sensors use zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) to reduce drift in navigation solutions and estimate inertial sensor errors. However, it is well known that ZUPTs cannot reduce all errors, especially as heading error is not observable. Hence, the position estimates tend to drift and even cyclic ZUPTs are applied in updated steps of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). This urges the use of other motion constraints for pedestrian gait and any other valuable heading reduction information that is available. In this paper, we exploit two more motion constraints scenarios of pedestrian gait: (1) walking along straight paths; (2) standing still for a long time. It is observed that these motion constraints (called “virtual sensor”), though considerably reducing drift in PNS, still need an absolute heading reference. One common absolute heading estimation sensor is the magnetometer, which senses the Earth’s magnetic field and, hence, the true heading angle can be calculated. However, magnetometers are susceptible to magnetic distortions, especially in indoor environments. In this work, an algorithm, called magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) and compensation is designed by incorporating only healthy magnetometer data in the EKF updating step, to reduce drift in zero-velocity updated INS. Experiments are conducted in GPS-denied and magnetically distorted environments to validate the proposed algorithms. PMID:27618056

  18. Zonal structure and variability of the Western Pacific dynamic warm pool edge in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jaclyn N.; Langlais, Clothilde; Maes, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The equatorial edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is operationally identified by one isotherm ranging between 28° and 29 °C, chosen to align with the interannual variability of strong zonal salinity gradients and the convergence of zonal ocean currents. The simulation of this edge is examined in 19 models from the World Climate Research Program Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), over the historical period from 1950 to 2000. The dynamic warm pool edge (DWPE), where the zonal currents converge, is difficult to determine from limited observations and biased models. A new analysis technique is introduced where a proxy for DWPE is determined by the isotherm that most closely correlates with the movements of the strong salinity gradient. It can therefore be a different isotherm in each model. The DWPE is simulated much closer to observations than if a direct temperature-only comparison is made. Aspects of the DWPE remain difficult for coupled models to simulate including the mean longitude, the interannual excursions, and the zonal convergence of ocean currents. Some models have only very weak salinity gradients trapped to the western side of the basin making it difficult to even identify a DWPE. The model's DWPE are generally 1-2 °C cooler than observed. In line with theory, the magnitude of the zonal migrations of the DWPE are strongly related to the amplitudes of the Nino3.4 SST index. Nevertheless, a better simulation of the mean location of the DWPE does not necessarily improve the amplitude of a model's ENSO. It is also found that in a few models (CSIROMk3.6, inmcm and inmcm4-esm) the warm pool displacements result from a net heating or cooling rather than a zonal advection of warm water. The simulation of the DWPE has implications for ENSO dynamics when considering ENSO paradigms such as the delayed action oscillator mechanism, the Advective-Reflective oscillator, and the zonal-advective feedback. These are also discussed in the context

  19. Drift of charge carriers in crystalline organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingjuan; Si, Wei; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the direct-current response of crystalline organic semiconductors in the presence of finite external electric fields by the quantum-classical Ehrenfest dynamics complemented with instantaneous decoherence corrections (IDC). The IDC is carried out in the real-space representation with the energy-dependent reweighing factors to account for both intermolecular decoherence and energy relaxation by which conduction occurs. In this way, both the diffusion and drift motion of charge carriers are described in a unified framework. Based on an off-diagonal electron-phonon coupling model for pentacene, we find that the drift velocity initially increases with the electric field and then decreases at higher fields due to the Wannier-Stark localization, and a negative electric-field dependence of mobility is observed. The Einstein relation, which is a manifestation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, is found to be restored in electric fields up to ˜105 V/cm for a wide temperature region studied. Furthermore, we show that the incorporated decoherence and energy relaxation could explain the large discrepancy between the mobilities calculated by the Ehrenfest dynamics and the full quantum methods, which proves the effectiveness of our approach to take back these missing processes.

  20. Drift of charge carriers in crystalline organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jingjuan; Si, Wei; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2016-04-14

    We investigate the direct-current response of crystalline organic semiconductors in the presence of finite external electric fields by the quantum-classical Ehrenfest dynamics complemented with instantaneous decoherence corrections (IDC). The IDC is carried out in the real-space representation with the energy-dependent reweighing factors to account for both intermolecular decoherence and energy relaxation by which conduction occurs. In this way, both the diffusion and drift motion of charge carriers are described in a unified framework. Based on an off-diagonal electron-phonon coupling model for pentacene, we find that the drift velocity initially increases with the electric field and then decreases at higher fields due to the Wannier-Stark localization, and a negative electric-field dependence of mobility is observed. The Einstein relation, which is a manifestation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, is found to be restored in electric fields up to ∼10(5) V/cm for a wide temperature region studied. Furthermore, we show that the incorporated decoherence and energy relaxation could explain the large discrepancy between the mobilities calculated by the Ehrenfest dynamics and the full quantum methods, which proves the effectiveness of our approach to take back these missing processes.

  1. Plasma Drift Rates During and Preceding Equatorial Spread F Inferred by the HF Doppler Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. S.; Hilton, A. J.; Chartier, A.

    2017-12-01

    The quiet time afternoon and evening equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere is characterized by increasing vertical drift and sharpening plasma density gradient in the lower F region. This combination of effects leads to the plasma instability cascade known imprecisely as "equatorial spread F." In this work, we utilize a simple transequatorial HF Doppler observation to infer the vertical and horizontal plasma drifts preceding and during spread-F conditions. The data exhibit three behavior regimes indicative of three different processes: The first is a slow vertical drift that may be due to either increasing vertical plasma drifts or recombination of the bottomside. The second is an explosive spread Doppler signature (indicating relative velocities of 600 m/s or more) that is associated with the initiation of the spread-F depletions. Finally, the third is a structure that represents a changing HF propagation channel as radio rays propagate through the regions of depleted-but still unstable-plasma. Observations of the March 2016 Pacific total solar eclipse will also be included as a test case for the effects of vertical drifts versus recombination.

  2. Comparative Study of Drift Compensation Methods for Environmental Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, M. Z.; Asmat, Arnis; Hamidon, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Most drift compensation attempts in environmental gas sensors are only emphasize on the “already-known” drift-causing parameter (i.e., ambient temperature, relative humidity) in compensating the sensor drift. Less consideration is taken to another parameter (i.e., baseline responses) that might have affected indirectly with the promotion of drift-causing parameter variable (in this context, is ambient temperature variable). In this study, the “indirect” drift-causing parameter (drifted baseline responses) has been taken into consideration in compensating the sensor drift caused by ambient temperature variable, by means of a proposed drift compensation method (named as RT-method). The effectiveness of this method in its efficacy of compensating drift was analysed and compared with the common method that used the “already-known” drift-causing parameter (named as T-method), using drift reduction percentage. From the results analysis, the RT-method has outperformed T- method in the drift reduction percentage, with its ability to reduce drift up to 64% rather than the T-method which only able to reduce up to 45% for TGS2600 sensor. It has proven that the inclusion of drifted baseline responses into drift compensation attempt would resulted to an improved drift compensation efficiency.

  3. Scale model testing of drogues for free drifting buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Instrumented model drogue tests were conducted in a ship model towing tank. The purpose of the tests was to observe and measure deployment and drag characteristics of such shapes as parachutes, crossed vanes, and window shades which may be employed in conjunction with free drifting buoys. Both Froude and Reynolds scaling laws were applied while scaling to full scale relative velocities of from 0 to 0.2 knots. A weighted window shade drogue is recommended because of its performance, high drag coefficient, simplicity, and low cost. Detailed theoretical performance curves are presented for parachutes, crossed vanes, and window shade drogues. Theoretical estimates of depth locking accuracy and buoy-induced dynamic loads pertinent to window shade drogues are presented as a design aid. An example of a window shade drogue design is presented.

  4. Comparative analysis of zonal systems for macro-level crash modeling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen

    2017-06-01

    Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), state-wide traffic analysis zones (STAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs). Poisson lognormal models for three crash types (i.e., total, severe, and non-motorized mode crashes) are developed based on the three zonal systems without and with consideration of spatial autocorrelation. The study proposes a method to compare the modeling performance of the three types of geographic units at different spatial configurations through a grid based framework. Specifically, the study region is partitioned to grids of various sizes and the model prediction accuracy of the various macro models is considered within these grids of various sizes. These model comparison results for all crash types indicated that the models based on TADs consistently offer a better performance compared to the others. Besides, the models considering spatial autocorrelation outperform the ones that do not consider it. Based on the modeling results and motivation for developing the different zonal systems, it is recommended using CTs for socio-demographic data collection, employing TAZs for transportation demand forecasting, and adopting TADs for transportation safety planning. The findings from this study can help practitioners select appropriate zonal systems for traffic crash modeling, which leads to develop more efficient policies to enhance transportation safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  5. GRAVOTURBULENT PLANETESIMAL FORMATION: THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF LONG-LIVED ZONAL FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, K.; Klahr, H.; Johansen, A., E-mail: dittrich@mpia.de

    2013-02-15

    Recent numerical simulations have shown long-lived axisymmetric sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of disks unstable to the magnetorotational instability. This paper covers our study of the strength and lifetime of zonal flows and the resulting long-lived gas over- and underdensities as functions of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. We further investigate dust particle concentrations without feedback on the gas and without self-gravity. The strength and lifetime of zonal flows increase with the radial extent of the simulation box, but decrease withmore » the azimuthal box size. Our simulations support earlier results that zonal flows have a natural radial length scale of 5-7 gas pressure scale heights. This is the first study that combines three-dimensional MHD simulations of zonal flows and dust particles feeling the gas pressure. The pressure bumps trap particles with St = 1 very efficiently. We show that St = 0.1 particles (of some centimeters in size if at 5 AU in a minimum mass solar nebula) reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially. This opens the path for particles of St = 0.1 and dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 or for particles of St {>=} 0.5 and dust-to-gas ratio 10{sup -4} to still reach densities that potentially trigger the streaming instability and thus gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals.« less

  6. Explanation of observable secular variations of gravity and alternative methods of determination of drift of the center of mass of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The summary. On the basis of geodynamic model of the forced relative displacement of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle of the Earth the secular variations of a gravity and heights of some gravimetry stations on a surface of the Earth have ben studied. At the account of secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth which on our geodynamic model is caused by the unidirectional drift of the core of the Earth relatively to the mantle, the full explanation is given to observable secular variations of a gravity at stations Ny-Alesund (Norway), Churchill (Canada), Medicine (Italy), Sayowa (Antarctica), Strastburg (France), Membach (Belgium), Wuhan (China) and Metsahovi (Finland). Two new methods of determination of secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth, alternative to classical method of a space geodesy are offered: 1) on the basis of gravimetry data about secular trends of a gravity at the stations located on all basic regions of the Earth; 2) on the basis of the comparative analysis of altimetry and coastal data about secular changes of sea level also in basic regions of ocean. 1. Secular drift of the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the Earth. A secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth to the North relatively to special center O on an axis of rotation of the Earth for which the coefficient of third zonal harmonic J3' = 0, has been predicted in the author work [1]. A drift in a direction to a geographical point (pole P) 70°0 N and 104°3 E has been established for the first time theoretically - as a result of the analysis of the global directed redistribution of masses of the Earth, explaining the observed secular drift of the pole of an axis of rotation of the Earth and not tidal acceleration of its axial rotation [2]. In [1] velocity of drift it has been estimated in 1-2 cm/yr. For specified center O the figure of a planet is as though deprived of pure-shaped form (J3' = 0). And in this sense the point O can be

  7. Internal velocity factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. R.; Frank, A. J.; Massaglia, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the entries and planetary trajectories of space vehicles. It obtains the equivalence of altitude and flight path angle, respectively, to acceleration load factor with respect to velocity for a given inertial velocity.

  8. The generalized drift flux approach: Identification of the void-drift closure law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boure, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The main characteristics and the potential advantages of generalized drift flux models are presented. In particular it is stressed that the issue on the propagation properties and on the mathematical nature (hyperbolic or not) of the model and the problem of closure are easier to tackle than in two fluid models. The problem of identifying the differential void-drift closure law inherent to generalized drift flux models is then addressed. Such a void-drift closure, based on wave properties, is proposed for bubbly flows. It involves a drift relaxation time which is of the order of 0.25 s. It is observed that, although wave properties provide essential closure validity tests, they do not represent an easily usable source of quantitative information on the closure laws.

  9. Community Air Monitoring for Pesticide Drift Using Pesticide Action Network's (PAN) Drift Catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, E.

    2016-12-01

    Community air monitoring projects for pesticides in the air have been conducted by PAN in collaboration with community members and locally based groups engaged around pesticide issues. PAN is part of an international network working to promote a just, thriving food system and replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives. The Drift Catcher is an air-monitoring device with a design based on the California Air Resource Board's air monitoring equipment, and has been used in community-based projects in 11 states. Observations of pesticide drift made by community members cannot always be confirmed by regulatory agencies—if an inspection is made hours or days after a drift incident, the evidence may no longer be present. The Drift Catcher makes it possible to collect scientific evidence of pesticide drift in areas where people live, work, and play. One of the most recent Drift Catcher projects was done in California, in partnership with the Safe Strawberry Coalition and led by the statewide coalition Californians for Pesticide Reform. The data were used to support a call for stronger mitigation rules for the fumigant chloropicrin and to support a campaign asking for stronger pesticide rules to protect children attending school in close proximity to agricultural fields. The Drift Catcher data are used by organizers and community members to engage policymakers with the intention of making policy change on a local and/or statewide level. On the national level, PAN's Drift Catcher data has helped win regulatory recognition of volatilization drift for pesticides other than fumigants. Lessons learned from conducting community-based research projects will also be discussed. PAN is also currently assessing other community-based monitoring tools, such as community surveys and drift questionnaires that may allow communities to collect data that can also support the campaign work.

