Science.gov

Sample records for zonal irregularity drifts

  1. On the Longitudinal Morphology of Zonal Irregularity Drift Measured using Networks of GPS Scintillation Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Valladares, C. E.; Delay, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    A complete characterization of field-aligned ionospheric irregularities responsible for the scintillation of satellite signals includes not only their spectral properties (power spectral strength, spectral index, anisotropy ratio, and outer-scale) but also their horizontal drift velocity. From a system impacts perspective, the horizontal drift velocity is important in that it dictates the rate of signal fading and also, to an extent, the level of phase fluctuations encountered by the receiver. From a physics perspective, studying the longitudinal morphology of zonal irregularity may lead to an improved understanding of the F region dynamo and regional electrodynamics at low latitudes. The irregularity drift at low latitudes is predominantly zonal and is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of satellite signals made by a pair of closely-spaced antennas. The AFRL-SCINDA network operates a small number of VHF spaced-antenna systems at low latitude stations for this purpose. A far greater number of GPS scintillation monitors are operated by AFRL-SCINDA (25-30) and the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are situated too far apart to monitor the drift using cross-correlation techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory (Rino, Radio Sci., 1979) to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GPS measurements of S4, sigma-phi, and the propagation geometry alone. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this technique requires assumptions for the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment show that the ratio of sigma-phi to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift, and hence the zonal drift can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. In

  2. A technique for inferring zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of intensity (S4) and phase (σφ) scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, Charles S.; Groves, Keith M.; Rino, Charles L.; Doherty, Patricia H.

    2016-08-01

    The zonal drift of ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of a scintillating satellite signal made with a pair of closely spaced antennas. The Air Force Research Laboratory-Scintillation Network Decision Aid (AFRL-SCINDA) network operates a small number of very high frequency (VHF) spaced-receiver systems at low latitudes for this purpose. A far greater number of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) scintillation monitors are operated by the AFRL-SCINDA network (25-30) and the Low-Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are too widely separated from each other for cross-correlation techniques to be effective. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GNSS measurements of S4, σφ, and the propagation geometry. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this approach requires assumptions regarding the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment suggest that the ratio of σφ to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift. We validate the technique using VHF spaced-receiver measurements of zonal irregularity drift obtained from the AFRL-SCINDA network. While the spaced-receiver technique remains the preferred way to monitor the drift when closely spaced antenna pairs are available, our technique provides a new opportunity to monitor zonal irregularity drift using regional or global networks of widely separated GNSS scintillation monitors.

  3. Occurrence and zonal drifts of small-scale ionospheric irregularities over an equatorial station during solar maximum - Magnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muella, M. T. A. H.; de Paula, E. R.; Kantor, I. J.; Rezende, L. F. C.; Smorigo, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    A statistical study of L-band amplitude scintillations and zonal drift velocity of Fresnel-scale ionospheric irregularities is presented. Ground-based global positioning system (GPS) data acquired at the equatorial station of São Luís (2.33°S, 44.21°W, dip latitude 1.3°S), Brazil, during the solar maximum period from March 2001 to February 2002 are used in the analysis. The variation of scintillations and irregularity drift velocities with local time, season and magnetic activity are reported. The results reveal that for the near overhead ionosphere (satellite elevation angle >45°) a broad maximum in the occurrence of scintillation is seen from October to February. In general, weak scintillations (S 4 < 0.4) dominated (>90%) during equinox (March-April; September-October) and December solstice (November-February) quiet time conditions and, many of the scintillations, occurred during pre-midnight hours. The mean zonal velocities of the irregularities are seen to be ˜30 m s -1 larger near December solstice, while during the equinoctial period the velocities decay faster and the scintillations tend to cease earlier. On geomagnetically disturbed nights, scintillation activity seems to be strongly affected by the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric fields and disturbance dynamo effects. On disturbed days, during the equinox and December solstice seasons, the scintillations tend to be suppressed in the pre-midnight hours, whereas during June solstice months (May-August) the effect is opposite. In the post-midnight period, the mostly marked increase in the scintillation occurrence is observed during the equinox months. The results show that during disturbed conditions only one type of storm (when the main phase maximum takes place during the daytime hours) agrees with the Aarons' description, that is the suppression of L-band scintillations in the first recovery phase night. The results also reveal that the storm-time irregularity drifts become more

  4. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation.

    PubMed

    Balescu, R

    2003-10-01

    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows.

  5. Zonal Drift Variations and Suppression of Ionospheric Scintillation During St. Patrick's Day Storm Observed by Pingtung SCINDA Station in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S. Y.; Nayak, C.; Tsai, L. C.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Variations of zonal drift and ionospheric VHF scintillations observed by a SCINDA station in Southern Taiwan during the St. Patrick's day geomagnetic storm are studied. Although scintillations were observed for 6 consecutive days before the storm, they were absence during the storm period. Data from VHF receivers, ionosonde and in situ plasma density observations from ESA's SWARM constellation are used to study the ionospheric irregularity/scintillation events in the Taiwanese sector to compare with what happened in the Indian sectors. The absence of scintillation in the Taiwanese sector during the storm period seems to be caused by a reduced pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) electric field from a westward prompt-penetration electric field (PPEF) during the storm. A low post-sunset ionosphere thus becomes unfavorable for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to occur. On the contrary, the PPEFs were found to strongly enhance the PRE electric field in the Indian sector to cause the ionospheric irregularities/scintillations in the post-sunset sector. Zonal drift variations during the storm time are also discussed in conjunction with the irregularity/scintillation occurrences.

  6. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  7. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  8. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T. D.; I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 2 University Str., 0186 Tbilisi; Shad, M.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift wavesmore » and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less

  9. Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.

    2013-04-15

    Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allowsmore » to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.« less

  10. Triple Cascade Behavior in Quasigeostrophic and Drift Turbulence and Generation of Zonal Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2009-09-11

    We study quasigeostrophic (QG) and plasma drift turbulence within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. We focus on the zonostrophy, an extra invariant in the CHM model, and on its role in the formation of zonal jets. We use a generalized Fjoertoft argument for the energy, enstrophy, and zonostrophy and show that they cascade anisotropically into nonintersecting sectors in k space with the energy cascading towards large zonal scales. Using direct numerical simulations of the CHM equation, we show that zonostrophy is well conserved, and the three invariants cascade as predicted by the Fjoertoft argument.

  11. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by the WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. We also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.

  12. Theoretical and experimental zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift velocity observations and their comparison with model calculations. The bubble zonal velocities were measured using airglow OI630 nm all-sky digital images and the model calculations were performed taking into account flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and conductivity weighted neutral zonal winds. The digital images were obtained from an all-sky imaging system operated over the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (Geogr. 22.5S, 45W, dip angle 31.5S) during the period from October 1998 to August 2000. Out of the 138 nights of imager observation, 29 nights with the presence of plasma bubbles are used in this study. These 29 nights correspond to geomagnetically rather quiet days (∑K P < 24+) and were grouped according to season. During the early night hours, the calculated zonal drift velocities were found to be larger than the experimental values. The best matching between the calculated and observed zonal velocities were seen to be for a few hours around midnight. The model calculation showed two humps around 20 LT and 24 LT that were not present in the data. Average decelerations obtained from linear regression between 20 LT and 24 LT were found to be: (a) Spring 1998, -8.61 ms -1 h -1; (b) Summer 1999, -0.59 ms -1 h -1; (c) Spring 1999, -11.72 ms -1 h -1; and (d) Summer 2000, -8.59 ms -1 h -1. Notice that Summer and Winter here correspond to southern hemisphere Summer and Winter, not northern hemisphere.

  13. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  14. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; ...

    2018-05-29

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  15. The climatology of low-latitude ionospheric densities and zonal drifts from IMAGE-FUV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, T. J.; Sagawa, E.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Patel, J.

    2004-12-01

    The IMAGE satellite was the first dedicated to magnetospheric imaging, but has also provided numerous images of the nightside ionosphere with its Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) spectrographic imager. Nightside emissions of O I at 135.6-nm originating away from the aurora are due to recombination of ionospheric O+, and vary in intensity with (O+)2. IMAGE-FUV, operating in a highly elliptical orbit with apogee at middle latitudes and >7 Re altitude, measures this emission globally with 100-km resolution. During each 14.5 hour orbit, IMAGE-FUV is able to monitor nightside ionospheric densities for up to 6-7 hours. Hundreds of low-latitude ionospheric bubbles, their development and drift speed, and a variety of other dynamical variations in brightness and morphology of the equatorial anomalies have been observed during this mission. Furthermore, the average global distribution of low-latitude ionospheric plasma densities can be determined in 3 days. Imaging data collected from February through June of 2002 are used to compile a dataset containing a variety of parameters (e.g., latitude and brightness of peak plasma density, zonal bubble drift speed) which can be drawn from for climatological studies. Recent results indicate that the average ground speed of low-latitude zonal plasma drifts vary with longitude by up to 50%, and that a periodic variation in ionospheric densities with longitude suggests the influence of a lower-thermospheric non-migrating tide with wave number = 4 on ionospheric densities. An excellent correlation between zonal drift speed and the magnetic storm index Dst is also found.

  16. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  17. Low-latitude zonal and vertical ion drifts seen by DE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical ion drift data from the DE 2 spacecraft have been used to determine average zonal and vertical plasma flow (electric field) characteristics in the +/- 26-deg dip latitude region during a time of high solar activity. The 'average data' local time profile for an apex height bin centered at 400 km indicates westward plasma flow from 0600 to 1900 solar local time ((SLT) with a maximum westward velocity of 80 m/s in the early afternoon. There is a sharp change to eastward flow at approximately 1900 hours with an early evening peak of 170 m/s. A secondary nighttime maximum exists at 0430 SLT preceeding the reversal to westward flow. This profile is in good agreement with Jicamarca, Peru, radar measurements made under similar solar maximum conditions. Haramonic analysis indicates a net superrotation which is strongest at lower apex altitudes. The diurnal term is dominant, but higher order terms through the quatradiurnal are significant.

  18. Unusual behavior of quiet-time zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities over Jicamarca during the recent extended solar minimum of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ângela M.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, José H. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the recent deep and prolonged solar minimum on the daytime zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities during quiet time is investigated in this work. Analyzing the data obtained from incoherent scatter radar from Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W) we observe an anomalous behavior of the zonal plasma drift during June 2008 characterized by lower than usual daytime westward drift and its early afternoon reversal to eastward. As a case study the zonal drift observed on 24 June 2008 is modeled using a realistic low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE (SUPIM-INPE). The results show that an anomalously low zonal wind was mainly responsible for the observed anomalous behavior in the zonal drift. A comparative study of the vertical plasma drifts obtained from magnetometer data for some periods of maximum (2000-2002) and minimum solar activity (1998, 2008, 2010) phases reveal a considerable decrease on the E-region conductivity and the dynamo electric field during 2008. However, we believe that the contribution of these characteristics to the unusual behavior of the zonal plasma drift is significantly smaller than that arising from the anomalously low zonal wind. The SUPIM-INPE result of the critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) over Jicamarca suggested a lower radiation flux than that predicted by solar irradiance model (SOLAR2000) for June 2008.

  19. Zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over brazilian region using oi630nm airglow digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, D. C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, V. M.; Takahashi, H.

    The zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region are analyzed in this study that is based on OI630nm airglow digital images. These digital images were obtained by an all-sky imager system between October 1998 and August 2000, at Cachoeira Paulista (22.5°S, 45°W), a low latitude region. In this period, 138 nights of OI 630 nm airglow experiments were carried out of which 30 nights detected the ionospheric plasma bubbles. These 30 nights correspond to magnetically quiet days (ΣK_P<24+) and were grouped according approximately to their season. KEY WORDS: Imager System, Ionospheric Plasma Bubbles, Zonal drift velocities, OI630nm.

  20. Post-midnight equatorial irregularity distributions and vertical drift velocity variations during solstices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S.-Y.; Liu, C. H.; Chao, C.-K.

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal distributions of post-midnight equatorial ionospheric irregularity occurrences observed by ROCSAT-1 (1st satellite of the Republic of China) during moderate to high solar activity years in two solstices are studied with respect to the vertical drift velocity and density variations. The post-midnight irregularity distributions are found to be similar to the well-documented pre-midnight ones, but are different from some published distributions taken during solar minimum years. Even though the post-midnight ionosphere is sinking in general, longitudes of frequent positive vertical drift and high density seems to coincide with the longitudes of high irregularity occurrences. Large scatters found in the vertical drift velocity and density around the dip equator in different ROCSAT-1 orbits indicate the existence of large and frequent variations in the vertical drift velocity and density that seem to be able to provide sufficient perturbations for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to cause the irregularity occurrences. The need of seeding agents such as gravity waves from atmospheric convective clouds to initiate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may not be necessary.

  1. DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, and Irregularities Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics

  2. The electron drift velocity, ion acoustic speed and irregularity drifts in high-latitude E-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M. V.; Pellinen, R. J.; Janhunen, P.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the STARE irregularity drift velocity dependence on the EISCAT line-of-sight (los or l-o-s) electron drift velocity magnitude, VE×Blos, and the flow angle ΘN,F (superscript N and/or F refer to the STARE Norway and Finland radar). In the noon-evening sector the flow angle dependence of Doppler velocities, VirrN,F, inside and outside the Farley-Buneman (FB) instability cone (|VE×Blos|>Cs and |VE×Blos|drift velocity. We found (b) that if the data points are averages over 100 m/s intervals (bins) of l-o-s electron velocities and 10 deg intervals (bins) of flow angles, then the largest STARE Doppler velocities always reside inside the bin with the largest flow angle. In the flow angle bin 80° the STARE Doppler velocity is larger than its driver term, i.e. the EISCAT l-o-s electron drift velocity component, |VirrN,F|>|VE×Blos|. Both features (a and b) as well as the weak flow angle velocity dependence indicate that the l-o-s electron drift velocity cannot be the sole factor which controls the motion of the backscatter ~1-m irregularities at large flow angles. Importantly, the backscatter was collected at aspect angle ~1° and flow angle Θ>60°, where linear fluid and kinetic theories invariably predict negative growth rates. At least qualitatively, all the facts can be reasonably explained by nonlinear wave-wave coupling found and

  3. A Simulation Model for Drift Resistive Ballooning Turbulence Examining the Influence of Self-consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon

    2015-11-01

    Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).

  4. On The Ion Drift Contribution To The Phase Velocity of Electrojet Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M.; Koustov, A.; Janhunen, P.; Pellinen, R.; Danskin, D.; Nozawa, S.

    The ion drift effect is often ignored in the interpretation of VHF Doppler measure- ments. For example, in the STARE experiment it is assumed that the line-of-sight velocity measured at large flow angles is simply a cosine component of the true elec- tron drift. Previous studies seem to support this assumption, though only to a certain degree. In this study we consider a 3.5-hour morning event of joint STARE-EISCAT observa- tions for which the STARE-Finland radar velocity was mainly larger than the EISCAT convection component. A moderate 5-20 deg offset between the EISCAT convection azimuth and its STARE estimate was also observed. We show that both the STARE- Finland radar velocity "over-speed" and the azimuthal offset between the EISCAT and STARE convection vectors can be explained by fluid plasma theory arguments if the ion drift contribution to the irregularity phase velocity under the condition of moder- ate backscatter off-orthogonality is taken into account. The ion effects were enhanced because of a lifting up of the entire E-region seen by the EISCAT. It perhaps resulted in an increase of the STARE echo heights and aspect angles. The latter are of the order of 1 deg at the top of the electrojet layer. We also compare STARE convection magni- tudes and true velocities measured by the EISCAT to study the potential impact of the ion motions on the STARE velocity estimates.

  5. Tertiary instability of zonal flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The stability of zonal flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2009-04-15

    The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determinedmore » not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.« less

  7. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocity and tilt based on Hong Kong GPS CORS network: From 2001 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Weng, Duojie; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-08-01

    Hong Kong (22.3°N, 114.2°E, dip: 30.5°N; geomagnetic 15.7°N, 173.4°W, declination: 2.7°W) is a low-latitude area, and the Hong Kong Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network has been developed and maintained by Lands Department of Hong Kong government since 2001. Based on the collected GPS observations of a whole solar cycle from 2001 to 2012, a method is proposed to estimate the zonal drift velocity as well as the tilt of the observed plasma bubbles, and the estimated results are statistically analyzed. It is found that although the plasma bubbles are basically vertical within the equatorial plane, the tilt can be as big as more than 60° eastward or westward sometimes. And, the tilt and the zonal drift velocity are correlated. When the velocity is large, the tilt is also large generally. Another finding is that large velocity and tilt generally occur in spring and autumn and in solar active years.

  8. A multi-instrument case study of high-latitude ionospheric GNSS scintillation due to drifting plasma irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, C.; Oksavik, K.; Moen, J. I.; Romano, V.

    2013-12-01

    For this study, GPS receiver scintillation and Total Electron Content (TEC) data from high-latitude locations on Svalbard have been combined with several other data sets, including the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and allsky cameras, to perform a multi-instrument case study of high-latitude GPS ionospheric scintillations in relation to drifting plasma irregularities at night over Svalbard on 31 October 2011. Scintillations are rapid amplitude and phase fluctuations of electromagnetic signals. GNSS-based systems may be disturbed by ionospheric plasma irregularities and structures such as plasma patches (areas of enhanced electron density in the polar cap) and plasma gradients. When the GNSS radio signals propagate through such areas, in particular gradients, the signals experience scintillations that at best increases positioning errors and at worst may break the receiver's signal lock, potentially resulting in the GNSS receiver losing track of its position. Due to the importance of many GNSS applications, it is desirable to study the scintillation environment to understand the limitations of the GNSS systems. We find scintillation mainly localised to plasma gradients, with predominantly phase scintillation at the leading edge of patches and both phase and amplitude scintillation at the trailing edge. A single edge may also contain different scintillation types at different locations.

  9. Cause of different local time distribution in the postsunset equatorial ionospheric irregularity occurrences between June and December solstices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S.-Y.; Chao, C. K.; Liu, C. H.

    2009-04-01

    Global averaged postsunset equatorial ionospheric density irregularity occurrences observed by ROCSAT during the moderate to high solar activity years of 1999 to 2004 indicate a different local time distribution between June and December solstices. The irregularity occurrences during the December solstice show a faster increase rate to peak at 2100-2200 local time, while the irregularity occurrences during the June solstice have a slower increase rate and peak one hour later in local time than that in the December solstice. The cause of such different local time distributions is attributed to a large contrast in the time of zonal drift reversal and the magnitude of postsunset vertical drift observed by ROCSAT at longitudes of large magnetic declination in the two solstices. That is, a delay in the zonal drift reversal in association with a smaller postsunset vertical drift observed at longitudes of positive magnetic declination has greatly inhibited the irregularity occurrences during the June solstice in contrast to an earlier zonal drift reversal together with a large vertical drift occurring at longitudes of negative magnetic declination to accelerate the irregularity occurrences during the December solstice. We think that the different geomagnetic field strengths that existed between the longitudes of positive and negative magnetic declinations have played a crucial role in determining the different local time distributions of irregularity occurrences for the two solstices.

  10. Characterization of the low latitude plasma density irregularities observed using C/NOFS and SCINDA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andima, Geoffrey; Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2018-01-01

    Complex electrodynamic processes over the low latitude region often result in post sunset plasma density irregularities which degrade satellite communication and navigation. In order to forecast the density irregularities, their occurrence time, duration and location need to be quantified. Data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite was used to characterize the low latitude ion density irregularities from 2011 to 2013. This was supported by ground based data from the SCIntillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) receivers at Makerere (Geographic coordinate 32.6°E, 0.3°N, and dip latitude -9.3°N) and Nairobi (Geographic coordinate 36.8°E, -1.3°N, and dip latitude -10.8°N). The results show that irregularities in ion density have a daily pattern with peaks from 20:00 to 24:00 Local Time (LT). Scintillation activity at L band and VHF over East Africa peaked in 2011 and 2012 from 20:00 to 24:00 LT, though in many cases scintillation at VHF persisted longer than that at L band. A longitudinal pattern in ion density irregularity occurrence was observed with peaks over 135-180°E and 270-300°E. The likelihood of ion density irregularity occurrence decreased with increasing altitude. Analysis of C/NOFS zonal ion drift velocities showed that the largest nighttime and daytime drifts were in 270-300°E and 300-330°E longitude regions respectively. Zonal irregularity drift velocities over East Africa were for the first time estimated from L-band scintillation indices. The results show that the velocity of plasma density irregularities in 2011 and 2012 varied daily, and hourly in the range of 50-150 m s-1. The zonal drift velocity estimates from the L-band scintillation indices had good positive correlation with the zonal drift velocities derived from VHF receivers by the spaced receiver technique.

  11. Radar observations of density gradients, electric fields, and plasma irregularities near polar cap patches in the context of the gradient-drift instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2017-03-01

    We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.

  12. Equinoctial asymmetry in the zonal distribution of scintillation as observed by GPS receivers in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Husin, A.; Liu, Huixin; Saito, S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the azimuthal distribution of amplitude scintillation observed by Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at Pontianak (0.0°S, 109.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.8°S) and Bandung (6.9°S, 107.6°E; magnetic latitude: 16.7°S) in Indonesia in March and September from 2011 to 2015. The scintillation is found to occur more to the west than to the east in March at both stations, whereas no such zonal difference is found in September. We also analyze the zonal scintillation drift as estimated using three closely spaced single-frequency GPS receivers at Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.9°S) in Indonesia during 2003-2015 and the zonal thermospheric neutral wind as measured by the CHAMP satellite at longitudes of 90°-120°E during 2001-2008. We find that the velocities of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind decrease with increasing latitudes. Interestingly, the latitudinal gradients of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind are steeper in March than in September. These steeper March gradients may be responsible for the increased westward altitudinal and latitudinal tilting of plasma bubbles in March. This equinoctial asymmetry could be responsible for the observed westward bias in scintillation in March, because the scintillation is more likely to occur when radio waves pass through longer lengths of plasma irregularities in the plasma bubbles.

  13. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    PubMed

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  14. A simple model for testing the effects of gravity-wave-produced vertical oscillations of scattering irregularities on spaced-antenna, horizontal drift measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, C. E.; Reid, I. M.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that the velocities produced by the spaced antenna partial-reflection drift experiment may constitute a measure of the vertical oscillations due to short-period gravity waves rather than the mean horizontal flow. The contention is that the interference between say two scatterers, one of which is traveling upward, and the other down, will create a pattern which sweeps across the ground in the direction (or anti-parallel) of the wave propagation. Since the expected result, viz., spurious drift directions, is seldom, if ever, seen in spaced antenna drift velocities, this speculation is tested in an atmospheric model.

  15. Impact of disturbance electric fields in the evening on prereversal vertical drift and spread F developments in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Nogueira, Paulo A. B.; Santos, Angela M.; de Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, Jose H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble/spread F irregularity occurrence can present large variability depending upon the intensity of the evening prereversal enhancement in the zonal electric field (PRE), that is, the F region vertical plasma drift, which basically drives the post-sunset irregularity development. Forcing from magnetospheric disturbances is an important source of modification and variability in the PRE vertical drift and of the associated bubble development. Although the roles of magnetospheric disturbance time penetration electric fields in the bubble irregularity development have been studied in the literature, many details regarding the nature of the interaction between the penetration electric fields and the PRE vertical drift still lack our understanding. In this paper we have analyzed data on F layer heights and vertical drifts obtained from digisondes operated in Brazil to investigate the connection between magnetic disturbances occurring during and preceding sunset and the consequent variabilities in the PRE vertical drift and associated equatorial spread F (ESF) development. The impact of the prompt penetration under-shielding eastward electric field and that of the over-shielding, and disturbance dynamo, westward electric field on the evolution of the evening PRE vertical drift and thereby on the ESF development are briefly examined.

  16. New Opportunities for Remote Sensing Ionospheric Irregularities by Fitting Scintillation Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Rino, C. L.; Groves, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent paper, we presented a phase screen theory for the spectrum of intensity scintillations when the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component power law [Carrano and Rino, DOI: 10.1002/2015RS005903]. More recently we have investigated the inverse problem, whereby phase screen parameters are inferred from scintillation time series. This is accomplished by fitting the spectrum of intensity fluctuations with a parametrized theoretical model using Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods. The Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo technique provides a-posteriori errors and confidence intervals. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides justification for the use of one- or two-component irregularity models. We refer to this fitting as Irregularity Parameter Estimation (IPE) since it provides a statistical description of the irregularities from the scintillations they produce. In this talk, we explore some new opportunities for remote sensing ionospheric irregularities afforded by IPE. Statistical characterization of irregularities and the plasma bubbles in which they are embedded provides insight into the development of the underlying instability. In a companion paper by Rino et al., IPE is used to interpret scintillation due to simulated EPB structure. IPE can be used to reconcile multi-frequency scintillation observations and to construct high fidelity scintillation simulation tools. In space-to-ground propagation scenarios, for which an estimate of the distance to the scattering region is available a-priori, IPE enables retrieval of zonal irregularity drift. In radio occultation scenarios, the distance to the irregularities is generally unknown but IPE enables retrieval of Fresnel frequency. A geometric model for the effective scan velocity maps Fresnel frequency to Fresnel scale, yielding the distance to the irregularities. We demonstrate this approach by geolocating irregularities observed by the CORISS instrument onboard the C/NOFS satellite.

  17. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  18. Radar studies of midlatitude ionospheric plasma drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherliess, L.; Fejer, B. G.; Holt, J.; Goncharenko, L.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Buonsanto, M. J.

    2001-02-01

    We use incoherent scatter radar measurements from Millstone Hill and Saint Santin to study the midlatitude F region electrodynamic plasma drifts during geomagnetically quiet and active periods. We present initially a local time, season, and solar flux dependent analytical model of the quiet time zonal and meridional E×B drifts over these stations. We discuss, for the first time, the Saint Santin drift patterns during solar maximum. We have used these quiet time models to extract the geomagnetic perturbation drifts which were modeled as a function of the time history of the auroral electrojet indices. Our results illustrate the evolution of the disturbance drifts driven by the combined effects of prompt penetration and longer lasting perturbation electric fields. The meridional electrodynamic disturbance drifts have largest amplitudes in the midnight-noon sector. The zonal drifts are predominantly westward, with largest amplitudes in the dusk-midnight sector and, following a decrease in the high-latitude convection, they decay more slowly than the meridional drifts. The prompt penetration and steady state zonal disturbance drifts derived from radar measurements are in good agreement with results obtained from both the ion drift meter data on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite and from the Rice Convection Model.

  19. Transport in zonal flows in analogous geophysical and plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    1999-11-01

    Zonal flows occur naturally in the oceans and the atmosphere of planets. Important examples include the zonal flows in Jupiter, the stratospheric polar jet in Antarctica, and oceanic jets like the Gulf Stream. These zonal flows create transport barriers that have a crucial influence on mixing and confinement (e.g. the ozone depletion in Antarctica). Zonal flows also give rise to long-lasting vortices (e.g. the Jupiter red spot) by shear instability. Because of this, the formation and stability of zonal flows and their role on transport have been problems of great interest in geophysical fluid dynamics. On the other hand, zonal flows have also been observed in fusion plasmas and their impact on the reduction of transport has been widely recognized. Based on the well-known analogy between Rossby waves in quasigeostrophic flows and drift waves in magnetically confined plasmas, I will discuss the relevance to fusion plasmas of models and experiments recently developed in geophysical fluid dynamics. Also, the potential application of plasma physics ideas to geophysical flows will be discussed. The role of shear in the suppression of transport and the effect of zonal flows on the statistics of transport will be studied using simplified models. It will be shown how zonal flows induce large particle displacements that can be characterized as Lévy flights, and that the trapping effect of vortices combined with the zonal flows gives rise to anomalous diffusion and Lévy (non-Gaussian) statistics. The models will be compared with laboratory experiments and with atmospheric and oceanographic qualitative observations.

  20. Precursor wave structure, prereversal vertical drift, and their relative roles in the development of post sunset equatorial spread-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, Mangalathayil; Sobral, José; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Batista, Inez S.; Souza, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of large-scale wave structure in the equatorial bottomside F region that are present during daytime as precursor to post sunset development of the spread F/plasma bubble irregularities are investigated in this paper. Digisonde data from three equatorial sites in Brazil (Fortaleza, Sao Luis and Cachimbo) for a period of few months at low to medium/high solar activity phases are analyzed. Small amplitude oscillations in the F layer true heights, representing wave structure in polarization electric field, are identified as upward propagating gravity waves having zonal scale of a few hundred kilometers. Their amplitudes undergo amplification towards sunset, and depending on the amplitude of the prereversal vertical drift (PRE) they may lead to post sunset generation of ESF/plasma bubble irregularities. On days of their larger amplitudes they appear to occur in phase coherence on all days, and correspondingly the PRE vertical drift velocities are larger than on days of the smaller amplitudes of the wave structure that appear at random phase on the different days. The sustenance of these precursor waves structures is supported by the relatively large ratio (approaching unity) of the F region-to- total field line integrated Pedersen conductivities as calculated using the SUPIM simulation of the low latitude ionosphere. This study examines the role of the wave structure relative to that of the prereversal vertical drift in the post sunset spread F irregularity development.

  1. Observations on the Daytime F-region Irregularities in Two Magnetic Quiet Days Using Hainan Coherent Scatter Phased Array Radar (HCOPAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, H.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the magnetic quiet afternoon on 22 July 2013 and noon on 23 May 2016 , Hainan coherent scatter phased array radar (HCOPAR) located at low latitude of China has recorded two cases of the extremely rare daytime F region irregularities. The field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) appeared in the topside F2 layer with small Doppler velocities and narrow spectral widths. The time sequence of the fan sector maps shows the FAIs of 2016 moved northward with almost no zonal drift velocity. The Kp and DST indexes indicate that the irregularities emerged in the magnetic quiet days, so the irregularities were irrelevant to the storm-induced eastward electric field as other daytime cases. More than 2 h after the emergency of the daytime irregularities over Hainan, the Shaoyang digisonde situated 870 km north to the HCOPAR recorded the spread-F in ionospheric F1 layer. According to the echo altitudes, the spread-F may connect the daytime bubbles via magnetic field line. It is difficult for F-region irregularities to survive in the sunlit ionosphere due to the strong photoionization after sunrise. Consequently, the daytime FAIs over Hainan may travel from higher altitudes in the south along the geomagnetic field and are most likely the remnant of postsunset/postmidnight plasma bubbles.

  2. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-15

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  3. Global view of the E region irregularity and convection velocities in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2017-02-01

    Occurrence of the E region plasma irregularities is investigated using two Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) South Pole (SPS) and Zhongshan (ZHO) radars that sample the same magnetic latitude deep within the high-latitude plasma convection pattern but from two opposite directions. It is shown that the SPS and ZHO velocity distributions and their variations with the magnetic local time are different, with each distribution being asymmetric; i.e., a particular velocity polarity is predominant. This asymmetry in the E region velocity distribution is associated with the bump-on-tail of the distribution near the nominal ion acoustic speed Cs that is most likely due to the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) echoes or an inflection point of the distribution below nominal Cs that is most likely due to the gradient drift instability echoes. In contrast, the distribution of the convection velocity component was found to be symmetric, i.e., with no bump-on-tail or an inflection point, but with a bias (i.e., uniform shift) toward a particular polarity. It is demonstrated that the asymmetry in the convection pattern between the eastward and westward zonal components is unexpectedly strong, with the westward zonal component being predominant, especially at lower latitudes, while also exhibiting a strong interplanetary magnetic field By dependence. The observations are consistent with the notion that the asymmetry in the E region velocity distribution is highly sensitive to the bias in the convection component caused by the zonal convection component asymmetry and that the bump-on-tail or inflection point features may also depend on the irregularity height and the presence of strong density gradients modifying the FBI threshold value.

  4. Alignment of Irregular Grains by Mechanical Torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study the alignment of irregular dust grains by mechanical torques due to the drift of grains through the ambient gas. We first calculate mechanical alignment torques (MATs) resulting from specular reflection of gas atoms for seven irregular shapes: one shape of mirror symmetry, three highly irregular shapes (HIS), and three weakly irregular shapes (WIS). We find that the grain with mirror symmetry experiences negligible MATs due to its mirror-symmetry geometry. Three HIS can produce strong MATs, which exhibit some generic properties as radiative torques (RATs), while three WIS produce less efficient MATs. We then study grain alignment by MATs for the different angles between the drift velocity and the ambient magnetic field, for paramagnetic and superparamagnetic grains assuming efficient internal relaxation. We find that for HIS grains, MATs can align subsonically drifting grains in the same way as RATs, with low-J and high-J attractors. For supersonic drift, MATs can align grains with low-J and high-J attractors, analogous to RAT alignment by anisotropic radiation. We also show that the joint action of MATs and magnetic torques in grains with iron inclusions can lead to perfect MAT alignment. Our results point out the potential importance of MAT alignment for HIS grains predicted by the analytical model of Lazarian & Hoang, although more theoretical and observational studies are required due to uncertainty in the shape of interstellar grains. We outline astrophysical environments where MAT alignment is potentially important.

  5. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  6. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  7. Stokes drift.

    PubMed

    van den Bremer, T S; Breivik, Ø

    2018-01-28

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8 , 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Stokes drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.

    2017-12-01

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  9. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  10. The Irregular Moons of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano; Tosi, Federico; Bottke, William; Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2017-10-01

    The 38 irregular moons of Saturn, all but Phoebe discovered between 2000 and 2007, outnumber the planet's classical satellites. Observations from the ground and from near-Earth space have revealed orbits, sizes, and colors and have hinted at the existence of dynamical families, indicative of collisional evolution and common progenitors. More recently, remote observations of many irregular satellites with the Cassini spacecraft produced lightcurves that helped determine rotational periods, coarse shape models, potential hemispheric color heterogeneities, and other basic properties.From Cassini, a total of 25 Saturnian irregulars have been observed with the ISS camera. Their rotational periods range from 5.45 h to 76.13 h. The absence of fast rotators is evident. Among main-belt asteroids of the same size range (~4 to ~45 km), one third of the objects have faster rotations, indicating that many irregulars should be low-density objects.While the origin of the irregulars is still debated, capture of comets via three-body interactions during giant planets encounters does the best job thus far at reproducing the observed prograde/retrograde orbits. Data from the ground, near-Earth spacecraft, and Cassini as well as modeling results suggest the population visible today has experienced substantial collisional evolution. It may be that only Phoebe has survived relatively intact. The small particle debris drifts toward Saturn by P-R drag, with most of it swept up by Titan. Only remnants of this process are visible today.Our current knowledge on the Saturnian irregulars will be summarized in a chapter [1] in the book "Enceladus and the Icy Moons of Saturn" [2]. The talk will give an overview on the chapter's content, which covers the following topics: Orbital "architecture" (a,e,i), sizes and colors, Cassini observations and results, Phoebe, origin, an outlook.[1] Denk, T., Mottola, S., Tosi, F., Bottke, W.F., Hamilton, D.P. (2018): The Irregular Satellites of Saturn. In

  11. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  12. What Are Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual irregularities? For most women, a normal menstrual cycle ranges from 21 to 35 days. 1 However, 14% to 25% of women have irregular menstrual cycles, meaning the cycles are shorter or longer than ...

  13. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskinen, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  14. Simultaneous 6300 Å airglow and radar observations of ionospheric irregularities and dynamics at the geomagnetic equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Dustin A.; Martinis, Carlos R.; Mendillo, Michael; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Milla, Marco

    2018-03-01

    In March 2014 an all-sky imager (ASI) was installed at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.95° S, 76.87° W; 0.3° S MLAT). We present results of equatorial spread F (ESF) characteristics observed at Jicamarca and at low latitudes. Optical 6300 and 7774 Å airglow observations from the Jicamarca ASI are compared with other collocated instruments and with ASIs at El Leoncito, Argentina (31.8° S, 69.3° W; 19.8° S MLAT), and Villa de Leyva, Colombia (5.6° N, 73.52° W; 16.4° N MLAT). We use Jicamarca radar data, in incoherent and coherent modes, to obtain plasma parameters and detect echoes from irregularities. We find that ESF depletions tend to appear in groups with a group-to-group separation around 400-500 km and within-group separation around 50-100 km. We combine data from the three ASIs to investigate the conditions at Jicamarca that could lead to the development of high-altitude, or topside, plumes. We compare zonal winds, obtained from a Fabry-Pérot interferometer, with plasma drifts inferred from the zonal motion of plasma depletions. In addition to the ESF studies we also investigate the midnight temperature maximum and its effects at higher latitudes, visible as a brightness wave at El Leoncito. The ASI at Jicamarca along with collocated and low-latitude instruments provide a clear two-dimensional view of spatial and temporal evolution of ionospheric phenomena at equatorial and low latitudes that helps to explain the dynamics and evolution of equatorial ionospheric/thermospheric processes.

  15. Deep Zonal Flow and Time Variation of Jupiter’s Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the entire planet. The electrical conductivity increases rapidly yet smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn. Deep zonal flows will advect the non-axisymmetric component of the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity, and create time variations in the magnetic field.The observed time variations of the geomagnetic field has been used to derive surface flows of the Earth’s outer core. The same principle applies to Jupiter, however, the connection between the time variation of the magnetic field (dB/dt) and deep zonal flow (Uphi) at Jupiter is not well understood due to strong radial variation of electrical conductivity. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the connection between dB/dt and Uphi for Jupiter adopting realistic interior electrical conductivity profile, taking the likely presence of alkali metals into account. This provides a tool to translate expected measurement of the time variation of Jupiter’s magnetic field to deep zonal flows. We show that the current upper limit on the dipole drift rate of Jupiter (3 degrees per 20 years) is compatible with 10 m/s zonal flows with < 500 km vertical scale height below 0.972 Rj. We further demonstrate that fast drift of resolved magnetic features (e.g. magnetic spots) at Jupiter is a possibility.