  10. Spray particle drift mitigation using field corn (Zea mays L.) as a drift barrier.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruno C; Butts, Thomas R; Rodrigues, Andre O; Golus, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Kasey; Kruger, Greg R

    2018-04-24

    Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier. Applications with a non-air inclusion flat fan nozzle (ER11004) resulted in greater particle drift when compared to an air inclusion nozzle (TTI11004). Eight rows of corn were used as barriers (0.91, 1.22, and 1.98 m height) which reduced the particle drift for both nozzles, especially at shorter downwind distances. Applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers had 1% of the applied rate (D 99 ) predicted to deposit at 14.8 m downwind, whereas this distance was reduced (up to 7-fold) when applications were performed with corn barriers. The combination of corn drift barriers and nozzle selection (TTI11004) provided satisfactory particle drift reduction when the D 99 estimates were compared to applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers (up to 10-fold difference). The corn drift barriers were effective in reducing particle drift from applications with the ER11004 and the TTI11004 nozzles (Fine and Ultra Coarse spray classifications, respectively). The corn drift barrier had appropriate porosity and width as the airborne spray was captured within its canopy instead of deflecting up and over it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Origin of CH+ in diffuse molecular clouds. Warm H2 and ion-neutral drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia, Valeska; Godard, Benjamin; Hennebelle, Patrick; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lesaffre, Pierre; Le Bourlot, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Context. Molecular clouds are known to be magnetised and to display a turbulent and complex structure where warm and cold phases are interwoven. The turbulent motions within molecular clouds transport molecules, and the presence of magnetic fields induces a relative velocity between neutrals and ions known as the ion-neutral drift (vd). These effects all together can influence the chemical evolution of the clouds. Aims: This paper assesses the roles of two physical phenomena which have previously been invoked to boost the production of CH+ under realistic physical conditions: the presence of warm H2 and the increased formation rate due to the ion-neutral drift. Methods: We performed ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations that include the heating and cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), and where we treat dynamically the formation of the H2 molecule. In a post-processing step we compute the abundances of species at chemical equilibrium using a solver that we developed. The solver uses the physical conditions of the gas as input parameters, and can also prescribe the H2 fraction if needed. We validate our approach by showing that the H2 molecule generally has a much longer chemical evolution timescale compared to the other species. Results: We show that CH+ is efficiently formed at the edge of clumps, in regions where the H2 fraction is low (0.3-30%) but nevertheless higher than its equilibrium value, and where the gas temperature is high (≳ 300 K). We show that warm and out of equilibrium H2 increases the integrated column densities of CH+ by one order of magnitude up to values still 3-10 times lower than those observed in the diffuse ISM. We balance the Lorentz force with the ion-neutral drag to estimate the ion-drift velocities from our ideal MHD simulations. We find that the ion-neutral drift velocity distribution peaks around 0.04 km s-1, and that high drift velocities are too rare to have a significant statistical impact on the

  12. Correcting sample drift using Fourier harmonics.

    PubMed

    Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Reyes, D F; Braza, V; Yañez, A; Nuñez-Moraleda, B; González, D; Galindo, P L

    2018-07-01

    During image acquisition of crystalline materials by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, the sample drift could lead to distortions and shears that hinder their quantitative analysis and characterization. In order to measure and correct this effect, several authors have proposed different methodologies making use of series of images. In this work, we introduce a methodology to determine the drift angle via Fourier analysis by using a single image based on the measurements between the angles of the second Fourier harmonics in different quadrants. Two different approaches, that are independent of the angle of acquisition of the image, are evaluated. In addition, our results demonstrate that the determination of the drift angle is more accurate by using the measurements of non-consecutive quadrants when the angle of acquisition is an odd multiple of 45°. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drift due to viscous vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  14. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  15. Drifts of Dust or Something Else?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    While the interior and far walls of the crater dubbed 'Bonneville' can be seen in the background, the dominant foreground features in this 180-degree navigation camera mosaic are the wind-deposited drifts of dust or sand. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit completed this mosaic on sol 71, March 15, 2004, from its newest location at the rim of 'Bonneville' crater.

    Scientists are interested in these formations in part because they might give insight into the processes that formed some of the material within the crater. Thermal emission measurements by the rover indicate that the dark material just below the far rim of this crater is spectrally similar to rocks that scientists have analyzed along their journey to this location. They want to know why this soil-like material has a spectrum that more closely resembles rocks rather than other soils examined so far. The drifts seen in the foreground of this mosaic might have the answer. Scientists hypothesize that these drifts might consist of wind-deposited particles that are the same as the dark material found against the back wall of the crater. If so, Spirit may spend time studying the material and help scientists understand why it is different from other fine-grained material seen at Gusev.

    The drifts appear to be lighter in color than the dark material deposited on the back wall of the crater. They might be covered by a thin deposit of martian dust, or perhaps the drift is like other drifts seen during Spirit's journey and is just a collection of martian dust.

    To find out, Spirit will spend some of sol 72 digging its wheels into the drift to uncover its interior. After backing up a bit, Spirit will use the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze the scuffed area. If the interior material has a similar spectrum to the dark deposit in the crater, then Spirit will most likely stay here a little longer to study the drift with the instruments on its robotic arm. If the

  16. Do the pyramids show continental drift?

    PubMed

    Pawley, G S; Abrahamsen, N

    1973-03-02

    The mystery of the orientation of the Great Pyramids of Giza has remained unexplained for many decades. The general alignment is 4 minutes west of north. It is argued that this is not a builders' error but is caused by movement over the centuries. Modern theories of continental drift do not predict quite such large movements, but other causes of polar wandering give even smaller shifts. Thus, continental drift is the most likely explanation, although somewhat implausible, especially as relevant measurements have been made over a 50-year period, whereas geophysical measurements of sea-floor spreading relate to million-year time scales.

  17. Continental drift under the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public. Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other hand, continental drift received official support under the Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by most earth scientists outside Germany.

  18. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assiro, R.; Cappelli, L.; Cascella, M.; De Lorenzis, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Ignatov, F.; L'Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A.; Miccoli, A.; Onorato, G.; Perillo, M.; Piacentino, G.; Rella, S.; Rossetti, F.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.; Zavarise, G.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100-200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50-100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce .

  19. Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately north–south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 8700–8800 year BP.

  20. Wave Measurements Using GPS Velocity Signals

    PubMed Central

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves. PMID:22346618

  1. Measuring Zonal Transport Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Using GRACE Ocean Bottom Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, J.; Chambers, D. P.; Bonin, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ocean bottom pressure (OBP) can be used to measure the transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Using OBP data from the JPL ECCO model and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), we examine the zonal transport variability of the ACC integrated between the major fronts between 2003-2010. The JPL ECCO data are used to determine average front positions for the time period studies, as well as where transport is mainly zonal. Statistical analysis will be conducted to determine the uncertainty of the GRACE observations using a simulated data set. We will also begin looking at low frequency changes and how coherent transport variability is from region to region of the ACC. Correlations with bottom pressure south of the ACC and the average basin transports will also be calculated to determine the probability of using bottom pressure south of the ACC as a means for describing the ACC dynamics and transport.

  2. Direct phase measurement in zonal wavefront reconstruction using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Kerlin, Aaron; MacLennan, Bryan; Ji, Na

    2014-01-27

    In traditional zonal wavefront sensing for adaptive optics, after local wavefront gradients are obtained, the entire wavefront can be calculated by assuming that the wavefront is a continuous surface. Such an approach will lead to sub-optimal performance in reconstructing wavefronts which are either discontinuous or undersampled by the zonal wavefront sensor. Here, we report a new method to reconstruct the wavefront by directly measuring local wavefront phases in parallel using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique. This method determines the relative phases of each pupil segment independently, and thus produces an accurate wavefront for even discontinuous wavefronts. We implemented this method in an adaptive optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated its superior performance in correcting large or discontinuous aberrations.

  3. On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.

  4. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing framemore » rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.« less

  5. Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Winter, Rudolph E; Singh, Ajay P; Reding, Michael E; Frantz, Jonathan M; Locke, James C; Krause, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution-MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C(5)H(7)N(3)O(5)), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an L-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic L-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920.

  6. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  7. Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function, from zero to 18th order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are usually tabulated in normalized form to provide immediate information as to the relative significance of the coefficients in the gravity model. The normalized form of the geopotential coefficients cannot be used for computational purposes unless the gravity model has been modified to receive them. This modification is usually not done because the absolute or unnormalized form of the coefficients can be obtained from the simple mathematical relationship that relates the two forms. This computation can be quite tedious for hand calculation, especially for the higher order terms, and can be costly in terms of storage and execution time for machine computation. In this report, zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are tabulated in absolute or unnormalized form. The report is designed to be used as a ready reference for both hand and machine calculation to save the user time and effort.

  8. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

    SciTech Connect

    Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Kruger, S. E.

    Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speedmore » coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A Θ-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.« less

  9. Inclusion of inhomogeneous deformation and strength characteristics in the problem on zonal disintegration of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyshev, AI; Belousova, OE

    2018-03-01

    The authors determine stress and deformation in a heterogeneous rock mass at the preset displacement and Cauchy stress vector at the boundary of an underground excavation. The influence of coordinates on Young’s modulus, shear modulus and ultimate strength is shown. It is found that regions of tension and compression alternate at the excavation boundary—i.e. zonal rock disintegration phenomenon is observed.

  10. Nonlinear growth of zonal flows by secondary instability in general magnetic geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Plunk, G. G.; Navarro, A. Banon

    2017-02-23

    Here we present a theory of the nonlinear growth of zonal flows in magnetized plasma turbulence, by the mechanism of secondary instability. The theory is derived for general magnetic geometry, and is thus applicable to both tokamaks and stellarators. The predicted growth rate is shown to compare favorably with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, with the error scaling as expected with the small parameter of the theory.

  11. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    a r-re complete set of equations is used, but their effect is imposed by means of a right hand side forcing function, not by means of a zonal boundary...modifications of flow-simulation algorithms The explicit finite-difference code of Magnus and are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions...used to simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse achieve computational efficiency. More recently, effect on flow-field algorithms and

  12. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  13. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  14. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  15. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Prentice K.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  16. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    that about 25% of the estimated snow that the wind transports to Summit each winter is deposited and forms drifts, mostly in close proxim- ity to...the structures. This analysis demonstrates that weather data ( wind speed and direction) and a transport analysis can aid in estimating the vol- ume of...23 Appendix A: Wind Roses

  17. Windblown Sand from the Rocknest Drift

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity acquired close-up views of sands in the Rocknest wind drift to document the nature of the material that the rover scooped, sieved and delivered to the CheMin and SAM instruments in October and November 2012.

  18. Aerial application equipment for herbicidal drift reduction.

    Treesearch

    1976-01-01

    This publication provides silviculturists and managers of utility rights-of-way with a description and evaluation of available helicopter spray application equipment. Modified conventional equipment will reduce drift of sprays in normal carriers and apply various high-viscosity sprays. Specialized spray systems have found limited use in forestry; they are more commonly...

  19. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  20. Experimental design for drifting buoy Lagrangian test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    A test of instrumentation fabricated to measure the performance of a free drifting buoy as a (Lagrangian) current meter is described. Specifically it is proposed to distinguish between the trajectory of a drogued buoy and the trajectory of the water at the level of the drogue by measuring the flow relative to the drogue.

  1. Drift Nets on the High Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Information is provided on the use and misuse of drift nets used internationally in the Pacific Ocean. An activity in which students acquire some understanding of the history of fishing and the effects of modern technologies on fish populations is included. (KR)

  2. MPIRUN: A Portable Loader for Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. One method for implementing the message passing portion of these codes is with the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Unfortunately, this standard only specifies the message passing portion of an application, but does not specify any portable mechanisms for loading an application. MPIRUN was developed to provide a portable means for loading MPI programs, and was specifically targeted at multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications. Programs using MPIRUN for loading and MPI for message passing are then portable between all machines supported by MPIRUN. MPIRUN is currently implemented for the Intel iPSC/860, TMC CM5, IBM SP-1 and SP-2, Intel Paragon, and workstation clusters. Further, MPIRUN is designed to be simple enough to port easily to any system supporting MPI.

  3. Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.

  4. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  5. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of Venus wind velocities from high-resolution infrared spectra. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Zonal velocity profiles in the Venus atmosphere above the clouds were estimated from measured asymmetries of HCl and HF infrared absorption lines in high-resolution Fourier interferometer spectra of the planet. These asymmetries are caused by both pressure-induced shifts in the positions of the hydrogen-halide lines perturbed by CO2 and Doppler shifts due to atmospheric motions. Particularly in the case of the HCl 2-0 band, the effects of the two types of line shifts can be easily isolated, making it possible to estimate a profile of average Venus equatorial zonal velocity as a function of pressure in the region roughly 60 to 70 km above the surface of the planet. The mean profiles obtained show strong vertical shear in the Venus zonal winds near the cloud-top level, and both the magnitude and direction of winds at all levels in this region appear to vary greatly with longitude relative to the sub-solar point.

  7. Studies of velocity fluctuations in the lower atmosphere using the MU radar. I - Azimuthal anisotropy. II - Momentum fluxes and energy densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.; Smith, S. A.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Fritts, D. C.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a six-day campaign to observe velocity fluctuations in the lower atmosphere using the MU radar (Fukao et al., 1985) in Shigaraki, Japan in March, 1986. Consideration is given to the azimuthal anisotropy, the frequency spectra, the vertical profiles of energy density, and the momentum flux of the motion field. It is found that all of the observed azimuthal variations are probably caused by a gravity wave field whose parameters vary with time. The results show significant differences between the mean zonal and meridional frequency spectra and different profiles of mean energy density with height for different frequency bands and for zonal and meridional components.

  8. Discovery of multiple, ionization-created CS{sub 2} anions and a new mode of operation for drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.

    2014-01-15

    This paper focuses on the surprising discovery of multiple species of ionization-created CS{sub 2} anions in gas mixtures containing electronegative CS{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, identified by their slightly different drift velocities. Data are presented to understand the formation mechanism and identity of these new anions. Regardless of the micro-physics, however, this discovery offers a new, trigger-less mode of operation for the drift chambers. A demonstration of trigger-less operation is presented.

  9. Zonal Rate Model for Axial and Radial Flow Membrane Chromatography. Part I: Knowledge Transfer Across Operating Conditions and Scales

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Haynes, Charles A; von Lieres, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The zonal rate model (ZRM) has previously been applied for analyzing the performance of axial flow membrane chromatography capsules by independently determining the impacts of flow and binding related non-idealities on measured breakthrough curves. In the present study, the ZRM is extended to radial flow configurations, which are commonly used at larger scales. The axial flow XT5 capsule and the radial flow XT140 capsule from Pall are rigorously analyzed under binding and non-binding conditions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as test molecule. The binding data of this molecule is much better reproduced by the spreading model, which hypothesizes different binding orientations, than by the well-known Langmuir model. Moreover, a revised cleaning protocol with NaCl instead of NaOH and minimizing the storage time has been identified as most critical for quantitatively reproducing the measured breakthrough curves. The internal geometry of both capsules is visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The flow in the external hold-up volumes of the XT140 capsule was found to be more homogeneous as in the previously studied XT5 capsule. An attempt for model-based scale-up was apparently impeded by irregular pleat structures in the used XT140 capsule, which might lead to local variations in the linear velocity through the membrane stack. However, the presented approach is universal and can be applied to different capsules. The ZRM is shown to potentially help save valuable material and time, as the experiments required for model calibration are much cheaper than the predicted large-scale experiment at binding conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1129–1141. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23097218

  10. The character of drift spreading of artificial plasma clouds in the middle-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaunstein, N.

    1996-02-01

    Nonlinear equations describing the evolution of plasma clouds with real initial sizes, along and across the geomagnetic field B, which drift in the ionosphere in the presence of an ambient electric field and a neutral wind have been solved and analysed. An ionospheric model close to the real conditions of the middle-latitude ionosphere is introduced, taking into account the altitude dependence of the transport coefficients and background ionospheric plasma. The striation of the initial plasma cloud into a cluster of plasmoids, stretched along the field B, is obtained. The process of dispersive splitting of the initial plasma cloud can be understood in terms of gradient drift instability (GDI) as a most probable striation mechanism. The dependence of the characteristic time of dispersive splitting on the value of the ambient electric field, the initial plasma disturbance in the cloud and its initial sizes was investigated. The stretching criterion, necessary for the plasma cloud's striation is obtained. The possibility of the drift stabilization effect arising from azimuthal drift velocity shear, obtained by Drake et al. [1988], is examined for various parameters of the barium cloud and the background ionospheric conditions. A comparison with experimental data on the evolution of barium clouds in rocket experiments at the height of the lower ionosphere is made.

  11. Accurate Drift Time Determination by Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry: The Concept of the Diffusion Calibration.

    PubMed

    Kune, Christopher; Far, Johann; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-12-06

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a gas phase separation technique, which relies on differences in collision cross section (CCS) of ions. Ionic clouds of unresolved conformers overlap if the CCS difference is below the instrumental resolution expressed as CCS/ΔCCS. The experimental arrival time distribution (ATD) peak is then a superimposition of the various contributions weighted by their relative intensities. This paper introduces a strategy for accurate drift time determination using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) of poorly resolved or unresolved conformers. This method implements through a calibration procedure the link between the peak full width at half-maximum (fwhm) and the drift time of model compounds for wide range of settings for wave heights and velocities. We modified a Gaussian equation, which achieves the deconvolution of ATD peaks where the fwhm is fixed according to our calibration procedure. The new fitting Gaussian equation only depends on two parameters: The apex of the peak (A) and the mean drift time value (μ). The standard deviation parameter (correlated to fwhm) becomes a function of the drift time. This correlation function between μ and fwhm is obtained using the TWIMS calibration procedure which determines the maximum instrumental ion beam diffusion under limited and controlled space charge effect using ionic compounds which are detected as single conformers in the gas phase. This deconvolution process has been used to highlight the presence of poorly resolved conformers of crown ether complexes and peptides leading to more accurate CCS determinations in better agreement with quantum chemistry predictions.

  12. A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H. O.; Rust, D. R.

    1987-03-01

    A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls.

  13. Validation testing of drift reduction technology testing protocol

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of pesticide application technologies offer the potential to reduce spray drift from pesticide applications. However, limited information exists on the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing spray drift. Working with a stakeholder technical panel under EPA's Env...

  14. The Effects of Clock Drift on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled S.; Vanelli, C. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    All clocks drift by some amount, and the mission clock on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is no exception. The mission clock on both MER rovers drifted significantly since the rovers were launched, and it is still drifting on the Opportunity rover. The drift rate is temperature dependent. Clock drift causes problems for onboard behaviors and spacecraft operations, such as attitude estimation, driving, operation of the robotic arm, pointing for imaging, power analysis, and telecom analysis. The MER operations team has techniques to deal with some of these problems. There are a few techniques for reducing and eliminating the clock drift, but each has drawbacks. This paper presents an explanation of what is meant by clock drift on the rovers, its relationship to temperature, how we measure it, what problems it causes, how we deal with those problems, and techniques for reducing the drift.

  15. Water velocity meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  16. The transformation of vegetation vertical zonality affected by anthropogenic impact in East Fennoscandia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorik, Vadim; Miulgauzen, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems of East Fennoscandia have been affected by intensive anthropogenic influence that resulted in their significant transformation. Study of ecosystems in the framework of vegetation vertical zonality disturbance as well as its recovery allows to understand the trends of anthropogenically induced changes. The aim of the present research is the comparative analysis of vegetation vertical zonality of the two uplands in East Fennoscandia which may be considered as unaffected and affected by anthropogenic impact. The objects of key studies carried out in the north-west of Kola Peninsula in the vicinity of the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant are represented by ecosystems of Kalkupya (h 357 m) and Hangaslachdenvara (h 284 m) uplands. They are characterized by the similarity in sequence of altitudinal belts due to the position on the northern taiga - forest-tundra boundary. Plant communities of Kalkupya upland have no visible signs of anthropogenic influence, therefore, they can be considered as model ecosystems of the area. The sequence of altitudinal belts is the following: - up to 200 m - pine subshrub and green moss ("zonal") forest replaced by mixed pine and birch forest near the upper boundary; - 200-300 m - birch crooked subshrub wood; - above 300 m - tundra subshrub and lichen communities. Ecosystems of Hangaslachdenvara upland have been damaged by air pollution (SO2, Ni, Cu emissions) of the Pechenganikel Plant. This impact has led to plant community suppression and formation of barren lands. Besides the soil cover was significantly disturbed, especially upper horizons. Burying of soil profiles, represented by Podzols (WRB, 2015), also manifested itself in the exploited part of the area. The vegetation cover of Hangaslachdenvara upland is the following: - up to 130 m - birch and aspen subshrub and grass forest instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - 130-200 m - barren lands instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - above 200 m - barren lands instead of

  17. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Bryan

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertainingmore » to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC submodel uses a drift

  18. Effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    van der Poel, Erwin P; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-07-01

    The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free, and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between 10(8) and 10(11) the heat transport is lower for Γ=0.33 than for Γ=1 in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is, surprisingly, the opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for a lower aspect ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for Ra ≥ 10(10). Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall simulations with a no-slip boundary condition on the plates also exhibit zonal flow. In all the other cases, the flow is roll like. In two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the velocity boundary conditions thus have large implications on both roll-like and zonal flow that have to be taken into consideration before the boundary conditions are imposed.

  19. Stepwise shockwave velocity determinator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Timothy E.; Beeson, Harold

    1992-01-01

    To provide an uncomplicated and inexpensive method for measuring the far-field velocity of a surface shockwave produced by an explosion, a stepwise shockwave velocity determinator (SSVD) was developed. The velocity determinator is constructed of readily available materials and works on the principle of breaking discrete sensors composed of aluminum foil contacts. The discrete sensors have an average breaking threshold of approximately 7 kPa. An incremental output step of 250 mV is created with each foil contact breakage and is logged by analog-to-digital instrumentation. Velocity data obtained from the SSVD is within approximately 11 percent of the calculated surface shockwave velocity of a muzzle blast from a 30.06 rifle.

  20. Self-Attractive Random Walks: The Case of Critical Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioffe, Dmitry; Velenik, Yvan

    2012-07-01

    Self-attractive random walks (polymers) undergo a phase transition in terms of the applied drift (force): If the drift is strong enough, then the walk is ballistic, whereas in the case of small drifts self-attraction wins and the walk is sub-ballistic. We show that, in any dimension d ≥ 2, this transition is of first order. In fact, we prove that the walk is already ballistic at critical drifts, and establish the corresponding LLN and CLT.

  1. Drift Wave Simulation in Toroidal Geometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Maurice Joseph, III

    1988-12-01

    The drift wave, a general category of plasma behavior arising from a plasma inhomogeneity, is studied using the particle simulation method. In slab geometry, the drift wave (or universal mode) is stabilized by any finite amount of magnetic shear. In toroidal geometry, however, the coupling of the poloidal harmonics gives rise to a new branch of drift wave eigenmodes called the toroidicity -induced mode, which is predicted to be unstable in some regimes. The drift wave in a toroidal system is intrinsically three-dimensional, and is sensitive to the handling of the parallel electron dynamics, the (nearly) perpendicular wave dynamics, and the radial variation of magnetic field vector (shear). A simulation study must therefore be kinetic in nature, motivating the extension of particle simulation techniques to complex geometries. From this effort a three dimensional particle code in a toroidal coordinate system has been developed and applied to the toroidal drift wave problem. The code uses an (r,theta,phi) -type coordinate system, and a nonuniform radial grid that increases resolution near the mode-rational surfaces. Full ion dynamics and electron guiding center dynamics are employed. Further, the algorithm incorporates a straightforward limiting process to cylindrical geometry and slab geometry, enabling comparison to the theoretical results in these regimes. Simulations of the density-driven modes in toroidal geometry retain a single toroidal mode number (n = 9). In this regime, the poloidal harmonics are expected to be strongly coupled, giving rise to the marginally unstable toroidicity-induced drift mode. Analysis of the simulation data reveals a strong, low-frequency response that peaks near each mode rational surface. Further, the characteristic oscillation frequencies persist from one mode rational surface to the next, which identifies them as multiple harmonics of the toroidicity-induced mode. The lowest harmonic occurs at a frequency of omega/ omega^{*} ~ 0

  2. Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties

  3. Effect of natural windbreaks on drift reduction in orchard spraying.

    PubMed

    Wenneker, M; Heijne, B; van de Zande, J C

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands windbreaks are commonly grown to protect orchards against wind damage and to improve micro-climate. Natural windbreaks of broad-leaved trees can also reduce the risk of surface water contamination caused by spray drift during orchard spraying. Spray drift from pesticide applications is a major concern in the Netherlands, especially drift into water courses. So far, several drift reducing measures have been accepted by water quality control organisations and the Board for the Authorization of Pesticides (CTB), e.g. presence of a windbreak (i.e. 70% drift reduction at early season and 90% drift reduction at full leaf, respectively before and after first of May). From the experiments it was concluded that the risk of drift contamination is high during the early developmental stages of the growing season. The 70% drift reduction at early season as determined in previous experiments, appears to be valid only for windbreaks with a certain degree of developed leaves. At full leaf stage 80-90% drift reduction by the windbreak was measured. The use of evergreen windbreaks or wind-break species that develop in early season can reduce the risk of drift contamination considerably. Also, the combination of drift reducing methods, such as one-sided spraying of the last tree row and a windbreak is an effective method to reduce spray drift in the Netherlands in early season.

  4. Age of marginal Wisconsin drift at corry, northwestern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droste, J.B.; Rubin, M.; White, G.W.

    1959-01-01

    Marl began to accumulate about 14,000 years ago, as determined by radiocarbon dating, in a pond in a kettle hole in Kent drift at Corry, Pa., 9 miles inside the Wisconsin drift margin. This radiocarbon age represents the minimum time since the disappearance of the ice from Corry and confirms an assignment of Cary age to the drift.

  5. Ion Velocity Measurements for the Ionospheric Connections Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Stoneback, R. A.; Perdue, M. D.; Depew, M. D.; Morgan, W. A.; Mankey, M. W.; Lippincott, C. R.; Harmon, L. L.; Holt, B. J.