  16. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... epilepsy or mental health problems Common causes of heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding include: 2 , 7 Adolescence ( ... ovulation) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (bleeding irregular but heavy) Uterine fibroids (benign growths of uterine muscle) Endometrial ...

  17. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  18. Management of irregular astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Goggin, M; Alpins, N; Schmid, L M

    2000-08-01

    Using a liberal definition of corneal irregularity, modern videokeratoscopy may define approximately 40% of normal corneas with a toric refractive error as possessing primary irregular astigmatism. The causes of secondary forms of irregular astigmatism include corneal surgery, trauma, dystrophies, and infections. Internal refractive surface and media irregularity or noncorneal astigmatism (ocular residual astigmatism) contribute to irregular astigmatism of the entire refractive path of which crystaline lenticular astigmatism is usually the principal contributing component. Treatment options have increased in recent years, particularly, though not exclusively, through the advent of tailored corneal excimer laser ablations. However, discussion continues concerning the systematic approach necessary to enable treatment to achieve an optimal optical surface for the eye. Discussion also continues as to what constitutes the optimal corneal shape. Some refractive procedures may increase higher order aberrations in the attempt to neutralize refractive astigmatism. The way to further refinement of the commonly performed refractive techniques will ultimately lie in the integrated inclusion of a trio of technologies: topographic analysis of the corneal surface, wavefront analysis of ocular refractive aberrations, and vector planning to enable the appropriate balance in emphasis between these two diagnostic modalities. For the uncommon, irregularly roughened corneas, the ablatable polymer techniques show some promise.

  19. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  20. How pattern is selected in drift wave turbulence: Role of parallel flow shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The role of parallel shear flow in the pattern selection problem in drift wave turbulence is discussed. Patterns of interest here are E × B convective cells, which include poloidally symmetric zonal flows and radially elongated streamers. The competition between zonal flow formation and streamer formation is analyzed in the context of modulational instability analysis, with the parallel flow shear as a parameter. For drift wave turbulence with k⊥ρs ≲ O (1 ) and without parallel flow coupling, zonal flows are preferred structures. While increasing the magnitude of parallel flow shear, streamer growth overcomes zonal flow growth. This is because the self-focusing effect of the modulational instability becomes more effective for streamers through density and parallel velocity modulation. As a consequence, the bursty release of free energy may result as the parallel flow shear increases.

  1. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  3. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  4. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-02-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  5. Relativistic satellite orbits: central body with higher zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanner, Maximilian; Soffel, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Satellite orbits around a central body with arbitrary zonal harmonics are considered in a relativistic framework. Our starting point is the relativistic Celestial Mechanics based upon the first post-Newtonian approximation to Einstein's theory of gravity as it has been formulated by Damour et al. (Phys Rev D 43:3273-3307, 1991; 45:1017-1044, 1992; 47:3124-3135, 1993; 49:618-635, 1994). Since effects of order (GM/c^2R) × J_k with k ≥ 2 for the Earth are very small (of order 7 × 10^{-10} × J_k) we consider an axially symmetric body with arbitrary zonal harmonics and a static external gravitational field. In such a field the explicit J_k/c^2-terms (direct terms) in the equations of motion for the coordinate acceleration of a satellite are treated first with first-order perturbation theory. The derived perturbation theoretical results of first order have been checked by purely numerical integrations of the equations of motion. Additional terms of the same order result from the interaction of the Newtonian J_k-terms with the post-Newtonian Schwarzschild terms (relativistic terms related to the mass of the central body). These `mixed terms' are treated by means of second-order perturbation theory based on the Lie-series method (Hori-Deprit method). Here we concentrate on the secular drifts of the ascending node <{\\dot{Ω }}> and argument of the pericenter <{\\dot{ω }}>. Finally orders of magnitude are given and discussed.

  6. Space Weather Effects on the Dynamics of Equatorial F Region Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Basu, S.; Groves, K.; Valladares, C.; Sheehan, R.

    Space weather effects on transionospheric radio waves used for navigation and communication may be divided into two categories depending on the spatial scale size of the ionospheric perturbation produced by such effects. For large-scale (> 10 km) perturbations in the ionospheric plasma density, there are changes in the excess time delay for a radio wave signal, which propagates through the ionosphere, while small scale (< 1 m) structures or irregularities in the ionosphere may give rise tok amplitude and phase scintillations on UHF/L-band radio waves, resulting in loss of data, cycle slips and loss of phase lock for signals used in communication/navigation systems. In the equatorial region, where such effects may be severe, space weather effects on the dynamics of equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are studied from two different angles. The first one deals with the effect of magnetic activity on the generation of ESF irregularities by helping or hindering the growth of the Rayleigh Taylor (R-T) instability in the post-sunset equatorial F region. For this purpose, spaced receiver observations of scintillations on a UHF signal transmitted from a geostationary satellite and recorded near the dip equator, are used to establish the `age' of the irregularities. This is necessary because the occurrence of scintillations, particularly in the post midnight period, may also be due to irregularities which drift into the path of the radio wave signal, after having been generated more than 3 hours before the actual observation of scintillations. In order to associate the generation of irregularities with major changes in space weather, a parameter that is a measure of random variations in irregularity drift speed is computed from spaced receiver scintillation data. A large value of this parameter is usually a signature of random variations in irregularity drift due to polarization electric fields associated with freshly generated irregularities. Once these electric fields

  7. Characteristics of the equatorial plasma drifts as obtained by using Canadian Doppler ionosonde over southern tip of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram; Banola, S.; Sreekumar, Sreeba; Emperumal, K.; Selvaraj, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present here characteristics of the Doppler drift measurements over Tirunelveli (8.73°N, 77.70°E; dip 0.5°N), an equatorial site over Southern India using Doppler interferometry technique of Canadian ionosonde. Three-dimensional bulk motions of the scatterers as reflected from the ionosphere are derived by using Doppler interferometry technique at selected frequencies using spaced receivers arranged in magnetic E-W and N-S directions. After having compared with Lowell's digisonde drifts at Trivandrum, we studied the temporal and seasonal variabilities of quiet time drifts for the year 2012. The observations showed higher vertical drifts during post sunset in the equinox followed by winter and summer seasons. The comparison of Doppler vertical drifts with the drifts obtained from (a) virtual height and (b) Fejer drift model suggests that Doppler vertical drifts are relatively higher as compared to the drifts obtained from model and virtual height methods. Further, it is seen that vertical drifts exhibited equinoctial asymmetry in prereversal enhancement quite similar to such asymmetry observed in the spread F in the ionograms and GPS L band scintillations. The zonal drifts, on the other hand, showed westward during daytime with mean drifts of ~150-200 m/s and correlated well with equatorial electrojet strength indicating the role of E region dynamo during daytime, while they are eastward during nighttime with mean drifts of ~100 m/s resembling F region dynamo process. Also, zonal drifts showed large westward prior to the spread F onset during autumn equinox than vernal equinox, suggesting strong zonal shears which might cause equinoctial asymmetry in spread F.

  8. Notes on drift theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, R. A.; Moraal, H.; Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there is a simpler way to derive the average guiding center drift of a distribution of particles than via the so-called single particle analysis. Based on this derivation it is shown that the entire drift formalism can be considerably simplified, and that results for low order anisotropies are more generally valid than is usually appreciated. This drift analysis leads to a natural alternative derivation of the drift velocity along a neutral sheet.

  9. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  10. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  11. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  12. Zonal wavefront sensing with enhanced spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array. This eventually leads to a wavefront estimation with an enhanced spatial resolution without much sacrifice on the sensor frame rate, thus making the scheme suitable for high spatial resolution measurement of transient wavefronts. We present experimental and numerical simulation results to demonstrate the importance of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  13. Improvement of the Scintillation-Irregularity Model in WBMOD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-28

    satellite over e small s.ction of its orbit . 2-4 IMPLEMENTATION AT AFGWC One of the tasks carried out was to modify the most recent version of WaMOD...influence scintillation strength OSRTN Sets up integral to calculate phase variance, for finite outer scale ROMINT Modified Romberg quadrature integration... orbit calculation, and implc-Nentation of Ln irregularity drift routine based on a recently published model of ionospheric convection st high latitudes

  14. Repair of Irregularly Irregular Astigmatism by Transepithelial Phototherapeutic Keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Stefano; Kirton, Amy; Reinstein, Dan Z; Carp, Glenn I; Archer, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the outcome of transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in the management of irregularly irregular astigmatism. This was a case series of two patients who underwent transepithelial PTK for irregularly irregular astigmatism. In the first case, the patient complained of diplopia due to corneal scarring caused by a metallic foreign body injury. The topography demonstrated irregularly irregular astigmatism with significant asymmetry in the inferotemporal to superonasal axis. In the second case, the patient complained of blurred vision and ghosting caused by significant central epithelial ingrowth through a buttonhole LASIK flap, which was causing a localized irregularity on topography. Due to the localized nature of the irregularities, a transepithelial PTK treatment was preferred to custom ablation given the degree of epithelial masking present. Transepithelial PTK was performed in both cases using the Schwind Amaris 500E excimer laser (Schwind eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany) and an 8-mm optical zone. The ablation depth was planned to reach the depth of the epithelium using a stepwise protocol, reviewing the pattern of the remaining epithelium and regularity of the stromal surface between each ablation. A marked improvement in the regularity of the topography was achieved in both cases, with only regular astigmatism remaining. Both patients reported a subjective improvement in quality of vision and the corrected distance visual acuity improved by one and two lines, respectively. Transepithelial PTK was effective in treating these cases of localized irregularly irregular astigmatism, achieving both objective and subjective improvement in vision. Compensatory epithelial remodeling over the irregularities enabled the transepithelial PTK approach to target the stromal surface irregularities. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(10):714-719.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Plasma Irregularities on the Leading and Trailing Edges of Polar Cap Patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, L. J.; Varney, R. H.; Gillies, R.; Chartier, A.; Mitchell, C. N.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma irregularities in the polar cap have often been attributed to the gradient drift instability (GDI). Traditional fluid theories of GDI predicts irregularity growth only on the trailing edge of polar patches, where the plasma density gradient is parallel to the plasma drift velocity, however many observations show irregularities also form on the leading edge of patches. We consider decameter-scale irregularities detected by polar-latitude SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) radars with any relationship between the background density gradients and drift velocity. Global electron density from the Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS), a GPS tomography routine, is used to provide context for where irregularities are observed relative to polar patches and finer-scale background density gradients are found from 3D imaging from both the North and Canada faces of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radars (RISR-N and RISR-C) jointly. Shear-based instabilities are considered as mechanisms by which plasma irregularities could form on the leading edge of patches. Theoretical predictions of instability growth from both GDI and shear instabilities are compared with irregularity observations for the October 13, 2016 storm.

  16. Investigating the Role of Gravity Wave on Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities using SABER and C/NOFS Satellites Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigussie, M.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Tesema, F.; Tebabal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Theoretical simulations have shown that gravity wave (GW) seeded perturbations amplified by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) results in ESF (equatorial spread F); however, there have been limited observational studies using simultaneous observations of GW and ionospheric parameters. In this paper, for the fist time, simultaneous atmospheric temperature perturbation profiles that are due to GWs obtained from Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on-board the TIMED satellite and equatorial in -situ ion density and vertical plasma drift velocity observations with and without ESF activity obtained from C/NOFS satellites are used to investigate the effect of GW on the generation of ESF. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths of ionospheric oscillations and GWs respectively have been estimated applying wavelet transforms. Cross wavelet analysis has also been applied between two closely observed profiles of temperature perturbations to estimate the horizontal wavelength of the GWs. Moreover, vertically propagating GWs that dissipate energy at the upper atmosphere have been investigated using spectral analysis compared with theoretical results. The analysis show that when the ion density shows strong post sunset irregularity between 20 and 24 LT, vertically upward drift velocities increase between 17 and 19 LT, but it becomes vertically downward when the ion density shows smooth variation. The horizontal wavelengths estimated from C/NOFS and SABER observations show excellent agreement when ion density observations show strong fluctuations; otherwise, they have poor agreement. It is also found that altitude profiles of potential energy of GW increases up to 90 km and then decreases significantly. It is found that the vertical wavelength of GW, corresponding to the dominant spectral power, ranges from about 7 km to 20 km regardless of the situation of the ionosphere; however, GWs with vertical wavelengths between 100 m to 1 km are found to

  17. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  18. Dike/Drift Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses ofmore » the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).« less

  19. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  20. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  1. On the utility of the ionosonde Doppler derived EXB drift during the daytime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Joshi, Lalit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle

    2016-07-01

    Vertical EXB drift measured using the ionosonde Doppler sounding during the daytime suffers from an underestimation of the actual EXB drift. This is due to the photochemistry that determines the height of the F layer during the daytime, in addition to the zonal electric field. Systematic investigations have indicated a fair/good correlation to exist between the C/NOFS and ionosonde Doppler measured vertical EXB drift during the daytime over magnetic equator. A detailed analysis, however, indicated that the linear relation between the ionosonde Doppler drift and C/NOFS EXB drift varied with seasons. Thus, solar, seasonal and also geomagnetic variables were included in the Doppler drift correction, using the artificial neural network based approach. The RMS error in the neural network was found to be lesser than that in the linear regression analysis. Daytime EXB drift was derived using the neural network which was also used to model the ionospheic redistribution in the SAMI2 model. SAMI2 model reproduced strong (/weak) equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) for cases when neural network corrected daytime vertical EXB drift was high (/low). Similar features were also observed in GIM TEC maps. Thus, the results indicate that the neural network can be utilized to derive the vertical EXB drift from its proxies, like the ionosonde Doppler drift. These results indicate that the daytime ionosonde measured vertical EXB drift can be relied upon, provided adequate corrections are applied to it.

  2. Free Drifting Buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information was exchanged between people directly involved with the development, use, and/or potential use of free drifting buoys. Tracking systems and techniques, where methods and accuracy of optical, radio, radar, satellite, and sonic tracking of free-drifting buoys were discussed. Deployment and retrieval covering methods currently used or planned in the deployment and retrieval of free-drifting buoys from boats, ships, helicopters, fixed platforms, and fixed-wing aircraft were reported. Simulation, sensors, and data emphasizing the status of water circulation modeling, and sensors useful on free-drifting buoys, and data display and analysis were described.

  3. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  4. Kilometer-Spaced GNSS Array for Ionospheric Irregularity Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yang

    This dissertation presents automated, systematic data collection, processing, and analysis methods for studying the spatial-temporal properties of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) scintillations produced by ionospheric irregularities at high latitudes using a closely spaced multi-receiver array deployed in the northern auroral zone. The main contributions include 1) automated scintillation monitoring, 2) estimation of drift and anisotropy of the irregularities, 3) error analysis of the drift estimates, and 4) multi-instrument study of the ionosphere. A radio wave propagating through the ionosphere, consisting of ionized plasma, may suffer from rapid signal amplitude and/or phase fluctuations known as scintillation. Caused by non-uniform structures in the ionosphere, intense scintillation can lead to GNSS navigation and high-frequency (HF) communication failures. With specialized GNSS receivers, scintillation can be studied to better understand the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric irregularities, which can be parameterized by altitude, drift motion, anisotropy of the shape, horizontal spatial extent and their time evolution. To study the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the sub-kilometer scale sizes that produce L-band scintillations, a closely-spaced GNSS array has been established in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska to investigate high latitude scintillation and irregularities. Routinely collecting low-rate scintillation statistics, the array database also provides 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1/L2C frequency. In this work, a survey of seasonal and hourly dependence of L1 scintillation events over the course of a year is discussed. To efficiently and systematically study scintillation events, an automated low-rate scintillation detection routine is established and performed for each day by screening the phase scintillation index. The spaced-receiver technique is applied to cross

  5. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on secondary structures in drift-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, California 92093

    2011-08-15

    Recent experiments showed a decrease of long range correlations during the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) [Y. Xu et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 063020 (2011)]. This finding suggests that RMPs damp zonal flows. To elucidate the effect of the RMPs on zonal structures in drift wave turbulence, we construct a generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model including RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large RMP amplitude. A predator-prey model coupling the primarymore » drift wave dynamics to the zonal modes evolution is derived. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. The novel regime has a power threshold which increases with RMP amplitude as {gamma}{sub c}{approx}[({delta}B{sub r}/B)]{sup 2}.« less

  6. Images of Bottomside Irregularities Observed at Topside Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, William J.; Gentile, Louise C.; Shomo, Shannon R.; Roddy, Patrick A.; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed plasma and field measurements acquired by the Communication/ Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite during an eight-hour period on 13-14 January 2010 when strong to moderate 250 MHz scintillation activity was observed at nearby Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) ground stations. C/NOFS consistently detected relatively small-scale density and electric field irregularities embedded within large-scale (approx 100 km) structures at topside altitudes. Significant spectral power measured at the Fresnel (approx 1 km) scale size suggests that C/NOFS was magnetically conjugate to bottomside irregularities similar to those directly responsible for the observed scintillations. Simultaneous ion drift and plasma density measurements indicate three distinct types of large-scale irregularities: (1) upward moving depletions, (2) downward moving depletions, and (3) upward moving density enhancements. The first type has the characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles; the second and third do not. The data suggest that both downward moving depletions and upward moving density enhancements and the embedded small-scale irregularities may be regarded as Alfvenic images of bottomside irregularities. This interpretation is consistent with predictions of previously reported theoretical modeling and with satellite observations of upward-directed Poynting flux in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  7. Booktalking: Avoiding Summer Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Jeff; Rickman, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Summer drift, otherwise known as loss of reading comprehension skills or reading achievement, has been a well-known and well-documented phenomenon of public education for decades. Studies from the late twentieth century to the present have demonstrated a slowdown in summer drift attributed to specific summer reading programs addressing motivation…

  8. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  9. Distributed sensing of ionospheric irregularities with a GNSS receiver array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yang; Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Deshpande, Kshitija B.

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis methods for studying the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the subkilometer scale sizes that produce L band scintillations. Spaced-receiver methods are used for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers' phase measurements over approximately subkilometer to kilometer length baselines for the first time. The quantities estimated by these techniques are plasma drift velocity, diffraction anisotropy magnitude and orientation, and characteristic velocity. Uncertainties are quantified by ensemble simulation of noise on the phase signals carried through to the observations of the spaced-receiver linear system. These covariances are then propagated through to uncertainties on drifts through linearization about the estimated values of the state. Five receivers of SAGA, the Scintillation Auroral Global Positioning System (GPS) Array, provide 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1 frequency. The array is sited in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska. A case study of a single scintillating satellite observed by the array is used to demonstrate the spaced-receiver and uncertainty estimation process. A second case study estimates drifts as measured by multiple scintillating channels. These scintillations are correlated with auroral activity, based on all-sky camera images. Measurements and uncertainty estimates made over a 30 min period are compared to a collocated incoherent scatter radar and show good agreement in horizontal drift speed and direction during periods of scintillation for which the characteristic velocity is less than the drift velocity.

  10. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    the asymmetry of the irregularity growth rate across the gradient reversal. Directional dependencies on the plasma density gradient, plasma drift, and wavevector are analyzed in the context of the recently developed general fluid theory of the gradient-drift instability. In the ionospheric F region, the strongest asymmetry is found when an elongated structure is oriented along the radar's boresight and moving perpendicular to its direction of elongation. These results have important implications for finding optimal configurations for oblique-scanning ionospheric radars such as SuperDARN to observe gradient reversals. To test the predictions of the developed model and the general theory of the gradient-drift instability, an experimental investigation is presented focusing on decameter-scale irregularities near a polar patch and the previously uninvestigated directional dependence of irregularity characteristics. Backscatter power and occurrence of irregularities are analyzed using measurements from the SuperDARN radar at Rankin Inlet, Canada, while background density gradients and convection electric fields are found from the north face of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar. It is shown that irregularity occurrence tends to follow the expected trends better than irregularity power, suggesting that while the gradient-drift instability may be a dominant process in generating small-scale irregularities, other mechanisms such as a shear-driven instability or nonlinear process may exert greater control over their intensity. It is concluded from this body of work that the production of small-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F-region ionosphere is controlled both by global factors such as solar illumination as well as local plasma density gradients and electric fields. In general, linear gradient-drift instability theory describes small-scale irregularity production well, particularly for low-amplitude perturbations. The production of irregularities is complex

  11. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpal S.; Serrano, Leona W.; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K.; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. Objective To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. Design, Setting, and Participants A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). Results The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Conclusions and Relevance Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

  12. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  13. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Multisatellite scintillation observations and spaced receiver drift measurements are presented for a category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal waveforms in the ion number density. The observations were made at Huancayo, Peru, and the measurements at Ancon, Peru, associated with irregularities observed by the Atmospheric-Explorer-E satellite on a few nights in December 1979. Utilizing ray paths to various geostationary satellites, it was found that the irregularities grow and decay almost simultaneously in long-lived patches extending at least 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  14. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.

    2005-07-01

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  15. Shape, zonal winds and gravitational field of Jupiter: a fully self-consistent, multi-layered model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke

    2016-10-01

    We construct a three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, multi-layered,non-spheroidal model of Jupiter consisting of an inner core, a metallic electrically conducting dynamo region and an outer molecular electrically insulating envelope. We assume that the Jovian zonal winds are on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis but, due to the effect of magnetic braking, are confined within the outer molecular envelope. Two related calculations are carried out. The first provides an accurate description of the shape and internal density profile of Jupiter; the effect of rotational distortion is not treated as a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. This calculation determines the density, size and shape of the inner core, the irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level, and the internal structure of Jupiter; the full effect of rotational distortion, without the influence of the zonal winds, is accounted for. Our multi-layered model is able to produce the known mass, the known equatorial and polar radii, and the known zonal gravitational coefficient J2 of Jupiter within their error bars; it also yields the coefficients J4 and J6 within about 5% accuracy, and the core equatorial radius 0.09RJ containing 3.73 Earth masses.The second calculation determines the variation of the gravitational field caused solely by the effect of the zonal winds on the rotationally distorted non-spheroidal Jupiter. Four different cases, ranging from a deep wind profile to a very shallow profile, are considered and implications for accurate interpretation of the zonal gravitational coefficients expected from the Juno mission are discussed.

  16. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.

  17. Ionospheric vertical plasma drift perturbations due to the quasi 2 day wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-05-01

    The thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics-general circulation model is utilized to study the vertical E × B drift perturbations due to the westward quasi 2 day wave with zonal wave numbers 2 and 3 (W2 and W3). The simulations show that both wind components contribute directly and significantly to the vertical drift, which is not merely confined to low latitudes. The vertical drifts at the equator induced by the total wind perturbations of W2 are comparable with that at middle latitudes, while the vertical drifts from W3 are much stronger at middle latitudes than at the equator. The ion drift perturbations induced by the zonal and meridional wind perturbations of W2 are nearly in-phase with each other, whereas the phase discrepancies of the ion drift induced by the individual wind component of W3 are much larger. This is because the wind perturbations of W2 and W3 have different latitudinal structures and phases, which result in different ionospheric responses through wind dynamo.

  18. On statistical irregularity of stratospheric warming occurrence during northern winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenkova, Elena N.; Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Pogoreltsev, Alexander I.

    2017-10-01

    Statistical analysis of dates of warming events observed during the years 1981-2016 at different stratospheric altitudes reveals their non-uniform distributions during northern winter months with maxima at the beginning of January, at the end of January - beginning of February and at the end of February. Climatology of zonal-mean zonal wind, deviations of temperature from its winter-averaged values, and planetary wave (PW) characteristics at high and middle northern latitudes in the altitude range from the ground up to 60 km is studied using the database of meteorological reanalysis MERRA. Climatological temperature deviations averaged over the 60-90°N latitudinal bands reveal cooler and warmer layers descending due to seasonal changes during the polar night. PW amplitudes and upward Eliassen-Palm fluxes averaged over 36 years have periodical maxima with the main maximum at the beginning of January at altitudes 40-50 km. During the above-mentioned intervals of more frequent occurrence of stratospheric warming events, maxima of PW amplitudes and Eliassen-Palm fluxes, also minima of eastward winds in the high-latitude northern stratosphere have been found. Climatological intra-seasonal irregularities of stratospheric warming dates could indicate reiterating phases of stratospheric vacillations in different years.

  19. On the Variation of Zonal Gravity Coefficients of a Giant Planet Caused by Its Deep Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients \\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, \\Delta {J}_{2n}={J}_{2n}-\\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J 2 coefficient and 0.7% of J 4. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., \\Delta {J}_{2n} \\,{\\ge}\\, \\bar{J}_{2n} for n >= 5.

  20. Zonal wavefront reconstruction in quadrilateral geometry for phase measuring deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo

    2017-06-14

    There are wide applications for zonal reconstruction methods in slope-based metrology due to its good capability of reconstructing the local details on surface profile. It was noticed in the literature that large reconstruction errors occur when using zonal reconstruction methods designed for rectangular geometry to process slopes in a quadrilateral geometry, which is a more general geometry with phase measuring deflectometry. In this paper, we present a new idea for the zonal methods for quadrilateral geometry. Instead of employing the intermediate slopes to set up height-slope equations, we consider the height increment as a more general connector to establish themore » height-slope relations for least-squares regression. The classical zonal methods and interpolation-assisted zonal methods are compared with our proposal. Results of both simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed idea. In implementation, the modification on the classical zonal methods is addressed. Finally, the new methods preserve many good aspects of the classical ones, such as the ability to handle a large incomplete slope dataset in an arbitrary aperture, and the low computational complexity comparable with the classical zonal method. Of course, the accuracy of the new methods is much higher when integrating the slopes in quadrilateral geometry.« less

  1. Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.

    2003-07-01

    The irregular moons of the Jovian planets are a puzzling part of the solar system inventory. Unlike regular satellites, the irregular moons revolve around planets at large distances in tilted and eccentric orbits. Their origin, which is intimately linked with the origin of the planets themselves, is yet to be explained. Here we report a study of the orbital and collisional evolution of the irregular satellites from times after their formation to the present epoch. The purpose of this study is to find out the features of the observed irregular moons that can be attributed to this evolution and separate them from signatures of the formation process. We numerically integrated ~60,000 test satellite orbits to map orbital locations that are stable on long time intervals. We found that the orbits highly inclined to the ecliptic are unstable due to the effect of the Kozai resonance, which radially stretches them so that satellites either escape from the Hill sphere, collide with massive inner moons, or impact the parent planet. We also found that prograde satellite orbits with large semimajor axes are unstable due to the effect of the evection resonance, which locks the orbit's apocenter to the apparent motion of the Sun around the parent planet. In such a resonance, the effect of solar tides on a resonant moon accumulates at each apocenter passage of the moon, which causes a radially outward drift of its orbital apocenter; once close to the Hill sphere, the moon escapes. By contrast, retrograde moons with large orbital semimajor axes are long-lived. We have developed an analytic model of the distant satellite orbits and used it to explain the results of our numerical experiments. In particular, we analytically studied the effect of the Kozai resonance. We numerically integrated the orbits of the 50 irregular moons (known by 2002 August 16) for 108 yr. All orbits were stable on this time interval and did not show any macroscopic variations that would indicate

  2. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word’s meaning (e.g., the verb’s inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn’t readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  3. Cartography of irregularly shaped satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Irregularly shaped satellites, such as Phobos and Amalthea, do not lend themselves to mapping by conventional methods because mathematical projections of their surfaces fail to convey an accurate visual impression of the landforms, and because large and irregular scale changes make their features difficult to measure on maps. A digital mapping technique has therefore been developed by which maps are compiled from digital topographic and spacecraft image files. The digital file is geometrically transformed as desired for human viewing, either on video screens or on hard copy. Digital files of this kind consist of digital images superimposed on another digital file representing the three-dimensional form of a body.

  4. Zonally Asymmetric Ozone and the Morphology of the Planetary Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    sections for the 271 troposphere , J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2600-2616. 272 Eyring, V., et al. (2007), Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone ...GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, JULY 15, 2011 Zonally asymmetric ozone and the morphology of the 1 planetary waveguide...that zonally asymmetric 6 ozone (ZAO) profoundly changes the morphology of the Northern Hemisphere planetary 7 waveguide (PWG). ZAO causes the PWG to

  5. Impact of resonant magnetic perturbations on nonlinearly driven modes in drift-wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, UCSD, California 92093

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows, and confinement in the framework of resistive drift wave turbulence. We extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large ({delta}B{sub r}/B{sub 0}). Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress) and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolutionmore » of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find states that are similar to the ZF-dominated state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude, the energy of zonal flows decreases and the turbulence energy increases with ({delta}B{sub r}/B{sub 0}), corresponding to a damping of zonal flows.« less

  6. Generation of Plasma Density Irregularities in the Midlatitude/Subauroral F Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    A concise review is given of the current state of the theoretical understanding of the creation of small- and meso-scale plasma density irregularities in the midlatitude/subauroral F region during quiet and disturbed periods. The former are discussed in terms of the temperature gradient instability (TGI) in the vicinity of the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause and the Perkins instability. During active conditions some part of the midlatitude ionosphere becomes the subauroral region dominated by enhanced westward flows (SAPS and SAID) driven by poleward electric fields. Their irregular, often nonlinear wave structure leads to the formation of plasma density irregularities in the plasmasphere and conjugate ionosphere. Here, meso-scale irregularities are due to the positive feedback magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling instability, while small scales resulted from the gradient drift instability (GDI), temperature GDI, and the ion frictional heating instability. The theoretical predictions are compared with satellite observations in the perturbed subauroral geospace.

  7. DRIFT COMPENSATED DIRECT COUPLED AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Windsor, A.A.

    1959-05-01

    An improved direct-coupled amplifier having zerolevel drift correction is described. The need for an auxiliary corrective-potential amplifier is eliminated thereby giving protection against overload saturation of the zero- level drift correcting circuit. (T.R.H.)

  8. German Views of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    closely observed much of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). His military experiences occurred during the end of the Age of Absolutism10 in Europe when...10 The Age of Absolutism refers to a period when absolute monarchs controlled much of Europe and is commonly considered to...concluded with a chapter related to irregular warfare and the nuclear age and an appendix dedicated to the training notes of the famed English

  9. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on secondary structures in Drift-Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study the effects of RMPs on turbulence, flows and confinement, in the framework of two paradigmatic models, resistive ballooning and resistive drift waves. For resistive ballooning turbulence, we use 3D global numerical simulations, including RMP fields and (externally-imposed) sheared rotation profile. Without RMPs, relaxation oscillations of the pressure profile occur. With RMPs, results show that long-lived convection cells are generated by the combined effects of pressure modulation and toroidal curvature coupling. These modify the global structure of the turbulence and eliminate relaxation oscillations. This effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of residual magnetic island chains. Hence convection-cell generation increases for increasing δBr/B0. For RMP effect on zonal flows in drift wave turbulence, we extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large δBr/B0. Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress), and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters, and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find a novel set of system states that are similar to the Hmode-like state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude and low collisionality, both the ambient turbulence and zonal flow energy increase with δBr/B0. For larger RMP strength, the turbulence energy increases, but the energy of zonal flows decreases with δBr/B0, corresponding to a damping of zonal flows. At high

  10. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-07-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling time-scale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  11. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  12. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

  13. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-04-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  14. Future Effects of Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Zonal Asymmetries on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, K.; Solomon, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Fyfe, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric zonal asymmetries in the Southern Hemisphere have been shown to have significant influences on both stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics and climate. Accurate representation of stratospheric ozone in particular is important for realistic simulation of the polar vortex strength and temperature trends. This is therefore also important for stratospheric ozone change's effect on the troposphere, both through modulation of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and more localized climate. Here, we characterization the impact of future changes in Southern Hemisphere zonal asymmetry on tropospheric climate, including changes to future tropospheric temperature, and precipitation. The separate impacts of increasing GHGs and ozone recovery on the zonal asymmetric influence on the surface are also investigated. For this purpose, we use a variety of models, including Chemistry Climate Model Initiative simulations from the Community Earth System Model, version 1, with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)) and the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model (ACCESS-CCM). These models have interactive chemistry and can therefore more accurately represent the zonally asymmetric nature of the stratosphere. The CESM1(WACCM) and ACCESS-CCM models are also compared to simulations from the Canadian Can2ESM model and CESM-Large Ensemble Project (LENS) that have prescribed ozone to further investigate the importance of simulating stratospheric zonal asymmetry.

  15. Hubble Spotlight on Irregular Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This delicate blue group of stars — actually an irregular galaxy named IC 3583 — sits some 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo (The Virgin). It may seem to have no discernable structure, but IC 3583 has been found to have a bar of stars running through its center. These structures are common throughout the Universe, and are found within the majority of spiral, many irregular, and some lenticular galaxies. Two of our closest cosmic neighbors, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, are barred, indicating that they may have once been barred spiral galaxies that were disrupted or torn apart by the gravitational pull of the Milky Way. Researchers at the University of Leicester, England note there are two types of irregular galaxy. Type I's are usually single galaxies of peculiar appearance. They contain a large fraction of young stars, and show the luminous nebulae that are also visible in spiral galaxies. Type II irregulars include the group known as interacting or disrupting galaxies, in which the strange appearance is due to two or more galaxies colliding, merging or otherwise interacting gravitationally. Something similar might be happening with IC 3583. This small galaxy is thought to be gravitationally interacting with one of its neighbors, the spiral Messier 90. Together, the duo form a pairing known as Arp 76. It’s still unclear whether these flirtations are the cause of IC 3583’s irregular appearance — but whatever the cause, the galaxy makes for a strikingly delicate sight in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, glimmering in the blackness of space. Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on

  16. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region. II - Cross-correlation and spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cragin, B. L.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Valladares, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Equatorial bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities have been studied by applying techniques of cross-correlation and spectral analysis to the Atmosphere Explorer data set. The phase of the cross-correlations of the plasma number density is discussed and the two drift velocity components observed using the retarding potential analyzer and ion drift meter on the satellite are discussed. Morphology is addressed, presenting the geographical distributions of the occurrence of BSS events for the equinoxes and solstices. Physical processes including the ion Larmor flux, interhemispheric plasma flows, and variations in the lower F region Pedersen conductivity are invoked to explain the findings.

  17. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Zonal Flows and Turbulence in Fluids and Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking `zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetricmore » coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type Is instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the

  19. Nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation. I - Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Ka Kit

    1986-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations (mass conservation, thermodynamics, and zonal momentum) on a sphere. The relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate is studied. Differences between results of nongeostropic theory and the geostrophic formulation concerning the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation and the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit versus the geostrophic limit are discussed. Consideration is given to the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence, the Eliassen-Palm pseudodivergence, the nonacceleration theorem, and the nonlinear nongeostrophic Taylor relationship.

  20. Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear

  1. Global Distribution of Density Irregularities in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kil, Hyosub; Heelis, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed measurements of ion number density made by the retarding potential analyzer aboard the Atmosphere Explorer-E (AE-E) satellite, which was in an approximately circular orbit at an altitude near 300 km in 1977 and later at an altitude near 400 km. Large-scale (greater than 60 km) density measurements in the high-altitude regions show large depletions of bubble-like structures which are confined to narrow local time longitude, and magnetic latitude ranges, while those in the low-altitude regions show relatively small depletions which are broadly distributed,in space. For this reason we considered the altitude regions below 300 km and above 350 km and investigated the global distribution of irregularities using the rms deviation delta N/N over a path length of 18 km as an indicator of overall irregularity intensity. Seasonal variations of irregularity occurrence probability are significant in the Pacific regions, while the occurrence probability is always high in die Atlantic-African regions and is always low in die Indian regions. We find that the high occurrence probability in the Pacific regions is associated with isolated bubble structures, while that near 0 deg longitude is produced by large depictions with bubble structures which are superimposed on a large-scale wave-like background. Considerations of longitude variations due to seeding mechanisms and due to F region winds and drifts are necessary to adequately explain the observations at low and high altitudes. Seeding effects are most obvious near 0 deg longitude, while the most easily observed effect of the F region is the suppression of irregularity growth by interhemispheric neutral winds.

  2. Spaced antenna drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royrvik, O.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that the spaced antenna drift (SAD) technique could be successfully used by VHF radars and that it would be superior to a Doppler-beam-swinging (DBS) technique because it would take advantage of the aspect sensitivity of the scattered signal, and might also benefit from returns from single meteors. It appears, however, that the technique suffers from several limitations. On the basis of one SAD experiment performed at the very large Jicamarca radar, it is concluded that the SAD technique can be compared in accuracy to the DBS technique only if small antenna dimensions are used.

  3. Gravitational Anomalies Caused by Zonal Winds in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Kong, D.; Zhang, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an accurate three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the gravitational anomalies caused by zonal winds in Jupiter. The calculation is based on a three-dimensional finite element method and accounts for the full effect of significant departure from spherical geometry caused by rapid rotation. Since the speeds of Jupiter's zonal winds are much smaller than that of its rigid-body rotation, our numerical calculation is carried out in two stages. First, we compute the non-spherical distributions of density and pressure at the equilibrium within Jupiter via a hybrid inverse approach by determining an a priori unknown coefficient in the polytropic equation of state that results in a match to the observed shape of Jupiter. Second, by assuming that Jupiter's zonal winds extend throughout the interior along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis, we compute gravitational anomalies produced by the wind-related density anomalies, providing an upper bound to the gravitational anomalies caused by the Jovian zonal winds.

  4. Eastern Tropical Pacific Precipitation Response to Zonal SPCZ events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Quesada, A. M.; Lintner, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme El Niño events and warming conditions in the eastern tropical Pacific have been linked to pronounced spatial displacements of the South Pacific Convergence Zone known as "zonal SPCZ" events.. Using a global dataset of Lagrangian back trajectories computed with the FLEXPART model for the period 1980-2013, comprehensive analysis of the 3D circulation characteristics associated with the SPCZ is undertaken. Ten days history of along-trajectory specific humidity, potential vorticity and temperature are reconstructed for zonal SPCZ events as well as other states,, with differences related to El Niño intensity and development stage as well as the state of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. How zonal events influence precipitation over the Eastern Tropical Pacific is examined using back trajectories, reanalysis, TRMM precipitation, and additional satellite derived cloud information. It is found that SPCZ displacements are associated with enhanced convection over the Eastern Tropical Pacific in good agreement with prior work. The connection between intensification of precipitation over the eastern Tropical Pacific during zonal events and suppression of rainfall over the Maritime continent is also described.

  5. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  6. Subsurface Zonal and Meridional Flows from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We study the solar-cycle variation of the zonal and meridional flows in the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone from the surface to a depth of about 16 Mm. The flows are determined from SDO/HMI Dopplergrams using the HMI ring-diagram pipeline. The zonal and meridional flows vary with the solar cycle. Bands of faster-than-average zonal flows together with more-poleward-than-average meridional flows move from mid-latitudes toward the equator during the solar cycle and are mainly located on the equatorward side of the mean latitude of solar magnetic activity. Similarly, bands of slower-than-average zonal flows together with less-poleward-than-average meridional flows are located on the poleward side of the mean latitude of activity. Here, we will focus on the variation of these flows at high latitudes (poleward of 50 degree) that are now accessible using HMI data. We will present the latest results.

  7. Fingermark ridge drift.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené

    2016-01-01

    Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TIME-GCM study of the ionospheric equatorial vertical drift changes during the 2006 stratospheric sudden warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A.; Hagan, M. E.; Richmond, A. D.; Roble, R. G.

    2014-02-01

    This modeling study quantifies the daytime low-latitude vertical E×B drift changes in the longitudinal wave number 1 (wn1) to wn4 during the major extended January 2006 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) period as simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM), and attributes the drift changes to specific tides and planetary waves (PWs). The largest drift amplitude change (approximately 5 m/s) is seen in wn1 with a strong temporal correlation to the SSW. The wn1 drift is primarily caused by the semidiurnal westward propagating tide with zonal wave number 1 (SW1), and secondarily by a stationary planetary wave with zonal wave number 1 (PW1). SW1 is generated by the nonlinear interaction of PW1 and the migrating semidiurnal tide (SW2) at high latitude around 90-100 km. The simulations suggest that the E region PW1 around 100-130 km at the different latitudes has different origins: at high latitudes, the PW1 is related to the original stratospheric PW1; at midlatitudes, the model indicates PW1 is due to the nonlinear interaction of SW1 and SW2 around 95-105 km; and at low latitudes, the PW1 might be caused by the nonlinear interaction between DE2 and DE3. The time evolution of the simulated wn4 in the vertical E×B drift amplitude shows no temporal correlation with the SSW. The wn4 in the low-latitude vertical drift is attributed to the diurnal eastward propagating tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3), and the contributions from SE2, TE1, and PW4 are negligible.

  9. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  10. Repository Drift Backfilling Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, I.; Dubois, J.Ph.; Bauer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The 'Backfilling Demonstrator' is one of the technological demonstrators developed by ANDRA in the framework of the feasibility studies for a geological repository for high-level long-lived (HL-LL waste) within a clay formation. The demonstrator concerns the standard and supporting backfills as defined in Andra's 2005 design. The standard backfill is intended to fill up almost all drifts of the underground repository in order to limit any deformation of the rock after the degradation of the drift lining. The supporting backfill only concerns a small portion of the volume to be backfilled in order to counter the swelling pressure of themore » swelling clay contained in the sealing structures. The first objective of the demonstrator was to show the possibility of manufacturing a satisfactory backfill, in spite of the exiguity of the underground structures, and of reusing as much as possible the argillite muck. For the purpose of this experiment, the argillite muck was collected on Andra's work-site for the implementation of an underground research laboratory. Still ongoing, the second objective is to follow up the long-term evolution of the backfill. Approximately 200 m{sup 3} of compacted backfill material have been gathered in a large concrete tube simulating a repository drift. The standard backfill was manufactured exclusively with argillite. The supporting backfill was made by forming a mixture of argillite and sand. Operations were carried out mostly at Richwiller, close to Mulhouse, France. The objectives of the demonstrator were met: an application method was tested and proven satisfactory. The resulting dry densities are relatively high, although the moduli of deformation do not always reach the set goal. The selected objective for the demonstrator was a dry density corresponding to a relatively high compaction level (95% of the standard Proctor optimum [SPO]), for both pure argillite and the argillite-sand mixture. The plate-percussion compaction

  11. HF produced ionospheric electron density irregularities diagnosed by UHF radio star scintillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A.; Gordon, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three observations of radio star intensity fluctuations at UHF are reported for HF ionospheric modification experiments carried out at the Arecibo Observatory. Two observations at 430 MHz and one at 1400 MHz suggest that the the thin phase screen theory is a good approximation to the observed power spectra. It is noted, however, that the theory has to be extended to include antenna filtering. This type of filtering is important for UHF radio star scintillations since the antenna usually has a narrow beamwidth. HF power densities of less than 37 microwatts/sq m incident on the ionosphere give rise to electron density irregularities larger than 13% of the ambient density (at 260 km) having scale sizes of approximately 510 m perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. The irregularities are found to form within 20-25 s after the HF power is turned on. The drift velocities of the irregularities can be estimated from the observed power spectra.

  12. Dissipation of ionospheric irregularities by wave-particle and collisional interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Gray, S. P.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinear dissipation of plasma irregularities aligned parallel to an ambient magnetic field is studied numerically using a model which employs both wave-particle and collisional diffusion. A wave-particle diffusion coefficient derived from a local theory of the universal drift instability is used. This coefficient is effective in regions of nonzero plasma gradients and produces triangular-shaped irregularities with spectra which vary as f to the -4th, where f is the spatial frequency. Collisional diffusion acts rapidly on the vertices of the irregularities to reduce their amplitude. The simultaneous action of the two dissipative processes is more efficient than collisions acting alone. In this model, wave-particle diffusion mimics the forward cascade process of wave-wave coupling.

  13. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Study from ROCSAT Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-20

    ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time ...scintillation in the Indian and Taiwan sector, it was concluded that the longitudinal/local- time dependence of irregularity/scintillation occurrences...irregularities/scintillation in the Indian and Taiwan sector, we have concluded that the longitudinal/local- time dependence of irregularity/scintillation

  14. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    DOE PAGES

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-10

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in anmore » $$\\boldsymbol{E}\\times \\boldsymbol{B}$$ nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.« less

  15. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  16. Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

    2007-11-01

    A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

  17. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-15

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxesmore » to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.« less

  18. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  19. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirablemore » to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.« less

  20. Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2011-12-09

    The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.

  1. Processing of Irregular Polysemes in Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocher, Andreas; Foraker, Stephani; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The degree to which meanings are related in memory affects ambiguous word processing. We examined irregular polysemes, which have related senses based on similar or shared features rather than a relational rule, like regular polysemy. We tested to what degree the related meanings of irregular polysemes ("wire") are represented with…

  2. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  3. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  4. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    DOE PAGES

    Flauger, Raphael; McAllister, Liam; Silverstein, Eva; ...

    2017-10-31

    In this paper, we study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effectsmore » of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. Finally, we use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.« less

  5. About the Drift Reduction Technology Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The new voluntary Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) Program will encourage the manufacture, marketing, and use of safer spray technology and equipment scientifically verified to reduce pesticide drift.

  6. Zonal subdivision of marine sequences: achievements and discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    It was 150 years ago when a notion of zone was introduced into stratigraphy. By the present time zonal units with a duration of 0.3-3.0 M.y. in average have been established virtually for all systems and stages of the Phanerozoic. Their quantity reached 300. It is not a chance that zonal stratigraphy is considered to be one of the most significant achievement of the modern geology. There are different interpretations of essence and goals of zonal stratigraphy, techniques of separation of zones, and evaluation of zones as stratigraphic units. Particularly it is reflected in International Stratigraphic Guide (Murphy, Salvador, 1999), Russian Stratigraphic Code (Zhamoida, 2006), and a number of stratigraphic reports of the last years. It concerns different approaches to: (a) establishment of different types of zones (biostratigraphic zones and chronozones, oppel-zones and biohorizons, etc.); (b) assessment of spatial distribution of zones (global or provincial) and a role of sedimentological factor; (c) definition of zones as stratigraphic units (relationships with geostratigraphic units of the standard and regional scales). The latest publications show that because of the different interpretations of zones, authors should explain usage of certain type of zone (for example, when they use the terms "interval-zone" or "assemblage-zone", what limitations stem from application of datum-levels, and others). It is common opinion, that biostratigraphic zones used widely by paleontologists and stratigraphers cannot be a final goal of stratigraphy although they provide a base for solution of many important problems (definition of certain stratigraphic levels, correlation of different biofacies, and others). At the same time, the most important stratigraphic units are chronozones, which correspond to stages or phases of geological evolutio of basins and are marked by distinct fossil assemblages and other properties (magnetic and other characteristics) in the type sections

  7. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encountersmore » with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.« less

  8. Irregular Variability In Kepler Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlecker, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The transit method is the most successful tool for exoplanet discovery to date. With more than half of all known exoplanets discovered by Kepler using this method, the mission also revealed a number of objects with dimming events that defy the common explanations, the most prominent being KIC 8462852 aka ``Tabby's star''. I embarked on a search for objects with such irregular transit signatures in the data of K2, the two-wheeled successor mission of Kepler. My method is a combination of automated pre-selection of targets showing downward flux excursions and visual light curve inspection of the selected subset comprising about SI{1.5}% of the initial sample. In addition, I developed a tool to constrain the effective temperature of a planet-hosting star from photometry alone. This software finds broad application in any science case where a photometric spectral type estimate is necessary. I used existing transit models and Bayesian inference to perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis of a planetary candidate I discovered. This putative gas giant is in a SI{1.32}day circular orbit with an exceptionally tight orbital radius of a ≈ 0.012 AU. My analysis revealed a scaled planetary radius of R_{p}/R_star = 0.0927±0.0026 and an edge-on orientation with an inclination i=89.8+3.0-3.4. EPIC 217393088.01 is one of the closest-orbiting exoplanets ever detected and the first giant planet with such a small orbital radius. An additional major finding of my search is EPIC 220262993, which exhibits aperiodic, asymmetric dips in flux with rapid dimming rates and up to SI{˜25}% depth, lasting for SIrange{2}{4} day. In previous works based on optical and mid-infrared photometry, this object was inconsistently classified as a possible quasar or a white dwarf. We conducted follow-up observations both photometrically with GROND on the MPI/ESO SI{2.2} meter telescope in La Silla (Chile) and spectroscopically with FIRE on the Magellan/Baade SI{6.5} meter telescope. With

  9. Investigation of the role of plasma wave cascading processes in the formation of midlatitude irregularities utilizing GPS and radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltrass, A.; Scales, W. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies reveal that midlatitude ionospheric irregularities are less understood due to lack of models and observations that can explain the characteristics of the observed wave structures. In this paper, the cascading processes of both the temperature gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) are investigated as the cause of these irregularities. Based on observations obtained during a coordinated experiment between the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar and the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar, a time series for the growth rate of both TGI and GDI is calculated for observations in the subauroral ionosphere under both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Recorded GPS scintillation data are analyzed to monitor the amplitude scintillations and to obtain the spectral characteristics of irregularities producing ionospheric scintillations. Spatial power spectra of the density fluctuations associated with the TGI from nonlinear plasma simulations are compared with both the GPS scintillation spectral characteristics and previous in situ satellite spectral measurements. The spectral comparisons suggest that initially, TGI or/and GDI irregularities are generated at large-scale size (kilometer scale), and the dissipation of the energy associated with these irregularities occurs by generating smaller and smaller (decameter scale) irregularities. The alignment between experimental, theoretical, and computational results of this study suggests that in spite of expectations from linear growth rate calculations, cascading processes involving TGI and GDI are likely responsible for the midlatitude ionospheric irregularities associated with GPS scintillations during disturbed times.

  10. Irregular sesquiterpenoids from Ligusticum grayi roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root oil of Ligusticum grayi (Apiaceae) contains numerous irregular sesquiterpenoids. In addition to the known acyclic sesquilavandulol and a new sesquilavandulyl aldehyde, two thapsanes, one epithapsane, and fourteen sesquiterpenoids representing eight novel carbon skeletons were found. The new sk...

  11. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  12. Temporal Variability and Latitudinal Jets in Venus's Zonal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Bullock, M. A.; Tavenner, T.; Coyote, S.; Murphy, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We have observed Venus's night hemisphere from NASA's IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) during each inferior conjunction since 2001 to quantify the motion of features in Venus's lower and middle cloud decks. We now present latitudinal profiles from 11 nights, obtained in May and July 2004, February 2006 and September 2007. In about 7 of the 11 nights there are zonal jets near 45N and/or -50S, with speed differentials of 5 to 15 m/s relative to the adjacent equatorward latitude bands. These jets may be evidence of episodic Hadley cell-type circulation. About half of the nights show relatively constant velocity profiles between the latitudes of 50N to 50S, suggesting that considerable mixing is taking place between latitudes. Our most remarkable result is the temporal variability in the median zonal speeds from day to day. For example, the median velocity near the equator increases from 53 to 65 m/s over the period from July 11 - 13, 2004, and increases from 65 to 82 m/s over the period from Sept. 9 - 11, 2007. These velocity changes are too great to be due to the tracking of clouds that are in the middle vs. lower cloud deck, nor can they be caused by clouds that occupy different altitudes; a velocity variation of 25% corresponds to an altitude difference of 15 km, based on vertical profiles of zonal windspeeds from tracking of Pioneer Venus and Venera descent probes. Fifteen km is greater than the expected variation in either cloud base. VIRTIS observations of Venus's southern hemisphere were also obtained in September 2007 and should be able to corroborate or contradict the observed variations. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Atmospheres programs.

  13. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few diskmore » scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.« less

  14. Dynamics of zonal shear collapse with hydrodynamic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theory for the collapse of the edge zonal shear layer, as observed at the density limit at low β. This paper investigates the scaling of the transport and mean profiles with the adiabaticity parameter α, with special emphasizes on fluxes relevant to zonal flow (ZF) generation. We show that the adiabaticity parameter characterizes the strength of production of zonal flows and so determines the state of turbulence. A 1D reduced model that self-consistently describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the mean density n ¯ , the azimuthal flow v¯ y , and the turbulent potential enstrophy ɛ=⟨(n˜ -∇2ϕ˜ ) 2/2 ⟩ —related to fluctuation intensity—is presented. Quasi-linear analysis determines how the particle flux Γn and vorticity flux Π=-χy∇2vy+Πre s scale with α, in both hydrodynamic and adiabatic regimes. As the plasma response passes from adiabatic (α > 1) to hydrodynamic (α < 1), the particle flux Γn is enhanced and the turbulent viscosity χy increases. However, the residual flux Πres—which drives the flow—drops with α. As a result, the mean vorticity gradient ∇2v¯ y=Πre s/χy —representative of the strength of the shear—also drops. The shear layer then collapses and turbulence is enhanced. The collapse is due to a decrease in ZF production, not an increase in damping. A physical picture for the onset of collapse is presented. The findings of this paper are used to motivate an explanation of the phenomenology of low β density limit evolution. A change from adiabatic ( α=kz2vth 2/(|ω|νei)>1 ) to hydrodynamic (α < 1) electron dynamics is associated with the density limit.

  15. The Drifting Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  16. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  17. A simple inertial model for Neptune's zonal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Lumetta, James T.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of zonal cloud-tracked winds on Neptune revealed a strongly subrotational equatorial jet with a speed approaching 500 m/s and generally decreasing retrograde motion toward the poles. The wind data are interpreted with a speculative but revealingly simple model based on steady gradient flow balance and an assumed global homogenization of potential vorticity for shallow layer motion. The prescribed model flow profile relates the equatorial velocity to the mid-latitude shear, in reasonable agreement with the available data, and implies a global horizontal deformation scale L(D) of about 3000 km.

  18. Dynamic Stall Computations Using a Zonal Navier-Stokes Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL lotMonterey ,California CD Lj STATF ,-S THESIS DYNAMIC STALL CALCULATIONS USING A ZONAL.-,_ % 0 NVETESISDE by Jack H...Conroyd, Jr. June 1988 Thesis Co-advisors: M.F. Platzer Lawrence W. Carr Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitedDOTIC , ~~~~~~~~ELECT...OINT %, Master s Thesis OM To June 212 6 SLP;’LEENTARY NOTATION ri The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the

  19. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  20. Propagating waves can explain irregular neural dynamics.

    PubMed

    Keane, Adam; Gong, Pulin

    2015-01-28

    Cortical neurons in vivo fire quite irregularly. Previous studies about the origin of such irregular neural dynamics have given rise to two major models: a balanced excitation and inhibition model, and a model of highly synchronized synaptic inputs. To elucidate the network mechanisms underlying synchronized synaptic inputs and account for irregular neural dynamics, we investigate a spatially extended, conductance-based spiking neural network model. We show that propagating wave patterns with complex dynamics emerge from the network model. These waves sweep past neurons, to which they provide highly synchronized synaptic inputs. On the other hand, these patterns only emerge from the network with balanced excitation and inhibition; our model therefore reconciles the two major models of irregular neural dynamics. We further demonstrate that the collective dynamics of propagating wave patterns provides a mechanistic explanation for a range of irregular neural dynamics, including the variability of spike timing, slow firing rate fluctuations, and correlated membrane potential fluctuations. In addition, in our model, the distributions of synaptic conductance and membrane potential are non-Gaussian, consistent with recent experimental data obtained using whole-cell recordings. Our work therefore relates the propagating waves that have been widely observed in the brain to irregular neural dynamics. These results demonstrate that neural firing activity, although appearing highly disordered at the single-neuron level, can form dynamical coherent structures, such as propagating waves at the population level. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351591-15$15.00/0.

  1. 6. West elevation of Drift Creek Bridge, view looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West elevation of Drift Creek Bridge, view looking east from new alignment of Drift Creek Road - Drift Creek Bridge, Spanning Drift Creek on Drift Creek County Road, Lincoln City, Lincoln County, OR

  2. Why Irregulars Win: Asymmetry of Motivations and the Outcomes of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    have on dependent variables.” 58 Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences, BCSIA Studies in...of case studies is used to evaluate irregular wars and the motivations of the combatants. The findings suggest that asymmetries of motivation only...irregular wars. A mixed methodology, including heuristics, process tracing, and comparison of case studies is used to evaluate irregular wars and the

  3. Implementing Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications Using MPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. Unfortunately, simple message passing models, like Intel's NX library, only allow point-to-point and global communication within a single system-defined partition. This makes implementation of these applications quite difficult, if not impossible. In this report it is shown that the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard is a viable portable library for implementing the message passing portion of multidisciplinary applications. Further, with the extension of a portable loader, fully portable multidisciplinary application programs can be developed. Finally, the performance of MPI is compared to that of some native message passing libraries. This comparison shows that MPI can be implemented to deliver performance commensurate with native message libraries.

  4. Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin

    2007-04-01

    Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.

  5. A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-03-01

    A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  6. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70°N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions (i.e., a restoring condition on sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity) are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake Passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  7. Detecting chaos in irregularly sampled time series.

    PubMed

    Kulp, C W

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Wiebe and Virgin [Chaos 22, 013136 (2012)] developed an algorithm which detects chaos by analyzing a time series' power spectrum which is computed using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Their algorithm, like other time series characterization algorithms, requires that the time series be regularly sampled. Real-world data, however, are often irregularly sampled, thus, making the detection of chaotic behavior difficult or impossible with those methods. In this paper, a characterization algorithm is presented, which effectively detects chaos in irregularly sampled time series. The work presented here is a modification of Wiebe and Virgin's algorithm and uses the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) to compute a series' power spectrum instead of the DFT. The DFT is not appropriate for irregularly sampled time series. However, the LSP is capable of computing the frequency content of irregularly sampled data. Furthermore, a new method of analyzing the power spectrum is developed, which can be useful for differentiating between chaotic and non-chaotic behavior. The new characterization algorithm is successfully applied to irregularly sampled data generated by a model as well as data consisting of observations of variable stars.

  8. Solar Drift-Pair Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.

  9. Irregular menstruation according to occupational status.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-07-06

    This cross-sectional study explored associations of irregular menstruation with occupational characteristics, using secondary analyses of data from 4,731 women aged 19-54 years, collected from a nationally representative sample, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V during 2010-2012. The associations between irregular menstruation and occupation were explored using multiple logistic regression. Compared to non-manual workers, service/sales workers had a greater odds of irregular menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.44; 95percent confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.99) as did manual workers and unemployed women (aOR: 1.56; 95percent CI: 1.10-2.22, aOR: 1.46; 95percent CI: 1.14-1.89, respectively). Compared to regular workers, temporary workers and unemployed women had aORs of 1.52 (95percent CI: 1.08-2.13) and 1.33 (95percent CI: 1.05-1.69), respectively. Also, when compared to full-time workers, part-time workers and unemployed women had greater odds of irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.41; 95percent CI: 1.00-2.00 and aOR: 1.29; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.63, respectively). Furthermore, compared to daytime workers, shift workers and unemployed women had greater odds irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.39; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.88 and aOR: 1.28; 95percent CI: 1.04-1.59, respectively). Women with these occupational characteristics should be screened for early diagnosis and intervention for irregular menstruation.

  10. Rocket measurements of mesospheric ionization irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, R. B.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Langmuir probe technique for measurement of electron concentration in the mesosphere is capable of excellent altitude resolution, of order 1 m. Measurements from nine daytime rocket flights carrying an electron density fine structure experiment frequently show small scale ionization structures in the altitude region 70 to 90 km. The irregularities are believed to be the result of turbulent advection of ions and electrons. The fine structure experiment flown by the University of Illinois is described and methods of analyzing the collected data is presented. Theories of homogeneous, isotropic turbulence are reviewed. Power spectra of the measured irregularities are calculated and compared to spectra predicted by turbulence theories.

  11. Acoustic and Linguistic Interdependencies of Irregular Phonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    duration in the word ’year’ for a specific TIMIT case. ’ axl " refers to the phonated portion of the ’ I" in ’year’ and ’q’ refers to the inegularly phonated...and trans glottal pressure. Different configurations of the 19 system can lead not only to modal voiced speech and 1I11~oiced speech (the "regular...irregular phonation, despite the fact that they have much more divergent ranges during modal phonation. Males Females Group Range ofIrregular Region 7 -78

  12. Saturn’s gravitational field induced by its equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-level zonal winds of Saturn are marked by a substantial equatorially antisymmetric component with a speed of about 50ms‑1 which, if they are sufficiently deep, can produce measurable odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4. This study, based on solutions of the thermal-gravitational wind equation, provides a theoretical basis for interpreting the odd gravitational coefficients of Saturn in terms of its equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow. We adopt a Saturnian model comprising an ice-rock core, a metallic dynamo region and an outer molecular envelope. We use an equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow that is parameterized, confined in the molecular envelope and satisfies the solvability condition required for the thermal-gravitational wind equation. The structure and amplitude of the zonal flow at the cloud level are chosen to be consistent with observations of Saturn. We calculate the odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4 by regarding the depth of the equatorially antisymmetric winds as a parameter. It is found that ΔJ 3 is ‑4.197 × 10‑8 if the zonal winds extend about 13 000 km downward from the cloud tops while it is ‑0.765 × 10‑8 if the depth is about 4000 km. The depth/profile of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds can eventually be estimated when the high-precision measurements of the Cassini Grand Finale become available.

  13. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  14. A Zonal Approach for Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    A zonal approach for direct computation of sound generation and propagation from a supersonic jet is investigated. The present work splits the computational domain into a nonlinear, acoustic-source regime and a linear acoustic wave propagation regime. In the nonlinear regime, the unsteady flow is governed by the large-scale equations, which are the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the linear acoustic regime, the sound wave propagation is described by the linearized Euler equations. Computational results are presented for a supersonic jet at M = 2. 1. It is demonstrated that no spurious modes are generated in the matching region and the computational expense is reduced substantially as opposed to fully large-scale simulation.

  15. Convection driven zonal flows and vortices in the major planets.

    PubMed

    Busse, F. H.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamical properties of convection in rotating cylindrical annuli and spherical shells are reviewed. Simple theoretical models and experimental simulations of planetary convection through the use of the centrifugal force in the laboratory are emphasized. The model of columnar convection in a cylindrical annulus not only serves as a guide to the dynamical properties of convection in rotating sphere; it also is of interest as a basic physical system that exhibits several dynamical properties in their most simple form. The generation of zonal mean flows is discussed in some detail and examples of recent numerical computations are presented. The exploration of the parameter space for the annulus model is not yet complete and the theoretical exploration of convection in rotating spheres is still in the beginning phase. Quantitative comparisons with the observations of the dynamics of planetary atmospheres will have to await the consideration in the models of the effects of magnetic fields and the deviations from the Boussinesq approximation.

  16. Biohazards Assessment in Large-Scale Zonal Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, C. L.; Lemp, J. F.; Barbeito, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biohazards associated with use of the large-scale zonal centrifuge for purification of moderate risk oncogenic viruses. To safely and conveniently assess the hazard, coliphage T3 was substituted for the virus in a typical processing procedure performed in a National Cancer Institute contract laboratory. Risk of personnel exposure was found to be minimal during optimal operation but definite potential for virus release from a number of centrifuge components during mechanical malfunction was shown by assay of surface, liquid, and air samples collected during the processing. High concentration of phage was detected in the turbine air exhaust and the seal coolant system when faulty seals were employed. The simulant virus was also found on both centrifuge chamber interior and rotor surfaces. Images PMID:1124921

  17. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  18. On radiating baroclinic instability of zonally varying flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Catherine A.; Nathan, Terrence R.

    1993-01-01

    A quasi-geostrophic, two-layer, beta-plane model is used to study the baroclinic instability characteristics of a zonally inhomogeneous flow. It is assumed that the disturbance varied slowly in the cross-stream direction, and the stability problem was formulated as a 1D initial value problem. Emphasis is placed on determining how the vertically averaged wind, local maximum in vertical wind shear, and length of the locally supercritical region combine to yield local instabilities. Analysis of the local disturbance energetics reveals that, for slowly varying basic states, the baroclinic energy conversion predominates within the locally unstable region. Using calculations of the basic state tendencies, it is shown that the net effect of the local instabilities is to redistribute energy from the baroclinic to the barotropic component of the basic state flow.

  19. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999).more » This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.« less

  20. The role of zonal flows in reactive fluid closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, WEILAND

    2018-07-01

    We will give an overview of results obtained by our reactive fluid model. It is characterised as a fluid model where all moments with sources in the experiment are kept. Furthermore, full account is taken for the highest moments appearing in unexpanded denominators also including full toroidicity. It has been demonstrated that the strength of zonal flows is dramatically larger in reactive fluid closures than in those which involve dissipation. This gives a direct connection between the fluid closure and the level of excitation of turbulence. This is because zonal flows are needed to absorb the inverse cascade in quasi 2D turbulence. This also explains the similarity in structure of the transport coefficients in our model with a reactive closure in the energy equation and models which have a reactive closure because of zero ion temperature such as the Hasegawa–Wakatani model. Our exact reactive closure unifies several well-known features of tokamak experiments such as the L–H transition, internal transport barriers and the nonlinear Dimits upshift of the critical gradient for onset of transport. It also gives transport of the same level as that in nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Since these include the kinetic resonance this confirms the validity of the thermodynamic properties of our model. Furthermore, we can show that while a strongly nonlinear model is needed in kinetic theory a quasilinear model is sufficient in the fluid description. Thus our quasilinear fluid model will be adequate for treating all relevant problems in bulk transport. This is finally confirmed by the reproduction by the model of the experimental power scaling of the confinement time τ E ∼ P ‑2/3. This confirms the validity of our reactive fluid model. This also gives credibility to our ITER simulations including the H-mode barrier. A new result is here, that alpha heating strongly reduces the slope of the H-mode barrier. This should significantly reduce the effects of ELM’s.

  1. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lyle

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mudmore » losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability

  2. Combining zonal refractive and diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Albarrán-Diego, César; Javaloy, Jaime; Sakla, Hani F; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    To assess visual performance with the combination of a zonal refractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) (Lentis Mplus, Oculentis GmbH) and a diffractive aspheric MIOL (Acri.Lisa 366, Acri.Tech GmbH). This prospective interventional cohort study comprised 80 eyes from 40 cataract patients (mean age: 65.5±7.3 years) who underwent implantation of the Lentis Mplus MIOL in one eye and Acri.Lisa 366 MIOL in the fellow eye. The main outcome measures were refraction; monocular and binocular uncorrected and corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; monocular and binocular defocus curves; binocular photopic contrast sensitivity function compared to a monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) control group (40 age-matched pseudophakic patients implanted with the AR-40e [Abbott Medical Optics]); and quality of vision questionnaire. Binocular uncorrected visual acuities were 0.12 logMAR (0.76 decimal) or better at all distances measured between 6 m and 33 cm. The Lentis Mplus provided statistically significant better vision than the Acri.Lisa at distances between 2 m and 40 cm, and the Acri.Lisa provided statistically significant better vision than the Lentis Mplus at 33 cm. Binocular defocus curve showed little drop-off at intermediate distances. Photopic contrast sensitivity function for distance and near were similar to the monofocal IOL control group except for higher frequencies. Moderate glare (15%), night vision problems (12.5%), and halos (10%) were reported. Complete independence of spectacles was achieved by 92.5% of patients. The combination of zonal refractive aspheric and diffractive aspheric MIOLs resulted in excellent uncorrected binocular distance, intermediate, and near vision, with low incidence of significant photic phenomena and high patient satisfaction. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. "How Did We Get Here?": Topic Drift in Online Health Discussions.

    PubMed

    Park, Albert; Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; Hsieh, Gary; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2016-11-02

    Patients increasingly use online health communities to exchange health information and peer support. During the progression of health discussions, a change of topic-topic drift-can occur. Topic drift is a frequent phenomenon linked to incoherence and frustration in online communities and other forms of computer-mediated communication. For sensitive topics, such as health, such drift could have life-altering repercussions, yet topic drift has not been studied in these contexts. Our goals were to understand topic drift in online health communities and then to develop and evaluate an automated approach to detect both topic drift and efforts of community members to counteract such drift. We manually analyzed 721 posts from 184 threads from 7 online health communities within WebMD to understand topic drift, members' reaction towards topic drift, and their efforts to counteract topic drift. Then, we developed an automated approach to detect topic drift and counteraction efforts. We detected topic drift by calculating cosine similarity between 229,156 posts from 37,805 threads and measuring change of cosine similarity scores from the threads' first posts to their sequential posts. Using a similar approach, we detected counteractions to topic drift in threads by focusing on the irregular increase of similarity scores compared to the previous post in threads. Finally, we evaluated the performance of our automated approaches to detect topic drift and counteracting efforts by using a manually developed gold standard. Our qualitative analyses revealed that in threads of online health communities, topics change gradually, but usually stay within the global frame of topics for the specific community. Members showed frustration when topic drift occurred in the middle of threads but reacted positively to off-topic stories shared as separate threads. Although all types of members helped to counteract topic drift, original posters provided the most effort to keep threads on topic

  4. Rossby waves and two-dimensional turbulence in a large-scale zonal jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Theodor G.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous barotropic beta-plane turbulence is investigated, taking into account the effects of spatial inhomogeneity in the form of a zonal shear flows. Attention is given to the case of zonal flows that are barotropically stable and of larger scale than the resulting transient eddy field. Numerical simulations reveal that large-scale zonal flows alter the picture of classical beta-plane turbulence. It is found that the disturbance field penetrates to the largest scales of motion, that the larger disturbance scales show a tendency to meridional rather than zonal anisotropy, and that the initial spectral transfer rate away from an isotropic intermediate-scale source is enhanced by the shear-induced transfer associated with straining by the zonal flow.

  5. Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residuala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William

    2007-05-01

    Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.

  6. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Uluyol, Onder

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  7. Analysis of variance calculations for irregular experiments

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Wright

    1977-01-01

    Irregular experiments may be more useful than much smaller regular experiments and can be analyzed statistically without undue expenditure of time. For a few missing plots, standard methods of calculating missing-plot values can be used. For more missing plots (up to 10 percent), seedlot means or randomly chosen plot means of the same seedlot can be substituted for...

  8. Color Survey of the Irregular Planetary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graykowski, Ariel; Jewitt, David

    2017-10-01

    Irregular planetary satellites are characterized by their large orbital distance from their planet, their high eccentricity and their high inclination, all indicating that they were captured. However, the mechanism of capture and the source region of the satellites remain subjects of conjecture. This work presents the optical magnitudes and colors from a photometric survey of 42 irregular satellites with data obtained from the LRIS instrument on the 10-meter telescope at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii. Color is used as a proxy for composition. We compare the satellite populations of different planets and compare the satellites as a whole with other solar system small-body populations. For instance, if irregular satellites were captured from the Kuiper Belt, as is commonly proposed, then some might contain the ultrared material that is common in the trans-Neptunian and Centaur populations. Overall our data show that the irregular satellites lack ultrared matter. They are color-wise more similar to the comets, giant planet Trojans and other bodies of the middle solar system. Implications of our observations, and comparisons with previous color work, will be discussed.

  9. Aerial spray adjuvants for herbicidal drift control.

    Treesearch

    Gratkowski H.; Stewart R.

    1973-01-01

    Increased public concern about pesticides requires that foresters reduce drift and insure precise application of herbicides to the areas requiring treatment. Drift control is necessary near waterways and other ecologically sensitive areas. This publication discusses available drift control adjuvants for herbicidal sprays. These include invert emulsions, thickening...

  10. “How Did We Get Here?”: Topic Drift in Online Health Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; Hsieh, Gary; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use online health communities to exchange health information and peer support. During the progression of health discussions, a change of topic—topic drift—can occur. Topic drift is a frequent phenomenon linked to incoherence and frustration in online communities and other forms of computer-mediated communication. For sensitive topics, such as health, such drift could have life-altering repercussions, yet topic drift has not been studied in these contexts. Objective Our goals were to understand topic drift in online health communities and then to develop and evaluate an automated approach to detect both topic drift and efforts of community members to counteract such drift. Methods We manually analyzed 721 posts from 184 threads from 7 online health communities within WebMD to understand topic drift, members’ reaction towards topic drift, and their efforts to counteract topic drift. Then, we developed an automated approach to detect topic drift and counteraction efforts. We detected topic drift by calculating cosine similarity between 229,156 posts from 37,805 threads and measuring change of cosine similarity scores from the threads’ first posts to their sequential posts. Using a similar approach, we detected counteractions to topic drift in threads by focusing on the irregular increase of similarity scores compared to the previous post in threads. Finally, we evaluated the performance of our automated approaches to detect topic drift and counteracting efforts by using a manually developed gold standard. Results Our qualitative analyses revealed that in threads of online health communities, topics change gradually, but usually stay within the global frame of topics for the specific community. Members showed frustration when topic drift occurred in the middle of threads but reacted positively to off-topic stories shared as separate threads. Although all types of members helped to counteract topic drift, original posters

  11. Generalized banana-drift transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynick, H. E.

    1985-10-01

    The theory of tokamak ripple transport in the banana-drift and ripple-plateau is extended in a number of directions. The theory is valid for small values of the toroidal periodicity number n of the perturbation, as well as for the moderate values (n approx. 10 - 20) previously assumed. It is shown that low-n perturbations can produce much greater transport than the larger-n perturbations usually studied. In addition, the ripple perturbation is allowed arbitrary values of poloidal mode number m and frequency omega, making it applicable to the transport induced by MHD modes. Bounce averaging is avoided, so the theory includes the contributions to transport from all harmonics of the bounce frequency, providing a continuous description of the transition from the banana drift to the ripple-plateau regime. The implications of the theory for toroidal rotation in tokamaks are considered.

  12. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  13. Role of zonal flows in trapped electron mode turbulence through nonlinear gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. R.; Lang, J.; Nevins, W. M.; Hoffman, M.; Chen, Y.; Dorland, W.; Parker, S.

    2009-05-01

    Trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of collisional and zonal flow physics. This work explores the parametric variation of zonal flows and underlying mechanisms through a series of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, using both particle-in-cell and continuum methods. A new stability diagram for electron modes is presented, identifying a critical boundary at ηe=1, separating long and short wavelength TEMs. A novel parity test is used to separate TEMs from electron temperature gradient driven modes. A nonlinear scan of ηe reveals fine scale structure for ηe≳1, consistent with linear expectation. For ηe<1, zonal flows are the dominant saturation mechanism, and TEM transport is insensitive to ηe. For ηe>1, zonal flows are weak, and TEM transport falls inversely with a power law in ηe. The role of zonal flows appears to be connected to linear stability properties. Particle and continuum methods are compared in detail over a range of ηe=d ln Te/d ln ne values from zero to five. Linear growth rate spectra, transport fluxes, fluctuation wavelength spectra, zonal flow shearing spectra, and correlation lengths and times are in close agreement. In addition to identifying the critical parameter ηe for TEM zonal flows, this paper takes a challenging step in code verification, directly comparing very different methods of simulating simultaneous kinetic electron and ion dynamics in TEM turbulence.