    2017-10-01

    The Ionospheric Connections Explorer (ICON) payload includes an Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) to provide measurements of the ion drift motions, density, temperature and major ion composition at the satellite altitude near 575 km. The primary measurement goal for the IVM is to provide the meridional ion drift perpendicular to the magnetic field with an accuracy of 7.5 m s-1 for all daytime conditions encountered by the spacecraft within 15° of the magnetic equator. The IVM will derive this parameter utilizing two sensors, a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) and an ion drift meter (IDM) that have a robust and successful flight heritage. The IVM described here incorporates improvements in the design and operation to produce the most sensitive device that has been fielded to date. It will specify the ion drift vector, from which the component perpendicular to the magnetic field will be derived. In addition it will specify the total ion density, the ion temperature and the fractional ion composition. These data will be used in conjunction with measurements from the other ICON instruments to uncover the important connections between the dynamics of the neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere through the generation of dynamo currents perpendicular to the magnetic field and collisional forces parallel to the magnetic field. Here the configuration and operation of the IVM instrument are described, as well as the procedures by which the ion drift velocity is determined. A description of the subsystem characteristics, which allow a determination of the expected uncertainties in the derived parameters, is also given.

  6. Observed correlation of Venus topography with the zonal wind and albedo at cloud top level: the role of stationary gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojtek; Emmanuel, Marcq; Sébastien, Lebonnois; Marina, Patsaeva; Alex, Turin; Anna, Fedorova

    2016-04-01

    Based on the analysis of UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top (altitude 67±2 km) collected with VMC (Venus Monitoring Camera) on board Venus Express (VEX), it is found that the zonal wind speed south of the equator (from 5°S to 15°s) shows a conspicuous variation (from -101 to -83 m/s) with geographic longitude of Venus, correlated with the underlying relief of Aphrodite Terra. We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. Such upward propagation of gravity waves and influence on the wind speed vertical profile was shown to play an important role in the middle atmosphere of the Earth by Lindzen [1981], but is not reproduced in a current GCM of Venus atmosphere. Consistent with present findings, the two VEGA mission balloons experienced a small, but significant, difference of westward velocity, at their 53 km floating altitude. The albedo at 365 nm varies also with longitude and latitude in a pattern strikingly similar in the low latitude regions to a recent map of cloud top H2O [Fedorova et al., 2015], in which a lower UV albedo is correlated with increased H2O. We argue that H2O enhancement is the sign of upwelling, suggesting that the UV absorber is also brought to cloud top by upwelling.

  7. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  8. Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals. PMID:25354545

  9. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  10. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    SciTech Connect

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S., E-mail: tshahm@snu.ac.kr; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-15

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen,more » Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.« less

  11. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008155 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  12. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008143 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  13. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008146 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  14. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-01

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.

  15. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  16. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  17. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  18. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1994-11-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with carbon layer of resistivity 0.5, 30 and 70 k Ohm/sq. The gas mixture used was Ar/CH4. Both the anode wire and cathode signals were detected in order to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  19. Drift mode accelerometry for spaceborne gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.

    2015-11-01

    A drift mode accelerometer is a precision instrument for spacecraft that overcomes much of the acceleration noise and readout dynamic range limitations of traditional electrostatic accelerometers. It has the potential of achieving acceleration noise performance similar to that of drag-free systems over a restricted frequency band without the need for external drag-free control or continuous spacecraft propulsion. Like traditional accelerometers, the drift mode accelerometer contains a high-density test mass surrounded by an electrode housing, which can control and sense all six degrees of freedom of the test mass. Unlike traditional accelerometers, the suspension system is operated with a low duty cycle so that the limiting suspension force noise only acts over brief, known time intervals, which can be neglected in the data analysis. The readout is performed using a laser interferometer which is immune to the dynamic range limitations of even the best voltage references typically used to determine the inertial acceleration of electrostatic accelerometers. The drift mode accelerometer is a novel offshoot of the like-named operational mode of the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft, in which its test mass suspension system is cycled on and off to estimate the acceleration noise associated with the front-end electronics. This paper presents the concept of a drift mode accelerometer, describes the operation of such a device, develops models for its performance with respect to non-drag-free satellite geodesy and gravitational wave missions, and discusses plans for testing the performance of a prototype sensor in the laboratory using torsion pendula.

  20. Giving cosmic redshift drift a whirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Alex G.; Linder, Eric V.; Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David

    2015-03-01

    Redshift drift provides a direct kinematic measurement of cosmic acceleration but it occurs with a characteristic time scale of a Hubble time. Thus redshift observations with a challenging precision of 10-9 require a 10 year time span to obtain a signal-to-noise of 1. We discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to address this challenge, potentially requiring less observer time and having greater immunity to common systematics. On the theoretical side we explore allowing the universe, rather than the observer, to provide long time spans; speculative methods include radial baryon acoustic oscillations, cosmic pulsars, and strongly lensed quasars. On the experimental side, we explore beating down the redshift precision using differential interferometric techniques, including externally dispersed interferometers and spatial heterodyne spectroscopy. Low-redshift emission line galaxies are identified as having high cosmology leverage and systematics control, with an 8 h exposure on a 10-m telescope (1000 h of exposure on a 40-m telescope) potentially capable of measuring the redshift of a galaxy to a precision of 10-8 (few ×10-10). Low-redshift redshift drift also has very strong complementarity with cosmic microwave background measurements, with the combination achieving a dark energy figure of merit of nearly 300 (1400) for 5% (1%) precision on drift.

  1. Drift Mode Accelerometry for Spaceborne Gravity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, J. W.; Shelley, R.; Chilton, A.; Olatunde, T.; Ciani, G.; Mueller, G.

    2014-12-01

    A drift mode accelerometer is a precision instrument for spacecraft that overcomes much of the acceleration noise and readout dynamic range limitations of traditional electrostatic accelerometers. It has the potential of achieving acceleration noise performance similar to that of drag-free systems over a restricted frequency band without the need for external drag-free control or continuous spacecraft propulsion. Like traditional accelerometers, the drift mode accelerometer contains a high-density test mass surrounded by an electrode housing, which can control and sense all six degrees of freedom of the test mass. Unlike traditional accelerometers, the suspension system is operated with a low duty cycle so that the limiting suspension force noise only acts over brief, known time intervals, which can be accounted for in the data analysis. The readout is performed using a laser interferometer which is immune to the dynamic range limitations of even the best voltage references typically used to determine the inertial acceleration of electrostatic accelerometers. This presentation describes operation and performance modeling for such a device with respect to a low Earth orbiting satellite geodesy mission. Methods for testing the drift mode accelerometer with the University of Florida precision torsion pendulum will also be discussed.

  2. Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-05-24

    The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability ismore » exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3×10 7 s -1.« less

  3. Hot phonon effect on electron velocity saturation in GaN: A second look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurgin, Jacob; Ding, Yujie J.; Jena, Debdeep

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical model is developed for electron velocity saturation in high power GaN transistors. It is shown that electron velocity at high electric fields is reduced due to heating of electron gas since the high density of nonequilibrium LO phonons cannot efficiently transfer heat to the lattice. However, the resulting degradation of electron velocity is found to be weaker than previously reported. The results are compared with experimental data, and the ways to improve the efficiency of cooling the electron gas to increase the drift velocity are discussed.

  4. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  5. Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: part II—dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shujuan; Cheng, Jianbo; Xu, Ming; Chou, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional

  6. Zonal wind indices to reconstruct United States winter precipitation during El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, D. J.; Steinschneider, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The highly discussed 2015/16 El Niño event, which many likened to the similarly strong 1997/98 El Niño event, led to precipitation impacts over the continental United States (CONUS) inconsistent with general expectations given past events and model-based forecasts. This presents a challenge for regional water managers and others who use seasonal precipitation forecasts who previously viewed El Niño events as times of enhanced confidence in seasonal water availability and flood risk forecasts. It is therefore useful to understand the extent to which wintertime CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by seasonal sea surface temperature heating patterns and the extent to which the precipitation is a product of natural variability. In this work, we define two seasonal indices based on the zonal wind field spanning from the eastern Pacific to the western Atlantic over CONUS that can explain El Niño precipitation variation spatially throughout CONUS over 11 historic El Niño events from 1950 to 2016. The indices reconstruct El Niño event wintertime (Jan-Mar) gridded precipitation over CONUS through cross-validated regression much better than the traditional ENSO sea surface temperature indices or other known modes of variability. Lastly, we show strong relationships between sea surface temperature patterns and the phases of the zonal wind indices, which in turn suggests that some of the disparate CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by different heating patterns. The primary contribution of this work is the identification of intermediate variables (in the form of zonal wind indices) that can facilitate further studies into the distinct hydroclimatic response to specific El Niño events.

  7. Saturn Ring Mass and Zonal Gravitational Harmonics Estimate at the End of the Cassini "Grand Finale"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Roth, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    "Solstice" mission is the 7-year extension of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft exploration of the Saturn system that will culminate with the "Grand Finale". Beginning in mid-2017, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute 22 orbits that have their periapses between the innermost D-ring and the upper layers of Saturn's atmosphere. These orbits will be perturbed by the gravitational field of Saturn as well as by the rings. We present an analysis of simulated "Grand Finale" radiometric data, and we investigate their sensitivity to the ring mass and higher zonal gravitational harmonics of the planet. We model the data quantity with respect to the available coverage of the tracking stations on Earth, and we account for the times when the spacecraft is occulted either by Saturn or the rings. We also use different data weights to simulate changes in the data quality. The dynamical model of the spacecraft motion includes both gravitational and non-gravitational forces, such as the daily momentum management due to Reaction Wheel Assembly and radioisotope thermo-electric generator accelerations. We solve the equations of motion and use a weighted-least squares fit to obtain spacecraft's state vector, mass(es) of the ring or the individual rings, zonal harmonics, and non-gravitational accelerations. We also investigate some a-priori values of the A- and B-ring masses from Tiscareno et al. (2007) and Hedman et al. (2015) analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the "Grand Finale" orbits should remain sensitive to the ring mass even for GMring<2 km3/s2 and that they will also provide high accuracy estimates of the zonal harmonics J8, J10, and J12.

  8. A new paradigm for predicting zonal-mean climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Roe, G.; Donohoe, A.; Siler, N.; Markle, B. R.; Liu, X.; Feldl, N.; Battisti, D. S.; Frierson, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    How will the pole-to-equator temperature gradient, or large-scale patterns of precipitation, change under global warming? Answering such questions typically involves numerical simulations with comprehensive general circulation models (GCMs) that represent the complexities of climate forcing, radiative feedbacks, and atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Yet, our understanding of these predictions hinges on our ability to explain them through the lens of simple models and physical theories. Here we present evidence that zonal-mean climate, and its changes, can be understood in terms of a moist energy balance model that represents atmospheric heat transport as a simple diffusion of latent and sensible heat (as a down-gradient transport of moist static energy, with a diffusivity coefficient that is nearly constant with latitude). We show that the theoretical underpinnings of this model derive from the principle of maximum entropy production; that its predictions are empirically supported by atmospheric reanalyses; and that it successfully predicts the behavior of a hierarchy of climate models - from a gray radiation aquaplanet moist GCM, to comprehensive GCMs participating in CMIP5. As an example of the power of this paradigm, we show that, given only patterns of local radiative feedbacks and climate forcing, the moist energy balance model accurately predicts the evolution of zonal-mean temperature and atmospheric heat transport as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble. These results suggest that, despite all of its dynamical complexity, the atmosphere essentially responds to energy imbalances by simply diffusing latent and sensible heat down-gradient; this principle appears to explain zonal-mean climate and its changes under global warming.

  9. Engineering zonal cartilage through bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Fuyou; Chen, Cheng; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Li; Yang, Liu

    2016-07-20

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for repairing and regenerating cartilage tissue. To date, attempts have been made to construct zonal cartilage that mimics the cartilaginous matrix in different zones. However, little attention has been paid to the chondrocyte density gradient within the articular cartilage. We hypothesized that the chondrocyte density gradient plays an important role in forming the zonal distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, collagen type II hydrogel/chondrocyte constructs were fabricated using a bioprinter. Three groups were created according to the total cell seeding density in collagen type II pre-gel: Group A, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL; Group B, 1 × 10(7) cells/mL; and Group C, 0.5 × 10(7) cells/mL. Each group included two types of construct: one with a biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient and the other with a single cell density. The constructs were cultured in vitro and harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks for cell viability testing, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), biochemical assays, and histological analysis. We found that total ECM production was positively correlated with the total cell density in the early culture stage, that the cell density gradient distribution resulted in a gradient distribution of ECM, and that the chondrocytes' biosynthetic ability was affected by both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern. Our results suggested that zonal engineered cartilage could be fabricated by bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with a biomimetic cell density gradient. Both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern should be optimized to achieve synergistic biological effects.

  10. The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Blair, S.C.; Boyle, W.J.

    The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km ofmore » cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C

  11. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, P.; Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching; Carralero, D.