  14. On the tertiary instability formalism of zonal flows in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Seiferling, F.; Weikl, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the so-called tertiary instabilities driven by the zonal flow in gyro-kinetic tokamak core turbulence. The Kelvin Helmholtz instability is first considered within a 2D fluid model and a threshold in the zonal flow wave vector kZF>kZF,c for instability is found. This critical scale is related to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by flux-surfaces, which is incorporated into the modified adiabatic electron response. The stability of undamped Rosenbluth-Hinton zonal flows is then investigated in gyro-kinetic simulations. Absolute instability, in the sense that the threshold zonal flow amplitude tends towards zero, is found above a zonal flow wave vector kZF,cρi≈1.3 ( ρi is the ion thermal Larmor radius), which is comparable to the 2D fluid results. Large scale zonal flows with kZFzonal temperature perturbations on the tertiary instability is examined. Although temperature perturbations favor instability, the realistic values of gradient-driven gyro-kinetic simulations still lie deeply in the stable parameter regime. Therefore, the relevance of the tertiary instability as a saturation mechanism to the zonal flow amplitude is questioned, as most of the zonal flow intensity is concentrated in modes satisfying kZF≪kZF,c as well as ωE×B≪ωE×B,c .

  15. How and in Which way Space Weather Changed the Ionospheric Irregularities Occurrence During the St. Patricḱs Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Barbosa, F. R. E., Sr.; Kavutarapu, V.; Fejer, B. G.; Pillat, V. G.; De Nardin, C. M.; Muella, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the solar cycle 24 there was a very intense geomagnetic storm, called St. Patricḱs Day storm and the effects of this storm on ionosphere has become a topic of extensive space weather investigation. The Dst during this storm reached -223 nT on March 17, 2015 at 23:00 UT. Special efforts have been devoted so far to investigate many aspects of the St. Patricḱs Day ionospheric storm such as the prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs), GPS-TEC changes, electron density disturbances, plasma drift, O+ concentration modification, hemispherical asymmetry developments, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) modification, and ionospheric irregularities. Besides all these important studies, there are some essential aspects, which have not been addressed yet, related to the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities with different scale sizes. In this paper, we present and discuss the generation and suppression of ionospheric irregularities during March 2015, using the observations conducted in the Latin American Sector from 4 ionosondes (ESF) and 20 GPS-TEC stations (ROT phase fluctuation), which includes the St. Patricḱs Day geomagnetic storm period. Suppression of large-small scales ionospheric irregularities has occurred during the main and second night of the recovery phases. However, during the first night of recovery phase there was post-midnight ionospheric irregularities.

  16. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  17. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  18. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2017-05-30

    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scalingmore » when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.« less

  19. Parallel Programming Strategies for Irregular Adaptive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance for such computations. In this work, we examine two typical irregular adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, under competing programming methodologies and across various parallel architectures. The Dynamic Remeshing application simulates flow over an airfoil, and refines localized regions of the underlying unstructured mesh. The N-Body experiment models two neighboring Plummer galaxies that are about to undergo a merger. Both problems demonstrate dramatic changes in processor workloads and interprocessor communication with time; thus, dynamic load balancing is a required component.

  20. Irregular Collective Behavior of Heterogeneous Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Politi, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    We investigate a network of integrate-and-fire neurons characterized by a distribution of spiking frequencies. Upon increasing the coupling strength, the model exhibits a transition from an asynchronous regime to a nontrivial collective behavior. Numerical simulations of large systems indicate that, at variance with the Kuramoto model, (i) the macroscopic dynamics stays irregular and (ii) the microscopic (single-neuron) evolution is linearly stable.

  1. The Civil Side of Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Burj al -Shimali.52 While Musa al Sadr is not the founder of Hezbollah, his work resulted in the network of connections and the recasting of Shia...Center AMAL afwaj al -muqawama al -lubnaniya (Lebanese Resistance Regiments) = amal (Hope) CA Civil Affairs CAO Civil Affairs Operations CGSC US Army...HAMAS Harakat al -Muqawama al -Islamiyya (the Islamic Resistance Movement) IDF Israel Defense Forces IGO Intergovernmental Organization IW Irregular

  2. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  3. Comments on "extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Barrett, Christopher D.

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, Li et al. (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006) used results of atomistic simulations to advance a growth mechanism of ? ? twinning in titanium based on the concept of two elementary twinning dislocations which nucleate and glide in pairs but separately and sequentially on two neighbouring planes. This new Comment was stimulated after A. Serra, D.J. Bacon and R.C. Pond privately raised concerns on this growth model to one of the present authors, H. El Kadiri, who This was a co-author of the original paper (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006). We repeated the simulations and obtained nearly the same simulations results as Li et al. However, after re-analysing these results, we have concluded that the extended extrinsic zonal dislocation mechanism claimed to be that for twin growth in titanium is in fact false, confirming the accuracy of the Comment by Serra et al that results of Li and co-authors were misinterpreted.

  4. Generation of zonal flows through symmetry breaking of statistical homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2014-03-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows (ZFs) are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from homogeneous turbulence without ZFs to inhomogeneous turbulence with steady ZFs. Starting from the equation for barotropic flow on a β plane, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking zonostrophic instability and show that it is an example of a Type {{\\text{I}}_{s}} instability within the pattern formation literature. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the ZF wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of ZF wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system. We also conclude that the stability of the equilibria near the bifurcation point, which is governed by the Eckhaus instability, is independent of the Rayleigh-Kuo criterion.

  5. Equatorial superrotation in a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    Near the equator where the Coriolis force vanishes, the momentum balance for the axially symmetric circulation is established between horizontal and vertical diffusion, which, a priori, does not impose constraints on the direction or magnitude of the zonal winds. Solar radiation absorbed at low latitudes is a major force in driving large scale motions with air rising near the equator and falling at higher latitudes. In the upper leg of the meridional cell, angular momentum is redistributed so that the atmosphere tends to subrotate (or corotate) at low latitudes and superrotate at high latitudes. In the lower leg, however, the process is reversed and produces a tendency for the equatorial region to superrotate. The outcome depends on the energy budget which is closely coupled to the momentum budget through the thermal wind equation; a pressure (temperature) maximum is required to sustain equatorial superrotation. Such a condition arises in regions which are convectively unstable and the temperature lapse rate is superadiabatic. It should arise in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; planetary energy from the interior is carried to higher altitudes where radiation to space becomes important. Upward equatorial motions in the direct and indirect circulations (Ferrel-Thomson type) imposed by insolation can then trap dynamic energy for equatorial heating which can sustain the superrotation of the equatorial region.

  6. Parallel Computing Strategies for Irregular Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Shan, Hongzhang; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Parallel computing promises several orders of magnitude increase in our ability to solve realistic computationally-intensive problems, but relies on their efficient mapping and execution on large-scale multiprocessor architectures. Unfortunately, many important applications are irregular and dynamic in nature, making their effective parallel implementation a daunting task. Moreover, with the proliferation of parallel architectures and programming paradigms, the typical scientist is faced with a plethora of questions that must be answered in order to obtain an acceptable parallel implementation of the solution algorithm. In this paper, we consider three representative irregular applications: unstructured remeshing, sparse matrix computations, and N-body problems, and parallelize them using various popular programming paradigms on a wide spectrum of computer platforms ranging from state-of-the-art supercomputers to PC clusters. We present the underlying problems, the solution algorithms, and the parallel implementation strategies. Smart load-balancing, partitioning, and ordering techniques are used to enhance parallel performance. Overall results demonstrate the complexity of efficiently parallelizing irregular algorithms.

  7. HF-induced airglow structure as a proxy for ionospheric irregularity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility allows scientists to test current theories of plasma physics to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms at work in the lower ionosphere. One powerful technique for diagnosing radio frequency interactions in the ionosphere is to use ground-based optical instrumentation. High-frequency (HF), heater-induced artificial airglow observations can be used to diagnose electron energies and distributions in the heated region, illuminate natural and/or artificially induced ionospheric irregularities, determine ExB plasma drifts, and measure quenching rates by neutral species. Artificial airglow is caused by HF-accelerated electrons colliding with various atmospheric constituents, which in turn emit a photon. The most common emissions are 630.0 nm O(1D), 557.7 nm O(1S), and 427.8 nm N2+(1NG). Because more photons will be emitted in regions of higher electron energization, it may be possible to use airglow imaging to map artificial field-aligned irregularities at a particular altitude range in the ionosphere. Since fairly wide field-of-view imagers are typically deployed in airglow campaigns, it is not well-known what meter-scale features exist in the artificial airglow emissions. Rocket data show that heater-induced electron density variations, or irregularities, consist of bundles of ~10-m-wide magnetic field-aligned filaments with a mean depletion depth of 6% [Kelley et al., 1995]. These bundles themselves constitute small-scale structures with widths of 1.5 to 6 km. Telescopic imaging provides high resolution spatial coverage of ionospheric irregularities and goes hand in hand with other observing techniques such as GPS scintillation, radar, and ionosonde. Since airglow observations can presumably image ionospheric irregularities (electron density variations), they can be used to determine the spatial scale variation, the fill factor, and the lifetime characteristics of

  8. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.

  9. Drifting States and Synchronization Induced Chaos in Autonomous Networks of Excitable Neurons.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    The study of balanced networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons has led to several open questions. On the one hand it is yet unclear whether the asynchronous state observed in the brain is autonomously generated, or if it results from the interplay between external drivings and internal dynamics. It is also not known, which kind of network variabilities will lead to irregular spiking and which to synchronous firing states. Here we show how isolated networks of purely excitatory neurons generically show asynchronous firing whenever a minimal level of structural variability is present together with a refractory period. Our autonomous networks are composed of excitable units, in the form of leaky integrators spiking only in response to driving currents, remaining otherwise quiet. For a non-uniform network, composed exclusively of excitatory neurons, we find a rich repertoire of self-induced dynamical states. We show in particular that asynchronous drifting states may be stabilized in purely excitatory networks whenever a refractory period is present. Other states found are either fully synchronized or mixed, containing both drifting and synchronized components. The individual neurons considered are excitable and hence do not dispose of intrinsic natural firing frequencies. An effective network-wide distribution of natural frequencies is however generated autonomously through self-consistent feedback loops. The asynchronous drifting state is, additionally, amenable to an analytic solution. We find two types of asynchronous activity, with the individual neurons spiking regularly in the pure drifting state, albeit with a continuous distribution of firing frequencies. The activity of the drifting component, however, becomes irregular in the mixed state, due to the periodic driving of the synchronized component. We propose a new tool for the study of chaos in spiking neural networks, which consists of an analysis of the time series of pairs of consecutive interspike

  10. Drifting States and Synchronization Induced Chaos in Autonomous Networks of Excitable Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    The study of balanced networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons has led to several open questions. On the one hand it is yet unclear whether the asynchronous state observed in the brain is autonomously generated, or if it results from the interplay between external drivings and internal dynamics. It is also not known, which kind of network variabilities will lead to irregular spiking and which to synchronous firing states. Here we show how isolated networks of purely excitatory neurons generically show asynchronous firing whenever a minimal level of structural variability is present together with a refractory period. Our autonomous networks are composed of excitable units, in the form of leaky integrators spiking only in response to driving currents, remaining otherwise quiet. For a non-uniform network, composed exclusively of excitatory neurons, we find a rich repertoire of self-induced dynamical states. We show in particular that asynchronous drifting states may be stabilized in purely excitatory networks whenever a refractory period is present. Other states found are either fully synchronized or mixed, containing both drifting and synchronized components. The individual neurons considered are excitable and hence do not dispose of intrinsic natural firing frequencies. An effective network-wide distribution of natural frequencies is however generated autonomously through self-consistent feedback loops. The asynchronous drifting state is, additionally, amenable to an analytic solution. We find two types of asynchronous activity, with the individual neurons spiking regularly in the pure drifting state, albeit with a continuous distribution of firing frequencies. The activity of the drifting component, however, becomes irregular in the mixed state, due to the periodic driving of the synchronized component. We propose a new tool for the study of chaos in spiking neural networks, which consists of an analysis of the time series of pairs of consecutive interspike

  11. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge E r. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge E r well with a wave number k rρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-modemore » transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  12. Parameterization of eddy sensible heat transports in a zonally averaged dynamic model of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genthon, Christophe; Le Treut, Herve; Sadourny, Robert; Jouzel, Jean

    1990-01-01

    A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a general circulation model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear appoximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.

  13. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger thanmore » or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.« less

  14. Rossby Wave Propagation into the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere: The Role of Zonal Phase Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Martius, Olivia; Jiménez-Esteve, Bernat

    2018-02-01

    Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are to a dominant part induced by upward propagating planetary waves. While theory predicts that the zonal phase speed of a tropospheric wave forcing affects wave propagation into the stratosphere, its relevance for SSW events has so far not been considered. This study shows in a linear wave diagnostic and in reanalysis data that phase speeds tend eastward as waves propagate upward, indicating that the stratosphere preselects eastward phase speeds for propagation, especially for zonal wave number 2. This also affects SSW events: Split SSW events tend to be preceded by anomalously eastward zonal phase speeds. Zonal phase speed may indeed explain part of the increased wave flux observed during the preconditioning of SSW events, as, for example, for the record 2009 SSW event.

  15. Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, E.; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis withmore » respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.« less

  16. Theory of Fine-scale Zonal Flow Generation From Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρθ¡ << 1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρθ¡ is the ion poloidal gyrora- dius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρθ¡ ~ 1 [Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN/TH/P2-8 (2006); D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009)]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarizationmore » shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2009)] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit is applied.« less

  17. Consequences of systematic model drift in DYNAMO MJO hindcasts with SP-CAM and CAM5

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, Walter M.; Maloney, Eric D.; Pritchard, Michael S.

    Hindcast simulations of MJO events during the dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign are conducted with two models, one with conventional parameterization (CAM5) and a comparable model that utilizes superparameterization (SP–CAM). SP–CAM is shown to produce a qualitatively better reproduction of the fluctuations of precipitation and low–level zonal wind associated with the first two DYNAMO MJO events compared to CAM5. Interestingly, skill metrics using the real–time multivariate MJO index (RMM) suggest the opposite conclusion that CAM5 has more skill than SP–CAM. This inconsistency can be explained by a systematic increase of RMM amplitude with lead time, which results frommore » a drift of the large–scale wind field in SP–CAM that projects strongly onto the RMM index. CAM5 hindcasts exhibit a contraction of the moisture distribution, in which extreme wet and dry conditions become less frequent with lead time. SP–CAM hindcasts better reproduce the observed moisture distribution, but also have stronger drift patterns of moisture budget terms, such as an increase in drying by meridional advection in SP–CAM. This advection tendency in SP–CAM appears to be associated with enhanced off–equatorial synoptic eddy activity with lead time. In conclusion, systematic drift moisture tendencies in SP–CAM are of similar magnitude to intraseasonal moisture tendencies, and therefore are important for understanding MJO prediction skill.« less

  18. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  19. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  20. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  1. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  2. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  3. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  4. 14 CFR 121.563 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting mechanical irregularities. 121.563 Section 121.563 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... mechanical irregularities. The pilot in command shall ensure that all mechanical irregularities occurring...

  5. The Role of Reversed Equatorial Zonal Transport in Terminating an ENSO Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Hu, Z. Z.; Huang, B.; Sui, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a sudden reversal of anomalous equatorial zonal current at the peaking ENSO phase triggers the rapid termination of an ENSO event. Throughout an ENSO cycle, the anomalous equatorial zonal current is strongly controlled by the concavity of the anomalous thermocline meridional structure near the equator. During the ENSO developing phase, the anomalous zonal current in the central and eastern Pacific generally enhances the ENSO growth through its zonal SST advection. In the mature phase of ENSO, however, the equatorial thermocline depth anomalies are reflected in the eastern Pacific and slowly propagate westward off the equator in both hemispheres. As a result, the concavity of the thermocline anomalies near the equator is reversed, i.e., the off-equatorial thermocline depth anomalies become higher than that on the equator for El Niño events and lower for La Niño events. This meridional change of thermocline structure reverses zonal transport rapidly in the central-to-eastern equatorial Pacific, which weakens the ENSO SST anomalies by reversed advection. More importantly, the reversed zonal mass transport weakens the existing zonal tilting of equatorial thermocline and suppresses the thermocline feedback. Both processes are concentrated in the eastern equatorial Pacific and can be effective on subseasonal time scales. These current reversal effects are built-in to the ENSO peak phase and independent of the zonal wind effect on thermocline slope. It functions as an oceanic control on ENSO evolution during both El Niño and La Niña events.

  6. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  7. The postsunset vertical plasma drift during geomagnetic storms and its effects on the generation of equatorial spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We will present two distinct phenomena related to the postsunset vertical plasma drift and equatorial spread F (ESF) observed by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite over six years. The first phenomenon is the behavior of the prereversal enhancement (PRE) of the vertical plasma drift during geomagnetic storms. Statistically, storm-time disturbance dynamo electric fields cause the PRE to decrease from 30 to 0 m/s when Dst changes from -60 to -100 nT, but the PRE does not show obvious variations when Dst varies from 0 to -60 nT. The observations show that the storm activities affect the evening equatorial ionosphere only for Dst < -60 nT and that the dynamo electric field becomes dominant during the storm recovery phase. The second phenomenon is the relationship between the PRE and the generation of ESF. It is found that the occurrence of large-amplitude ESF irregularities is well correlated with the PRE and that the occurrence of small-amplitude ESF irregularities does not show a clear pattern at low solar activity but is anti-correlated with large-amplitude irregularities and the PRE at moderate solar activity. That is, the months and longitudes with high occurrence probability of large-amplitude irregularities are exactly those with low occurrence probability of small-amplitude irregularities, and vice versa. The generation of large-amplitude ESF irregularities is controlled by the PRE, and the generation of small-amplitude ESF irregularities may be caused by gravity waves and other disturbances, rather than by the PRE.

  8. Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Drøsdal, Lene; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel

    2014-07-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variationsmore » are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.« less

  9. Blobs and drift wave dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanzeng; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2017-09-29

    The modified Hasegawa-Mima equation retaining all nonlinearities is investigated from the point of view of the formation of blobs. The linear analysis shows that the amplitude of the drift wave packet propagating in the direction of decreasing background plasma density increases and eventually saturates due to nonlinear effects. Nonlinear modification of the time averaged plasma density profile results in the formation of large amplitude modes locked in the radial direction, but still propagating in the poloidal direction, which resembles the experimentally observed chain of blobs propagating in the poloidal direction. Such specific density profiles, causing the locking of drift waves,more » could form naturally at the edge of tokamak due to a neutral ionization source. Thus, locked modes can grow in situ due to plasma instabilities, e.g., caused by finite resistivity. Furthermore, the modulation instability (in the poloidal direction) of these locked modes can result in a blob-like burst of plasma density.« less

  10. Zonally Symmetric Oscillations of the Thermosphere at Planetary Wave Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Maute, Astrid; Hagan, Maura E.

    2018-05-01

    New mechanisms for imposing planetary wave (PW) variability on the ionosphere-thermosphere system are discovered in numerical experiments conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. First, it is demonstrated that a tidal spectrum modulated at PW periods (3-20 days) entering the ionosphere-thermosphere system near 100 km is responsible for producing ±40 m/s and ±10-15 K PW period oscillations between 110 and 150 km at low to middle latitudes. The dominant response is broadband and zonally symmetric (i.e., "S0") over a range of periods and is attributable to tidal dissipation; essentially, the ionosphere-thermosphere system "vacillates" in response to dissipation of the PW-modulated tidal spectrum. In addition, some specific westward propagating PWs such as the quasi-6-day wave are amplified by the presence of the tidal spectrum; the underlying mechanism is hypothesized to be a second-stage nonlinear interaction. The S0 total neutral mass density (ρ) response at 325 km consists of PW period fluctuations of order ±3-4%, roughly equivalent to the day-to-day variability associated with low-level geomagnetic activity. The variability in ρ over short periods (˜< 9 days) correlates with temperature changes, indicating a response of hydrostatic origin. Over longer periods ρ is also controlled by composition and mean molecular mass. While the upper-thermosphere impacts are modest, they do translate to more significant changes in the F region ionosphere.

  11. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  12. Jet and storm track variability and change: adiabatic QG zonal averages and beyond... (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The zonally averaged structures of extratropical jets and stormtracks, their slow variations, and their responses to climate change are all tightly constrained on the one hand by thermal wind balance and the necessary application of eddy torques to produce zonally averaged meridional motion, and, on the other hand, by the necessity that eddies propagate upshear to extract energy from the mean flow. Combining these constraints with the well developed theory of linear Rossby-wave propagation on zonally symmetric basic states has led to a large and growing number of plausible mechanisms to explain observed and modeled jet/storm track variability and responses to climate change and idealized forcing. Hidden within zonal averages is the reality that most baroclinic eddy activity is destroyed at the same latitude at which is generated: from one end to another of the fixed stormtracks in the Northern Hemisphere and baroclinic wave packets in the Southern Hemisphere. Ignored within adiabatic QG theory is the reality that baroclinic eddies gain significant energy from latent heating that involves sub-syntopic scale structures and dynamics. Here we use results from high-resolution regional and global simulations of the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to explore the importance of non-zonal and diabatic dynamics in influencing jet change and variability and their influences on the much-studied zonal means.

  13. Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2003-10-01

    Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST variations with a meridionally confined structure are placed at various latitudes. Having these SST variations centered at 30°N leads to a zonally localized storm track, while the storm track becomes nearly zonally uniform when the same SST forcing is moved farther north at 40° and 50°N. Large (small) baroclinic energy conversion north of the warm (cold) SST anomaly near the axis of the storm track (near 40°N) is responsible for the large (small) storm growth. The equatorward transfer of eddy kinetic energy by the ageostrophic motion and the mechanical damping are important to diminish the storm track activity in the zonal direction.Significant stationary eddies form in the upper troposphere, with a ridge (trough) northeast of the warm (cold) SST anomaly at 30°N. Heat and vorticity budget analyses indicate that zonally localized condensational heating in the storm track is the major cause for these stationary eddies, which in turn exert a positive feedback to maintain the localized storm track by strengthening the vertical shear near the surface. These results indicate an active role of synoptic eddies in inducing deep, tropospheric-scale response to midlatitude SST variations. Finally, the application of the model results to the real atmosphere is discussed.

  14. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  15. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  16. Drift and separation in collisionality gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Ochs, I. E.; Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; ...

    2017-07-20

    Here we identify a single-particle drift resulting from collisional interactions with a background species, in the presence of a collisionality gradient and background net flow. We also analyze this drift in different limits, showing how it reduces to the well known impurity pinch for high-Zi impurities. We find that in the low-temperature, singly ionized limit, the magnitude of the drift becomes mass-dependent and energy-dependent. Furthermore, by solving for the resulting diffusion-advection motion, we propose a mass-separation scheme that takes advantage of this drift, and analyze the separative capability as a function of collisionally dissipated energy.

  17. Drift and separation in collisionality gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, I. E.; Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.

    Here we identify a single-particle drift resulting from collisional interactions with a background species, in the presence of a collisionality gradient and background net flow. We also analyze this drift in different limits, showing how it reduces to the well known impurity pinch for high-Zi impurities. We find that in the low-temperature, singly ionized limit, the magnitude of the drift becomes mass-dependent and energy-dependent. Furthermore, by solving for the resulting diffusion-advection motion, we propose a mass-separation scheme that takes advantage of this drift, and analyze the separative capability as a function of collisionally dissipated energy.

  18. Ionospheric irregularity characteristics from quasiperiodic structure in the radio wave scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. Y.; Su, S. Y.; Liu, C. H.; Basu, S.

    2005-06-01

    Quasiperiodic (QP) diffraction pattern in scintillation patches has been known to highly correlate with the edge structures of a plasma bubble (Franke et al., 1984). A new time-frequency analysis method of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has been applied to analyze the scintillation data taken at Ascension Island to understand the characteristics of corresponding ionosphere irregularities. The HHT method enables us to extract the quasiperiodic diffraction signals embedded inside the scintillation data and to obtain the characteristics of such diffraction signals. The cross correlation of the two sets of diffraction signals received by two stations at each end of Ascension Island indicates that the density irregularity pattern that causes the diffraction pattern should have an eastward drift velocity of ˜130 m/s. The HHT analysis of the instantaneous frequency in the QP diffraction patterns also reveals some frequency shifts in their peak frequencies. For the QP diffraction pattern caused by the leading edge of the large density gradient at the east wall of a structured bubble, an ascending note in the peak frequency is observed, and for the trailing edge a descending note is observed. The linear change in the transient of the peak frequency in the QP diffraction pattern is consistent with the theory and the simulation result of Franke et al. Estimate of the slope in the transient frequency provides us the information that allows us to identify the locations of plasma walls, and the east-west scale of the irregularity can be estimated. In our case we obtain about 24 km in the east-west scale. Furthermore, the height location of density irregularities that cause the diffraction pattern is estimated to be between 310 and 330 km, that is, around the F peak during observation.

  19. Blue compact dwarfs - Extreme dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuan, Trinh X.

    1987-01-01

    Observational data on the most extreme members of the irregular dwarf (dI) galaxy class, the blue compact dwarfs (BCDs), are characterized, reviewing the results of recent investigations. The properties of the young stellar population, the ionized gas, the older star population, and the gas and dust of BCDs are contrasted with those of other dIs; BCD morphology is illustrated with sample images; and the value of BCDs (as nearby 'young' chemically unevolved galaxies) for studies of galaxy formation, galactic evolution, and starburst triggering mechanisms is indicated.

  20. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  1. Features of highly structured equatorial plasma irregularities deduced from CHAMP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, C.; Lühr, H.; Ma, S. Y.; Stolle, C.; Fejer, B. G.

    2012-08-01

    In this study five years of CHAMP (Challenging Mini-satellite Payload) fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) data is used to investigate the characteristics of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). We filtered the FGM data by using band-passes with four different cut-off periods to get the EPBs with different maximum spatial scale sizes in the meridional plane ranging from 76-608 km. Associated with the EPB observations at about 400 km, the typical altitude of CHAMP during the year 2000-2005, we also investigate the post-sunset equatorial vertical plasma drift data from ROCSAT-1 (Republic of China Satellite 1). Since the height of the F-layer is highly correlated with the vertical plasma drift and solar flux, we sorted the ROCSAT-1 data into different groups by F10.7. From the integrated vertical drift we have estimated the post-sunset uplift of the ionosphere. By comparing the properties of EPB occurrence for different scale sizes with the global distribution of plasma vertical uplift, we have found that EPBs reaching higher altitudes are more structured than those which are sampled by CHAMP near the top side of the depleted fluxtube. Such a result is in accord with 3-D model simulations (Aveiro and Hysell, 2010). Small-scale EPB structures are observed by CHAMP when the irregularities reach apex heights of 800 km and more. Such events are encountered primarily in the Brazilian sector during the months around November, when the post-sunset vertical plasma drift is high.

  2. Effects of irregularity anisotropy on Faraday polarization fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Nghiem, S. V.; Yoo, C.

    1989-01-01

    The previous model (Lee et al., 1982) of the Faraday polarization fluctuations (FPF) is extended after taking into account the anisotropic nature of the commonly observed, rodlike and sheetlike ionospheric irregularities. Striking effects of irregularity anisotropy are found in the longitudinal radio propagation. However, if the wave propagation angle is not small (say, greater than 5 deg), the effects of irregularity anisotropy on FPF introduced by rodlike irregularities weaken significantly, while those caused by sheetlike irregularities remain prominent. Therefore, under the same ionospheric propagation conditions, sheetlike ionospheric irregularities are more effective than rodlike ionospheric irregularities in causing the FPF of radio waves. It is expected that intense FPF of VHF radio signals can be observed not only near the equatorial anomaly but also in the auroral region.

  3. Studies of small scale irregularities in the cusp ionosphere using sounding rockets: recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicher, A.; Ilyasov, A. A.; Miloch, W. J.; Chernyshov, A. A.; Moen, J.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Saito, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma irregularities occurring over many scale sizes are common in the ionosphere. Understanding and characterizing the phenomena responsible for these irregularities is not only important from a theoretical point of view, but also in the context of space weather, as the irregularities can disturb HF communication and Global Navigation Satellite Systems signals. Overall, research about the small-scale turbulence has not progressed as fast for polar regions as for the equatorial ones, and for the high latitude ionosphere there is still no agreement nor detailed explanation regarding the formation of irregularities. To investigate plasma structuring at small scales in the cusp ionosphere, we use high resolution measurements from the Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI) sounding rockets, and investigate a region associated with density enhancements and a region characterized by flow shears. Using the ICI-2 electron density data, we give further evidence of the importance of the gradient drift instability for plasma structuring inside the polar cap. In particular, using higher-order statistics, we provide new insights into the nature of the resulting plasma structures and show that they are characterized by intermittency. Using the ICI-3 data, we show that the entire region associated with a reversed flow event (RFE), with the presence of meter-scale irregularities, several flow shears and particle precipitation, is highly structured. By performing a numerical stability analysis, we show that the inhomogeneous-energy-density-driven instability (IEDDI) may be active in relation to RFEs at the rocket's altitude. In particular, we show that the presence of particle precipitation decreases the growth rates of IEDDI and, using a Local Intermittency Measure, we observe a correlation between IEDDI growth rates and electric field fluctuations over several scales. These findings support the view that large-scale inhomogeneities may provide a background for the

  4. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Yegorov, Yuri; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Democratic societies are built around the principle of free and fair elections, and that each citizen’s vote should count equally. National elections can be regarded as large-scale social experiments, where people are grouped into usually large numbers of electoral districts and vote according to their preferences. The large number of samples implies statistical consequences for the polling results, which can be used to identify election irregularities. Using a suitable data representation, we find that vote distributions of elections with alleged fraud show a kurtosis substantially exceeding the kurtosis of normal elections, depending on the level of data aggregation. As an example, we show that reported irregularities in recent Russian elections are, indeed, well-explained by systematic ballot stuffing. We develop a parametric model quantifying the extent to which fraudulent mechanisms are present. We formulate a parametric test detecting these statistical properties in election results. Remarkably, this technique produces robust outcomes with respect to the resolution of the data and therefore, allows for cross-country comparisons. PMID:23010929

  5. Venus - Multiple-Floored, Irregular Impact Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    NASA' sMagellan imaged this multiple-floored, irregular impact crater at latitude 16.4 degrees north, longitude 352.1 degrees east, during orbits 481 and 482 on 27 September 1990. This crater, about 9.2 kilometers in maximum diameter, was formed on what appears to be a slightly fractured, radar-dark (smooth) plain. The abundant, low viscosity flows associated with this cratering event have, however, filled local, fault-controlled troughs (called graben). These shallow graben are well portrayed on this Magellan image but would be unrecognizable but for their coincidental infilling by the radar-bright crater flows. This fortuitous enhancement by the crater flows of fault structures that are below the resolution of the Magellan synthetic aperture radar is providing the Magellan Science Team with valuable geologic information. The flow deposits from the craters are thought to consist primarily of shock melted rock and fragmented debris resulting from the nearly simultaneous impacts of two projectile fragments into the hot (800 degrees Fahrenheit) surface rocks of Venus. The presence of the various floors of this irregular crater is interpreted to be the result of crushing, fragmentation, and eventual aerodynamic dispersion of a single entry projectile during passage through the dense Venusian atmosphere. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00462

  6. Clusters in irregular areas and lattices.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M; Rogerson, Peter A; Wong, David W S

    2012-01-01

    Geographic areas of different sizes and shapes of polygons that represent counts or rate data are often encountered in social, economic, health, and other information. Often political or census boundaries are used to define these areas because the information is available only for those geographies. Therefore, these types of boundaries are frequently used to define neighborhoods in spatial analyses using geographic information systems and related approaches such as multilevel models. When point data can be geocoded, it is possible to examine the impact of polygon shape on spatial statistical properties, such as clustering. We utilized point data (alcohol outlets) to examine the issue of polygon shape and size on visualization and statistical properties. The point data were allocated to regular lattices (hexagons and squares) and census areas for zip-code tabulation areas and tracts. The number of units in the lattices was set to be similar to the number of tract and zip-code areas. A spatial clustering statistic and visualization were used to assess the impact of polygon shape for zip- and tract-sized units. Results showed substantial similarities and notable differences across shape and size. The specific circumstances of a spatial analysis that aggregates points to polygons will determine the size and shape of the areal units to be used. The irregular polygons of census units may reflect underlying characteristics that could be missed by large regular lattices. Future research to examine the potential for using a combination of irregular polygons and regular lattices would be useful.

  7. Statistical detection of systematic election irregularities.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Peter; Yegorov, Yuri; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-10-09

    Democratic societies are built around the principle of free and fair elections, and that each citizen's vote should count equally. National elections can be regarded as large-scale social experiments, where people are grouped into usually large numbers of electoral districts and vote according to their preferences. The large number of samples implies statistical consequences for the polling results, which can be used to identify election irregularities. Using a suitable data representation, we find that vote distributions of elections with alleged fraud show a kurtosis substantially exceeding the kurtosis of normal elections, depending on the level of data aggregation. As an example, we show that reported irregularities in recent Russian elections are, indeed, well-explained by systematic ballot stuffing. We develop a parametric model quantifying the extent to which fraudulent mechanisms are present. We formulate a parametric test detecting these statistical properties in election results. Remarkably, this technique produces robust outcomes with respect to the resolution of the data and therefore, allows for cross-country comparisons.

  8. Analysis of Slope Limiters on Irregular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of flux and slope limiters on non-uniform grids in multiple dimensions. Many slope limiters in standard use do not preserve linear solutions on irregular grids impacting both accuracy and convergence. We rewrite some well-known limiters to highlight their underlying symmetry, and use this form to examine the proper - ties of both traditional and novel limiter formulations on non-uniform meshes. A consistent method of handling stretched meshes is developed which is both linearity preserving for arbitrary mesh stretchings and reduces to common limiters on uniform meshes. In multiple dimensions we analyze the monotonicity region of the gradient vector and show that the multidimensional limiting problem may be cast as the solution of a linear programming problem. For some special cases we present a new directional limiting formulation that preserves linear solutions in multiple dimensions on irregular grids. Computational results using model problems and complex three-dimensional examples are presented, demonstrating accuracy, monotonicity and robustness.

  9. Causes of the longitudinal differences in the equatorial vertical E × B drift during the 2013 SSW period as simulated by the TIME-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maute, A.; Hagan, M. E.; Yudin, V.; Liu, H.-L.; Yizengaw, E.

    2015-06-01

    During stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) periods large changes in the low-latitude vertical drift have been observed at Jicamarca as well as in other longitudinal sectors. In general, a strengthening of the daytime maximum vertical drift with a shift from prenoon to the afternoon is observed. During the January 2013 stratospheric warming significant longitudinal differences in the equatorial vertical drift were observed. At Jicamarca the previously reported SSW behavior prevails; however, no shift of the daytime maximum drift was exhibited in the African sector. Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) the possible causes for the longitudinal difference are examined. The timing of the strong SSW effect in the vertical drift (15-20 January) coincides with moderate geomagnetic activity. The simulation indicates that approximately half of the daytime vertical drift increase in the American sector may be related to the moderate geophysical conditions (Kp = 4) with the effect being negligible in the African sector. The simulation suggests that the wind dynamo accounts for approximately 50% of the daytime vertical drift in the American sector and almost 100% in the African sector. The simulation agrees with previous findings that the migrating solar tides and the semidiurnal westward propagating tide with zonal wave number 1 (SW1) mainly contribute to the daytime wind dynamo and vertical drift. Numerical experiments suggest that the neutral wind and the geomagnetic main field contribute to the presence (absence) of a local time shift in the daytime maximum drift in the American (African) sector.

  10. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures…

  11. The DRIFT Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric

    2010-11-01

    The DRIFT dark matter detector is a 1 cubic meter scale TPC with direction sensitivity to WIMP recoils operating in the Boulby Mine in England. Results on a spin-dependent limit from data taken underground with a 30 Torr CS2 - 10 Torr CF4 gas mixture will be presented. The primary source of backgrounds in this data are from low-energy nuclear recoil events due to radon progeny plated out on the detector's wire central cathode. Here we describe a dramatic background reduction resulting from the installation of a new thin-film central cathode. We also describe a new technique which promises to fully fiducialize the chamber, potentially eliminating this source of background entirely.

  12. The spaced antenna drift method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    The spaced antenna drift method is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determination of atmospheric wind velocities using radars. The technique has been extensively tested in the mesosphere at high and medium frequencies, and found to give reliable results. Recently, the method has also been applied to VHF observations of the troposphere and stratosphere, and results appear to be reliable. This paper discusses briefly the principle of the method, and investigates both its strengths and weaknesses. Some discussions concerning criticisms of the technique are also given, and it is concluded that while these criticisms may be of some concern at times, appropriate care can ensure that the method is at least as viable as any other method of remote wind measurement. At times, the technique has definite advantages.

  13. Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2009-09-01

    This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25

  14. Spray drift reduction test method correlation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ASTM Standard E609 Terminology Relating to Pesticides defines drift as “The physical movement of an agrochemical through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter to any non or off target site.” Since there are many commercial tank mix adjuvants designed to reduce spray drift, ASTM esta...

  15. Evolution: drift will tear us apart.

    PubMed

    Maderspacher, Florian

    2012-11-06

    That the widely scattered geographical distribution of some animals could be due to continental drift is a neat idea. Now, cave animals provide evidence for extreme long-term persistence on continents drifting apart. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  17. Propeller wash effects on spray drift

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Thompson; Alvin R. Womac; Joseph Mulrooney; Sidney Deck

    2005-01-01

    for aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switching and propeller wash direction on aerial spray drift from a turbine-...

  18. Observation of F region irregularities near a northern equatorial anomaly crest during solar minimum using ionosonde, GPS receiver, and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-C.; Chen, W. S.; Chu, F. D.

    2013-06-01

    For solar minimum, the spread F, GPS phase fluctuations, and plasma bubbles near the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) are simultaneously analyzed to investigate F region irregularities for the first time. The data were observed using the Chungli ionosonde, YMSM GPS receiver, and DMSP satellites during 1996. It is found that in the observed ionograms, the frequency spread F (FSF) usually comes after the range spread F (RSF) in a series of nighttime spread F events. This results in that the maximum occurrence of RSF appears before that of FSF in the nighttime variations in occurrence probabilities. Moreover, the seasonal variation for RSF is close to that for FSF. Both have a board maximum in the J-months and a secondary maximum in December. These indicate that RSF and FSF should be regarded as one type of spread F, which is the all spread F (ASF) in this study. Because the equatorial plasma bubbles occur infrequently during solar minimum, the F region irregularities forming ASF are not related to the equatorial spread F. On the other hand, the similarity in seasonal occurrence between ASF and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) demonstrates that the F region irregularities near the EIA crest are mainly generated by the gradient drift instability driven by MSTIDs. The irregularities, generated by MSTIDs, mostly occur in the bottom side of the F region. Consequently, the events of significant GPS phase fluctuations and plasma bubble near the EIA crest are rare during 1996.

  19. The Occurrence of Small-scale Irregularities in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere from SuperDARN HF Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Maimaiti, M.; Oksavik, K.; Erickson, P. J.; Scales, W.; Eltrass, A.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-latitude radars of the SuperDARN network routinely observe backscatter from nighttime decameter-scale F region irregularities at latitudes well equatorward of the auroral boundary. This Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) is strongly distinguished from auroral and SAPS backscatter by low Doppler velocities ( tens m/s) and stable, long-lived ( hours) occurrence in discrete events that are extended in both latitude and longitude. Statistical and event studies of SAIS with the SuperDARN radars indicate that the subauroral F region ionosphere is replete with irregularities during events, at least poleward of the 50° Λ horizon of the North American mid-latitude radars, and that radar observation of SAIS backscatter is then primarily limited by the magnetic aspect condition. Joint experiments with incoherent scatter radar have furnished sets of plasma measurements suitable for testing theories of plasma instability. Modeling work stimulated by the observations has explored the temperature-gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) as possible sources of the irregularities. In this talk we review the findings on the occurrence of the SAIS category of mid-latitude F region irregularities, summarize the results of the modeling work, and discuss future research directions.

  20. Evaluation and statistical judgement of neural responses to sinusoidal stimulation in cases with superimposed drift and noise.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, P W

    1979-06-01

    Time histograms of neural responses evoked by sinuosidal stimulation often contain a slow drifting and an irregular noise which disturb Fourier analysis of these responses. Section 2 of this paper evaluates the extent to which a linear drift influences the Fourier analysis, and develops a combined Fourier and linear regression analysis for detecting and correcting for such a linear drift. Usefulness of this correcting method is demonstrated for the time histograms of actual eye movements and Purkinje cell discharges evoked by sinusoidal rotation of rabbits in the horizontal plane. In Sect. 3, the analysis of variance is adopted for estimating the probability of the random occurrence of the response curve extracted by Fourier analysis from noise. This method proved to be useful for avoiding false judgements as to whether the response curve was meaningful, particularly when the response was small relative to the contaminating noise.

  1. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Howard, N. T.

    2016-06-15

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  2. The Role of Monsoon-Like Zonally Asymmetric Heating in Interhemispheric Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gang; Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn

    2017-01-01

    While the importance of the seasonal migration of the zonally averaged Hadley circulation on interhemispheric transport of trace gases has been recognized, few studies have examined the role of the zonally asymmetric monsoonal circulation. This study investigates the role of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating on interhemispheric transport using a dry atmospheric model that is forced by idealized Newtonian relaxation to a prescribed radiative equilibrium temperature. When only the seasonal cycle of zonally symmetric heating is considered, the mean age of air in the Southern Hemisphere since last contact with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude boundary layer, is much larger than the observations. The introduction of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating not only reduces the mean age of tropospheric air to more realistic values, but also produces an upper-tropospheric cross-equatorial transport pathway in boreal summer that resembles the transport pathway simulated in the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Chemistry Transport Model driven with MERRA meteorological fields. These results highlight the monsoon-induced eddy circulation plays an important role in the interhemispheric transport of long-lived chemical constituents.

  3. Frequency-dependent behavior of the barotropic and baroclinic modes of zonal jet variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Stratosphere-troposphere interactions are frequently described in terms of the leading modes of variability, i.e. the annular modes. An idealized dynamical core model is used to explore the differences between the low- and high- frequency (periods greater and less than 30 days) behavior of the first two principal components of zonal mean zonal wind and eddy kinetic energy, i.e., the barotropic/baroclinic annular modes of variability of the extratropical circulation. The modes show similar spatial characteristics in the different frequency ranges considered, however the ranking of the modes switches in some cases from one range to the other. There is some cancelation in the signatures of eddy heat flux and eddy kinetic energy in the leading low-pass and high-pass filtered zonal wind mode, partly explaining their small signature in the total. At low frequencies, the first zonal wind mode describes latitudinal shifts of both the midlatitude jet and its associated storm tracks, and the persistence of zonal wind anomalies appears to be sustained primarily by a baroclinic, rather than a barotropic, feedback. On shorter time scales, the behavior is more complicated and transient.

  4. Analysis of solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition by zonal elution affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pingyang; Poddar, Saumen; Sun, Zuchen; Hage, David S; Chen, Jianzhong

    2018-02-02

    Many biological processes involve solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition for protein binding. One method that has been developed to examine these interactions is zonal elution affinity chromatography. This review discusses the theory and principles of zonal elution affinity chromatography, along with its general applications. Examples of applications that are examined include the use of this method to estimate the relative extent of solute-protein binding, to examine solute-solute competition and displacement from proteins, and to measure the strength of these interactions. It is also shown how zonal elution affinity chromatography can be used in solvent and temperature studies and to characterize the binding sites for solutes on proteins. In addition, several alternative applications of zonal elution affinity chromatography are discussed, which include the analysis of binding by a solute with a soluble binding agent and studies of allosteric effects. Other recent applications that are considered are the combined use of immunoextraction and zonal elution for drug-protein binding studies, and binding studies that are based on immobilized receptors or small targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Amplification of warming due to intensification of zonal circulation in the mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kharlanenkova, Natalia; Kuzmina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new index to evaluate the impact of atmospheric zonal transport oscillations on inter-annual variability and trends of average air temperature in mid-latitudes, Northern Hemisphere and globe. A simple model of mid-latitude channel "ocean-land-atmosphere" was used to produce the analytic relationship between the zonal circulation and the land-ocean temperature contrast which was used as a basis for index. An inverse relationship was found between indexes and average mid-latitude, hemisphere and global temperatures during the cold half of year and opposite one in summer. These relationships keep under 400 mb height. In winter relationship describes up to 70, 50 and 40 % of surface air temperature inter-annual variability of these averages, respectively. The contribution of zonal circulation to the increase in the average surface air temperature during warming period 1969-2008 reaches 75% in the mid-latitudes and 40% in the Northern Hemisphere. Proposed mid-latitude index correlates negatively with surface air temperature in the Arctic except summer. ECHAM4 projections with the A1B scenario show that increase of zonal circulation defines more than 74% of the warming in the Northern Hemisphere for 2001-2100. Our analysis confirms that the proposed index is an effective indicator of the climate change caused by variations of the zonal circulation that arise due to anthropogenic and/or natural global forcing mechanisms.

  6. Indian Ocean zonal mode activity in 20th century observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendelbeck, Anja; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Ocean zonal mode (IOZM) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with anomalous cooling in the east, warming in the west and easterly wind anomalies, resulting in a complete reversal of the climatological zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The IOZM has a strong influence on East African climate by causing anomalously strong October - December (OND) precipitation. Using observational data and historical CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) model output, the September - November (SON) dipole mode index (DMI), OND East African precipitation and SON zonal wind index (ZWI) are calculated. We pay particular attention to detrending SSTs for calculating the DMI, which seems to have been neglected in some published research. The ZWI is defined as the area-averaged zonal wind component at 850 hPa over the central Indian Ocean. Regression analysis is used to evaluate the models' capability to represent the IOZM and its impact on east African climate between 1948 and 2005. Simple correlations are calculated between SST, zonal wind and precipitation to show their interdependence. High correlation in models implies a good representation of the influence of IOZM on East African climate variability and our goal is to detect the models with the highest correlation coefficients. In future research, these model data might be used to investigate the impact of IOZM on the East African climate variability in the late 20's century with regard to anthropogenic causes and internal variability.

  7. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Staebler, Gary M.; Candy, John; Howard, Nathan T.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. Finally, the zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ionscale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  8. MRAPs, Irregular Warfare, and Pentagon Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    76 JFQ / issue 55, 4 th quarter 2009 ndupress .ndu.edu MRAPs, Irregular Warfare, and Pentagon Reform By C h r i s t o p h e r J . l a m b , m...a t t h e w J . s C h m i D t , and b e r i t g . F i t z s i m m o n s Mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles offer an excellent...issue 55, 4 th quarter 2009 / JFQ 77 LAMB, SCHMIDT, and FITZSIMMONS By C h r i s t o p h e r J . l a m b , m a t t h e w J . s C h m i D t

  9. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    PubMed

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  10. A parametric approach to irregular fatigue prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erismann, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    A parametric approach to irregular fatigue protection is presented. The method proposed consists of two parts: empirical determination of certain characteristics of a material by means of a relatively small number of well-defined standard tests, and arithmetical application of the results obtained to arbitrary loading histories. The following groups of parameters are thus taken into account: (1) the variations of the mean stress, (2) the interaction of these variations and the superposed oscillating stresses, (3) the spectrum of the oscillating-stress amplitudes, and (4) the sequence of the oscillating-stress amplitudes. It is pointed out that only experimental verification can throw sufficient light upon possibilities and limitations of this (or any other) prediction method.

  11. Linearity-Preserving Limiters on Irregular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael; Murman, Scott

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of flux and slope limiters on non-uniform grids in multiple dimensions. We note that on non-uniform grids the scalar formulation in standard use today sacrifices k-exactness, even for linear solutions, impacting both accuracy and convergence. We rewrite some well-known limiters in a n way to highlight their underlying symmetry, and use this to examine both traditional and novel limiter formulations. A consistent method of handling stretched meshes is developed, as is a new directional formulation in multiple dimensions for irregular grids. Results are presented demonstrating improved accuracy and convergence using a combination of model problems and complex three-dimensional examples.

  12. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by low-frequency dispersive electromagnetic waves in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K

    2004-04-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields can be parametrically excited by low-frequency dispersive driftlike compressional electromagnetic (DDCEM) modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma. For this purpose, we derive a pair of coupled equations which exhibits the nonlinear coupling between DDCEM modes and zonal magnetic fields. The coupled mode equations are Fourier analyzed to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation. The latter depicts that zonal magnetic fields are nonlinearly generated at the expense of the low-frequency DDCEM wave energy. The relevance of our investigation to the transfer of energy from short scale DDCEM waves to long scale zonal magnetic field structures in dark molecular clouds is discussed.

  13. Effects of transionospheric signal decorrelation on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) performance studied from irregularity dynamics around the northern crest of the EIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, T.; Roy, B.; Paul, A.

    2014-10-01

    Transionospheric satellite navigation links operate primarily at L band and are frequently subject to severe degradation of performances arising out of ionospheric irregularities. Various characteristic features of equatorial ionospheric irregularity bubbles like the drift velocity, characteristic velocity, decorrelation time, and decorrelation distance can be determined using spaced aerial measurements at VHF. These parameters measured at VHF from a station Calcutta situated near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the geophysically sensitive Indian longitude sector have been correlated with L band scintillation indices and GPS position accuracy parameters for identifying possible proxies to L band scintillations. Good correspondences have been observed between decorrelation times and distances at VHF with GPS S4 and Position Dilution of Precision during periods of GPS scintillations (S4 > 0.3) for February-April 2011, August-October 2011, and February-April 2012. A functional relation has been developed between irregularity drift velocity measured at VHF and S4 at L band during February-April 2011, and validation of measured S4 and predicted values performed during August-October 2011 and February-April 2012. Significant improvement in L band scintillation prediction and consequent navigational accuracy will result using such relations derived from VHF irregularity measurements which are much simpler and inexpensive.

  14. Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na+ but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K+ currents were observed at potentials above −60 mV. K+ currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K+ channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10–50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K+ conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. PMID:25343781

  15. Zonal variations in K+ currents in vestibular crista calyx terminals.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Frances L; Rennie, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    We developed a rodent crista slice to investigate regional variations in electrophysiological properties of vestibular afferent terminals. Thin transverse slices of the gerbil crista ampullaris were made and electrical properties of calyx terminals in central zones (CZ) and peripheral zones (PZ) compared with whole cell patch clamp. Spontaneous action potential firing was observed in 25% of current-clamp recordings and was either regular or irregular in both zones. Firing was abolished when extracellular choline replaced Na(+) but persisted when hair cell mechanotransduction channels or calyx AMPA receptors were blocked. This suggests that ion channels intrinsic to the calyx can generate spontaneous firing. In response to depolarizing voltage steps, outward K(+) currents were observed at potentials above -60 mV. K(+) currents in PZ calyces showed significantly more inactivation than currents in CZ calyces. Underlying K(+) channel populations contributing to these differences were investigated. The KCNQ channel blocker XE991 dihydrochloride blocked a slowly activating, sustained outward current in both PZ and CZ calyces, indicating the presence of KCNQ channels. Mean reduction was greatest in PZ calyces. XE991 also reduced action potential firing frequency in CZ and PZ calyces and broadened mean action potential width. The K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (10-50 μM) blocked rapidly activating, moderately inactivating currents that were more prevalent in PZ calyces. α-Dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of KV1 channels, reduced outward currents in CZ calyces but not in PZ calyces. Regional variations in K(+) conductances may contribute to different firing responses in calyx afferents. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Zonal Rate Model for Axial and Radial Flow Membrane Chromatography. Part I: Knowledge Transfer Across Operating Conditions and Scales

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Haynes, Charles A; von Lieres, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The zonal rate model (ZRM) has previously been applied for analyzing the performance of axial flow membrane chromatography capsules by independently determining the impacts of flow and binding related non-idealities on measured breakthrough curves. In the present study, the ZRM is extended to radial flow configurations, which are commonly used at larger scales. The axial flow XT5 capsule and the radial flow XT140 capsule from Pall are rigorously analyzed under binding and non-binding conditions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as test molecule. The binding data of this molecule is much better reproduced by the spreading model, which hypothesizes different binding orientations, than by the well-known Langmuir model. Moreover, a revised cleaning protocol with NaCl instead of NaOH and minimizing the storage time has been identified as most critical for quantitatively reproducing the measured breakthrough curves. The internal geometry of both capsules is visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The flow in the external hold-up volumes of the XT140 capsule was found to be more homogeneous as in the previously studied XT5 capsule. An attempt for model-based scale-up was apparently impeded by irregular pleat structures in the used XT140 capsule, which might lead to local variations in the linear velocity through the membrane stack. However, the presented approach is universal and can be applied to different capsules. The ZRM is shown to potentially help save valuable material and time, as the experiments required for model calibration are much cheaper than the predicted large-scale experiment at binding conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1129–1141. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23097218

  17. Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.

  18. Nonlinear saturation of the slab ITG instability and zonal flow generation with fully kinetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Sturdevant, Benjamin J.; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E.

    2018-05-01

    Fully kinetic turbulence models are of interest for their potential to validate or replace gyrokinetic models in plasma regimes where the gyrokinetic expansion parameters are marginal. Here, we demonstrate fully kinetic ion capability by simulating the growth and nonlinear saturation of the ion-temperature-gradient instability in shearless slab geometry assuming adiabatic electrons and including zonal flow dynamics. The ion trajectories are integrated using the Lorentz force, and the cyclotron motion is fully resolved. Linear growth and nonlinear saturation characteristics show excellent agreement with analogous gyrokinetic simulations across a wide range of parameters. The fully kinetic simulation accurately reproduces the nonlinearly generated zonal flow. This work demonstrates nonlinear capability, resolution of weak gradient drive, and zonal flow physics, which are critical aspects of modeling plasma turbulence with full ion dynamics.

  19. Jupiter: New estimates of mean zonal flow at the cloud level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reexamine the magnitude differences of the Jovian atmosphere's jets, as determined by Voyager 1 and 2 images, a novel approach is used to ascertain the zonal mean east-west component of motion. This technique is based on digital pattern matching, and is applied on pairs of mapped images to yield a profile of the mean zonal component that reproduces the exact locations of the easterly and westerly jets between + and 60 deg latitude. Results were obtained for all of the Voyager 1 and 2 cylindrical mosaics; the correlation coefficient between Voyagers 1 and 2 in mean zonal flow between + and - 60 deg latitude, determined from violet filter mosaics, is 0.998.

  20. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  1. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  2. On Nulling, Drifting, and Their Interactions in PSRs J1741-0840 and J1840-0840

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajjar, V.; Yuan, J. P.; Yuen, R.; Wen, Z. G.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, N.

    2017-12-01

    We report detailed investigation of nulling and drifting behavior of two pulsars PSRs J1741-0840 and J1840-0840 observed from the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope at 625 MHz. PSR J1741-0840 was found to show a nulling fraction (NF) of around 30% ± 5% while PSR J1840-0840 was shown to have an NF of around 50% ± 6%. We measured drifting behavior from different profile components in PSR J1840-0840 for the first time with the leading component showing drifting with 13.5 ± 0.7 periods while the weak trailing component showed drifting of around 18 ± 1 periods. Large nulling hampers accuracy of these quantities derived using standard Fourier techniques. A more accurate comparison was drawn from driftband slopes, measured after sub-pulse modeling. These measurements revealed interesting sporadic and irregular drifting behavior in both pulsars. We conclude that the previously reported different drifting periodicities in the trailing component of PSR J1741-0840 is likely due to the spread in these driftband slopes. We also find that both components of PSR J1840-0840 show similar driftband slopes within the uncertainties. Unique nulling-drifting interaction is identified in PSR J1840-0840 where, on most occasions, the pulsar tends to start nulling after what appears to be the end of a driftband. Similarly, when the pulsar switches back to an emission phase, on most occasions it starts at the beginning of a new driftband in both components. Such behaviors have not been detected in any other pulsars to our knowledge. We also found that PSR J1741-0840 seems to have no memory of its previous burst phase while PSR J1840-0840 clearly exhibits memory of its previous state even after longer nulls for both components. We discuss possible explanations for these intriguing nulling-drifting interactions seen in both pulsars based on various pulsar nulling models.

  3. The Relationship Between the Zonal Mean ITCZ and Regional Precipitation during the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda, K.; Noone, D.; Konecky, B.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of the zonal mean Tropical Rain Belt (TRB, i.e. the ITCZ + the land-based monsoons) are often inferred from individual proxy records of precipitation or other hydroclimatic variables. However, these inferences can be misleading. Here, an isotope-enabled climate model simulation is used to evaluate metrics of the zonal mean ITCZ vs. regional hydrological characteristics during the mid-Holocene (MH, 6 kya). The MH provides a unique perspective on the relationship between the ITCZ and regional hydrology because of large, orbitally-driven shifts in tropical precipitation as well as a critical mass of proxy records. By using a climate model with simulated water isotopes, characteristics of atmospheric circulation and water transport processes can be inferred, and comparison with isotope proxies can be made more directly. We find that estimations of the zonal-mean ITCZ are insufficient for evaluating regional responses of hydrological cycles to forcing changes. For example, one approximation of a 1.5-degree northward shift in the zonal-mean ITCZ position during the MH corresponded well with northward shifts in maximum rainfall in tropical Africa, but did not match southward shifts in the tropical Pacific or longitudinal shifts in the Indian monsoon region. In many regions, the spatial distribution of water vapor isotopes suggests that changes in moisture source and atmospheric circulation were a greater influence on precipitation distribution, intensity, and isotope ratio than the average northward shift in ITCZ latitude. These findings reinforce the idea that using tropical hydrological proxy records to infer zonal-mean characteristics of the ITCZ may be misleading. Rather, tropical proxy records of precipitation, particularly those that record precipitation isotopes, serve as a guideline for regional hydrological changes while model simulations can put them in the context of zonal mean tropical convergence.

  4. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  5. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classification model.

    PubMed

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Allen, Bryan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Ercole, Cesar E; Sexton, Wade J; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of the first standardized renal tumor complexity system, many subsequent scoring systems have been introduced, many of which are complicated and can make it difficult to accurately measure data end points. In light of these limitations, we introduce the new zonal NePhRO scoring system. The zonal NePhRO score is based on 4 anatomical components that are assigned a score of 1, 2, or 3, and their sum is used to classify renal tumors. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is made up of the (Ne)arness to collecting system, (Ph)ysical location of the tumor in the kidney, (R)adius of the tumor, and (O)rganization of the tumor. In this retrospective study, we evaluated patients exhibiting clinical stage T1a or T1b who underwent open partial nephrectomy performed by 2 genitourinary surgeons. Each renal unit was assigned both a zonal NePhRO score and a RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) score, and a blinded reviewer used the same preoperative imaging study to obtain both scores. Additional data points gathered included age, clamp time, complication rate, urine leak rate, intraoperative blood loss, and pathologic tumor size. One hundred sixty-six patients underwent open partial nephrectomy. There were 37 perioperative complications quantitated using the validated Clavien-Dindo system; their occurrence was predicted by the NePhRO score on both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .0008). Clinical stage, intraoperative blood loss, and tumor diameter were all correlated with the zonal NePhRO score on univariate analysis only. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is a simpler tool that accurately predicts the surgical complexity of a renal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Su, T. J. Kneafsey, T. A. Ghezzehei, B. D. Marshall, and P. J. Cook

    The ''Drift Shadow'' is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project they plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies they have an identified suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to developmore » the field scale tests.« less

  7. Field investigation of the drift shadow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, G.W.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ghezzehei, T.A.; Cook, P.J.; Marshall, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    The "Drift Shadow" is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project we plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies we have an identified a suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to develop the field scale tests.

  8. The Electron Drift Instrument for Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschmann, G.; Melzner, F.; Frenzel, R.; Vaith, H.; Parigger, P.; Pagel, U.; Bauer, O. H.; Haerendel, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Scopke, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) measures the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that, when emitted in certain directions, return to the spacecraft after one or more gyrations. This drift is related to the electric field and the gradient in the magnetic field, and these quantities can, by use of different electron energies, be determined separately. As a by-product, the magnetic field strength is also measured. The present paper describes the scientific objectives, the experimental method, and the technical realization of the various elements of the instrument.

  9. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Generation of large-scale eddies and zonal winds in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Astafieva, N. M.

    2008-06-01

    The review deals with a theoretical description of the generation of zonal winds and vortices in a turbulent barotropic atmosphere. These large-scale structures largely determine the dynamics and transport processes in planetary atmospheres. The role of nonlinear effects on the formation of mesoscale vortical structures (cyclones and anticyclones) is examined. A new mechanism for zonal wind generation in planetary atmospheres is discussed. It is based on the parametric generation of convective cells by finite-amplitude Rossby waves. Weakly turbulent spectra of Rossby waves are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the results of satellite microwave monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere.

  10. Large-scale irregularities of the winter polar topside ionosphere according to data from Swarm satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova, R. Yu.; Bogoutdinov, Sh. R.

    2017-11-01

    An analysis of the electron density measurements ( Ne) along the flyby trajectories over the high-latitude region of the Northern Hemisphere under winter conditions in 2014 and 2016 has shown that the main large-scale structure observed by Swarm satellites is the tongue of ionization (TOI). At the maximum of the solar cycle ( F 10.7 = 160), the average value of Ne in the TOI region at an altitude of 500 km was 8 × 104 cm-3. Two years later, at F 10.7 = 100, Ne 5 × 104 cm-3 and Ne 2.5 × 104 cm-3 were observed at altitudes of 470 and 530 km, respectively. During the dominance of the azimuthal component of the interplanetary magnetic field, the TOI has been observed mainly on the dawn or dusk side depending on the sign of B y . Simultaneous observations of the convective plasma drift velocity in the polar cap show the transpolar flow drift to the dawn ( B y < 0) or dusk side ( B y < 0). Observations and numerical simulation of the Ne distribution have confirmed the significant role of the electric field of the magnetospheric convection in the generation of large-scale irregularities in the polar ionosphere.

  11. Drift of continental rafts with asymmetric heating.

    PubMed

    Knopoff, L; Poehls, K A; Smith, R C

    1972-06-02

    A laboratory model of a lithospheric raft is propelled through a viscous asthenospheric layer with constant velocity of scaled magnitude appropriate to continental drift. The propulsion is due to differential heat concentration in the model oceanic and continental crusts.

  12. The Electron Drift Instrument for MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Granoff, M.; Widholm, M.; Gaidos, J. A.; Briggs, B. H.; Dors, I. G.; Chutter, M. W.; Macri, J.; Argall, M.; Bodet, D.; Needell, J.; Steller, M. B.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Ottacher, H.; Hasiba, J.; Hofmann, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Dvorsky, R. T.; Sigsbee, K.; Kooi, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission measures the in-situ electric and magnetic fields using the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that, when emitted in certain directions, return to the spacecraft after one or more gyrations. This drift is related to the electric field and, to a lesser extent, the gradient in the magnetic field. Although these two quantities can be determined separately by use of different electron energies, for MMS regions of interest the magnetic field gradient contribution is negligible. As a by-product of the drift determination, the magnetic field strength and constraints on its direction are also determined. The present paper describes the scientific objectives, the experimental method, and the technical realization of the various elements of the instrument on MMS.

  13. Drift and Behavior of E. coli Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micali, Gabriele; Colin, Rémy; Sourjik, Victor; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-12-01

    Chemotaxis of the bacterium Escherichia coli is well understood in shallow chemical gradients, but its swimming behavior remains difficult to interpret in steep gradients. By focusing on single-cell trajectories from simulations, we investigated the dependence of the chemotactic drift velocity on attractant concentration in an exponential gradient. While maxima of the average drift velocity can be interpreted within analytical linear-response theory of chemotaxis in shallow gradients, limits in drift due to steep gradients and finite number of receptor-methylation sites for adaptation go beyond perturbation theory. For instance, we found a surprising pinning of the cells to the concentration in the gradient at which cells run out of methylation sites. To validate the positions of maximal drift, we recorded single-cell trajectories in carefully designed chemical gradients using microfluidics.

  14. Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Jones, David Alexander

    2016-04-26

    The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.

  15. Predator prey oscillations in a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Berionni, V.; Guercan, Oe. D.

    2011-11-15

    A reduced three shell limit of a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence, which emphasizes nonlocal interactions with a large scale mode, is considered. It is shown to describe both the well known predator prey dynamics between the drift waves and zonal flows and to reduce to the standard three wave interaction equations. Here, this model is considered as a dynamical system whose characteristics are investigated. The analytical solutions for the purely nonlinear limit are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. An approximate analytical solution involving Jacobi elliptic functions and exponential growth is computed using scale separationmore » for the case of unstable solutions that are observed when the energy injection rate is high. The fixed points of the system are determined, and the behavior around these fixed points is studied. The system is shown to display periodic solutions corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, apparently chaotic phase space orbits, as well as unstable solutions that grow slowly while oscillating rapidly. The period doubling route to transition to chaos is examined.« less

  16. Generation of parasitic axial flow by drift wave turbulence with broken symmetry: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, R.; Li, J. C.; Hajjar, R.; Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Diamond, P. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of intrinsic axial flow generation parallel to the magnetic field in the controlled shear decorrelation experiment linear plasma device with no axial momentum input are presented and compared to theory. The results show a causal link from the density gradient to drift-wave turbulence with broken spectral symmetry and development of the axial mean parallel flow. As the density gradient steepens, the axial and azimuthal Reynolds stresses increase and radially sheared azimuthal and axial mean flows develop. A turbulent axial momentum balance analysis shows that the axial Reynolds stress drives the radially sheared axial mean flow. The turbulent drive (Reynolds power) for the azimuthal flow is an order of magnitude greater than that for axial flow, suggesting that the turbulence fluctuation levels are set by azimuthal flow shear regulation. The direct energy exchange between axial and azimuthal mean flows is shown to be insignificant. Therefore, the axial flow is parasitic to the turbulence-zonal flow system and is driven primarily by the axial turbulent stress generated by that system. The non-diffusive, residual part of the axial Reynolds stress is found to be proportional to the density gradient and is formed due to dynamical asymmetry in the drift-wave turbulence.

  17. Evaporation From Soil Containers With Irregular Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from bare soils under laboratory conditions is generally studied using containers of regular shapes where the vertical edges are parallel to the flow lines in the drying domain. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of irregular container shapes, for which the flow lines either converge or diverge toward the surface. Evaporation from initially saturated sand and sandy loam soils packed in cones and inverted cones was compared to evaporation from corresponding cylindrical columns. The initial evaporation rate was higher in the cones, and close to potential evaporation. At the end of the experiment, the cumulative evaporation depth in the sand cone was equal to that in the column but higher than in the inverted cone, while in the sandy loam, the order was cone > column > inverted cone. By comparison to the column, stage 1 evaporation was longer in the cones, and practically similar in the inverted cones. Stage 2 evaporation rate decreased with the increase of the evaporating surface area. These results were more pronounced in the sandy loam. For the sand column, the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 evaporation occurred when the depth of the saturation front was approximately equal to the characteristic length of the soil. However, for the cone and the inverted cone, it occurred for a shallower depth of the saturation front. It seems therefore that the concept of the characteristic length derived from the soil hydraulic properties is related to drying systems of regular shapes.

  18. Regularities and irregularities in order flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.

  19. Chemical evolution in spiral and irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Peimbert, S.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of models of chemical evolution of the interstellar medium in our galaxy and other galaxies is presented. These models predict the time variation and radial dependence of chemical composition in the gas as function of the input parameters; initial mass function, stellar birth rate, chemical composition of mass lost by stars during their evolution (yields), and the existence of large scale mass flows, like infall from the halo, outflow to the intergalactic medium or radial flows within a galaxy. At present there is a considerable wealth of observational data on the composition of HII regions in spiral and irregular galaxies to constrain the models. Comparisons are made between theory and the observed physical conditions. In particular, studies of helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances are reviewed. In many molecular clouds the information we have on the amount of H2 is derived from the observed CO column density, and a standard CO/H2 ratio derived for the solar neighborhood. Chemical evolution models and the observed variations in O/H and N/O values, point out the need to include these results in a CO/H2 relation that should be, at least, a function of the O/H ratio. This aspect is also discussed.

  20. 14 CFR 375.33 - Transit flights, irregular operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transit flights, irregular operations. 375... Authorized Operations § 375.33 Transit flights, irregular operations. Foreign civil aircraft carrying... mail are transferred to another aircraft. Flights involving stops under such circumstances may, however...

  1. 14 CFR 375.33 - Transit flights, irregular operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transit flights, irregular operations. 375... Authorized Operations § 375.33 Transit flights, irregular operations. Foreign civil aircraft carrying... mail are transferred to another aircraft. Flights involving stops under such circumstances may, however...

  2. 14 CFR 375.33 - Transit flights, irregular operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transit flights, irregular operations. 375... Authorized Operations § 375.33 Transit flights, irregular operations. Foreign civil aircraft carrying... mail are transferred to another aircraft. Flights involving stops under such circumstances may, however...

  3. 14 CFR 375.33 - Transit flights, irregular operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transit flights, irregular operations. 375... Authorized Operations § 375.33 Transit flights, irregular operations. Foreign civil aircraft carrying... mail are transferred to another aircraft. Flights involving stops under such circumstances may, however...

  4. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aircraft maintenance log to be carried on board each aircraft for recording or deferring mechanical... maintenance log each mechanical irregularity that comes to the pilot's attention during flight time. Before... each irregularity entered in the maintenance log at the end of the preceding flight. (c) Each person...

  5. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aircraft maintenance log to be carried on board each aircraft for recording or deferring mechanical... maintenance log each mechanical irregularity that comes to the pilot's attention during flight time. Before... each irregularity entered in the maintenance log at the end of the preceding flight. (c) Each person...

  6. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... aircraft maintenance log to be carried on board each aircraft for recording or deferring mechanical... maintenance log each mechanical irregularity that comes to the pilot's attention during flight time. Before... each irregularity entered in the maintenance log at the end of the preceding flight. (c) Each person...

  7. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... aircraft maintenance log to be carried on board each aircraft for recording or deferring mechanical... maintenance log each mechanical irregularity that comes to the pilot's attention during flight time. Before... each irregularity entered in the maintenance log at the end of the preceding flight. (c) Each person...

  8. BATHYMETRIC IRREGULARITIES, JET FORMATION, AND SUBSEQUENT MIXING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well known that bathymetric contours influence and steer currents and that irregularities in bathymetry contribute to the formation of aquatic non-buoyant jets and buoyant plumes. For example, bathymetric irregularities can channel flow through canyons or accelerate flow ov...

  9. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting mechanical irregularities. 135.65... Operations § 135.65 Reporting mechanical irregularities. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide an aircraft maintenance log to be carried on board each aircraft for recording or deferring mechanical...

  10. 14 CFR 125.323 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting mechanical irregularities. 125.323 Section 125.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 125.323 Reporting mechanical irregularities. The pilot in command shall ensure that all mechanical...

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Himalia An Irregular Jovian Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Baines, K.; Bellucci, G.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.

    2002-01-01

    Spectra of the irregular Jovian satellite Himalia were obtained with the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini during the Jupiter Flyby on December 18-19, 2000. These are the first spectral data of an irregular satellite beyond 2.5 microns. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  13. Time-varying zonal asymmetries in stratospheric nitrous oxide and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Previously analyses of Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data of atmospheric constituent gases have dealt almost exclusively with zonal means (and mostly monthly means), owing perhaps to concern over data quality. The purpose of this note is to show that, with care, time-dependent zonally-asymmetric features may be recovered from the SAMS nitrous oxide and methane data. As an example, we demonstrate the existence of zonal wave-1 constituent perturbations with periods of a few weeks in the middle and upper stratosphere. When the perturbations are normalized by the constituent zonal-mean mixing ratio to compensate for the slowly varying (in both space and time) background concentration of constituents, wavepacket-like features are found over all latitudes and seasons in the three-year SAMS record. One specific low-latitude case discussed had features which appear to be consistent with constituent oscillations induced by episodic equatorial Kelvin waves. Further studies are needed to better identify the nature of the plethora of observed wave-like phenomena.

  14. Numerical simulation of phenomenon on zonal disintegration in deep underground mining in case of unsupported roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengshan; Wu, Xinli; Li, Xia; Zhu, Dekang

    2018-02-01

    Zonal disintegration phenomenon was found in deep mining roadway surrounding rock. It seriously affects the safety of mining and underground engineering and it may lead to the occurrence of natural disasters. in deep mining roadway surrounding rock, tectonic stress in deep mining roadway rock mass, horizontal stress is much greater than the vertical stress, When the direction of maximum principal stress is parallel to the axis of the roadway in deep mining, this is the main reasons for Zonal disintegration phenomenon. Using ABAQUS software to numerical simulation of the three-dimensional model of roadway rupture formation process systematically, and the study shows that when The Direction of maximum main stress in deep underground mining is along the roadway axial direction, Zonal disintegration phenomenon in deep underground mining is successfully reproduced by our numerical simulation..numerical simulation shows that using ABAQUA simulation can reproduce Zonal disintegration phenomenon and the formation process of damage of surrounding rock can be reproduced. which have important engineering practical significance.

  15. Self-Organization of Zonal Jets in Outer Planet Atmospheres: Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechnical theory of a two-dimensional Euler fluid is appleid for the first time to explore the spontaneous self-oganization of zonal jets in outer planet atmospheres. Globally conserved integralls of motion are found to play a central role in defining jet structure.

  16. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  17. Educational Change Leadership through a New Zonal Theory Lens: Using Mathematics Curriculum Change as the Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen; Branson, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines actions that educational change leaders can take to better meet their curriculum change obligations and responsibilities. In order to do this we extend Vygotsky's (1978) zonal theory and its many extensions and elaborations by positioning educational change leadership within this theory. We rename the zones to Zone of Principal…

  18. Isolation of Intact Chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis by Zonal Centrifugation 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Aurea; Pollack, Marilyn; Mendiola, Leticia R.; Hoffmann, H.-P.; Brown, D. H.; Price, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Chloroplasts were separated from Euglena gracilis by zonal centrifugation at low speed in density gradients of Ficoll or dextran. The chloroplasts were intact by the criteria of ultrastructure and their content of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and soluble protein. The chloroplasts also contained ribosomes and ribosomal RNA uncontaminated by the corresponding cytoplasmic particles. Images PMID:16657599

  19. The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin

    1998-09-01

    During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.