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevantmore » limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.« less

  12. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures upper-division students’ understanding of this concept. We used an iterative approach that included extensive interviews and field tests involving 1723 students across five different undergraduate campuses. The GeDI consists of 22 agree–disagree statements that assess four key concepts and six misconceptions. Student scores ranged from 4/22 to 22/22. Statements ranged in mean difficulty from 0.29 to 0.80 and in discrimination from 0.09 to 0.46. The internal consistency, as measured with Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.58 to 0.88 across five iterations. Test–retest analysis resulted in a coefficient of stability of 0.82. The true–false format means that the GeDI can test how well students grasp key concepts central to understanding genetic drift, while simultaneously testing for the presence of misconceptions that indicate an incomplete understanding of genetic drift. The insights gained from this testing will, over time, allow us to improve instruction about this key component of evolution. PMID:24591505

  13. Airborne organophosphate pesticides drift in Mediterranean climate: The importance of secondary drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivan, Ohad; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide application is a short-term air-pollution episode with near and far field effects due to atmospheric drift. In order to better evaluate resulting air concentrations in nearby communities following pesticide application, measurements of airborne pesticides were conducted at ∼70 m from field edge. This was done following three different application events of the organophosphate pesticide Chlorpyrifos in a persimmon orchard. Complementary information on larger spatial scale was obtained using CALPUFF modeling in which application and meteorological data was used to better evaluate dispersion patterns. Measurements indicated high airborne concentrations during application hours (few μg m-3 for 8 h average), which dropped to tens of ng m-3 in the following days. Measured atmospheric concentrations show that secondary drift (i.e., post-application drift) involves significant loads of pesticides and hence should not be ignored in exposure considerations. Furthermore, CALPUFF modeling revealed the complex dispersion pattern when weak winds prevailed, and showed that during the 24 h after application air concentrations reached levels above the hourly Texas effect screening level (0.1 μg m-3). Interestingly, weak winds on the night after application resulted in a secondary peak in measured and modeled air concentrations. Long exposure time (when secondary drift is considered) and concentrations measured following such common air-assisted orchard application, suggest pesticide drift may have health repercussions that are currently unknown, and emphasize the need for further epidemiological studies.

  14. Fourier-domain study of drift turbulence driven sheared flow in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Tynan, G. R.; Holland, C.

    2010-03-15

    Frequency-resolved nonlinear internal and kinetic energy transfer rates have been measured in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment (CSDX) linear plasma device using a recently developed technique [Xu et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 042312 (2009)]. The results clearly show a net kinetic energy transfer into the zonal flow frequency region, consistent with previous time-domain observations of turbulence-driven shear flows [Tynan et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 48, S51 (2006)]. The experimentally measured dispersion relation has been used to map the frequency-resolved energy transfer rates into the wave number domain, which shows that the shear flow drive comes from midrange (k{sub t}hetarho{submore » S}>0.3) drift fluctuations, and the strongest flow drive comes from k{sub t}hetarho{sub S}approx =1 fluctuations. Linear growth rates have been inferred from a linearized Hasegawa-Wakatani model [Hasegawa et al., Phys. Fluids 22, 2122 (1979)], which indicates that the m=0 mode is linearly stable and the m=1-10 modes (corresponding to k{sub t}hetarho{sub S}>0.3) are linearly unstable for the n=1 and n=2 radial eigenmodes. This is consistent with our energy transfer measurements.« less

  15. Global Velocities from VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Gordon, David; MacMillan, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Precise geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements have been made since 1979 at about 130 points on all major tectonic plates, including stable interiors and deformation zones. From the data set of about 2900 observing sessions and about 2.3 million observations, useful three-dimensional velocities can be derived for about 80 sites using an incremental least-squares adjustment of terrestrial, celestial, Earth rotation and site/session-specific parameters. The long history and high precision of the data yield formal errors for horizontal velocity as low as 0.1 mm/yr, but the limitation on the interpretation of individual site velocities is the tie to the terrestrial reference frame. Our studies indicate that the effect of converting precise relative VLBI velocities to individual site velocities is an error floor of about 0.4 mm/yr. Most VLBI horizontal velocities in stable plate interiors agree with the NUVEL-1A model, but there are significant departures in Africa and the Pacific. Vertical precision is worse by a factor of 2-3, and there are significant non-zero values that can be interpreted as post-glacial rebound, regional effects, and local disturbances.

  16. DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, and Irregularities Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics

  17. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-12-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  18. Recursive analytical solution describing artificial satellite motion perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical first order solution has been developed which describes the motion of an artificial satellite perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal harmonics of the geopotential. A set of recursive relations for the solution, which was deduced from recursive relations of the geopotential, was derived. The method of solution is based on Von-Zeipel's technique applied to a canonical set of two-body elements in the extended phase space which incorporates the true anomaly as a canonical element. The elements are of Poincare type, that is, they are regular for vanishing eccentricities and inclinations. Numerical results show that this solution is accurate to within a few meters after 500 revolutions.

  19. Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to Zonal Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.

  20. Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection

  1. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  2. Why the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind changes trend in the mid -1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, P.

    2016-12-01

    This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis data especially monthly mean of geopotential from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role..

  3. Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.

  4. Kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity climatologies from a chemistry climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinke Hoppe, Charlotte; Ploeger, Felix; Konopka, Paul; Müller, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    The representation of vertical velocity in chemistry climate models is a key element for the representation of the large-scale Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere. Here, we diagnose and compare the kinematic and diabatic vertical velocities in the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The calculation of kinematic vertical velocity is based on the continuity equation, whereas diabatic vertical velocity is computed using diabatic heating rates. Annual and monthly zonal mean climatologies of vertical velocity from a 10-year simulation are provided for both kinematic and diabatic vertical velocity representations. In general, both vertical velocity patterns show the main features of the stratospheric circulation, namely, upwelling at low latitudes and downwelling at high latitudes. The main difference in the vertical velocity pattern is a more uniform structure for diabatic and a noisier structure for kinematic vertical velocity. Diabatic vertical velocities show higher absolute values both in the upwelling branch in the inner tropics and in the downwelling regions in the polar vortices. Further, there is a latitudinal shift of the tropical upwelling branch in boreal summer between the two vertical velocity representations with the tropical upwelling region in the diabatic representation shifted southward compared to the kinematic case. Furthermore, we present mean age of air climatologies from two transport schemes in EMAC using these different vertical velocities and analyze the impact of residual circulation and mixing processes on the age of air. The age of air distributions show a hemispheric difference pattern in the stratosphere with younger air in the Southern Hemisphere and older air in the Northern Hemisphere using the transport scheme with diabatic vertical velocities. Further, the age of air climatology from the transport scheme using diabatic vertical velocities shows a younger mean age of air in the

  5. Intrafractional baseline drift during free breathing breast cancer radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christer Andre; Acosta Roa, Ana María; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Frengen, Jomar

    2017-06-01

    Intrafraction motion in breast cancer radiation therapy (BCRT) has not yet been thoroughly described in the literature. It has been observed that baseline drift occurs as part of the intrafraction motion. This study aims to measure baseline drift and its incidence in free-breathing BCRT patients using an in-house developed laser system for tracking the position of the sternum. Baseline drift was monitored in 20 right-sided breast cancer patients receiving free breathing 3D-conformal RT by using an in-house developed laser system which measures one-dimensional distance in the AP direction. A total of 357 patient respiratory traces from treatment sessions were logged and analysed. Baseline drift was compared to patient positioning error measured from in-field portal imaging. The mean overall baseline drift at end of treatment sessions was -1.3 mm for the patient population. Relatively small baseline drift was observed during the first fraction; however it was clearly detected already at the second fraction. Over 90% of the baseline drift occurs during the first 3 min of each treatment session. The baseline drift rate for the population was -0.5 ± 0.2 mm/min in the posterior direction the first minute after localization. Only 4% of the treatment sessions had a 5 mm or larger baseline drift at 5 min, all towards the posterior direction. Mean baseline drift in the posterior direction in free breathing BCRT was observed in 18 of 20 patients over all treatment sessions. This study shows that there is a substantial baseline drift in free breathing BCRT patients. No clear baseline drift was observed during the first treatment session; however, baseline drift was markedly present at the rest of the sessions. Intrafraction motion due to baseline drift should be accounted for in margin calculations.

  6. Solar-QBO Interaction and Its Impact on Stratospheric Ozone in a Zonally Averaged Photochemical Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-28

    Solar- QBO interaction and its impact on stratospheric ozone in a zonally averaged photochemical transport model of the middle atmosphere J. P...investigate the solar cycle modulation of the quasi-biennial oscillation ( QBO ) in stratospheric zonal winds and its impact on stratospheric ozone with an...updated version of the zonally averaged CHEM2D middle atmosphere model. We find that the duration of the westerly QBO phase at solar maximum is 3 months

  7. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  8. Influence of channel morphology and flow regime on larval drift of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from drifting free embryo to exogenously feeding larvae has been identified as a potential life-stage bottleneck for the endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon. Previous studies have indicated that river regulation and fragmentation may contribute to the mortality of larval pallid sturgeon by reducing the extent of free-flowing river available to free embryos to complete ontogenetic development. Calculations of total drift distance based on mean velocity, however, do not address the potential for complex channels and flow patterns to increase retention or longitudinal dispersion of free embryos. We use a one-dimensional advection–dispersion model to estimate total drift distance and employ the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as a metric to quantify the tendency towards dispersion or retention of passively drifting larvae. We describe the effects of different styles of channel morphology on larval dispersion and consider the implications of flow regime modifications on retention of free embryos within the Lower Missouri River. The results illustrate the complex interactions of local morphology, engineered structures, and hydraulics that determine patterns of dispersion in riverine environments and inform how changes to channel morphology and flow regime may alter dispersion of drifting organisms.

  9. Simultaneous Recordings of Human Microsaccades and Drifts with a Contemporary Video Eye Tracker and the Search Coil Technique

    PubMed Central

    McCamy, Michael B.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Leigh, R. John; King, Susan A.; Schneider, Rosalyn M.; Macknik, Stephen L.; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These “fixational eye movements” (FEMs) include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift) and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs. PMID:26035820

  10. Laser precipitation monitor for measurement of drop size and velocity of moving spray-plate sprinklers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sprinkler drop size distribution and associated drop velocities have a major influence on sprinkler performance in regards to application intensity, uniformity of water application, wind drift, evaporation losses and kinetic energy transferred to the soil surface. Sprinkler drop size measurements a...

  11. Genetic drift and selection in many-allele range expansions.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Bryan T; Lavrentovich, Maxim O; Möbius, Wolfram; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the evolutionary dynamics of four competing strains of E. coli with differing expansion velocities in radially expanding colonies. We compare experimental measurements of the average fraction, correlation functions between strains, and the relative rates of genetic domain wall annihilations and coalescences to simulations modeling the population as a one-dimensional ring of annihilating and coalescing random walkers with deterministic biases due to selection. The simulations reveal that the evolutionary dynamics can be collapsed onto master curves governed by three essential parameters: (1) an expansion length beyond which selection dominates over genetic drift; (2) a characteristic angular correlation describing the size of genetic domains; and (3) a dimensionless constant quantifying the interplay between a colony's curvature at the frontier and its selection length scale. We measure these parameters with a new technique that precisely measures small selective differences between spatially competing strains and show that our simulations accurately predict the dynamics without additional fitting. Our results suggest that the random walk model can act as a useful predictive tool for describing the evolutionary dynamics of range expansions composed of an arbitrary number of genotypes with different fitnesses.

  12. On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the zonal wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).

  13. Subcellular fractionation by zonal centrifugation of glucose-repressed anaerobically grown Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    PubMed Central

    Cartledge, T. G.; Lloyd, D.

    1972-01-01

    1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of anaerobically grown, glucoserepressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, and the distributions of marker enzymes investigated after zonal centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 2mm-MgCl2. 2. These homogenates contained no detectable cytochrome c oxidase, succinate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase, succinate–ferricyanide oxidoreductase, l(+)-lactate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase or catalase. Cytochromes a+a3 and c were not detected. 3. Zonal centrifugation of whole homogenates indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases, adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), adenosine pyrophosphatase (ADPase), pyrophosphatase and acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase. Several different ATPases were distinguished on the basis of their sensitivities to oligomycin and ouabain. 4. Differential centrifugation of whole homogenates at 105g-min left 80–90% of the protein, dithionite-reducible cytochrome b, acid hydrolases and pyrophosphatase in a supernatant (S1) together with 65 and 56% of the NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases respectively, 25% of the ATPases and 71% of the adenosine monophosphatase. 5. Further analysis of supernatant S1 revealed the presence of a class of small particles containing NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases and ATPases. 6. At least four different populations of large particles were distinguished. 7. Electron microscopy indicated that one of these corresponded to `promitochondria' as described by other workers. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3 PMID:4405573

  14. ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography findings. Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test used for comparisons of nonparametric continuous variables. All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (five of the five eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard fundus autofluorescence centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). The UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography abnormalities. The UWFFAF along with optical coherence tomography can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy patients.

  15. Zonal-Mean Temperature Variations Inferred from SABER Measurements on TIMED Compared with UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Reber, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, Mayr et al., 2003), small-scale gravity waves propagating in the north/south direction can generate zonal mean (m = 0) meridional wind oscillations with periods between 2 and 4 months. These oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and have been interpreted to be the meridional counterpart of the wave-driven Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the zonal circulation. Wave driven meridional winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. We have analyzed SABER temperature measurements in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to investigate the existence such variations. Because there are also strong tidal signatures (up to approximately 20 K) in the data, our algorithm estimates both mean values and tides together from the data. Based on SABER temperature data, the intra-annual variations with periods between 2 and 4 months can have amplitudes up to 5 K or more, depending on the altitude. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with those inferred Erom UARS data (from different years). The SABER temperature variations also reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, which are qualitatively consistent with wave driven meridional wind oscillations across the equator. Oscillations with similar periods have been seen in the meridional winds based on UARS data (Huang and Reber, 2003).