  20. Zonal structure and variability of the Western Pacific dynamic warm pool edge in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jaclyn N.; Langlais, Clothilde; Maes, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The equatorial edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is operationally identified by one isotherm ranging between 28° and 29 °C, chosen to align with the interannual variability of strong zonal salinity gradients and the convergence of zonal ocean currents. The simulation of this edge is examined in 19 models from the World Climate Research Program Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), over the historical period from 1950 to 2000. The dynamic warm pool edge (DWPE), where the zonal currents converge, is difficult to determine from limited observations and biased models. A new analysis technique is introduced where a proxy for DWPE is determined by the isotherm that most closely correlates with the movements of the strong salinity gradient. It can therefore be a different isotherm in each model. The DWPE is simulated much closer to observations than if a direct temperature-only comparison is made. Aspects of the DWPE remain difficult for coupled models to simulate including the mean longitude, the interannual excursions, and the zonal convergence of ocean currents. Some models have only very weak salinity gradients trapped to the western side of the basin making it difficult to even identify a DWPE. The model's DWPE are generally 1-2 °C cooler than observed. In line with theory, the magnitude of the zonal migrations of the DWPE are strongly related to the amplitudes of the Nino3.4 SST index. Nevertheless, a better simulation of the mean location of the DWPE does not necessarily improve the amplitude of a model's ENSO. It is also found that in a few models (CSIROMk3.6, inmcm and inmcm4-esm) the warm pool displacements result from a net heating or cooling rather than a zonal advection of warm water. The simulation of the DWPE has implications for ENSO dynamics when considering ENSO paradigms such as the delayed action oscillator mechanism, the Advective-Reflective oscillator, and the zonal-advective feedback. These are also discussed in the context

  1. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  2. Comparative Study of Drift Compensation Methods for Environmental Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, M. Z.; Asmat, Arnis; Hamidon, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Most drift compensation attempts in environmental gas sensors are only emphasize on the “already-known” drift-causing parameter (i.e., ambient temperature, relative humidity) in compensating the sensor drift. Less consideration is taken to another parameter (i.e., baseline responses) that might have affected indirectly with the promotion of drift-causing parameter variable (in this context, is ambient temperature variable). In this study, the “indirect” drift-causing parameter (drifted baseline responses) has been taken into consideration in compensating the sensor drift caused by ambient temperature variable, by means of a proposed drift compensation method (named as RT-method). The effectiveness of this method in its efficacy of compensating drift was analysed and compared with the common method that used the “already-known” drift-causing parameter (named as T-method), using drift reduction percentage. From the results analysis, the RT-method has outperformed T- method in the drift reduction percentage, with its ability to reduce drift up to 64% rather than the T-method which only able to reduce up to 45% for TGS2600 sensor. It has proven that the inclusion of drifted baseline responses into drift compensation attempt would resulted to an improved drift compensation efficiency.

  3. Comparative analysis of zonal systems for macro-level crash modeling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen

    2017-06-01

    Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), state-wide traffic analysis zones (STAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs). Poisson lognormal models for three crash types (i.e., total, severe, and non-motorized mode crashes) are developed based on the three zonal systems without and with consideration of spatial autocorrelation. The study proposes a method to compare the modeling performance of the three types of geographic units at different spatial configurations through a grid based framework. Specifically, the study region is partitioned to grids of various sizes and the model prediction accuracy of the various macro models is considered within these grids of various sizes. These model comparison results for all crash types indicated that the models based on TADs consistently offer a better performance compared to the others. Besides, the models considering spatial autocorrelation outperform the ones that do not consider it. Based on the modeling results and motivation for developing the different zonal systems, it is recommended using CTs for socio-demographic data collection, employing TAZs for transportation demand forecasting, and adopting TADs for transportation safety planning. The findings from this study can help practitioners select appropriate zonal systems for traffic crash modeling, which leads to develop more efficient policies to enhance transportation safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  4. GRAVOTURBULENT PLANETESIMAL FORMATION: THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF LONG-LIVED ZONAL FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, K.; Klahr, H.; Johansen, A., E-mail: dittrich@mpia.de

    2013-02-15

    Recent numerical simulations have shown long-lived axisymmetric sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of disks unstable to the magnetorotational instability. This paper covers our study of the strength and lifetime of zonal flows and the resulting long-lived gas over- and underdensities as functions of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. We further investigate dust particle concentrations without feedback on the gas and without self-gravity. The strength and lifetime of zonal flows increase with the radial extent of the simulation box, but decrease withmore » the azimuthal box size. Our simulations support earlier results that zonal flows have a natural radial length scale of 5-7 gas pressure scale heights. This is the first study that combines three-dimensional MHD simulations of zonal flows and dust particles feeling the gas pressure. The pressure bumps trap particles with St = 1 very efficiently. We show that St = 0.1 particles (of some centimeters in size if at 5 AU in a minimum mass solar nebula) reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially. This opens the path for particles of St = 0.1 and dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 or for particles of St {>=} 0.5 and dust-to-gas ratio 10{sup -4} to still reach densities that potentially trigger the streaming instability and thus gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals.« less

  5. Clinical features of subepithelial layer irregularities of cornea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Woo; Gye, Hyo Jung; Choi, Chul Young

    2015-07-01

    To illustrate surgical outcomes of subepithelial irregularities that were identified incidentally during laser refractive surgery. The study group consisted of 406 patients who underwent 787 surface ablation refractive surgeries. Ophthalmologic evaluations were performed before each procedure and at 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively. Subepithelial irregularities were evaluated by analyzing still photographs captured from video recordings. Sizes and locations were determined by a calibrated scale located at the major axis of the tracking system's reticle. Subepithelial irregularities were identified in 27 eyes during 787 surface ablation refractive surgeries. Most of the subepithelial irregularities did not show any abnormalities in the wavefront aberrometer. However, one case with diameter greater than 1.00 mm and one case of clustered multiple subepithelial irregularities with moderate size were corresponded significant coma (Z31) and increased higher order aberration (HOA) in the HOA gradient map. Corneal subepithelial irregularities may be related to problems that include significantly increased localized HOA and remaining permanent subepithelial opacity. Subepithelial irregularity should be considered even if the surface of the cornea is intact and there are no specific findings measured by corneal topography.

  6. Rocket in situ observation of equatorial plasma irregularities in the region between E and F layers over Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savio Odriozola, Siomel; de Meneses, Francisco Carlos, Jr.; Muralikrishna, Polinaya; Alvares Pimenta, Alexandre; Alam Kherani, Esfhan

    2017-03-01

    A two-stage VS-30 Orion rocket was launched from the equatorial rocket launching station in Alcântara, Brazil, on 8 December 2012 soon after sunset (19:00 LT), carrying a Langmuir probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes. At the time of launch, ground equipment operated at equatorial stations showed rapid rise in the base of the F layer, indicating the pre-reversal enhancement of the F region vertical drift and creating ionospheric conditions favorable for the generation of plasma bubbles. Vertical profiles of electron density estimated from Langmuir probe data showed wave patterns and small- and medium-scale plasma irregularities in the valley region (100-300 km) during the rocket upleg and downleg. These irregularities resemble those detected by the very high frequency (VHF) radar installed at Jicamarca and so-called equatorial quasi-periodic echoes. We present evidence suggesting that these observations could be the first detection of this type of irregularity made by instruments onboard a rocket.

  7. Optical drift effects in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzyński, Mikołaj; Kopiński, Jarosław

    2018-03-01

    We consider the question of determining the optical drift effects in general relativity, i.e. the rate of change of the apparent position, redshift, Jacobi matrix, angular distance and luminosity distance of a distant object as registered by an observer in an arbitrary spacetime. We present a fully relativistic and covariant approach, in which the problem is reduced to a hierarchy of ODE's solved along the line of sight. The 4-velocities and 4-accelerations of the observer and the emitter and the geometry of the spacetime along the line of sight constitute the input data. We build on the standard relativistic geometric optics formalism and extend it to include the time derivatives of the observables. In the process we obtain two general, non-perturbative relations: the first one between the gravitational lensing, represented by the Jacobi matrix, and the apparent position drift, also called the cosmic parallax, and the second one between the apparent position drift and the redshift drift. The applications of the results include the theoretical study of the drift effects of cosmological origin (so-called real-time cosmology) in numerical or exact Universe models.

  8. The generalized drift flux approach: Identification of the void-drift closure law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boure, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The main characteristics and the potential advantages of generalized drift flux models are presented. In particular it is stressed that the issue on the propagation properties and on the mathematical nature (hyperbolic or not) of the model and the problem of closure are easier to tackle than in two fluid models. The problem of identifying the differential void-drift closure law inherent to generalized drift flux models is then addressed. Such a void-drift closure, based on wave properties, is proposed for bubbly flows. It involves a drift relaxation time which is of the order of 0.25 s. It is observed that, although wave properties provide essential closure validity tests, they do not represent an easily usable source of quantitative information on the closure laws.

  9. Community Air Monitoring for Pesticide Drift Using Pesticide Action Network's (PAN) Drift Catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, E.

    2016-12-01

    Community air monitoring projects for pesticides in the air have been conducted by PAN in collaboration with community members and locally based groups engaged around pesticide issues. PAN is part of an international network working to promote a just, thriving food system and replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives. The Drift Catcher is an air-monitoring device with a design based on the California Air Resource Board's air monitoring equipment, and has been used in community-based projects in 11 states. Observations of pesticide drift made by community members cannot always be confirmed by regulatory agencies—if an inspection is made hours or days after a drift incident, the evidence may no longer be present. The Drift Catcher makes it possible to collect scientific evidence of pesticide drift in areas where people live, work, and play. One of the most recent Drift Catcher projects was done in California, in partnership with the Safe Strawberry Coalition and led by the statewide coalition Californians for Pesticide Reform. The data were used to support a call for stronger mitigation rules for the fumigant chloropicrin and to support a campaign asking for stronger pesticide rules to protect children attending school in close proximity to agricultural fields. The Drift Catcher data are used by organizers and community members to engage policymakers with the intention of making policy change on a local and/or statewide level. On the national level, PAN's Drift Catcher data has helped win regulatory recognition of volatilization drift for pesticides other than fumigants. Lessons learned from conducting community-based research projects will also be discussed. PAN is also currently assessing other community-based monitoring tools, such as community surveys and drift questionnaires that may allow communities to collect data that can also support the campaign work.

  10. Spray particle drift mitigation using field corn (Zea mays L.) as a drift barrier.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruno C; Butts, Thomas R; Rodrigues, Andre O; Golus, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Kasey; Kruger, Greg R

    2018-04-24

    Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier. Applications with a non-air inclusion flat fan nozzle (ER11004) resulted in greater particle drift when compared to an air inclusion nozzle (TTI11004). Eight rows of corn were used as barriers (0.91, 1.22, and 1.98 m height) which reduced the particle drift for both nozzles, especially at shorter downwind distances. Applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers had 1% of the applied rate (D 99 ) predicted to deposit at 14.8 m downwind, whereas this distance was reduced (up to 7-fold) when applications were performed with corn barriers. The combination of corn drift barriers and nozzle selection (TTI11004) provided satisfactory particle drift reduction when the D 99 estimates were compared to applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers (up to 10-fold difference). The corn drift barriers were effective in reducing particle drift from applications with the ER11004 and the TTI11004 nozzles (Fine and Ultra Coarse spray classifications, respectively). The corn drift barrier had appropriate porosity and width as the airborne spray was captured within its canopy instead of deflecting up and over it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2014-09-01

    A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.

  12. Correcting sample drift using Fourier harmonics.

    PubMed

    Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Reyes, D F; Braza, V; Yañez, A; Nuñez-Moraleda, B; González, D; Galindo, P L

    2018-07-01

    During image acquisition of crystalline materials by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, the sample drift could lead to distortions and shears that hinder their quantitative analysis and characterization. In order to measure and correct this effect, several authors have proposed different methodologies making use of series of images. In this work, we introduce a methodology to determine the drift angle via Fourier analysis by using a single image based on the measurements between the angles of the second Fourier harmonics in different quadrants. Two different approaches, that are independent of the angle of acquisition of the image, are evaluated. In addition, our results demonstrate that the determination of the drift angle is more accurate by using the measurements of non-consecutive quadrants when the angle of acquisition is an odd multiple of 45°. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drift due to viscous vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  14. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  15. Results of a zonally truncated three-dimensional model of the Venus middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equatorial rotational speed of the solid surface of Venus is only 4 m s(exp-1), the atmospheric rotational speed reaches a maximum of approximately 100 m s(exp-1) near the equatorial cloud top level (65 to 70 km). This phenomenon, known as superrotation, is the central dynamical problem of the Venus atmosphere. We report here the results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the mechanism for maintaining the equatorial cloud top rotation. Maintenance of an equatorial rotational speed maximum above the surface requires waves or eddies that systematically transport angular momentum against its zonal mean gradient. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is driven thermally and acts to reduce the rotational speed at the equatorial cloud top level; thus wave or eddy transport must counter this tendency as well as friction. Planetary waves arising from horizontal shear instability of the zonal flow (barotropic instability) could maintain the equatorial rotation by transporting angular momentum horizontally from midlatitudes toward the equator. Alternatively, vertically propagating waves could provide the required momentum source. The relative motion between the rotating atmosphere and the pattern of solar heating, which as a maximum where solar radiation is absorbed near the cloud tops, drives diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that propagate vertically away from the cloud top level. The effect of this wave propagation is to transport momentum toward the cloud top level at low latitudes and accelerate the mean zonal flow there. We employ a semispectral primitive equation model with a zonal mean flow and zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. These waves correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, but they can also be excited by barotropic or baroclinic instability. Waves of higher wavenumbers and interactions between the waves are neglected. Symmetry about the equator is assumed, so the model applies to one hemisphere and covers the altitude range 30 to

  16. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  17. Drifts of Dust or Something Else?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    While the interior and far walls of the crater dubbed 'Bonneville' can be seen in the background, the dominant foreground features in this 180-degree navigation camera mosaic are the wind-deposited drifts of dust or sand. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit completed this mosaic on sol 71, March 15, 2004, from its newest location at the rim of 'Bonneville' crater.

    Scientists are interested in these formations in part because they might give insight into the processes that formed some of the material within the crater. Thermal emission measurements by the rover indicate that the dark material just below the far rim of this crater is spectrally similar to rocks that scientists have analyzed along their journey to this location. They want to know why this soil-like material has a spectrum that more closely resembles rocks rather than other soils examined so far. The drifts seen in the foreground of this mosaic might have the answer. Scientists hypothesize that these drifts might consist of wind-deposited particles that are the same as the dark material found against the back wall of the crater. If so, Spirit may spend time studying the material and help scientists understand why it is different from other fine-grained material seen at Gusev.

    The drifts appear to be lighter in color than the dark material deposited on the back wall of the crater. They might be covered by a thin deposit of martian dust, or perhaps the drift is like other drifts seen during Spirit's journey and is just a collection of martian dust.

    To find out, Spirit will spend some of sol 72 digging its wheels into the drift to uncover its interior. After backing up a bit, Spirit will use the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze the scuffed area. If the interior material has a similar spectrum to the dark deposit in the crater, then Spirit will most likely stay here a little longer to study the drift with the instruments on its robotic arm. If the

  18. Do the pyramids show continental drift?

    PubMed

    Pawley, G S; Abrahamsen, N

    1973-03-02

    The mystery of the orientation of the Great Pyramids of Giza has remained unexplained for many decades. The general alignment is 4 minutes west of north. It is argued that this is not a builders' error but is caused by movement over the centuries. Modern theories of continental drift do not predict quite such large movements, but other causes of polar wandering give even smaller shifts. Thus, continental drift is the most likely explanation, although somewhat implausible, especially as relevant measurements have been made over a 50-year period, whereas geophysical measurements of sea-floor spreading relate to million-year time scales.

  19. Continental drift under the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public. Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other hand, continental drift received official support under the Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by most earth scientists outside Germany.

  20. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assiro, R.; Cappelli, L.; Cascella, M.; De Lorenzis, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Ignatov, F.; L'Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A.; Miccoli, A.; Onorato, G.; Perillo, M.; Piacentino, G.; Rella, S.; Rossetti, F.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.; Zavarise, G.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100-200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50-100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce .

  1. Interagency Cooperation for Irregular Warfare at the Combatant Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Directorate, and the USSOCOM Interagency Task Force ( IATF ) offer examples of JIACGs coping with the issues of IW. Each organization possesses strengths...46 USSOCOM IATF History...Force for Irregular Warfare ( IATF IW).33 EUCOM conducts interagency

  2. Improvement in Existing Chest Wall Irregularities During Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Katherine M.; Zimmerman, Amanda; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    Mastectomies for both cancer resection and risk reduction are becoming more common. Existing chest wall irregularities are found in these women presenting for breast reconstruction after mastectomy and can pose reconstructive challenges. Women who desired breast reconstruction after mastectomy were evaluated preoperatively for existing chest wall irregularities. Case reports were selected to highlight common irregularities and methods for improving cosmetic outcome concurrently with breast reconstruction procedures. Muscular anomalies, pectus excavatum, scoliosis, polythelia case reports are discussed. Relevant data from the literature are presented. Chest wall irregularities are occasionally encountered in women who request breast reconstruction. Correction of these deformities is possible and safe during breast reconstruction and can lead to improved cosmetic outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:29318956

  3. Improvement in Existing Chest Wall Irregularities During Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katherine M; Zimmerman, Amanda; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    Mastectomies for both cancer resection and risk reduction are becoming more common. Existing chest wall irregularities are found in these women presenting for breast reconstruction after mastectomy and can pose reconstructive challenges. Women who desired breast reconstruction after mastectomy were evaluated preoperatively for existing chest wall irregularities. Case reports were selected to highlight common irregularities and methods for improving cosmetic outcome concurrently with breast reconstruction procedures. Muscular anomalies, pectus excavatum, scoliosis, polythelia case reports are discussed. Relevant data from the literature are presented. Chest wall irregularities are occasionally encountered in women who request breast reconstruction. Correction of these deformities is possible and safe during breast reconstruction and can lead to improved cosmetic outcome and patient satisfaction.

  4. Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.

  5. On the long range propagation of sound over irregular terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of sound propagation over randomly irregular, nominally plane terrain of finite impedance is discussed. The analysis is an extension of the theory of coherent scatter originally proposed by Biot for an irregular rigid surface. It combines Biot's approach, wherein the surface irregularities are modeled by a homogeneous distribution of hemispherical bosses, with more conventional analyses in which the ground is modeled as a smooth plane of finite impedance. At sufficiently low frequencies the interaction of the surface irregularities with the nearfield of a ground-based source leads to the production of surface waves, which are effective in penetrating the ground shadow zone predicted for a smooth surface of the same impedance.

  6. Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately north–south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 8700–8800 year BP.

  7. On the definition of albedo and application to irregular particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Giese, R. H.; Weiss, K.; Zerull, R.

    1981-01-01

    The various definitions of albedo used in planetary astronomy are reviewed. In particular, the Bond albedo, which refers only to the reflected and refracted components, is not applicable to small particles or highly irregular particles, where diffraction is not restricted to a well-defined lobe at small scattering angles. Measured scattering functions for irregular particles are presented in a normalized form and are applied to the case of zodiacal light.

  8. Equatorial irregularity belt and its movement during a magnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vats, H. O.; Chandra, H.; Deshpande, M. R.; Rastogi, R. G.; Murthy, B. S.; Janve, A. V.; Rai, R. K.; Singh, M.; Gurm, H. S.; Jain, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence for an equatorial irregularity belt and its movement during a magnetic storm has been obtained from Faraday rotation measurements at a chain of 140-MHz radio beacons receiving from the ATS-6 satellite. The stations covered a latitude region from the magnetic equator to the 45 deg N dip on the Indian subcontinent. An irregularity belt extending from the magnetic equator to about 27 deg N latitude was observed during the main phase of the magnetic storm of 10 January, 1976.

  9. Investigating the origins of the Irregular satellites using Cladistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Timothy; Horner, Jonti; Tylor, Christopher; Nesvorny, David; Brown, Adrian; Carter, Brad

    2017-10-01

    The irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are thought to be objects captured during a period of instability in the early solar system. However, the precise origins of these small bodies remain elusive. We use cladistics, a technique traditionally used by biologists, to help constrain the origins of these bodies. Our research contributes to a growing body of work that uses cladistics in astronomy, collectively called astrocladistics. We present one of the first instances of cladistics being used in a planetary science context. The analysis uses physical and compositional characteristics of three prograde Jovian irregular satellites (Themisto, Leda & Himalia), five retrograde Jovian irregular satellites (Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae, Sinope & Callirrhoe), along with Phoebe, a retrograde irregular satellite of Saturn, and several other regular Jovian and Saturnian satellites. Each of these members are representatives of their respective taxonomic groups. The irregular satellites are compared with other well-studied solar system bodies, including satellites, terrestrial planets, main belt asteroids, comets, and minor planets. We find that the Jovian irregular satellites cluster with asteroids and Ceres. The Saturnian satellites studied here are found to form an association with the comets, adding to the narrative of exchange between the outer solar system and Saturnian orbital space. Both of these results demonstrate the utility of cladistics as an analysis tool for the planetary sciences.

  10. Design Optimization of Irregular Cellular Structure for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guo-Hua; Jing, Shi-Kai; Zhao, Fang-Lei; Wang, Ye-Dong; Xing, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Tao

    2017-09-01

    Irregularcellular structurehas great potential to be considered in light-weight design field. However, the research on optimizing irregular cellular structures has not yet been reporteddue to the difficulties in their modeling technology. Based on the variable density topology optimization theory, an efficient method for optimizing the topology of irregular cellular structures fabricated through additive manufacturing processes is proposed. The proposed method utilizes tangent circles to automatically generate the main outline of irregular cellular structure. The topological layoutof each cellstructure is optimized using the relative density informationobtained from the proposed modified SIMP method. A mapping relationship between cell structure and relative densityelement is builtto determine the diameter of each cell structure. The results show that the irregular cellular structure can be optimized with the proposed method. The results of simulation and experimental test are similar for irregular cellular structure, which indicate that the maximum deformation value obtained using the modified Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization (SIMP) approach is lower 5.4×10-5 mm than that using the SIMP approach under the same under the same external load. The proposed research provides the instruction to design the other irregular cellular structure.

  11. Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars Probed by MARSIS Topside Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.

    2018-01-01

    The upper ionosphere of Mars contains a variety of perturbations driven by solar wind forcing from above and upward propagating atmospheric waves from below. Here we explore the global distribution and variability of ionospheric irregularities around the exobase at Mars by analyzing topside sounding data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express. As irregular structure gives rise to off-vertical echoes with excess propagation time, the diffuseness of ionospheric echo traces can be used as a diagnostic tool for perturbed reflection surfaces. The observed properties of diffuse echoes above unmagnetized regions suggest that ionospheric irregularities with horizontal wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers are particularly enhanced in the winter hemisphere and at high solar zenith angles. Given the known inverse dependence of neutral gravity wave amplitudes on the background atmospheric temperature, the ionospheric irregularities probed by MARSIS are most likely associated with plasma perturbations driven by atmospheric gravity waves. Though extreme events with unusually diffuse echoes are more frequently observed for high solar wind dynamic pressures during some time intervals, the vast majority of the diffuse echo events are unaffected by varying solar wind conditions, implying limited influence of solar wind forcing on the generation of ionospheric irregularities. Combination of remote and in situ measurements of ionospheric irregularities would offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the ionospheric dynamics at Mars.

  12. Measuring Zonal Transport Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Using GRACE Ocean Bottom Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, J.; Chambers, D. P.; Bonin, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ocean bottom pressure (OBP) can be used to measure the transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Using OBP data from the JPL ECCO model and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), we examine the zonal transport variability of the ACC integrated between the major fronts between 2003-2010. The JPL ECCO data are used to determine average front positions for the time period studies, as well as where transport is mainly zonal. Statistical analysis will be conducted to determine the uncertainty of the GRACE observations using a simulated data set. We will also begin looking at low frequency changes and how coherent transport variability is from region to region of the ACC. Correlations with bottom pressure south of the ACC and the average basin transports will also be calculated to determine the probability of using bottom pressure south of the ACC as a means for describing the ACC dynamics and transport.

  13. Direct phase measurement in zonal wavefront reconstruction using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Kerlin, Aaron; MacLennan, Bryan; Ji, Na

    2014-01-27

    In traditional zonal wavefront sensing for adaptive optics, after local wavefront gradients are obtained, the entire wavefront can be calculated by assuming that the wavefront is a continuous surface. Such an approach will lead to sub-optimal performance in reconstructing wavefronts which are either discontinuous or undersampled by the zonal wavefront sensor. Here, we report a new method to reconstruct the wavefront by directly measuring local wavefront phases in parallel using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique. This method determines the relative phases of each pupil segment independently, and thus produces an accurate wavefront for even discontinuous wavefronts. We implemented this method in an adaptive optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated its superior performance in correcting large or discontinuous aberrations.

  14. On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.

  15. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing framemore » rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.« less

  16. Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Winter, Rudolph E; Singh, Ajay P; Reding, Michael E; Frantz, Jonathan M; Locke, James C; Krause, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution-MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C(5)H(7)N(3)O(5)), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an L-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic L-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920.

  17. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  18. Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function, from zero to 18th order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are usually tabulated in normalized form to provide immediate information as to the relative significance of the coefficients in the gravity model. The normalized form of the geopotential coefficients cannot be used for computational purposes unless the gravity model has been modified to receive them. This modification is usually not done because the absolute or unnormalized form of the coefficients can be obtained from the simple mathematical relationship that relates the two forms. This computation can be quite tedious for hand calculation, especially for the higher order terms, and can be costly in terms of storage and execution time for machine computation. In this report, zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are tabulated in absolute or unnormalized form. The report is designed to be used as a ready reference for both hand and machine calculation to save the user time and effort.

  19. Inclusion of inhomogeneous deformation and strength characteristics in the problem on zonal disintegration of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyshev, AI; Belousova, OE

    2018-03-01

    The authors determine stress and deformation in a heterogeneous rock mass at the preset displacement and Cauchy stress vector at the boundary of an underground excavation. The influence of coordinates on Young’s modulus, shear modulus and ultimate strength is shown. It is found that regions of tension and compression alternate at the excavation boundary—i.e. zonal rock disintegration phenomenon is observed.

  20. Nonlinear growth of zonal flows by secondary instability in general magnetic geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Plunk, G. G.; Navarro, A. Banon

    2017-02-23

    Here we present a theory of the nonlinear growth of zonal flows in magnetized plasma turbulence, by the mechanism of secondary instability. The theory is derived for general magnetic geometry, and is thus applicable to both tokamaks and stellarators. The predicted growth rate is shown to compare favorably with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, with the error scaling as expected with the small parameter of the theory.

  1. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  2. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    a r-re complete set of equations is used, but their effect is imposed by means of a right hand side forcing function, not by means of a zonal boundary...modifications of flow-simulation algorithms The explicit finite-difference code of Magnus and are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions...used to simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse achieve computational efficiency. More recently, effect on flow-field algorithms and

  3. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  4. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Prentice K.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  5. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.; ...

    2016-10-10

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  6. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    that about 25% of the estimated snow that the wind transports to Summit each winter is deposited and forms drifts, mostly in close proxim- ity to...the structures. This analysis demonstrates that weather data ( wind speed and direction) and a transport analysis can aid in estimating the vol- ume of...23 Appendix A: Wind Roses

  7. Windblown Sand from the Rocknest Drift

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity acquired close-up views of sands in the Rocknest wind drift to document the nature of the material that the rover scooped, sieved and delivered to the CheMin and SAM instruments in October and November 2012.

  8. Aerial application equipment for herbicidal drift reduction.

    Treesearch

    1976-01-01

    This publication provides silviculturists and managers of utility rights-of-way with a description and evaluation of available helicopter spray application equipment. Modified conventional equipment will reduce drift of sprays in normal carriers and apply various high-viscosity sprays. Specialized spray systems have found limited use in forestry; they are more commonly...

  9. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  10. Stable discrete representation of relativistically drifting plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchen, M.; Lehe, R.; Godfrey, B. B.

    Representing the electrodynamics of relativistically drifting particle ensembles in discrete, co-propagating Galilean coordinates enables the derivation of a Particle-In-Cell algorithm that is intrinsically free of the numerical Cherenkov instability for plasmas flowing at a uniform velocity. Application of the method is shown by modeling plasma accelerators in a Lorentz-transformed optimal frame of reference.

  11. Experimental design for drifting buoy Lagrangian test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    A test of instrumentation fabricated to measure the performance of a free drifting buoy as a (Lagrangian) current meter is described. Specifically it is proposed to distinguish between the trajectory of a drogued buoy and the trajectory of the water at the level of the drogue by measuring the flow relative to the drogue.

  12. Drift Nets on the High Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Information is provided on the use and misuse of drift nets used internationally in the Pacific Ocean. An activity in which students acquire some understanding of the history of fishing and the effects of modern technologies on fish populations is included. (KR)

  13. MPIRUN: A Portable Loader for Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. One method for implementing the message passing portion of these codes is with the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Unfortunately, this standard only specifies the message passing portion of an application, but does not specify any portable mechanisms for loading an application. MPIRUN was developed to provide a portable means for loading MPI programs, and was specifically targeted at multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications. Programs using MPIRUN for loading and MPI for message passing are then portable between all machines supported by MPIRUN. MPIRUN is currently implemented for the Intel iPSC/860, TMC CM5, IBM SP-1 and SP-2, Intel Paragon, and workstation clusters. Further, MPIRUN is designed to be simple enough to port easily to any system supporting MPI.

  14. Mapping potential vorticity dynamics on saturn: Zonal mean circulation from Cassini and Voyager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Gierasch, P. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Zuchowski, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    Maps of Ertel potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces (IPV) and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) are well established in dynamical meteorology as powerful sources of insight into dynamical processes involving 'balanced' flow (i.e. geostrophic or similar). Here we derive maps of zonal mean IPV and QGPV in Saturn's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by making use of a combination of velocity measurements, derived from the combined tracking of cloud features in images from the Voyager and Cassini missions, and thermal measurements from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument. IPV and QGPV are mapped and compared for the entire globe between latitudes 89∘S-82∘N. As on Jupiter, profiles of zonally averaged PV show evidence for a step-like "stair-case" pattern suggestive of local PV homogenisation, separated by strong PV gradients in association with eastward jets. The northward gradient of PV (IPV or QGPV) is found to change sign in several places in each hemisphere, however, even when baroclinic contributions are taken into account. The stability criterion with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem may be violated near the peaks of westward jets. Visible, near-IR and thermal-IR Cassini observations have shown that these regions exhibit many prominent, large-scale eddies and waves, e.g. including 'storm alley'. This suggests the possibility that at least some of these features originate from instabilities of the background zonal flow.

  15. Zonal Flows and Long-lived Axisymmetric Pressure Bumps in Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.

  16. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  17. Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.

  18. Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Irregularities and Plasma Instabilities in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Gathered by the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Robert F.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400 km as solar activity has increased. In particular, during the equinox periods of 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set: The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second result is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is near or below the F-peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field

  19. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  20. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulations of neutral wind shear effect on the equatorial ionosphere irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Chagelishvili, G.; Horton, W.

    2005-12-01

    We present numerical calculations of the large-scale electron density driven by the gradient drift instability in the daytime equatorial electrojet. Under two-fluid theory the linear analysis for kilometer scale waves lead to the result that all the perturbations are transformed to small scales through linear convection by shear and then damped by diffusion. The inclusion of the nonlinearity enables inverse energy cascade to provide energy to long scale. The feedback between velocity shear and nonlinearity keeps waves growing and leads to the turbulence. In strongly turbulent regime, the nonlinear states are saturated [1]. Since the convective nonlinearities are isotropic while the interactions of velocity shear with waves are anisotropic, the feedback do not necessarily enable waves to grow. The growth of waves are highly variable on k-space configuration [2]. Our simulations show that the directional relationship between vorticity of irregularities and shear are one of key factors. Thus during the transient period, the irregularities show the anisotropy of the vorticity power spectrum. We report the evolution of the power spectrum of the vorticity and density of irregularties and its anistropic nature as observed. The work was supported in part by the Department of NSF Grant ATM-0229863 and ISTC Grant G-553. C. Ronchi, R.N. Sudan, and D.T. Farley. Numerical simulations of large-scale plasma turbulece in teh day time equatorial electrojet. J. Geophys. Res., 96:21263--21279, 1991. G.D. Chagelishvili, R.G. Chanishvili, T.S. Hristov, and J.G. Lominadze. A turbulence model in unbounded smooth shear flows : The weak turbulence approach. JETP, 94(2):434--445, 2002.

  2. Topside ionospheric irregularities as seen from multisatellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Astafyeva, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    use in situ data from CHAMP and DMSP satellites, along with data of GPS receiver onboard CHAMP satellite and ground-based GPS receivers to study the occurrence and global distribution of ionospheric irregularities during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm of 29-31 August 2004 (minimum Dst excursion of -128 nT). Using the CHAMP GPS measurements, we created maps of GPS phase fluctuation activity and found two specific zones of the most intense irregularities: (1) the region of the auroral oval at high latitudes of both hemispheres and (2) the low latitudes/equatorial region between Africa and South America. At high latitudes, the topside ionospheric irregularities appeared to be more intensive in the southern hemisphere, which is, most likely, due to seasonal variations in the interhemispheric field-aligned currents system. An analysis of multi-instrumental observations reveals reinforcement of the equatorial ionization anomaly after sunset in Atlantic sector on 30 August and formation of the significant plasma depletions and irregularities over a large longitudinal range. Equatorial irregularities were also found in the morning sector at the recovery phase of the storm. In addition to low Earth orbit (LEO) GPS measurements, we analyze the LEO in situ measurements, and we show that these two techniques cannot be interchangeable in all cases because of the altitudinal extent of plasma irregularities. Overall, we demonstrate that the LEO GPS technique can serve a useful tool for detection of the topside ionospheric irregularities during space weather events and may essentially contribute to other methods based on various instruments.

  3. Ionospheric irregularities over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia during selected geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassa, Tsegaye; Damtie, Baylie

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the effect of geomagnetic storms on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities by considering seven case studies in the period of 2013-2014 over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (11° N , 38° E). We inferred the irregularity indices from GPS phase fluctuation by computing the median of 1-min rate of change of total electron content (fp) along the ray paths from all satellites observed. The Fp -index was calculated as an hourly average fp -index values along the ray paths from all satellites observed during each hour. Our results revealed that the irregularity level was inhibited during post sunset hours of the main phase of the storms we considered. On average, the irregularity index has dropped from 400 (0.4 TECU/min) during quiet time to 50 (0.05 TECU/min) on disturbed time with an amount of 350 (0.35 TECU/min). However, in some of the cases, immediately after the onset of the storm, we observed the enhancement of irregularities. We found that only the observations on 01 June 2013 and 19 February 2014 exhibited a correspondence of the time of occurrence of the minimum of the Dst-index with inhibition of irregularities noted by other researchers. Our observations of the enhancement of irregularities on 17 March 2013 and 19 February 2014 can partly be explained by the orientation of the IMF BZ . Other measurements such as neutral wind, electric field are required to explain the observations on 29 June 2013, 06 July 2013, 09 November 2013 and 27 February 2014.

  4. Pearson correlation estimation for irregularly sampled time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfeld, K.; Marwan, N.; Heitzig, J.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many applications in the geosciences call for the joint and objective analysis of irregular time series. For automated processing, robust measures of linear and nonlinear association are needed. Up to now, the standard approach would have been to reconstruct the time series on a regular grid, using linear or spline interpolation. Interpolation, however, comes with systematic side-effects, as it increases the auto-correlation in the time series. We have searched for the best method to estimate Pearson correlation for irregular time series, i.e. the one with the lowest estimation bias and variance. We adapted a kernel-based approach, using Gaussian weights. Pearson correlation is calculated, in principle, as a mean over products of previously centralized observations. In the regularly sampled case, observations in both time series were observed at the same time and thus the allocation of measurement values into pairs of products is straightforward. In the irregularly sampled case, however, measurements were not necessarily observed at the same time. Now, the key idea of the kernel-based method is to calculate weighted means of products, with the weight depending on the time separation between the observations. If the lagged correlation function is desired, the weights depend on the absolute difference between observation time separation and the estimation lag. To assess the applicability of the approach we used extensive simulations to determine the extent of interpolation side-effects with increasing irregularity of time series. We compared different approaches, based on (linear) interpolation, the Lomb-Scargle Fourier Transform, the sinc kernel and the Gaussian kernel. We investigated the role of kernel bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio in the simulations. We found that the Gaussian kernel approach offers significant advantages and low Root-Mean Square Errors for regular, slightly irregular and very irregular time series. We therefore conclude that it is a good

  5. A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H. O.; Rust, D. R.

    1987-03-01

    A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls.

  6. Validation testing of drift reduction technology testing protocol

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of pesticide application technologies offer the potential to reduce spray drift from pesticide applications. However, limited information exists on the effectiveness of these technologies in reducing spray drift. Working with a stakeholder technical panel under EPA's Env...

  7. The Effects of Clock Drift on the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled S.; Vanelli, C. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    All clocks drift by some amount, and the mission clock on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is no exception. The mission clock on both MER rovers drifted significantly since the rovers were launched, and it is still drifting on the Opportunity rover. The drift rate is temperature dependent. Clock drift causes problems for onboard behaviors and spacecraft operations, such as attitude estimation, driving, operation of the robotic arm, pointing for imaging, power analysis, and telecom analysis. The MER operations team has techniques to deal with some of these problems. There are a few techniques for reducing and eliminating the clock drift, but each has drawbacks. This paper presents an explanation of what is meant by clock drift on the rovers, its relationship to temperature, how we measure it, what problems it causes, how we deal with those problems, and techniques for reducing the drift.