  16. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  17. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  18. SPCZ zonal events and downstream influence on surface ocean conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Rixen, Tim; Charles, Christopher D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Moore, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal surface freshening of the Makassar Strait, the main conduit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), is a key factor controlling the ITF. Here we present a 262 year reconstruction of seasonal sea-surface-salinity variability from 1742 to 2004 Common Era by using coral δ18O records from the central Makassar Strait. Our record reveals persistent seasonal freshening and also years with significant truncations of seasonal freshening that correlate exactly with South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) zonal events >4000 km to the east. During these events, the SPCZ dramatically rotates 15° north to near the equator and stronger westward flowing South Pacific boundary currents force higher-salinity water through the Makassar Strait in February-May halting the normal seasonal freshening in the strait. By these teleconnections, our Makassar coral δ18O series provides the first record of the recurrence interval of these zonal SPCZ events and demonstrates that they have occurred on a semiregular basis since the mid-1700s.

  19. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  20. Modified circular velocity law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  1. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  2. One-dimensional drift-flux model and constitutive equations for relative motion between phases in various two-phase flow regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.

    1977-10-01

    In view of the practical importance of the drift-flux model for two-phase flow analysis in general and in the analysis of nuclear-reactor transients and accidents in particular, the kinematic constitutive equation for the drift velocity has been studied for various two-phase flow regimes. The constitutive equation that specifies the relative motion between phases in the drift-flux model has been derived by taking into account the interfacial geometry, the body-force field, shear stresses, and the interfacial momentum transfer, since these macroscopic effects govern the relative velocity between phases. A comparison of the model with various experimental data over various flow regimesmore » and a wide range of flow parameters shows a satisfactory agreement.« less

  3. Segregation of isotopes of heavy metals due to light-induced drift: results and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapar, A.; Aret, A.; Poolamäe, R.; Sapar, L.

    2008-04-01

    Atutov and Shalagin (1988) proposed light-induced drift (LID) as a physically well understandable mechanism to explain the formation of isotopic anomalies observed in CP stars. We have generalized the theory of LID and applied it to diffusion of heavy elements and their isotopes in quiescent atmospheres of CP stars. Diffusional segregation of isotopes of chemical elements is described by the equations of continuity and diffusion velocity. Computations of evolutionary sequences for the abundances of mercury isotopes in several model atmospheres have been made, using the Fortran 90 program SMART composed by the authors. Results confirm predominant role of LID in separation of isotopes.

  4. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A., E-mail: alain.ghizzo@univ-lorraine.fr; Palermo, F.

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was foundmore » that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.« less

  5. A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with Zonal Exchange Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter zonal operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter zonal operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the zonal exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.

  6. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  7. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  8. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  9. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  10. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2017-07-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF ( 35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM ( 15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  11. Three-dimensional assembly of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs results in cartilaginous tissue formation without retainment of zonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, W; Harimulyo, E B; Gawlitta, D; Woodfield, T B F; Dhert, W J A; van Weeren, P R; Malda, J

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capabilities. Chondrocytes from different layers of cartilage have specific properties, and regenerative approaches using zonal chondrocytes may yield better replication of the architecture of native cartilage than when using a single cell population. To obtain high seeding efficiency while still mimicking zonal architecture, cell pellets of expanded deep zone and superficial zone equine chondrocytes were seeded and cultured in two layers on poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT-PBT) scaffolds. Scaffolds seeded with cell pellets consisting of a 1:1 mixture of both cell sources served as controls. Parallel to this, pellets of superficial or deep zone chondrocytes, and combinations of the two cell populations, were cultured without the scaffold. Pellet cultures of zonal chondrocytes in scaffolds resulted in a high seeding efficiency and abundant cartilaginous tissue formation, containing collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in all groups, irrespective of the donor (n = 3), zonal population or stratified scaffold-seeding approach used. However, whereas total GAG production was similar, the constructs retained significantly more GAG compared to pellet cultures, in which a high percentage of the produced GAGs were secreted into the culture medium. Immunohistochemistry for zonal markers did not show any differences between the conditions. We conclude that spatially defined pellet culture in 3D scaffolds is associated with high seeding efficiency and supports cartilaginous tissue formation, but did not result in the maintenance or restoration of the original zonal phenotype. The use of pellet-assembled constructs leads to a better retainment of newly produced GAGs than the use of pellet cultures alone. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Heat Production and Storage Are Positively Correlated with Measures of Body Size/Composition and Heart Rate Drift during Vigorous Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buresh, Robert; Berg, Kris; Noble, John

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the relationships between: (a) measures of body size/composition and heat production/storage, and (b) heat production/storage and heart rate (HR) drift during running at 95 % of the velocity that elicited lactate threshold, which was determined for 20 healthy recreational male runners. Subsequently,…

  13. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu; Angus, J. R.

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionlessmore » and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.« less

  14. Drift wave turbulence simulations in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovich, P.; Umansky, M.; Carter, T. A.; Auerbach, D. W.; Friedman, B.; Schaffner, D.; Vincena, S.

    2009-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of turbulence in LAPD plasmas using the 3D electromagnetic code BOUT (BOUndary Turbulence). BOUT solves a system of fluid moment equations in a general toroidal equlibrium geometry near the plasma boundary. The underlying assumptions for the validity of the fluid model are well satisfied for drift waves in LAPD plasmas (typical plasma parameters ne˜1x10^12cm-3, Te˜10eV, and B ˜1kG), which makes BOUT a perfect tool for simulating LAPD. We have adapted BOUT for the cylindrical geometry of LAPD and have extended the model to include the background flows required for simulations of recent bias-driven rotation experiments. We have successfully verified the code for several linear instabilities, including resistive drift waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz and rotation-driven interchange. We will discuss first non-linear simulations and quasi-stationary solutions with self-consistent plasma flows and saturated density profiles.

  15. Metabolic drift in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Stauch, Kelly L; Petrascheck, Michael; Benton, H Paul; Epstein, Adrian A; Fang, Mingliang; Gorantla, Santhi; Tran, Minerva; Hoang, Linh; Kurczy, Michael E; Boska, Michael D; Gendelman, Howard E; Fox, Howard S; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energymetabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP/ATP, purine/pyrimidine accumulation) and significantly altered oxidative phosphorylation and nucleotide biosynthesis and degradation. The central energy metabolic drift suggests a failure of the cellular machinery to restore metabostasis (metabolite homeostasis) in the aged brain and therefore an inability to respond properly to external stimuli, likely driving the alterations in signaling activity and thus in neuronal function and communication.

  16. Metabolic drift in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Stauch, Kelly L.; Petrascheck, Michael; Benton, H. Paul; Epstein, Adrian A.; Fang, Mingliang; Gorantla, Santhi; Tran, Minerva; Hoang, Linh; Kurczy, Michael E.; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Fox, Howard S.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energy metabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP/ATP, purine/pyrimidine accumulation) and significantly altered oxidative phosphorylation and nucleotide biosynthesis and degradation. The central energy metabolic drift suggests a failure of the cellular machinery to restore metabostasis (metabolite homeostasis) in the aged brain and therefore an inability to respond properly to external stimuli, likely driving the alterations in signaling activity and thus in neuronal function and communication. PMID:27182841

  17. Eulerian velocity reconstruction in ideal atmospheric dynamics using potential vorticity and potential temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blender, R.

    2009-04-01

    An approach for the reconstruction of atmospheric flow is presented which uses space- and time-dependent fields of density ?, potential vorticity Q and potential temperature Î& cedil;[J. Phys. A, 38, 6419 (2005)]. The method is based on the fundamental equations without approximation. The basic idea is to consider the time-dependent continuity equation as a condition for zero divergence of momentum in four dimensions (time and space, with unit velocity in time). This continuity equation is solved by an ansatz for the four-dimensional momentum using three conserved stream functions, the potential vorticity, potential temperature and a third field, denoted as ?-potential. In zonal flows, the ?-potential identifies the initial longitude of particles, whereas potential vorticity and potential temperature identify mainly meridional and vertical positions. Since the Lagrangian tracers Q, Î&,cedil; and ? determine the Eulerian velocity field, the reconstruction combines the Eulerian and the Lagrangian view of hydrodynamics. In stationary flows, the ?-potential is related to the Bernoulli function. The approach requires that the gradients of the potential vorticity and potential temperature do not vanish when the velocity remains finite. This behavior indicates a possible interrelation with stability conditions. Examples with analytical solutions are presented for a Rossby wave and zonal and rotational shear flows.

  18. Interpretations of the impact of cross-field drifts on divertor flows in DIII-D with UEDGE

    DOE PAGES

    Jaervinen, Aaro E.; Allen, Steve L.; Groth, Mathias; ...

    2017-01-27

    Simulations using the multi-fluid code UEDGE indicates that, in low confinement (Lmode) plasmas in DIII-D, recycling driven flows dominate poloidal particle flows in the divertor, whereas E×B drift flows dominate the radial particle flows. In contrast, in high confinement (H-mode) conditions E×B drift flows dominate both poloidal and radial particle flows in the divertor. UEDGE indicates that the toroidal C 2+ flow velocities in the divertor plasma are entrained within 30% to the background deuterium flow in both Land H-mode plasmas in the plasma region where the CIII 465 nm emission is measured. Therefore, UEDGE indicates that the Carbon Dopplermore » Coherence Imaging System (CIS), measuring the toroidal velocity of the C 2+ ions, can provide insight to the deuterium flows in the divertor. Parallel-to-B velocity dominates the toroidal divertor flow; direct drift impact being less than 1%. Toroidal divertor flow is predicted to reverse when the magnetic field is reversed. This is explained by the parallel-B flow towards the nearest divertor plate corresponding to opposite toroidal directions in opposite toroidal field configurations. Due to strong poloidal E×B flows in H-mode, net poloidal particle transport can be in opposite direction than the poloidal component of the parallel-B plasma flow.« less

  19. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  20. Thermal zonal winds in the Venus mesosphere from the Venus Express temperature soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Titov, Dmitri; Tellmann, Silvia; Migliorini, Alessandra; Read, Peter; Grassi, Davide; Paetzold, Martin; Haeusler, Bernd; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    The Venus mesosphere (60-100 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by extremely complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate in the troposphere and lower meso-sphere while a solar-antisolar circulation can be observed in the upper mesosphere. The super-rotation extends from the surface up to the cloud top (˜65 km altitude) with wind speeds of only a few meters per second near the surface and reaching a maximum value of ˜100 m s-1 at cloud top, corresponding to a rotation period of ˜4 Earth days (˜60 times faster than Venus itself). The solar-antisolar circulation is driven by the day-night contrast in solar heating, and occurs above 110 km altitude with speeds of 120 m s-1 . The processes responsible for maintain-ing the zonal super-rotation in the lower atmosphere and its transition to the solar-antisolar circulation in the upper atmosphere are still poorly understood (Schubert et al.,2007). Different techniques have been used to obtain direct observations of wind at various altitudes: tracking of clouds in ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) images give information on wind speeds at the cloud top (Moissl et al., 2009; Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) and within the clouds (˜47 km, ˜61 km) (Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) while ground-based measurements of Doppler shifts in the CO2 band at 10 µm (Sornig et al., 2008) and in several CO millimiter lines (Rengel et al., 2008) provide wind speeds above the clouds up to ˜110 km altitude. The deep atmosphere from the surface up to the cloud top has been investigated through the Doppler tracking of descent probes and balloons (Counselman et al., 1980; Kerzhanovich and Limaye, 1985). In the mesosphere, between 45-85 km of altitude, where direct observations of wind are not possible, the zonal wind field can be derived from the vertical temperature structure using a special approximation of the thermal wind equation: based on cyclostrophic balance. Previous studies (Leovy, 1973; Newman et al

  1. Primary and secondary pesticide drift profiles from a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Zivan, Ohad; Bohbot-Raviv, Yardena; Dubowski, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters. The effect of volatility on drift was also studied by simultaneously applying two pesticides that differ in their volatility. Drifting airborne pesticides were detected both during and after applications at sampling distances of 7 and 20 m away from orchard edge. Concentrations ranged between hundreds ng m -3 to a few μg m -3 and showed clear decrease with time and with upwind conditions. Almost no decline in concentrations with height was observed up to thrice canopy height (i.e., 10 m). These homogeneous profiles indicate strong mixing near orchard and are in line with the unstable atmospheric conditions that prevailed during measurements. While air concentrations during pesticide application were higher than after it, overall pesticide load drifted from the orchard during primary and secondary drift are comparable. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work to show such large vertical dispersion and long duration of secondary drift following ground application in orchards. The obtained information indicates that secondary drift should not be neglected in exposure and environmental impact estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proportional drift tubes for large area muon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Okusawa, T.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    A proportional drift chamber which consists of eight rectangular drift tubes with cross section of 10 cm x 5 cm, a sense wire of 100 micron phi gold-plated tungsten wire and the length of 6 m, was tested using cosmic ray muons. Spatial resolution (rms) is between 0.5 and 1 mm over drift space of 50 mm, depending on incident angle and distance from sense wire.

  3. Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain

    1987-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.

  4. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; ...