  8. The transformation of vegetation vertical zonality affected by anthropogenic impact in East Fennoscandia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorik, Vadim; Miulgauzen, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems of East Fennoscandia have been affected by intensive anthropogenic influence that resulted in their significant transformation. Study of ecosystems in the framework of vegetation vertical zonality disturbance as well as its recovery allows to understand the trends of anthropogenically induced changes. The aim of the present research is the comparative analysis of vegetation vertical zonality of the two uplands in East Fennoscandia which may be considered as unaffected and affected by anthropogenic impact. The objects of key studies carried out in the north-west of Kola Peninsula in the vicinity of the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant are represented by ecosystems of Kalkupya (h 357 m) and Hangaslachdenvara (h 284 m) uplands. They are characterized by the similarity in sequence of altitudinal belts due to the position on the northern taiga - forest-tundra boundary. Plant communities of Kalkupya upland have no visible signs of anthropogenic influence, therefore, they can be considered as model ecosystems of the area. The sequence of altitudinal belts is the following: - up to 200 m - pine subshrub and green moss ("zonal") forest replaced by mixed pine and birch forest near the upper boundary; - 200-300 m - birch crooked subshrub wood; - above 300 m - tundra subshrub and lichen communities. Ecosystems of Hangaslachdenvara upland have been damaged by air pollution (SO2, Ni, Cu emissions) of the Pechenganikel Plant. This impact has led to plant community suppression and formation of barren lands. Besides the soil cover was significantly disturbed, especially upper horizons. Burying of soil profiles, represented by Podzols (WRB, 2015), also manifested itself in the exploited part of the area. The vegetation cover of Hangaslachdenvara upland is the following: - up to 130 m - birch and aspen subshrub and grass forest instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - 130-200 m - barren lands instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - above 200 m - barren lands instead of

  9. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Bryan

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertainingmore » to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC submodel uses a drift

  10. Self-Attractive Random Walks: The Case of Critical Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioffe, Dmitry; Velenik, Yvan

    2012-07-01

    Self-attractive random walks (polymers) undergo a phase transition in terms of the applied drift (force): If the drift is strong enough, then the walk is ballistic, whereas in the case of small drifts self-attraction wins and the walk is sub-ballistic. We show that, in any dimension d ≥ 2, this transition is of first order. In fact, we prove that the walk is already ballistic at critical drifts, and establish the corresponding LLN and CLT.

  11. Geostatistical regularization operators for geophysical inverse problems on irregular meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, C.; Doetsch, J.; Günther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J. OA

    2018-05-01

    Irregular meshes allow to include complicated subsurface structures into geophysical modelling and inverse problems. The non-uniqueness of these inverse problems requires appropriate regularization that can incorporate a priori information. However, defining regularization operators for irregular discretizations is not trivial. Different schemes for calculating smoothness operators on irregular meshes have been proposed. In contrast to classical regularization constraints that are only defined using the nearest neighbours of a cell, geostatistical operators include a larger neighbourhood around a particular cell. A correlation model defines the extent of the neighbourhood and allows to incorporate information about geological structures. We propose an approach to calculate geostatistical operators for inverse problems on irregular meshes by eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix that contains the a priori geological information. Using our approach, the calculation of the operator matrix becomes tractable for 3-D inverse problems on irregular meshes. We tested the performance of the geostatistical regularization operators and compared them against the results of anisotropic smoothing in inversions of 2-D surface synthetic electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as well as in the inversion of a realistic 3-D cross-well synthetic ERT scenario. The inversions of 2-D ERT and seismic traveltime field data with geostatistical regularization provide results that are in good accordance with the expected geology and thus facilitate their interpretation. In particular, for layered structures the geostatistical regularization provides geologically more plausible results compared to the anisotropic smoothness constraints.

  12. Total edge irregularity strength of (n,t)-kite graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarsih, Tri; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a simple, connected, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ :V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} of a graph G is a labeling of vertices and edges of G in such a way that for any different edges e and f, weights wt(e) and wt(f) are distinct. The weight wt(e) of an edge e = xy is the sum of the labels of vertices x and y and the label of the edge e. The total edge irregularity strength of G, tes(G), is defined as the minimum k for which a graph G has an edge irregular total k-labeling. An (n, t)-kite graph consist of a cycle of length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached to one vertex of a cycle. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph, with n > 3 and t > 1. We obtain the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph is tes((n, t)-kite) = \\lceil \\frac{n+t+2}{3}\\rceil .

  13. Drift Wave Simulation in Toroidal Geometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Maurice Joseph, III

    1988-12-01

    The drift wave, a general category of plasma behavior arising from a plasma inhomogeneity, is studied using the particle simulation method. In slab geometry, the drift wave (or universal mode) is stabilized by any finite amount of magnetic shear. In toroidal geometry, however, the coupling of the poloidal harmonics gives rise to a new branch of drift wave eigenmodes called the toroidicity -induced mode, which is predicted to be unstable in some regimes. The drift wave in a toroidal system is intrinsically three-dimensional, and is sensitive to the handling of the parallel electron dynamics, the (nearly) perpendicular wave dynamics, and the radial variation of magnetic field vector (shear). A simulation study must therefore be kinetic in nature, motivating the extension of particle simulation techniques to complex geometries. From this effort a three dimensional particle code in a toroidal coordinate system has been developed and applied to the toroidal drift wave problem. The code uses an (r,theta,phi) -type coordinate system, and a nonuniform radial grid that increases resolution near the mode-rational surfaces. Full ion dynamics and electron guiding center dynamics are employed. Further, the algorithm incorporates a straightforward limiting process to cylindrical geometry and slab geometry, enabling comparison to the theoretical results in these regimes. Simulations of the density-driven modes in toroidal geometry retain a single toroidal mode number (n = 9). In this regime, the poloidal harmonics are expected to be strongly coupled, giving rise to the marginally unstable toroidicity-induced drift mode. Analysis of the simulation data reveals a strong, low-frequency response that peaks near each mode rational surface. Further, the characteristic oscillation frequencies persist from one mode rational surface to the next, which identifies them as multiple harmonics of the toroidicity-induced mode. The lowest harmonic occurs at a frequency of omega/ omega^{*} ~ 0

  14. Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties

  15. Detection of F-region electron density irregularities using incoherent-scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudivada, Krishna Prasad

    Incoherent-scatter radar data from Poker Flat, Alaska has been used to determine size distributions of electron density structures in the evening time sector of the auroral zone. At high latitudes ionospheric plasma typically moves east-west with speeds of several hundred meters per second. Density irregularities that rapidly move through the radar beam are therefore observed as time-varying power fluctuations. The new phased array radar used for this study has been operated with several antenna directions with successive pulses transmitted in each direction. It is therefore possible to observe plasma Doppler velocities in multiple directions and determine the vector direction of the plasma motion. This near-simultaneous observation of the plasma velocity in conjunction with the electron density height profile data enable a new technique to determine the scale sizes of electron density fluctuations that move horizontally through the radar beam. The study focuses on the collision-less F-region ionosphere where the plasma drift is approximately constant with altitude. The experimental technique limits the range of scale sizes that may be studied to relatively large-scale sizes (i.e. greater than few tens of km). Results show that during magnetically disturbed conditions (Kp ≥ 4) when westward plasma velocities are relatively high (500-1000 m/s) the scale sizes of irregularities (often called plasma blobs) are in the range of 100-300 km and predominantly originate from the polar cap and are transported over long distances (˜1000 km) due to the long chemical recombination times (30-90 minutes). Some irregularities are caused by local auroral particle precipitation and have been identified with associated electron temperature enhancements. For cases of low magnetic activity (Kp ≤ 1), when the radar is located in a region of low plasma velocities (100-500 m/s) well south of the auroral oval (essentially a mid-latitude type ionosphere), the density distribution is

  16. Effect of natural windbreaks on drift reduction in orchard spraying.

    PubMed

    Wenneker, M; Heijne, B; van de Zande, J C

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands windbreaks are commonly grown to protect orchards against wind damage and to improve micro-climate. Natural windbreaks of broad-leaved trees can also reduce the risk of surface water contamination caused by spray drift during orchard spraying. Spray drift from pesticide applications is a major concern in the Netherlands, especially drift into water courses. So far, several drift reducing measures have been accepted by water quality control organisations and the Board for the Authorization of Pesticides (CTB), e.g. presence of a windbreak (i.e. 70% drift reduction at early season and 90% drift reduction at full leaf, respectively before and after first of May). From the experiments it was concluded that the risk of drift contamination is high during the early developmental stages of the growing season. The 70% drift reduction at early season as determined in previous experiments, appears to be valid only for windbreaks with a certain degree of developed leaves. At full leaf stage 80-90% drift reduction by the windbreak was measured. The use of evergreen windbreaks or wind-break species that develop in early season can reduce the risk of drift contamination considerably. Also, the combination of drift reducing methods, such as one-sided spraying of the last tree row and a windbreak is an effective method to reduce spray drift in the Netherlands in early season.

  17. Age of marginal Wisconsin drift at corry, northwestern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droste, J.B.; Rubin, M.; White, G.W.

    1959-01-01

    Marl began to accumulate about 14,000 years ago, as determined by radiocarbon dating, in a pond in a kettle hole in Kent drift at Corry, Pa., 9 miles inside the Wisconsin drift margin. This radiocarbon age represents the minimum time since the disappearance of the ice from Corry and confirms an assignment of Cary age to the drift.

  18. Dynamical configurations of celestial systems comprised of multiple irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n - 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple-asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and analyzed.

  19. Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone

    We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantagemore » from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.« less

  20. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  1. Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals. PMID:25354545

  2. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  3. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    SciTech Connect

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S., E-mail: tshahm@snu.ac.kr; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-15

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen,more » Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.« less

  4. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008155 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  5. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008143 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  6. Untethered Crewlock Bag Drifts Away from ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-18

    S126-E-008146 (18 Nov. 2008) --- An extravehicular activity (EVA) tool bag drifts away from the International Space Station during the mission's first scheduled spacewalk for STS-126. About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, was preparing to use on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, a scraper, a scraper debris container, several wipes in a caddy and tethers.

  7. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

  8. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, J.H.

    1996-11-26

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

  9. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-01

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.

  10. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Inertial Orientation Trackers with Drift Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    A class of inertial-sensor systems with drift compensation has been invented for use in measuring the orientations of human heads (and perhaps other, similarly sized objects). These systems can be designed to overcome some of the limitations of prior orientation-measuring systems that are based, variously, on magnetic, optical, mechanical-linkage, and acoustical principles. The orientation signals generated by the systems of this invention could be used for diverse purposes, including controlling head-orientation-dependent virtual reality visual displays or enabling persons whose limbs are paralyzed to control machinery by means of head motions. The inventive concept admits to variations too numerous to describe here, making it necessary to limit this description to a typical system, the selected aspects of which are illustrated in the figure. A set of sensors is mounted on a bracket on a band or a cap that gently but firmly grips the wearer s head to be tracked. Among the sensors are three drift-sensitive rotationrate sensors (e.g., integrated-circuit angular- rate-measuring gyroscopes), which put out DC voltages nominally proportional to the rates of rotation about their sensory axes. These sensors are mounted in mutually orthogonal orientations for measuring rates of rotation about the roll, pitch, and yaw axes of the wearer s head. The outputs of these rate sensors are conditioned and digitized, and the resulting data are fed to an integrator module implemented in software in a digital computer. In the integrator module, the angular-rate signals are jointly integrated by any of several established methods to obtain a set of angles that represent approximately the orientation of the head in an external, inertial coordinate system. Because some drift is always present as a component of an angular position computed by integrating the outputs of angular-rate sensors, the orientation signal is processed further in a drift-compensator software module.

  12. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  13. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1994-11-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with carbon layer of resistivity 0.5, 30 and 70 k Ohm/sq. The gas mixture used was Ar/CH4. Both the anode wire and cathode signals were detected in order to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  14. Drift mode accelerometry for spaceborne gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.

    2015-11-01

    A drift mode accelerometer is a precision instrument for spacecraft that overcomes much of the acceleration noise and readout dynamic range limitations of traditional electrostatic accelerometers. It has the potential of achieving acceleration noise performance similar to that of drag-free systems over a restricted frequency band without the need for external drag-free control or continuous spacecraft propulsion. Like traditional accelerometers, the drift mode accelerometer contains a high-density test mass surrounded by an electrode housing, which can control and sense all six degrees of freedom of the test mass. Unlike traditional accelerometers, the suspension system is operated with a low duty cycle so that the limiting suspension force noise only acts over brief, known time intervals, which can be neglected in the data analysis. The readout is performed using a laser interferometer which is immune to the dynamic range limitations of even the best voltage references typically used to determine the inertial acceleration of electrostatic accelerometers. The drift mode accelerometer is a novel offshoot of the like-named operational mode of the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft, in which its test mass suspension system is cycled on and off to estimate the acceleration noise associated with the front-end electronics. This paper presents the concept of a drift mode accelerometer, describes the operation of such a device, develops models for its performance with respect to non-drag-free satellite geodesy and gravitational wave missions, and discusses plans for testing the performance of a prototype sensor in the laboratory using torsion pendula.

  15. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Rem, A I; van Gemert, M J; van der Meulen, F W; Gijsbers, G H; Beek, J F

    1997-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a cubical box, a sphere, a cylinder and a 'bottle-neck' geometry have been investigated experimentally and the results have been compared with computed light distributions obtained using the 'radiosity method'. A high reflection coefficient of the mould and the best uniform direct irradiance possible on the inside of the mould were found to be important determinants for achieving a uniform light distribution.

  16. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, A. D.; Main, G. L.; Kearns, J. A.; Benator, D. R.; Parish, J. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The development of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere is discussed. Irregular topography here is understood to imply a ground surface that (1) is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or (2) that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The study focuses on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  17. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Main, Geoffrey L.; Zhou, Ji-Xun; Kearns, James A.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular topography is understood to imply a ground surface that is not idealizable as being perfectly flat or that is no idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The focus is on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low-altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  18. [Artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Yang, Lijie; Chen, Yajie; Li, Qing; Chen, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Through the discussion on TCM physiological characters of females in follicular, ovulatory, luteal and menstrual phases and treatment principles, the clinical application of artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was introduced for irregular menstruation and the typical cases were attached. It is suggested that the menstrual cycle follows the growth-consumption rule of yin, yang, qi and blood. The corresponding treatment principles should be applied in accordance with the change rule of menstrual cycle. Hence, it is worth to adopt the artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation in clinical application.

  19. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthelot, Yves H.; Pierce, Allan D.; Kearns, James A.; Zhou, Ji-Xun

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques were developed for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere. Irregular topography is understood to imply a ground surface that: (1) is not idealizable as being perfectly flat, or (2) that is not idealizable as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The focus is on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  20. Sound propagation over uneven ground and irregular topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearns, J. A.; Pierce, A. D.; Main, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques for predicting the effects of irregular topography on long range sound propagation in the atmosphere was developed. Irregular topography here is understood to imply a ground surface that is not idealized as being perfectly flat or that is not idealized as having a constant specific acoustic impedance. The interest focuses on circumstances where the propagation is similar to what might be expected for noise from low altitude air vehicles flying over suburban or rural terrain, such that rays from the source arrive at angles close to grazing incidence.

  1. Giving cosmic redshift drift a whirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Alex G.; Linder, Eric V.; Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David

    2015-03-01

    Redshift drift provides a direct kinematic measurement of cosmic acceleration but it occurs with a characteristic time scale of a Hubble time. Thus redshift observations with a challenging precision of 10-9 require a 10 year time span to obtain a signal-to-noise of 1. We discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to address this challenge, potentially requiring less observer time and having greater immunity to common systematics. On the theoretical side we explore allowing the universe, rather than the observer, to provide long time spans; speculative methods include radial baryon acoustic oscillations, cosmic pulsars, and strongly lensed quasars. On the experimental side, we explore beating down the redshift precision using differential interferometric techniques, including externally dispersed interferometers and spatial heterodyne spectroscopy. Low-redshift emission line galaxies are identified as having high cosmology leverage and systematics control, with an 8 h exposure on a 10-m telescope (1000 h of exposure on a 40-m telescope) potentially capable of measuring the redshift of a galaxy to a precision of 10-8 (few ×10-10). Low-redshift redshift drift also has very strong complementarity with cosmic microwave background measurements, with the combination achieving a dark energy figure of merit of nearly 300 (1400) for 5% (1%) precision on drift.

  2. Drift Mode Accelerometry for Spaceborne Gravity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, J. W.; Shelley, R.; Chilton, A.; Olatunde, T.; Ciani, G.; Mueller, G.

    2014-12-01

    A drift mode accelerometer is a precision instrument for spacecraft that overcomes much of the acceleration noise and readout dynamic range limitations of traditional electrostatic accelerometers. It has the potential of achieving acceleration noise performance similar to that of drag-free systems over a restricted frequency band without the need for external drag-free control or continuous spacecraft propulsion. Like traditional accelerometers, the drift mode accelerometer contains a high-density test mass surrounded by an electrode housing, which can control and sense all six degrees of freedom of the test mass. Unlike traditional accelerometers, the suspension system is operated with a low duty cycle so that the limiting suspension force noise only acts over brief, known time intervals, which can be accounted for in the data analysis. The readout is performed using a laser interferometer which is immune to the dynamic range limitations of even the best voltage references typically used to determine the inertial acceleration of electrostatic accelerometers. This presentation describes operation and performance modeling for such a device with respect to a low Earth orbiting satellite geodesy mission. Methods for testing the drift mode accelerometer with the University of Florida precision torsion pendulum will also be discussed.

  3. Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: part II—dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shujuan; Cheng, Jianbo; Xu, Ming; Chou, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional

  4. Zonal wind indices to reconstruct United States winter precipitation during El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, D. J.; Steinschneider, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The highly discussed 2015/16 El Niño event, which many likened to the similarly strong 1997/98 El Niño event, led to precipitation impacts over the continental United States (CONUS) inconsistent with general expectations given past events and model-based forecasts. This presents a challenge for regional water managers and others who use seasonal precipitation forecasts who previously viewed El Niño events as times of enhanced confidence in seasonal water availability and flood risk forecasts. It is therefore useful to understand the extent to which wintertime CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by seasonal sea surface temperature heating patterns and the extent to which the precipitation is a product of natural variability. In this work, we define two seasonal indices based on the zonal wind field spanning from the eastern Pacific to the western Atlantic over CONUS that can explain El Niño precipitation variation spatially throughout CONUS over 11 historic El Niño events from 1950 to 2016. The indices reconstruct El Niño event wintertime (Jan-Mar) gridded precipitation over CONUS through cross-validated regression much better than the traditional ENSO sea surface temperature indices or other known modes of variability. Lastly, we show strong relationships between sea surface temperature patterns and the phases of the zonal wind indices, which in turn suggests that some of the disparate CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by different heating patterns. The primary contribution of this work is the identification of intermediate variables (in the form of zonal wind indices) that can facilitate further studies into the distinct hydroclimatic response to specific El Niño events.

  5. Saturn Ring Mass and Zonal Gravitational Harmonics Estimate at the End of the Cassini "Grand Finale"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Roth, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    "Solstice" mission is the 7-year extension of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft exploration of the Saturn system that will culminate with the "Grand Finale". Beginning in mid-2017, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute 22 orbits that have their periapses between the innermost D-ring and the upper layers of Saturn's atmosphere. These orbits will be perturbed by the gravitational field of Saturn as well as by the rings. We present an analysis of simulated "Grand Finale" radiometric data, and we investigate their sensitivity to the ring mass and higher zonal gravitational harmonics of the planet. We model the data quantity with respect to the available coverage of the tracking stations on Earth, and we account for the times when the spacecraft is occulted either by Saturn or the rings. We also use different data weights to simulate changes in the data quality. The dynamical model of the spacecraft motion includes both gravitational and non-gravitational forces, such as the daily momentum management due to Reaction Wheel Assembly and radioisotope thermo-electric generator accelerations. We solve the equations of motion and use a weighted-least squares fit to obtain spacecraft's state vector, mass(es) of the ring or the individual rings, zonal harmonics, and non-gravitational accelerations. We also investigate some a-priori values of the A- and B-ring masses from Tiscareno et al. (2007) and Hedman et al. (2015) analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the "Grand Finale" orbits should remain sensitive to the ring mass even for GMring<2 km3/s2 and that they will also provide high accuracy estimates of the zonal harmonics J8, J10, and J12.

  6. A new paradigm for predicting zonal-mean climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Roe, G.; Donohoe, A.; Siler, N.; Markle, B. R.; Liu, X.; Feldl, N.; Battisti, D. S.; Frierson, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    How will the pole-to-equator temperature gradient, or large-scale patterns of precipitation, change under global warming? Answering such questions typically involves numerical simulations with comprehensive general circulation models (GCMs) that represent the complexities of climate forcing, radiative feedbacks, and atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Yet, our understanding of these predictions hinges on our ability to explain them through the lens of simple models and physical theories. Here we present evidence that zonal-mean climate, and its changes, can be understood in terms of a moist energy balance model that represents atmospheric heat transport as a simple diffusion of latent and sensible heat (as a down-gradient transport of moist static energy, with a diffusivity coefficient that is nearly constant with latitude). We show that the theoretical underpinnings of this model derive from the principle of maximum entropy production; that its predictions are empirically supported by atmospheric reanalyses; and that it successfully predicts the behavior of a hierarchy of climate models - from a gray radiation aquaplanet moist GCM, to comprehensive GCMs participating in CMIP5. As an example of the power of this paradigm, we show that, given only patterns of local radiative feedbacks and climate forcing, the moist energy balance model accurately predicts the evolution of zonal-mean temperature and atmospheric heat transport as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble. These results suggest that, despite all of its dynamical complexity, the atmosphere essentially responds to energy imbalances by simply diffusing latent and sensible heat down-gradient; this principle appears to explain zonal-mean climate and its changes under global warming.

  7. Engineering zonal cartilage through bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Fuyou; Chen, Cheng; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Li; Yang, Liu

    2016-07-20

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for repairing and regenerating cartilage tissue. To date, attempts have been made to construct zonal cartilage that mimics the cartilaginous matrix in different zones. However, little attention has been paid to the chondrocyte density gradient within the articular cartilage. We hypothesized that the chondrocyte density gradient plays an important role in forming the zonal distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, collagen type II hydrogel/chondrocyte constructs were fabricated using a bioprinter. Three groups were created according to the total cell seeding density in collagen type II pre-gel: Group A, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL; Group B, 1 × 10(7) cells/mL; and Group C, 0.5 × 10(7) cells/mL. Each group included two types of construct: one with a biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient and the other with a single cell density. The constructs were cultured in vitro and harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks for cell viability testing, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), biochemical assays, and histological analysis. We found that total ECM production was positively correlated with the total cell density in the early culture stage, that the cell density gradient distribution resulted in a gradient distribution of ECM, and that the chondrocytes' biosynthetic ability was affected by both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern. Our results suggested that zonal engineered cartilage could be fabricated by bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with a biomimetic cell density gradient. Both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern should be optimized to achieve synergistic biological effects.

  8. The Yucca Mountain Project drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Blair, S.C.; Boyle, W.J.

    The Yucca Mountain Project is currently evaluating the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) response of the potential repository host rock through an in situ thermal testing program. A drift scale test (DST) was constructed during 1997 and heaters were turned on in December 1997. The DST includes nine canister-sized containers with thirty operating heaters each located within the heated drift (HD) and fifty wing heaters located in boreholes in both ribs with a total power output of nominally 210kW. A total of 147 boreholes (combined length of 3.3 km) houses most of the over 3700 TMHC sensors connected with 201 km ofmore » cabling to a central data acquisition system. The DST is located in the Exploratory Studies Facility in a 5-m diameter drift approximately 50 m in length. Heating will last up to four years and cooling will last another four years. The rock mass surrounding the DST will experience a harsh thermal environment with rock surface temperatures expected to reach a maximum of about 200 C. This paper describes the process of designing the DST. The first 38 m of the 50-m long Heated Drift (HD) is dedicated to collection of data that will lead to a better understanding of the complex coupled TMHC processes in the host rock of the proposed repository. The final 12 m is dedicated to evaluating the interactions between the heated rock mass and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete ground support systems at elevated temperatures. In addition to a description of the DST design, data from site characterization, and a general description of the analyses and analysis approach used to design the test and make pretest predictions are presented. Test-scoping and pretest numerical predictions of one way thermal-hydrologic, thermal-mechanical, and thermal-chemical behaviors have been completed (TRW, 1997a). These analyses suggest that a dry-out zone will be created around the DST and a 10,000 m{sup 3} volume of rock will experience temperatures above 100 C

  9. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures upper-division students’ understanding of this concept. We used an iterative approach that included extensive interviews and field tests involving 1723 students across five different undergraduate campuses. The GeDI consists of 22 agree–disagree statements that assess four key concepts and six misconceptions. Student scores ranged from 4/22 to 22/22. Statements ranged in mean difficulty from 0.29 to 0.80 and in discrimination from 0.09 to 0.46. The internal consistency, as measured with Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.58 to 0.88 across five iterations. Test–retest analysis resulted in a coefficient of stability of 0.82. The true–false format means that the GeDI can test how well students grasp key concepts central to understanding genetic drift, while simultaneously testing for the presence of misconceptions that indicate an incomplete understanding of genetic drift. The insights gained from this testing will, over time, allow us to improve instruction about this key component of evolution. PMID:24591505

  10. Airborne organophosphate pesticides drift in Mediterranean climate: The importance of secondary drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivan, Ohad; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Dubowski, Yael

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide application is a short-term air-pollution episode with near and far field effects due to atmospheric drift. In order to better evaluate resulting air concentrations in nearby communities following pesticide application, measurements of airborne pesticides were conducted at ∼70 m from field edge. This was done following three different application events of the organophosphate pesticide Chlorpyrifos in a persimmon orchard. Complementary information on larger spatial scale was obtained using CALPUFF modeling in which application and meteorological data was used to better evaluate dispersion patterns. Measurements indicated high airborne concentrations during application hours (few μg m-3 for 8 h average), which dropped to tens of ng m-3 in the following days. Measured atmospheric concentrations show that secondary drift (i.e., post-application drift) involves significant loads of pesticides and hence should not be ignored in exposure considerations. Furthermore, CALPUFF modeling revealed the complex dispersion pattern when weak winds prevailed, and showed that during the 24 h after application air concentrations reached levels above the hourly Texas effect screening level (0.1 μg m-3). Interestingly, weak winds on the night after application resulted in a secondary peak in measured and modeled air concentrations. Long exposure time (when secondary drift is considered) and concentrations measured following such common air-assisted orchard application, suggest pesticide drift may have health repercussions that are currently unknown, and emphasize the need for further epidemiological studies.

  11. Fourier-domain study of drift turbulence driven sheared flow in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Tynan, G. R.; Holland, C.

    2010-03-15

    Frequency-resolved nonlinear internal and kinetic energy transfer rates have been measured in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment (CSDX) linear plasma device using a recently developed technique [Xu et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 042312 (2009)]. The results clearly show a net kinetic energy transfer into the zonal flow frequency region, consistent with previous time-domain observations of turbulence-driven shear flows [Tynan et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 48, S51 (2006)]. The experimentally measured dispersion relation has been used to map the frequency-resolved energy transfer rates into the wave number domain, which shows that the shear flow drive comes from midrange (k{sub t}hetarho{submore » S}>0.3) drift fluctuations, and the strongest flow drive comes from k{sub t}hetarho{sub S}approx =1 fluctuations. Linear growth rates have been inferred from a linearized Hasegawa-Wakatani model [Hasegawa et al., Phys. Fluids 22, 2122 (1979)], which indicates that the m=0 mode is linearly stable and the m=1-10 modes (corresponding to k{sub t}hetarho{sub S}>0.3) are linearly unstable for the n=1 and n=2 radial eigenmodes. This is consistent with our energy transfer measurements.« less

  12. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-12-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  13. Recursive analytical solution describing artificial satellite motion perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical first order solution has been developed which describes the motion of an artificial satellite perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal harmonics of the geopotential. A set of recursive relations for the solution, which was deduced from recursive relations of the geopotential, was derived. The method of solution is based on Von-Zeipel's technique applied to a canonical set of two-body elements in the extended phase space which incorporates the true anomaly as a canonical element. The elements are of Poincare type, that is, they are regular for vanishing eccentricities and inclinations. Numerical results show that this solution is accurate to within a few meters after 500 revolutions.

  14. Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to Zonal Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.

  15. Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection

  16. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  17. Why the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind changes trend in the mid -1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, P.

    2016-12-01

    This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis data especially monthly mean of geopotential from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role..

  18. Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.

  19. Intrafractional baseline drift during free breathing breast cancer radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christer Andre; Acosta Roa, Ana María; Lund, Jo-Åsmund; Frengen, Jomar

    2017-06-01

    Intrafraction motion in breast cancer radiation therapy (BCRT) has not yet been thoroughly described in the literature. It has been observed that baseline drift occurs as part of the intrafraction motion. This study aims to measure baseline drift and its incidence in free-breathing BCRT patients using an in-house developed laser system for tracking the position of the sternum. Baseline drift was monitored in 20 right-sided breast cancer patients receiving free breathing 3D-conformal RT by using an in-house developed laser system which measures one-dimensional distance in the AP direction. A total of 357 patient respiratory traces from treatment sessions were logged and analysed. Baseline drift was compared to patient positioning error measured from in-field portal imaging. The mean overall baseline drift at end of treatment sessions was -1.3 mm for the patient population. Relatively small baseline drift was observed during the first fraction; however it was clearly detected already at the second fraction. Over 90% of the baseline drift occurs during the first 3 min of each treatment session. The baseline drift rate for the population was -0.5 ± 0.2 mm/min in the posterior direction the first minute after localization. Only 4% of the treatment sessions had a 5 mm or larger baseline drift at 5 min, all towards the posterior direction. Mean baseline drift in the posterior direction in free breathing BCRT was observed in 18 of 20 patients over all treatment sessions. This study shows that there is a substantial baseline drift in free breathing BCRT patients. No clear baseline drift was observed during the first treatment session; however, baseline drift was markedly present at the rest of the sessions. Intrafraction motion due to baseline drift should be accounted for in margin calculations.

  20. Reexamining X-mode suppression and fine structure in artificial E region field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, R. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Munk, J.; McCarrick, M.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-09-01

    Artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs) were generated in the E region of the ionosphere above the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility during campaigns in May and August of 2012 and observed using a 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager in Homer, Alaska. The purpose of this ionospheric modification experiment was to measure the threshold pump power required to excite thermal parametric instabilities by O-mode heating and to investigate the suppression of the FAIs by simultaneous X-mode heating. We find that the threshold pump power for irregularity excitation was consistent with theoretical predictions and increased by approximately a factor of 2 when X-mode heating was present. A modified version of the Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) ionospheric model was used to simulate the threshold experiments and suggested that the increase was entirely due to enhanced D region absorption associated with X-mode heating. Additionally, a remarkable degree of fine structure possibly caused by natural gradient drift instability in the heater-modified volume was observed in experiments performed during geomagnetically active conditions.

  1. Application of small-size antennas for estimation of angles of arrival of HF signals scattered by ionospheric irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiang; Galushko, Volodymyr G.; Zalizovski, Andriy V.; Kashcheyev, Sergiy B.; Zheng, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A modification of the Doppler Interferometry Technique is suggested to enable estimating angles of arrival of comparatively broadband HF signals scattered by random irregularities of the ionospheric plasma with the use of small-size weakly directional antennas. The technique is based on the measurements of cross-spectra phases of the probe radiation recorded at least in three spatially separated points. The developed algorithm has been used to investigate the angular and frequency-time characteristics of HF signals propagating at frequencies above the maximum usable one (MUF) for the direct radio path Moscow-Kharkiv. The received signal spectra show presence of three families of spatial components attributed, respectively, to scattering by plasma irregularities near the middle point of the radio path, ground backscatter signals and scattering of the sounding signals by the intense plasma turbulence associated with auroral activations. It has been shown that the regions responsible for the formation of the third family components are located well inside the auroral oval. The drift velocity and direction of the auroral ionosphere plasma have been determined. The obtained estimates are consistent with the classical conception of the ionospheric plasma convection at high latitudes and do not contradict the results of investigations of the auroral ionosphere dynamics using the SuperDARN network.

  2. Irregular menses: an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Haver, Mary Claire; Locksmith, Gregory J; Emmet, Emily

    2003-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether a history of irregular menses predicts gestational diabetes mellitus independently of traditional risk factors. We analyzed demographic characteristics, body mass index, and menstrual history of 85 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and compared them with 85 systematically selected control subjects who were matched for age, race, and delivery year. Subjects with pregestational diabetes mellitus, previous gestational diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes mellitus, weight >200 pounds, previous macrosomic infants, or previous stillbirth were excluded. Demographic characteristics between case and control groups were similar. Mean body mass index was higher among cases (26.5 kg/m(2)) versus control subjects (24.5 kg/m(2), P =.004). Irregular cycles were more prevalent in the cases (24% vs 7%, P =.006). With the use of body mass index as a stratification factor, menstrual irregularity maintained a strong association with gestational diabetes mellitus (P =.014). A history of irregular menstrual cycles was a significant independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. If selective screening is implemented for gestational diabetes mellitus, such history should be considered in the decision of whom to test.

  3. On the Total Edge Irregularity Strength of Generalized Butterfly Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Wahyuna, Hafidhyah; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a connected, simple, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ: V(G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, k} of a graph G is a total k-labeling such that the weights calculated for all edges are distinct. The weight of an edge uv in G, denoted by wt(uv), is defined as the sum of the label of u, the label of v, and the label of uv. The total edge irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G), is the minimum value of the largest label k over all such edge irregular total k-labelings. A generalized butterfly graph, BFn , obtained by inserting vertices to every wing with assumption that sum of inserting vertices to every wing are same then it has 2n + 1 vertices and 4n ‑ 2 edges. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of generalized butterfly graph, BFn , for n > 2. The result is tes(B{F}n)=\\lceil \\frac{4n}{3}\\rceil .

  4. Plasma density irregularities and Total Electron Content gradients over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Kotulak, K.; Cherniak, I.; Krankowski, A.; Froń, A.

    2017-12-01

    Perturbations of the ionospheric plasma density are crucial from the scientific and application points of view, as they can severe affect radio signals used in the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and low frequency radio astronomy. For several decades the ionospheric irregularities have been extensively studied by different techniques, including ground-based GNSS observations. Spatial distribution of ionospheric disturbances can be specified by horizontal gradients of the ionospheric density (total electron content, TEC). Another, widely used tool in irregularities monitoring is the rate of TEC index (ROTI). Recently, the Northern Hemisphere ROTI product has been implemented to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and available for community. In this study, we present climatology of the spatial TEC gradients occurred over European region at high to middle latitudes. We developed the TEC gradient maps based on the high-resolution (0.5 degree in latitude and longitude) regional TEC maps covering Europe. The obtained climatological characteristics of the spatial TEC gradients are superimposed and analyzed with the global and regional ROTI product in order to reveal development of highly intense plasma irregularities occurred at high and middle latitudes. During geomagnetic storm the complex of physical processes at auroal zone leads to development of intnse ionospheric irregularities and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). We presents results of the geomagnetic storm analysis including the 2013 and 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storms.

  5. Gravitational perturbation of irregular bodies modeled with regular polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, Flaviane; Prado, Antonio

    In this work the study of the dynamics around bodies with non-spherical shapes is considered. The gravitational field of an irregular body, meaning that the mass distribution is asymmetric, generates orbits around this body to perform different from a keplerian orbit. In this case, there is a perturbation on the gravitational field that must be analyzed. To know the gravitational force of an irregular object, first it is necessary to model this body, which is not an easy thing to do, considering that, usually, they are not symmetric figures. To better model the irregular objects, a combination of several geometric figures can be used, like parallelepipeds. This can be applied to asteroids, which are objects with non-spherical shapes. The disturbing force generated by these bodies can then be obtained as the sum of the force on each figure. Here the equation for the potential of a cube is considered (MacMillan, 1930), which makes it possible to have analytical results. The main idea is to build a body with several cubes, and having the gravitational potential of each cube, it is possible to obtain the total perturbation as the sum of the forces acting on each piece. This methodology can be very helpful on space missions to small bodies, because when a spacecraft is in the vicinity of an irregular body, the gravitational perturbation generated by its shape must be considered to compensate this effect.

  6. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9% (range 0-38%) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75%. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  7. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  8. Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Stacy Sommerfeld; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Kiedrowski, Megan R.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Apicella, Michael A.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Fiegel, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

  9. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  10. Colors and Shapes of the Irregular Planetary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graykowski, Ariel; Jewitt, David

    2018-04-01

    It is widely recognized that the irregular satellites of the giant planets were captured from initially heliocentric orbits. However, the mechanism of capture and the source region from which they were captured both remain unknown. We present an optical color survey of 43 irregular satellites of the outer planets conducted using the LRIS camera on the 10 m telescope at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii. The measured colors are compared to other planetary bodies in search for similarities and differences that may reflect upon the origin of the satellites. We find that ultrared matter (with color index B–R ≥ 1.6), while abundant in the Kuiper Belt and Centaur populations, is depleted from the irregular satellites. We also use repeated determinations of the absolute magnitudes to make a statistical estimate of the average shape of the irregular satellites. The data provide no evidence that the satellites and the main-belt asteroids are differently shaped, consistent with collisions as the major agent shaping both.

  11. The Effects of Some Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drag, Manley

    1939-01-01

    The N.A.C.A. has conducted tests to provide more complete data than were previously available for estimating the effects of common surface irregularities on wing drag. The irregularities investigated included: brazier-head and countersunk rivets, spot welds, several types of sheet-metal joints, and surface roughness. Tests were also conducted to determine the over-all effect of manufacturing irregularities incidental to riveted aluminum alloy and to spot-welded stainless-steel construction. The tests were made in the 8-foot high speed wind tunnel at Reynolds Numbers up to 18,000,000. The results show that any of the surface irregularities investigated may increase wing drag enough to have important adverse effects on high-speed performance and economy. A method of estimating increases in wing drag caused by brazier-head rivets and lapped joints under conditions outside the range of the tests is suggested. Estimated drag increases due to rivets and lapped joints under conditions outside the range of the tests is suggested. Estimated drag increases due to rivets and lapped joints on a wing of 20-foot chord flying at 250 miles per hour are shown.

  12. IUE observations of luminous blue star associations in irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, S. A.; Hunter, D. A.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    1987-01-01

    Two regions of recent star formation in blue irregular galaxies were observed with the IUE in the short wavelength, low dispersion mode. The spectra indicate that the massive star content is similar in these regions and is best fit by massive stars formed in a burst and now approximately 2.5 to 3.0 million years old.

  13. Solar-QBO Interaction and Its Impact on Stratospheric Ozone in a Zonally Averaged Photochemical Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-28

    Solar- QBO interaction and its impact on stratospheric ozone in a zonally averaged photochemical transport model of the middle atmosphere J. P...investigate the solar cycle modulation of the quasi-biennial oscillation ( QBO ) in stratospheric zonal winds and its impact on stratospheric ozone with an...updated version of the zonally averaged CHEM2D middle atmosphere model. We find that the duration of the westerly QBO phase at solar maximum is 3 months

  14. High-speed and supersonic upward plasma drifts: multi-instrumental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Hairston, M. R.; Huba, J.; Coley, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Since the pioneering observations by Aggson et al. (1992, JGR, doi: 10.1002/92JA00644), there have been several reports of the occurrence of high-speed (Vz>800 m/s) and supersonic plasma flows in the post-sunset (e.g., Hysell et al., 1994, JGR, doi: 10.1029/94JA00476; Hanson et al., 1997, JGR, doi: 10.1029/96JA03376) and the pre-dawn sector (Astafyeva and Zakharenkova, 2015, GRL, doi:10.1002/2015GL066369). However, despite this observational evidence, these events remain rare and are not well understood. The main issue is to determine the background conditions leading to the occurrence of these high-speed plasma drifts. In this work, we perform a multi-instrumental study of high-speed and supersonic upward plasma drift events/structures. For this purpose, we analyze data from several ground-based and space-borne instruments, including data from the DMSP, Swarm and C/NOFS (IVM instrument) satellites. In addition to the space-borne instruments, we use data from ground-based GPS-receivers and ionosondes to further investigate the background ionosphere conditions, as well as the effects produced by the plasma bubbles and ionospheric irregularities. Besides the observations, we add the SAMI3/ESF modeling results on plasma bubble simulations and high-speed drifts inside plasma bubbles. TIE-GCM runs (from the CCMC, https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) are used to define the background atmospheric/ionospheric and electrodynamical conditions leading to the occurrence of the high-speed and supersonic plasma drift events. Our search of events with upward plasma drift exceeding 800 m/s in the data of DMSP for the years 2002-2016 shows that such high-speed events are extremely rare. During this period of time, only 6 events were found, two of them occurred during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm, while the other four were detected during geomagnetically quiet conditions. Concerning the generation of such events, our preliminary results show that enhanced electric fields are

  15. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  16. Multiple zonal jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.

  17. Noise and drift analysis of non-equally spaced timing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernotte, F.; Zalamansky, G.; Lantz, E.

    1994-01-01

    Generally, it is possible to obtain equally spaced timing data from oscillators. The measurement of the drifts and noises affecting oscillators is then performed by using a variance (Allan variance, modified Allan variance, or time variance) or a system of several variances (multivariance method). However, in some cases, several samples, or even several sets of samples, are missing. In the case of millisecond pulsar timing data, for instance, observations are quite irregularly spaced in time. Nevertheless, since some observations are very close together (one minute) and since the timing data sequence is very long (more than ten years), information on both short-term and long-term stability is available. Unfortunately, a direct variance analysis is not possible without interpolating missing data. Different interpolation algorithms (linear interpolation, cubic spline) are used to calculate variances in order to verify that they neither lose information nor add erroneous information. A comparison of the results of the different algorithms is given. Finally, the multivariance method was adapted to the measurement sequence of the millisecond pulsar timing data: the responses of each variance of the system are calculated for each type of noise and drift, with the same missing samples as in the pulsar timing sequence. An estimation of precision, dynamics, and separability of this method is given.

  18. Coping with Irregular Operations: Implications for a Free Flight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Davison, Jeannie; Rodvold, Michelle; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Irregular operations involve disruption of scheduled airline operations. They ate of concern to the carriers because they cost money, require personnel effort, and may harm customer good will. Irregular operations may result from aircraft system malfunctions that take planes out of service or result in cancellations, Might system problems or passenger medical emergencies that require diversions, local airport problems that may close down a runway, or weather systems that restrict flow into airports or regions. At the heart of responding to irregular operations is distributed decision making by members of airline operations centers, pilots, and the air traffic control system. Six U.S. carriers participated in a study in which we observed strategies used by operations center personnel to handle various classes of irregular operations. We focused on situations that are most disruptive to regular operations and are most difficult to cope with. We also sought to identify classes of events that would be most affected by changes in the air traffic management system. How a carrier deals with disruptions to its schedule reflects its philosophy and primary goals, as well as its resources. Size and type of operations (short or long-haul) determine which problems have priority. Each airline has different technological support tools to aid in flight planning and replanning, and some carriers have established contingency procedures for coping with various situations. We also examined differences in extent and type of interaction between ABC personnel and various elements of the air traffic system as they managed various problems: who interacts with AM what situations prompt interaction, how often these occur, and the outcomes and Perceived benefits. Use of the expanded NRP program was also studied, along with its advantages to the individual companies. We also examined the implications of the proposed change to a free flight environment on airline strategies for coping with

  19. On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the zonal wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).

  20. Subcellular fractionation by zonal centrifugation of glucose-repressed anaerobically grown Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    PubMed Central

    Cartledge, T. G.; Lloyd, D.

    1972-01-01

    1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of anaerobically grown, glucoserepressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, and the distributions of marker enzymes investigated after zonal centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 2mm-MgCl2. 2. These homogenates contained no detectable cytochrome c oxidase, succinate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase, succinate–ferricyanide oxidoreductase, l(+)-lactate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase or catalase. Cytochromes a+a3 and c were not detected. 3. Zonal centrifugation of whole homogenates indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases, adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), adenosine pyrophosphatase (ADPase), pyrophosphatase and acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase. Several different ATPases were distinguished on the basis of their sensitivities to oligomycin and ouabain. 4. Differential centrifugation of whole homogenates at 105g-min left 80–90% of the protein, dithionite-reducible cytochrome b, acid hydrolases and pyrophosphatase in a supernatant (S1) together with 65 and 56% of the NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases respectively, 25% of the ATPases and 71% of the adenosine monophosphatase. 5. Further analysis of supernatant S1 revealed the presence of a class of small particles containing NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases and ATPases. 6. At least four different populations of large particles were distinguished. 7. Electron microscopy indicated that one of these corresponded to `promitochondria' as described by other workers. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3 PMID:4405573

  1. ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography findings. Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test used for comparisons of nonparametric continuous variables. All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (five of the five eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard fundus autofluorescence centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). The UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography abnormalities. The UWFFAF along with optical coherence tomography can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy patients.

  2. Zonal-Mean Temperature Variations Inferred from SABER Measurements on TIMED Compared with UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Reber, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, Mayr et al., 2003), small-scale gravity waves propagating in the north/south direction can generate zonal mean (m = 0) meridional wind oscillations with periods between 2 and 4 months. These oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and have been interpreted to be the meridional counterpart of the wave-driven Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the zonal circulation. Wave driven meridional winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. We have analyzed SABER temperature measurements in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to investigate the existence such variations. Because there are also strong tidal signatures (up to approximately 20 K) in the data, our algorithm estimates both mean values and tides together from the data. Based on SABER temperature data, the intra-annual variations with periods between 2 and 4 months can have amplitudes up to 5 K or more, depending on the altitude. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with those inferred Erom UARS data (from different years). The SABER temperature variations also reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, which are qualitatively consistent with wave driven meridional wind oscillations across the equator. Oscillations with similar periods have been seen in the meridional winds based on UARS data (Huang and Reber, 2003).

  3. Laboratory modeling of multiple zonal jets on the polar beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Zonal jets observed in the oceans and atmospheres of planets are studied in a laboratory rotating tank. The fluid layer in the rotating tank has parabolic free surface and dynamically simulates the polar beta-plane where the Coriolis parameter varies quadratically with distance from the pole. Velocity and surface elevation fields are measured with an optical altimetry method (Afanasyev et al., Exps Fluids 2009). The flows are induced by a localized buoyancy source along radial direction. The baroclinic flow consisting of a field of eddies propagates away from the source due West and forms zonal jets (Fig. 1). Barotropic jets ahead of the baroclinic flow are formed by radiation of beta plumes. Inside the baroclinic flow the jets flow between the chains of eddies. Experimental evidence of so-called noodles (baroclinic instability mode with motions in the radial, North-South direction) theoretically predicted by Berloff et al. (JFM, JPO 2009) was found in our experiments. Beta plume radiation mechanism and the mechanism associated with the instability of noodles are likely to contribute to formation of jets in the baroclinic flow.

  4. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  5. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  6. SPCZ zonal events and downstream influence on surface ocean conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Rixen, Tim; Charles, Christopher D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Moore, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal surface freshening of the Makassar Strait, the main conduit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), is a key factor controlling the ITF. Here we present a 262 year reconstruction of seasonal sea-surface-salinity variability from 1742 to 2004 Common Era by using coral δ18O records from the central Makassar Strait. Our record reveals persistent seasonal freshening and also years with significant truncations of seasonal freshening that correlate exactly with South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) zonal events >4000 km to the east. During these events, the SPCZ dramatically rotates 15° north to near the equator and stronger westward flowing South Pacific boundary currents force higher-salinity water through the Makassar Strait in February-May halting the normal seasonal freshening in the strait. By these teleconnections, our Makassar coral δ18O series provides the first record of the recurrence interval of these zonal SPCZ events and demonstrates that they have occurred on a semiregular basis since the mid-1700s.

  7. An analysis of the role of drift waves in equatorial spread F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labelle, J.; Kelley, M. C.; Seyler, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of results of rocket measurements of the wave number spectrum of equatorial spread F irregularities, with emphasis on wavelengths less than 100 m. The measurements were made from two sounding rockets launched from Peru as part of Project Condor. The Condor density fluctuation spectra display a break at a wavelength near 100 m, identical to that found in the PLUMEX experiment (Kelley et al., 1982). The Condor data also confirm a subrange in which the density and the wave potential obey the Boltzmann relation - a strong indication of the presence of low-frequency electrostatic waves with finite wavelength parallel to the magnetic field, perhaps low-frequency drift waves as proposed by Kelley et al. The Condor data are also consistent with the previous conjecture that drift waves only exist above 300 km altitude. To investigate the difference in spectra observed over two altitude ranges, the data must be fitted to a form for the power spectrum taken from Keskinen and Ossakow (1981). The fitted spectrum, along with empirically determined growth and dissipation rates, is used to calculate the energy pumped into the spectrum at long wavelengths as well as the energy dissipated at shorter wavelengths. It is found that the energy is balanced by classical collisional effects in the low-altitude case, but energy balance in the high-altitude case requires an enhanced dissipation of about 500 times that due to classical diffusion. The model is consistent with, but does not uniquely imply, an inverse cascade of drift wave turbulence in equatorial spread F.

  8. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  9. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A., E-mail: alain.ghizzo@univ-lorraine.fr; Palermo, F.

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was foundmore » that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.« less

  10. A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with Zonal Exchange Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter zonal operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter zonal operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the zonal exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.

  11. Obesity with irregular menstrual cycle in young girls.

    PubMed

    Mustaqeem, M; Sadullah, S; Waqar, W; Farooq, M Z; Khan, A; Fraz, T R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Obese women are at increased risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, rectal carcinoma and gynecological problems including sub fertility, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovarian disease. The aim of this study was to assess relationship of obesity with menstrual irregularity in young girls that can help to create awareness among young girls about obesity and how it can affect fertility. It was a case controlled cross sectional study comprising of 220 participants from different colleges and universities of Karachi and from outpatients department of private clinic and Civil Hospital Karachi. A questionnaire was designed to assess the relationship of obesity with irregular menstrual cycle. Questionnaires were filled by co-authors after taking verbal consent. Data was collected from March 2013 to December 2013 and entered and analyzed on SPSS 16.0. Out of 220 participants obese and overweight were 67(30.4%) and 49(22.2%) respectively. Significant association was found between body composition and menstrual cycle irregularity as menstrual irregularity was present in only 9.5% when the BMI was normal and 14.09% and 24% girls in the overweight and obese categories respectively. Waist to hip ratio was found increased in 61.36% of girls. Sixty four point forty four percent (64.44%) of the girls with increased waist to hip ratio reported menstrual irregularity which makes 39.55% of the total sample population. Dysmenorrhea was reported by 63.6% of participants and family history was positive in 77.3%. Hirsutism was reported in 36.7% and 49.2%, acne in 34.6% and 43.2%, weight gain tendency in 85.7% and 98.5%, types 2 diabetes in 0% and 4.4% and hypertension in 8.16% and 31.3% of overweight and obese participants respectively. This study shows considerable association between overall and central obesity with menstrual cycle irregularity. This study provides the

  12. Factors associated with menstrual cycle irregularity and menopause.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jinju; Park, Susan; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2018-02-06

    A regular menstrual cycle is an important indicator of a healthy reproductive system. Previous studies reported obesity, stress, and smoking as the factors that are associated with irregular menstruation and early menopause. However, the integrative effects of these modifiable risk factors have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the modifiable risk factors of menstrual cycle irregularity and premature menopause, as well as their individual and combined effects among adult women in Korea. This study selected adult women aged 19 years and above who had been included in the 2007-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used a separate dataset to analyze the risk factors of menstrual cycle irregularity and menopause (pre- and postmenopausal women: n = 4788 and n = 10,697, respectively). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, drinking, obesity, and perceived level of stress on the menstrual cycle and menopause. Both logit and linear models were used in the analyses of the association between smoking and menopausal age. Equivalized household income, marital status, and educational level were considered as covariates. The modifiable risk factor scores were also calculated to integrate the effect of smoking, drinking, and obesity in the analysis. Results showed that smoking status, pack-year, obesity, and perceived level of stress were significantly associated with irregular menstruation among premenopausal women. Especially, women demonstrating > 3 modifiable risk factor scores had 1.7 times higher risk of having irregular menstruation than those who had a 0 score. Meanwhile, early initiation of smoking (≤19 years) and high pack-year (≥5) were also significantly associated with premature menopause among postmenopausal women. This study demonstrated that modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, and stress, were significantly associated

  13. Direct evidence of stationary zonal flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, Jon

    2015-11-01

    High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  14. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2017-07-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF ( 35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM ( 15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  15. Three-dimensional assembly of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs results in cartilaginous tissue formation without retainment of zonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, W; Harimulyo, E B; Gawlitta, D; Woodfield, T B F; Dhert, W J A; van Weeren, P R; Malda, J

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capabilities. Chondrocytes from different layers of cartilage have specific properties, and regenerative approaches using zonal chondrocytes may yield better replication of the architecture of native cartilage than when using a single cell population. To obtain high seeding efficiency while still mimicking zonal architecture, cell pellets of expanded deep zone and superficial zone equine chondrocytes were seeded and cultured in two layers on poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT-PBT) scaffolds. Scaffolds seeded with cell pellets consisting of a 1:1 mixture of both cell sources served as controls. Parallel to this, pellets of superficial or deep zone chondrocytes, and combinations of the two cell populations, were cultured without the scaffold. Pellet cultures of zonal chondrocytes in scaffolds resulted in a high seeding efficiency and abundant cartilaginous tissue formation, containing collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in all groups, irrespective of the donor (n = 3), zonal population or stratified scaffold-seeding approach used. However, whereas total GAG production was similar, the constructs retained significantly more GAG compared to pellet cultures, in which a high percentage of the produced GAGs were secreted into the culture medium. Immunohistochemistry for zonal markers did not show any differences between the conditions. We conclude that spatially defined pellet culture in 3D scaffolds is associated with high seeding efficiency and supports cartilaginous tissue formation, but did not result in the maintenance or restoration of the original zonal phenotype. The use of pellet-assembled constructs leads to a better retainment of newly produced GAGs than the use of pellet cultures alone. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu; Angus, J. R.

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionlessmore » and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.« less

  17. Drift wave turbulence simulations in LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovich, P.; Umansky, M.; Carter, T. A.; Auerbach, D. W.; Friedman, B.; Schaffner, D.; Vincena, S.

    2009-11-01

    We present numerical simulations of turbulence in LAPD plasmas using the 3D electromagnetic code BOUT (BOUndary Turbulence). BOUT solves a system of fluid moment equations in a general toroidal equlibrium geometry near the plasma boundary. The underlying assumptions for the validity of the fluid model are well satisfied for drift waves in LAPD plasmas (typical plasma parameters ne˜1x10^12cm-3, Te˜10eV, and B ˜1kG), which makes BOUT a perfect tool for simulating LAPD. We have adapted BOUT for the cylindrical geometry of LAPD and have extended the model to include the background flows required for simulations of recent bias-driven rotation experiments. We have successfully verified the code for several linear instabilities, including resistive drift waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz and rotation-driven interchange. We will discuss first non-linear simulations and quasi-stationary solutions with self-consistent plasma flows and saturated density profiles.

  18. Metabolic drift in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Stauch, Kelly L; Petrascheck, Michael; Benton, H Paul; Epstein, Adrian A; Fang, Mingliang; Gorantla, Santhi; Tran, Minerva; Hoang, Linh; Kurczy, Michael E; Boska, Michael D; Gendelman, Howard E; Fox, Howard S; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energymetabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP/ATP, purine/pyrimidine accumulation) and significantly altered oxidative phosphorylation and nucleotide biosynthesis and degradation. The central energy metabolic drift suggests a failure of the cellular machinery to restore metabostasis (metabolite homeostasis) in the aged brain and therefore an inability to respond properly to external stimuli, likely driving the alterations in signaling activity and thus in neuronal function and communication.

  19. Metabolic drift in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Stauch, Kelly L.; Petrascheck, Michael; Benton, H. Paul; Epstein, Adrian A.; Fang, Mingliang; Gorantla, Santhi; Tran, Minerva; Hoang, Linh; Kurczy, Michael E.; Boska, Michael D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Fox, Howard S.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Brain function is highly dependent upon controlled energy metabolism whose loss heralds cognitive impairments. This is particularly notable in the aged individuals and in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, how metabolic homeostasis is disrupted in the aging brain is still poorly understood. Here we performed global, metabolomic and proteomic analyses across different anatomical regions of mouse brain at different stages of its adult lifespan. Interestingly, while severe proteomic imbalance was absent, global-untargeted metabolomics revealed an energy metabolic drift or significant imbalance in core metabolite levels in aged mouse brains. Metabolic imbalance was characterized by compromised cellular energy status (NAD decline, increased AMP/ATP, purine/pyrimidine accumulation) and significantly altered oxidative phosphorylation and nucleotide biosynthesis and degradation. The central energy metabolic drift suggests a failure of the cellular machinery to restore metabostasis (metabolite homeostasis) in the aged brain and therefore an inability to respond properly to external stimuli, likely driving the alterations in signaling activity and thus in neuronal function and communication. PMID:27182841

  20. Thermal zonal winds in the Venus mesosphere from the Venus Express temperature soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Titov, Dmitri; Tellmann, Silvia; Migliorini, Alessandra; Read, Peter; Grassi, Davide; Paetzold, Martin; Haeusler, Bernd; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    The Venus mesosphere (60-100 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by extremely complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate in the troposphere and lower meso-sphere while a solar-antisolar circulation can be observed in the upper mesosphere. The super-rotation extends from the surface up to the cloud top (˜65 km altitude) with wind speeds of only a few meters per second near the surface and reaching a maximum value of ˜100 m s-1 at cloud top, corresponding to a rotation period of ˜4 Earth days (˜60 times faster than Venus itself). The solar-antisolar circulation is driven by the day-night contrast in solar heating, and occurs above 110 km altitude with speeds of 120 m s-1 . The processes responsible for maintain-ing the zonal super-rotation in the lower atmosphere and its transition to the solar-antisolar circulation in the upper atmosphere are still poorly understood (Schubert et al.,2007). Different techniques have been used to obtain direct observations of wind at various altitudes: tracking of clouds in ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) images give information on wind speeds at the cloud top (Moissl et al., 2009; Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) and within the clouds (˜47 km, ˜61 km) (Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) while ground-based measurements of Doppler shifts in the CO2 band at 10 µm (Sornig et al., 2008) and in several CO millimiter lines (Rengel et al., 2008) provide wind speeds above the clouds up to ˜110 km altitude. The deep atmosphere from the surface up to the cloud top has been investigated through the Doppler tracking of descent probes and balloons (Counselman et al., 1980; Kerzhanovich and Limaye, 1985). In the mesosphere, between 45-85 km of altitude, where direct observations of wind are not possible, the zonal wind field can be derived from the vertical temperature structure using a special approximation of the thermal wind equation: based on cyclostrophic balance. Previous studies (Leovy, 1973; Newman et al

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of drift structures in a magnetized dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjania, G. D.; Rogava, D. L.; Kharshiladze, O. A.

    2011-06-15

    intense and localized, while the cyclone is less intense and has a larger size. In the course of further evolution, the cyclone persists for a relatively longer time, while the anticyclone breaks into small-scale vortices and dissipation hastens this process. It is found that the relaxation of the vortex by viscous dissipation differs in character from that by the frictional force. The time scale on which the vortex is damped depends strongly on its typical size: larger scale vortices are longer lived structures. It is shown that, as the instability develops, the initial vortex is amplified and the lifetime of the dipole pair components-cyclone and anticyclone-becomes longer. As time elapses, small-scale noise is generated in the system, and the spatial structure of the perturbation potential becomes irregular. The pattern of interaction of solitary vortex structures among themselves and with the medium shows that they can take part in strong drift turbulence and anomalous transport of heat and matter in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma.« less

  2. Primary and secondary pesticide drift profiles from a peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Zivan, Ohad; Bohbot-Raviv, Yardena; Dubowski, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters. The effect of volatility on drift was also studied by simultaneously applying two pesticides that differ in their volatility. Drifting airborne pesticides were detected both during and after applications at sampling distances of 7 and 20 m away from orchard edge. Concentrations ranged between hundreds ng m -3 to a few μg m -3 and showed clear decrease with time and with upwind conditions. Almost no decline in concentrations with height was observed up to thrice canopy height (i.e., 10 m). These homogeneous profiles indicate strong mixing near orchard and are in line with the unstable atmospheric conditions that prevailed during measurements. While air concentrations during pesticide application were higher than after it, overall pesticide load drifted from the orchard during primary and secondary drift are comparable. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work to show such large vertical dispersion and long duration of secondary drift following ground application in orchards. The obtained information indicates that secondary drift should not be neglected in exposure and environmental impact estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proportional drift tubes for large area muon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Okusawa, T.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    A proportional drift chamber which consists of eight rectangular drift tubes with cross section of 10 cm x 5 cm, a sense wire of 100 micron phi gold-plated tungsten wire and the length of 6 m, was tested using cosmic ray muons. Spatial resolution (rms) is between 0.5 and 1 mm over drift space of 50 mm, depending on incident angle and distance from sense wire.

  4. Optimal mapping of irregular finite element domains to parallel processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, J.; Otto, S.; Salama, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping the solution domain of n-finite elements into N-subdomains that may be processed in parallel by N-processors is an optimal one if the subdomain decomposition results in a well-balanced workload distribution among the processors. The problem is discussed in the context of irregular finite element domains as an important aspect of the efficient utilization of the capabilities of emerging multiprocessor computers. Finding the optimal mapping is an intractable combinatorial optimization problem, for which a satisfactory approximate solution is obtained here by analogy to a method used in statistical mechanics for simulating the annealing process in solids. The simulated annealing analogy and algorithm are described, and numerical results are given for mapping an irregular two-dimensional finite element domain containing a singularity onto the Hypercube computer.

  5. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  6. Bispectral analysis of equatorial spread F density irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labelle, J.; Lund, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    Bispectral analysis has been applied to density irregularities at frequencies 5-30 Hz observed with a sounding rocket launched from Peru in March 1983. Unlike the power spectrum, the bispectrum contains statistical information about the phase relations between the Fourier components which make up the waveform. In the case of spread F data from 475 km the 5-30 Hz portion of the spectrum displays overall enhanced bicoherence relative to that of the background instrumental noise and to that expected due to statistical considerations, implying that the observed f exp -2.5 power law spectrum has a significant non-Gaussian component. This is consistent with previous qualitative analyses. The bicoherence has also been calculated for simulated equatorial spread F density irregularities in approximately the same wavelength regime, and the resulting bispectrum has some features in common with that of the rocket data. The implications of this analysis for equatorial spread F are discussed, and some future investigations are suggested.

  7. Zonal characterization of hillslope erosion processes in a semi-arid high mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Raquel; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Moñino, Antonio; Ángel Losada, Miguel; José Polo, María

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean and semi-arid catchments, generally suffer heterogeneous erosive processes at different spatio-temporal scales which produce, in a synergistic manner, a large amount of sediment supply. In mountainous catchments, the influence of pluvio-nival hydrological regime leads to a clear subdivision into homogeneous zones regarding the nature of hillslope processes. Here, a distinction could be addressed with 1) subsurface erosion due to saturated soil by intense snowmelt pulses and 2) steepest mid-mountain soil loss with rill/interrill, small-scale landslides and ephemeral or permanent gullying. Furthermore, the associated channels in these areas are formed by wide alluvial floodplains with important bedload contributions. This complexity conditions the evaluation of erosion and monitoring at catchment scale with elevated costs in time, devices and staff. The catchment of the Guadalfeo river encloses 1200 km², with important presence of snow in the summits height on its right margin, and semiarid low range hills with very erodible soils on its left margin. Gully erosion, landslides and stream bed-load processes, extremely actives in this area, are responsible of a real problem of soil loss and desertification with a high associated cost. This work suggests a methodology for the zonal assessment of different erosive processes taking into account the described heterogeneity and the reduction of research costs. To do this, high resolution bathymetric and topographic surveys supported in a reservoir (110 hm3) allowed the differentiation of bedload and suspended sediments as both are deposited in different locations and hence the validation of the hillslope sediment yield. In parallel, measurements in homogeneous areas were selected in order to obtain zonal results to achieve the representative processes involved. The use of portable samplers allows the remote changing of sampling routines, and thus to capture the temporal scale of the processes and the

  8. Are Strong Zonal Winds in Giant Planets Caused by Density-Stratification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, J.; Stellmach, S.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn are the zonal wind patterns observed on their surfaces. The mechanism that drives this differential rotation is still not clearly identified and is currently strongly debated in the astro- and geophysics community. Different mechanisms have been proposed over the last decades. Here, a recently discovered mechanism based on background density stratification (Glatzmaier et al., 2009) is investigated. This mechanism has the potential to overcome known difficulties of previous explanations and its efficiency has been demonstrated in 2-d simulations covering equatorial planes. By performing highly resolved numerical simulations in a local Cartesian geometry, we are able to test the efficiency and functionality of this mechanism in turbulent, rotating convection in three spatial dimensions. The choice of a Cartesian model geometry naturally excludes other known mechanisms capable of producing differential rotation, thus allowing us to investigate the role of density stratification in isolation. Typically, the dynamics can be classified into two main regimes: A regime exhibiting strong zonal winds for weak to moderate thermal driving and a regime where zonal winds are largely absent in the case of a strong thermal forcing. Our results indicate that previous 2-d results must be handled with care and can only explain parts of the full 3-d behavior. We show that the density-stratification mechanism tends to operate in a more narrow parameter range in 3-d as compared to 2-d simulations. The dynamics of the regime transition is shown to differ in both cases, which renders scaling laws derived from two-dimensional studies questionable. Based on our results, we provide estimates for the importance of the density-stratification mechanism for giant planets like Jupiter (strong density stratification), for systems like the Earth's core (weak density stratification) and compare its efficiency with other

  9. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  10. Evaluation of irregular menses in perimenarcheal girls: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Browner-Elhanan, Karen J; Epstein, Jonathan; Alderman, Elizabeth M

    2003-12-01

    Acyclic vaginal bleeding in girls within three years of menarche is most commonly attributed to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Assuming this diagnosis may preclude the practitioner from performing more definitive studies and thereby diagnosing other, treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. A retrospective chart review of 178 girls presenting to an inner-city hospital-based adolescent clinic within three years of menarche was performed. Personal and family medical and menarcheal history was assessed, and findings on physical and laboratory examination performed were evaluated. Of the 178 girls still perimenarcheal at presentation, 47 were the focus of this study. Of these, 39 had no significant findings on physical examination, while 3 had signs of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) including obesity, hirsutism, and moderate acne with corresponding LH/FSH ratios>3, although pelvic ultrasound examination revealed normal ovaries. Four of the 39 patients with normal physical exams had LH/FSH testing done, and 1 of the 4 had an abnormal LH/FSH ratio, indicating possible FOH. Two of the 47 patients were pregnant. Other laboratory abnormalities included microcytic, hypochromic anemia in patients, and an elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in a patient later diagnosed with a rheumatologic disorder. Those perimenarcheal girls presenting with irregular menses and findings including obesity, acne, or pallor, were likely to have treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. In one of the four girls with a normal physical examination, hormonal testing indicated possible FOH, thus suggesting that hormonal evaluation of perimenarcheal girls with menstrual irregularities may be justified, as it may reveal previously unsuspected pathology.

  11. Association of asthma and hay fever with irregular menstruation.

    PubMed

    Svanes, C; Real, F Gomez; Gislason, T; Jansson, C; Jögi, R; Norrman, E; Nyström, L; Torén, K; Omenaas, E

    2005-06-01

    There is some evidence that asthmatic women are more likely to have abnormal sex hormone levels. A study was undertaken to determine whether asthma and allergy were associated with irregular menstruation in a general population, and the potential role of asthma medication for this association. A total of 8588 women (response rate 77%) participated in an 8 year follow up postal questionnaire study of participants of the ECRHS stage I in Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Only non-pregnant women not taking exogenous sex hormones were included in the analyses (n = 6137). Irregular menstruation was associated with asthma (OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.13)), asthma symptoms (OR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.86)), hay fever (OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.57)), and asthma preceded by hay fever (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.30 to 2.96)) among women aged 26-42 years. This was also observed in women not taking asthma medication (asthma symptoms: OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91); hay fever: OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.58); wheeze preceded by hay fever: OR 1.76 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.64)). Irregular menstruation was associated with new onset asthma in younger women (OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.42)) but not in women aged 42-54 years (OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.18)). The results were consistent across centres. Younger women with asthma and allergy were more likely to have irregular menstruation. This could not be attributed to current use of asthma medication. The association could possibly be explained by common underlying metabolic or developmental factors. The authors hypothesise that insulin resistance may play a role in asthma and allergy.

  12. Remote double resonance coupling of radar energy to ionospheric irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental results indicate that low frequency modulation of a high power radar beam, tuned to one of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere, may produce field-aligned density irregularities when the modulation frequency matches an ionospheric eigenfrequency. By choosing the radar carrier frequency and polarization, a number of interaction layers were selected. The variety of possible excitations shows that the double resonance technique may be adaptable to a number of different objectives.

  13. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    suggestions to improve his beloved institution. xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION The Army ended up trying to fight...Secretary of Defense and supported by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was improving Special Operations Forces (SOF) and general purpose...applicable to all three missions within the larger term of irregular warfare. This paper may interchange some terms due their associations from varying

  14. Irregular and adaptive sampling for automatic geophysic measure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagnina, Davide; Lo Presti, Letizia; Mulassano, Paolo

    2000-07-01

    In this paper a sampling method, based on an irregular and adaptive strategy, is described. It can be used as automatic guide for rovers designed to explore terrestrial and planetary environments. Starting from the hypothesis that a explorative vehicle is equipped with a payload able to acquire measurements of interesting quantities, the method is able to detect objects of interest from measured points and to realize an adaptive sampling, while badly describing the not interesting background.

  15. An Amino Acid Code for Irregular and Mixed Protein Packing

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyun; Chavan, Archana; Fraga, Keith; Tsai, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of protein tertiary structure, the development of the knob-socket model is completed in an analysis of the packing in irregular coil and turn secondary structure packing as well as between mixed secondary structure. The knob-socket model simplifies packing based on repeated patterns of 2 motifs: a 3 residue socket for packing within 2° structure and a 4 residue knob-socket for 3° packing. For coil and turn secondary structure, knob-sockets allow identification of a correlation between amino acid composition and tertiary arrangements in space. Coil contributes almost as much as α-helices to tertiary packing. Irregular secondary structure involves 3 residue cliques of consecutive contacting residues or XYZ sockets. In irregular sockets, Gly, Pro, Asp and Ser are favored, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. For irregular knobs, the preference order is Arg, Asp, Pro, Asn, Thr, Leu, and Gly, while Cys, His, Met and Trp are not. In mixed packing, the knob amino acid preferences are a function of the socket that they are packing into, whereas the amino acid composition of the sockets does not depend on the secondary structure of the knob. A unique motif of a coil knob with an XYZ β-sheet socket may potentially function to inhibit β-sheet extension. In addition, analysis of the preferred crossing angles for strands within a β-sheet and mixed α-helices/β-sheets identifies canonical packing patterns useful in protein design. Lastly, the knob-socket model abstracts the complexity of protein tertiary structure into an intuitive packing surface topology map. PMID:26370334

  16. An Analysis of the Incidence of Recruiter Irregularities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    provided data and answered our questions about the incidence of recruiter irregularities. The people are Ted Disney at the U.S. Army Recruiting...month We first consider a set of enlistee characteristics that are unlikely to be affected by recruiter behavior, including gender , race, religious...attrite from DEP and not actually access, based on demographic characteristics ( gender , education, the Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Battery

  17. 16. INTERIOR OF DINING ROOM SHOWING IRREGULAR SOUTH CORNER WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF DINING ROOM SHOWING IRREGULAR SOUTH CORNER WITH RECESSED CHINA CABINET. DOORWAY AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO KITCHEN. NOTE VERTICAL DIVIDER BETWEEN GLAZING IN INDIVIDUAL SASHES OF 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT WINDOW AT PHOTO LEFT. 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT WINDOWS IN LIVING ROOM ARE DIVIDED HORIZONTALLY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. Structural drift: the population dynamics of sequential learning.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, James P; Whalen, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a theory of sequential causal inference in which learners in a chain estimate a structural model from their upstream "teacher" and then pass samples from the model to their downstream "student". It extends the population dynamics of genetic drift, recasting Kimura's selectively neutral theory as a special case of a generalized drift process using structured populations with memory. We examine the diffusion and fixation properties of several drift processes and propose applications to learning, inference, and evolution. We also demonstrate how the organization of drift process space controls fidelity, facilitates innovations, and leads to information loss in sequential learning with and without memory.

  19. Wave drift damping acting on multiple circular cylinders (model tests)

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Sunahara, Shunji; Bao, W.

    1995-12-31

    The wave drift damping for the slow drift motion of a four-column platform is experimentally investigated. The estimation of damping force of the slow drift motion of moored floating structures in ocean waves, is one of the most important topics. Bao et al. calculated an interaction of multiple circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory, and showed that the wave drift damping is significantly influenced by the interaction between cylinders. This calculation method assumes that the slow drift motion is approximately replaced by steady current, that is, structures on slow drift motion are supposed to be equivalent to onesmore » in both regular waves and slow current. To validate semi-analytical solutions of Bao et al., experiments were carried out. At first, added resistance due to waves acting on a structure composed of multiple (four) vertical circular cylinders fixed to a slowly moving carriage, was measured in regular waves. Next, the added resistance of the structure moored by linear spring to the slowly moving carriage were measured in regular waves. Furthermore, to validate the assumption that the slow drift motion is replaced by steady current, free decay tests in still water and in regular waves were compared with the simulation of the slow drift motion using the wave drift damping coefficient obtained by the added resistance tests.« less

  20. Drift studies--comparison of field and wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Regenauer, W

    2005-01-01

    Drift at pesticide application leads to a pollution of non-target crops, non-target species and surface water. Spray drift is influenced by many factors like environmental conditions, vegetation, technical conditions, and physical properties of the tank mixes and influenced by Chemicals. Field experiments to characterise spray drift effects with the risk of permanent changing weather conditions can be supported by wind tunnel experiments. Wind tunnel experiments do not lead to the same soil deposition curves like field experiments, but the ratio of drift reduction potential is comparable.