    2010-10-23

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29more » $$+0.05\\atop{-0.04}$$) % in the barrel and (0.54$$+0.06\\atop{-0.04}$$)% in the endcaps. Lastly, the same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 ± 0.07 mm/μs at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.« less

  5. Simulation of drift of pesticides: development and validation of a model.

    PubMed

    Brusselman, E; Spanoghe, P; Van der Meeren, P; Gabriels, D; Steurbaut, W

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade drift of pesticides has been recognized as a major problem for the environment. High fractions of pesticides can be transported through the air and deposited in neighbouring ecosystems during and after application. A new computer-two steps-drift model is developed: FYDRIMO or F(ph)Ysical DRift MOdel. In the first step the droplet size spectrum of a nozzle is analysed. In this way the volume percentage of droplets with a certain size is known. In the second step the model results in a prediction of deposition of each droplet with a certain size. This second part of the model runs in MATLAB and is grounded on a combination of two physical factors: gravity force and friction forces. In this stage of development corrections are included for evaporation and wind force following a certain measured wind profile. For validation wind tunnel experiments were performed. Salt solutions were sprayed at two wind velocities and variable distance above the floor. Small gutters in the floor filled with filter paper were used to collect the sprayed droplets. After analysing and comparing the wind tunnel results with the model predictions, FYDRIMO seems to have good predicting capacities.

  6. Zonal characterization of hillslope erosion processes in a semi-arid high mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Raquel; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Moñino, Antonio; Ángel Losada, Miguel; José Polo, María

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean and semi-arid catchments, generally suffer heterogeneous erosive processes at different spatio-temporal scales which produce, in a synergistic manner, a large amount of sediment supply. In mountainous catchments, the influence of pluvio-nival hydrological regime leads to a clear subdivision into homogeneous zones regarding the nature of hillslope processes. Here, a distinction could be addressed with 1) subsurface erosion due to saturated soil by intense snowmelt pulses and 2) steepest mid-mountain soil loss with rill/interrill, small-scale landslides and ephemeral or permanent gullying. Furthermore, the associated channels in these areas are formed by wide alluvial floodplains with important bedload contributions. This complexity conditions the evaluation of erosion and monitoring at catchment scale with elevated costs in time, devices and staff. The catchment of the Guadalfeo river encloses 1200 km², with important presence of snow in the summits height on its right margin, and semiarid low range hills with very erodible soils on its left margin. Gully erosion, landslides and stream bed-load processes, extremely actives in this area, are responsible of a real problem of soil loss and desertification with a high associated cost. This work suggests a methodology for the zonal assessment of different erosive processes taking into account the described heterogeneity and the reduction of research costs. To do this, high resolution bathymetric and topographic surveys supported in a reservoir (110 hm3) allowed the differentiation of bedload and suspended sediments as both are deposited in different locations and hence the validation of the hillslope sediment yield. In parallel, measurements in homogeneous areas were selected in order to obtain zonal results to achieve the representative processes involved. The use of portable samplers allows the remote changing of sampling routines, and thus to capture the temporal scale of the processes and the

  7. Are Strong Zonal Winds in Giant Planets Caused by Density-Stratification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, J.; Stellmach, S.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn are the zonal wind patterns observed on their surfaces. The mechanism that drives this differential rotation is still not clearly identified and is currently strongly debated in the astro- and geophysics community. Different mechanisms have been proposed over the last decades. Here, a recently discovered mechanism based on background density stratification (Glatzmaier et al., 2009) is investigated. This mechanism has the potential to overcome known difficulties of previous explanations and its efficiency has been demonstrated in 2-d simulations covering equatorial planes. By performing highly resolved numerical simulations in a local Cartesian geometry, we are able to test the efficiency and functionality of this mechanism in turbulent, rotating convection in three spatial dimensions. The choice of a Cartesian model geometry naturally excludes other known mechanisms capable of producing differential rotation, thus allowing us to investigate the role of density stratification in isolation. Typically, the dynamics can be classified into two main regimes: A regime exhibiting strong zonal winds for weak to moderate thermal driving and a regime where zonal winds are largely absent in the case of a strong thermal forcing. Our results indicate that previous 2-d results must be handled with care and can only explain parts of the full 3-d behavior. We show that the density-stratification mechanism tends to operate in a more narrow parameter range in 3-d as compared to 2-d simulations. The dynamics of the regime transition is shown to differ in both cases, which renders scaling laws derived from two-dimensional studies questionable. Based on our results, we provide estimates for the importance of the density-stratification mechanism for giant planets like Jupiter (strong density stratification), for systems like the Earth's core (weak density stratification) and compare its efficiency with other

  8. Structural drift: the population dynamics of sequential learning.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, James P; Whalen, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a theory of sequential causal inference in which learners in a chain estimate a structural model from their upstream "teacher" and then pass samples from the model to their downstream "student". It extends the population dynamics of genetic drift, recasting Kimura's selectively neutral theory as a special case of a generalized drift process using structured populations with memory. We examine the diffusion and fixation properties of several drift processes and propose applications to learning, inference, and evolution. We also demonstrate how the organization of drift process space controls fidelity, facilitates innovations, and leads to information loss in sequential learning with and without memory.

  9. Wave drift damping acting on multiple circular cylinders (model tests)

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Sunahara, Shunji; Bao, W.

    1995-12-31

    The wave drift damping for the slow drift motion of a four-column platform is experimentally investigated. The estimation of damping force of the slow drift motion of moored floating structures in ocean waves, is one of the most important topics. Bao et al. calculated an interaction of multiple circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory, and showed that the wave drift damping is significantly influenced by the interaction between cylinders. This calculation method assumes that the slow drift motion is approximately replaced by steady current, that is, structures on slow drift motion are supposed to be equivalent to onesmore » in both regular waves and slow current. To validate semi-analytical solutions of Bao et al., experiments were carried out. At first, added resistance due to waves acting on a structure composed of multiple (four) vertical circular cylinders fixed to a slowly moving carriage, was measured in regular waves. Next, the added resistance of the structure moored by linear spring to the slowly moving carriage were measured in regular waves. Furthermore, to validate the assumption that the slow drift motion is replaced by steady current, free decay tests in still water and in regular waves were compared with the simulation of the slow drift motion using the wave drift damping coefficient obtained by the added resistance tests.« less

  10. Drift studies--comparison of field and wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Regenauer, W

    2005-01-01

    Drift at pesticide application leads to a pollution of non-target crops, non-target species and surface water. Spray drift is influenced by many factors like environmental conditions, vegetation, technical conditions, and physical properties of the tank mixes and influenced by Chemicals. Field experiments to characterise spray drift effects with the risk of permanent changing weather conditions can be supported by wind tunnel experiments. Wind tunnel experiments do not lead to the same soil deposition curves like field experiments, but the ratio of drift reduction potential is comparable.

  11. Freely Drifting Swallow Float Array: August 1988 Trip Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    situ meas- urements of the floats’ clock drifts were obtained; the absolute drifts were on the order of / one part in 105 and the relative clock...Finally, in situ meas- urements of the floats’ clock drifts were obtained, the absolute drifts were on the order of one part in W05 and the relative...FSK mode). That is, the pseudo-random noise generator (PRNG) created a string of ones and zeros ; a zero caused a 12 kHz tone to be broadcast from

  12. Analysis of drift correction in different simulated weighing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatrici, A.; Rebelo, A.; Quintão, D.; Cacais, F. L.; Loayza, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    In the calibration of high accuracy mass standards some weighing schemes are used to reduce or eliminate the zero drift effects in mass comparators. There are different sources for the drift and different methods for its treatment. By using numerical methods, drift functions were simulated and a random term was included in each function. The comparison between the results obtained from ABABAB and ABBA weighing series was carried out. The results show a better efficacy of ABABAB method for drift with smooth variation and small randomness.

  13. Comparison of analytical models for zonal flow generation in ion-temperature-gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Miki, K.; Uzawa, K.

    2006-11-30

    During the past years the understanding of the multi scale interaction problems have increased significantly. However, at present there exists a flora of different analytical models for investigating multi scale interactions and hardly any specific comparisons have been performed among these models. In this work two different models for the generation of zonal flows from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) background turbulence are discussed and compared. The methods used are the coherent mode coupling model and the wave kinetic equation model (WKE). It is shown that the two models give qualitatively the same results even though the assumption on the spectral difference ismore » used in the (WKE) approach.« less

  14. Using a zonal atmospheric model to test biogeophysical feedback-caused drought in the subtropical desert

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, G.L.; MacCracken, M.C.; Ellsaesser, H.W.

    1975-08-01

    Recent interest in the cause of the sub-Sahara drought has initiated several investigations implying possible anthropogenic origin through increased surface albedo due to reduced plant cover from overgrazing. Results of two integrations of the Zonal Atmospheric Model (ZAM2) are presented, differing only in the prescribed surface albedo for the subtropical land masses of the northern hemisphere. These studies were initiated to determine whether an albedo change alone can bring about such dramatic impacts on local precipitation rates as have been implied. Preliminary results indicate that an albedo change can affect the climate, not just at the latitude of change butmore » also at other latitudes due to various atmospheric feedback mechanisms. (auth)« less

  15. Forest response to rising CO2 drives zonally asymmetric rainfall change over tropical land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Chen, Yang; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Koven, Charles D.; Lindsay, Keith; Pritchard, Michael S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Randerson, James T.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how anthropogenic CO2 emissions will influence future precipitation is critical for sustainably managing ecosystems, particularly for drought-sensitive tropical forests. Although tropical precipitation change remains uncertain, nearly all models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 predict a strengthening zonal precipitation asymmetry by 2100, with relative increases over Asian and African tropical forests and decreases over South American forests. Here we show that the plant physiological response to increasing CO2 is a primary mechanism responsible for this pattern. Applying a simulation design in the Community Earth System Model in which CO2 increases are isolated over individual continents, we demonstrate that different circulation, moisture and stability changes arise over each continent due to declines in stomatal conductance and transpiration. The sum of local atmospheric responses over individual continents explains the pan-tropical precipitation asymmetry. Our analysis suggests that South American forests may be more vulnerable to rising CO2 than Asian or African forests.

  16. Radiative modelling by the zonal method and WSGG model in inhomogeneous axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO2-H2O- N2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the zonal method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces.

  17. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  18. Zonal harmonic model of Saturn's magnetic field from Voyager 1 and 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the magnetic field of Saturn is presented which takes into account both the Voyager 1 and 2 vector magnetic field observations. The analysis is based on the traditional spherical harmonic expansion of a scale potential to derive the magnetic field within 8 Saturn radii. A third-order zonal harmonic model fitted to Voyager 1 and 2 observations is found to be capable of predicting the magnetic field characteristics at one encounter based on those observed at another, unlike models including dipole and quadrupole terms only. The third-order model is noted to lead to significantly enhanced polar surface field intensities with respect to dipole models, and probably represents the axisymmetric part of a complex dynamo field.

  19. Free Flow Zonal Electrophoresis for Fractionation of Plant Membrane Compartments Prior to Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-01

    Free flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile, reproducible, and potentially high-throughput technique for the separation of plant organelles and membranes by differences in membrane surface charge. It offers considerable benefits over traditional fractionation techniques, such as density gradient centrifugation and two-phase partitioning, as it is relatively fast, sample recovery is high, and the method provides unparalleled sample purity. It has been used to successfully purify chloroplasts and mitochondria from plants but also, to obtain highly pure fractions of plasma membrane, tonoplast, ER, Golgi, and thylakoid membranes. Application of the technique can significantly improve protein coverage in large-scale proteomics studies by decreasing sample complexity. Here, we describe the method for the fractionation of plant cellular membranes from leaves by FFZE.

  20. Using box models to quantify zonal distributions and emissions of halocarbons in the background atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; Miller, B.; Butler, J. H.; Mondeel, D. J.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Rigby, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) of NOAA's Global Monitoring Division started measurements of the major chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide in 1977 from flask samples collected at five remote sites around the world. Our program has expanded to over 40 compounds at twelve sites, which includes six in situ instruments and twelve flask sites. The Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments has helped to decrease the concentrations of many of the ozone depleting compounds in the atmosphere. Our goal is to provide zonal emission estimates for these trace gases from multi-box models and their estimated atmospheric lifetimes in this presentation and make the emission values available on our web site. We plan to use our airborne measurements to calibrate the exchange times between the boxes for 5-box and 12-box models using sulfur hexafluoride where emissions are better understood.

  1. Impact of impurities on zonal flow driven by trapped electron mode turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weixin; Wang, Lu; Zhuang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    The impact of impurities on the generation of zonal flow (ZF) driven by collisonless trapped electron mode turbulence in deuterium (D)-tritium (T) plasmas is investigated. An expression for ZF growth rate with impurities is derived by balancing the ZF potential shielded by polarization effects and the ZF modulated radial turbulent current. Then, it is shown that the maximum normalized ZF growth rate is reduced by the presence of fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively flat density profile, and slightly reduced by highly ionized trace tungsten, while the maximum normalized ZF growth rate can be enhanced by fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively steep density profile. In particular, the effects of high temperature helium from D-T reaction on ZF depend on the temperature ratio between electrons and high temperature helium. The possible relevance of our findings to recent experimental results and future burning plasmas is also discussed.

  2. Prediction of Rare Transitions in Planetary Atmosphere Dynamics Between Attractors with Different Number of Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, F.; Laurie, J.; Zaboronski, O.

    2012-12-01

    We describe transitions between attractors with either one, two or more zonal jets in models of turbulent atmosphere dynamics. Those transitions are extremely rare, and occur over times scales of centuries or millennia. They are extremely hard to observe in direct numerical simulations, because they require on one hand an extremely good resolution in order to simulate accurately the turbulence and on the other hand simulations performed over an extremely long time. Those conditions are usually not met together in any realistic models. However many examples of transitions between turbulent attractors in geophysical flows are known to exist (paths of the Kuroshio, Earth's magnetic field reversal, atmospheric flows, and so on). Their study through numerical computations is inaccessible using conventional means. We present an alternative approach, based on instanton theory and large deviations. Instanton theory provides a way to compute (both numerically and theoretically) extremely rare transitions between turbulent attractors. This tool, developed in field theory, and justified in some cases through the large deviation theory in mathematics, can be applied to models of turbulent atmosphere dynamics. It provides both new theoretical insights and new type of numerical algorithms. Those algorithms can predict transition histories and transition rates using numerical simulations run over only hundreds of typical model dynamical time, which is several order of magnitude lower than the typical transition time. We illustrate the power of those tools in the framework of quasi-geostrophic models. We show regimes where two or more attractors coexist. Those attractors corresponds to turbulent flows dominated by either one or more zonal jets similar to midlatitude atmosphere jets. Among the trajectories connecting two non-equilibrium attractors, we determine the most probable ones. Moreover, we also determine the transition rates, which are several of magnitude larger than a

  3. Longitudinal differences and inter-annual variations of zonal wind in the tropical stratosphere and troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. A.; Raghava Reddi, C.

    1986-12-01

    A quantitative assessment has been made of the longitude-dependent differences and the interannual variations of the zonal wind components in the equatorial stratosphere and troposphere, from the analysis of rocket and balloon data for 1979 and 1980 for three stations near ±8.5° latitude (Ascension Island at 14.4°W, Thumba at 76.9°E and Kwajalein at 67.7°E) and two stations near 21.5° latitude (Barking Sands at 159.6°W and Balasore at 86.9°E). The longitude-dependent differences are found to be about 10-20 m s -1 (amounting to 50-200% in some cases) for the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) and the annual oscillation (AO) amplitudes, depending upon the altitude and latitude. Inter-annual variations of about 10 m s -1 also exist in both oscillations. The phase of the SAO exhibits an almost 180° shift at Kwajalein compared to that at the other two stations near 8.5°, while the phase of the AO is independent of longitude, in the stratosphere. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) are found to be almost independent of longitude in the 18-38 km range, but above 40 km height the QBO amplitude and phase have different values in different longitude sectors for the three stations near ±8.5° latitude. The mean zonal wind shows no change from 1979 to 1980, but in the troposphere at 8.5° latitude strong easterlies prevail in the Indian zone, in contrast to the westerlies at the Atlantic and Pacific stations.

  4. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  5. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

  6. Zonally resolved impact of ENSO on the stratospheric circulation and water vapor entry values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Riese, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Based on simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) for the period 1979-2013, with model transport driven by the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the variability of the dynamics, water vapor, ozone, and mean age of air (AoA) in the tropical lower stratosphere during boreal winter. Our zonally resolved analysis at the 390 K potential temperature level reveals that not only (deseasonalized) ENSO-related temperature anomalies are confined to the tropical Pacific (180-300°E) but also anomalous wave propagation and breaking, as quantified in terms of the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux divergence, with strongest local contribution during the La Niña phase. This anomaly is coherent with respective anomalies of water vapor (±0.5 ppmv) and ozone (±100 ppbv) derived from CLaMS being in excellent agreement with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Thus, during El Niño a more zonally symmetric wave forcing drives a deep branch of the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation. During La Niña this forcing increases at lower levels (≈390 K) over the tropical Pacific, likely influencing the shallow branch of the BD circulation. In agreement with previous studies, wet (dry) and young (old) tape recorder anomalies propagate upward in the subsequent months following El Niño (La Niña). Using CLaMS, these anomalies are found to be around +0.3 (-0.2) ppmv and -4 (+4) months for water vapor and AoA, respectively. The AoA ENSO anomaly is more strongly affected by the residual circulation (≈2/3) than by eddy mixing (≈1/3).

  7. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, Christos; Kapsomenakis, John; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Hubert, Daan; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Frith, Stacey; Sofieva, Viktoria; Hassler, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV) satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle) and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD), tropopause height changes (including global warming) and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC). Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC) and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  8. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations before and during Juno exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Iñurrigarro, P.; Mendikoa, I.; Rojas, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a long term campaign between September 2015 and August 2016 of imaging of Jupiter's cloud morphology and zonal winds in the 0.38 - 1.7 μm wavelength spectral range. We use PlanetCam lucky imaging camera at the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and for the optical range, the contribution of a network of observers to the Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory database (PVOL-IOPW at http://pvol.ehu.eus). We have complemented the study with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera images taken in the 0.275 - 0.89 μm wavelength spectral range during the OPAL program on 9 February 2016. The PlanetCam images have been calibrated in radiance using spectrophotometric standard stars providing absolute reflectivity across the disk in a large series of broadband and narrowband filters sensitive to the altitude distribution and size of aerosols above the ammonia cloud level, and to the spectral dependence of the chromophore coloring agents. The cloud morphology evolution has been studied with an horizontal resolution ranging from 150 to 1000 km. Zonal wind profiles have been retrieved along the whole observing period from tracking cloud motions that span the latitude range from -80° to +77º. Combining all these results we characterized the 3D-dynamical state and cloud and haze distribution in Jupiter's atmosphere in the altitude range between 10 mbar and 1.5 bar before and during Juno initial exploration.

  9. New statistical analysis of the horizontal phase velocity distribution of gravity waves observed by airglow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a new analysis method for obtaining the power spectrum in the horizontal phase velocity domain from airglow intensity image data to study atmospheric gravity waves. This method can deal with extensive amounts of imaging data obtained on different years and at various observation sites without bias caused by different event extraction criteria for the person processing the data. The new method was applied to sodium airglow data obtained in 2011 at Syowa Station (69°S, 40°E), Antarctica. The results were compared with those obtained from a conventional event analysis in which the phase fronts were traced manually in order to estimate horizontal characteristics, such as wavelengths, phase velocities, and wave periods. The horizontal phase velocity of each wave event in the airglow images corresponded closely to a peak in the spectrum. The statistical results of spectral analysis showed an eastward offset of the horizontal phase velocity distribution. This could be interpreted as the existence of wave sources around the stratospheric eastward jet. Similar zonal anisotropy was also seen in the horizontal phase velocity distribution of the gravity waves by the event analysis. Both methods produce similar statistical results about directionality of atmospheric gravity waves. Galactic contamination of the spectrum was examined by calculating the apparent velocity of the stars and found to be limited for phase speeds lower than 30 m/s. In conclusion, our new method is suitable for deriving the horizontal phase velocity characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves from an extensive amount of imaging data.

  10. Central Drift Chamber for Belle-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, N.

    2017-06-01

    The Central Drift Chamber (CDC) is the main device for tracking and identification of charged particles for Belle-II experiment. The Belle-II CDC is cylindrical wire chamber with 14336 sense wires, 2.3 m-length and 2.2 m-diameter. The wire chamber and readout electronics have been completely replaced from the Belle CDC. The new readout electronics system must handle higher trigger rate of 30 kHz with less dead time at the design luminosity of 8 × 1035 cm-2s-1. The front-end electronics are located close to detector and send digitized signal through optical fibers. The Amp-Shaper-Discriminator chips, FADC and FPGA are assembled on a single board. Belle-II CDC with readout electronics has been installed successfully in Belle structure in October 2016. We will present overview of the Belle-II CDC and status of commissioning with cosmic ray.

  11. Drifting derelict trajectories in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Philip L.

    1984-04-01

    In December 1883 the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, a branch of the Bureau of Navigation of the Navy Department, began to publish monthly Pilot Charts. Earlier, oceanographer M.F. Maury had produced some summary survey charts showing ocean currents, winds, sailing routes, and the locations of whales. The new charts were unique in that they showed updated positions of derelict vessels and other drifting debris. From this series of positions of identified derelicts the first ocean trajectories were obtained. Much of this information has been forgotten during the last 100 years, and good collections of the Pilot Charts are rare. (The only complete collection that I could find is held by the Defense Mapping Agency.) This article is a recompilation and description of these early trajectories and a reminder of the usefulness of the Pilot Charts. It also provides a glimpse of a little known part of maritime history, the last days of wooden sailing vessels.

  12. Drift-Alfven eigenmodes in inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Poedts, S.

    2006-03-15

    A set of three nonlinear equations describing drift-Alfven waves in a nonuniform magnetized plasma is derived and discussed both in linear and nonlinear limits. In the case of a cylindric radially bounded plasma with a Gaussian density distribution in the radial direction the linearized equations are solved exactly yielding general solutions for modes with quantized frequencies and with radially dependent amplitudes. The full set of nonlinear equations is also solved yielding particular solutions in the form of rotating radially limited structures. The results should be applicable to the description of electromagnetic perturbations in solar magnetic structures and in astrophysical column-likemore » objects including cosmic tornados.« less

  13. Accuracy of short‐term sea ice drift forecasts using a coupled ice‐ocean model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinlun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arctic sea ice drift forecasts of 6 h–9 days for the summer of 2014 are generated using the Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System (MIZMAS); the model is driven by 6 h atmospheric forecasts from the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2). Forecast ice drift speed is compared to drifting buoys and other observational platforms. Forecast positions are compared with actual positions 24 h–8 days since forecast. Forecast results are further compared to those from the forecasts generated using an ice velocity climatology driven by multiyear integrations of the same model. The results are presented in the context of scheduling the acquisition of high‐resolution images that need to follow buoys or scientific research platforms. RMS errors for ice speed are on the order of 5 km/d for 24–48 h since forecast using the sea ice model compared with 9 km/d using climatology. Predicted buoy position RMS errors are 6.3 km for 24 h and 14 km for 72 h since forecast. Model biases in ice speed and direction can be reduced by adjusting the air drag coefficient and water turning angle, but the adjustments do not affect verification statistics. This suggests that improved atmospheric forecast forcing may further reduce the forecast errors. The model remains skillful for 8 days. Using the forecast model increases the probability of tracking a target drifting in sea ice with a 10 km × 10 km image from 60 to 95% for a 24 h forecast and from 27 to 73% for a 48 h forecast. PMID:27818852

  14. LIDAR as an alternative to passive collectors to measure pesticide spray drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Solanelles, Francesc; Garcerá, Cruz; Chueca, Patricia; Arnó, Jaume; del Moral, Ignacio; Masip, Joan; Camp, Ferran; Viana, Rafael; Escolà, Alexandre; Gràcia, Felip; Planas, Santiago; Moltó, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide spray drift entails a series of risks and costs in terms of human, animal and environmental well-being. A proper understanding of this phenomenon is essential to minimise these risks. However, most conventional methods used in drift measurement are based on point collectors which are unable to obtain information concerning the temporal or spatial evolution of the pesticide cloud. Such methods are also costly, labour-intensive, and require a considerable amount of time. The aim of this paper is to propose a method to measure the spray drift based on lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and to prove that it can be an alternative to passive collectors. An analytical model is proposed to relate the measurements obtained through passive collectors and those obtained with lidar systems considering several spray application and meteorological parameters. The model was tested through an experimental campaign involving multiple ground spray tests. A lidar system and two types of passive collectors (nylon strings and water-sensitive paper) were used simultaneously to measure the drift. The results showed for each test a high coefficient of determination (R2 ≈ 0.90) between the lidar signal and the tracer mass captured by the nylon strings. This coefficient decreased (R2 = 0.77) when all tests were considered together. Lidar measurements were also used to study the evolution of the pesticide cloud with high range (1.5 m) and temporal resolution (1 s) and to estimate its velocity. Furthermore, a very satisfactory adjustment (R2 = 0.89) was observed between the tracer mass collected by the nylon lines and the coverage on water-sensitive paper sheets. These results are in accordance with the proposed analytical model and allow the conclusion that the application and meteorological parameters can be considered spatially invariant for a given test but are not invariant for different tests.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the 1990 equatorial disturbance on Saturn - Zonal winds and central meridian albedos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, C. D.; Westphal, J. A.; Beebe, R. F.; Huber, L. F.

    1992-12-01

    The present comparison of two sets of HST data from August and November 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 data acquired in 1980 and 1981 gives attention to Saturn's equatorial-region disturbance of September 1990. Longitudinal variations in the equatorial zonal winds are interpreted as evidence for interaction between the storm nucleus that was generated during the disturbance and the local wind field.

  16. The 4-5 day mode oscillation in zonal winds of Indian middle atmosphere during MONEX-79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. S.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Indira, K.; Murty, B. V. R.

    1985-12-01

    In the early studies based on time series of balloon observations, the existence of 4 to 5 day period waves and 10 to 20 day wind fluctuations were found in the tropical lower stratosphere, and they are identified theoretically as the mixed Rossby-gravity wave and the Kelvin wave, respectively. On the basis of these studies, it was established that the vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) in the mean zonal wind through the mechanism of wave-zonal interaction. These studies are mainly concentrated over the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Similar prominent wave disturbances have been observed over the region east of the Indian Ocean during a quasi-biennial oscillation. Zonal winds in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (10 to 20) km of the middle atmosphere over the Indian subcontinent may bear association with the activity of summer monsoon (June-September). Monsoon Experiment (MONEX-79) has provided upper air observations at Balasore (21 deg. 30 min.N; 85 deg. 56 min.E), during the peak of monsoon months July and August. A unique opportunity has, therefore, been provided to study the normal oscillations present in the zonal winds of lower middle atmosphere over India, which may have implication on large scale wave dynamics. This aspect is examined in the present study.

  17. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width