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Sample records for zonal similarity analysis

  1. Analysis of solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition by zonal elution affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pingyang; Poddar, Saumen; Sun, Zuchen; Hage, David S; Chen, Jianzhong

    2018-02-02

    Many biological processes involve solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition for protein binding. One method that has been developed to examine these interactions is zonal elution affinity chromatography. This review discusses the theory and principles of zonal elution affinity chromatography, along with its general applications. Examples of applications that are examined include the use of this method to estimate the relative extent of solute-protein binding, to examine solute-solute competition and displacement from proteins, and to measure the strength of these interactions. It is also shown how zonal elution affinity chromatography can be used in solvent and temperature studies and to characterize the binding sites for solutes on proteins. In addition, several alternative applications of zonal elution affinity chromatography are discussed, which include the analysis of binding by a solute with a soluble binding agent and studies of allosteric effects. Other recent applications that are considered are the combined use of immunoextraction and zonal elution for drug-protein binding studies, and binding studies that are based on immobilized receptors or small targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative analysis of zonal systems for macro-level crash modeling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen

    2017-06-01

    Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), state-wide traffic analysis zones (STAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs). Poisson lognormal models for three crash types (i.e., total, severe, and non-motorized mode crashes) are developed based on the three zonal systems without and with consideration of spatial autocorrelation. The study proposes a method to compare the modeling performance of the three types of geographic units at different spatial configurations through a grid based framework. Specifically, the study region is partitioned to grids of various sizes and the model prediction accuracy of the various macro models is considered within these grids of various sizes. These model comparison results for all crash types indicated that the models based on TADs consistently offer a better performance compared to the others. Besides, the models considering spatial autocorrelation outperform the ones that do not consider it. Based on the modeling results and motivation for developing the different zonal systems, it is recommended using CTs for socio-demographic data collection, employing TAZs for transportation demand forecasting, and adopting TADs for transportation safety planning. The findings from this study can help practitioners select appropriate zonal systems for traffic crash modeling, which leads to develop more efficient policies to enhance transportation safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  3. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  4. Free Flow Zonal Electrophoresis for Fractionation of Plant Membrane Compartments Prior to Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-01

    Free flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile, reproducible, and potentially high-throughput technique for the separation of plant organelles and membranes by differences in membrane surface charge. It offers considerable benefits over traditional fractionation techniques, such as density gradient centrifugation and two-phase partitioning, as it is relatively fast, sample recovery is high, and the method provides unparalleled sample purity. It has been used to successfully purify chloroplasts and mitochondria from plants but also, to obtain highly pure fractions of plasma membrane, tonoplast, ER, Golgi, and thylakoid membranes. Application of the technique can significantly improve protein coverage in large-scale proteomics studies by decreasing sample complexity. Here, we describe the method for the fractionation of plant cellular membranes from leaves by FFZE.

  5. Selection for production-related traits in Pelargonium zonale: improved design and analysis make all the difference

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Heike; Glawe, Martin; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ornamental plant variety improvement is limited by current phenotyping approaches and neglected use of experimental designs. The present study was conducted to show the benefits of using an experimental design and corresponding analysis in ornamental breeding regarding simulated response to selection in Pelargonium zonale for production-related traits. This required establishment of phenotyping protocols for root formation and stem cutting counts, with which 974 genotypes were assessed in a two-phase experimental design. The present paper evaluates this protocol. The possibility of varietal improvement through indirect selection on secondary traits such as branch count and flower count was assessed by genetic correlations. Simulated response to selection varied greatly, depending on the genotypic variances of the breeding population and traits. A varietal improvement of over 20% is possible for stem cutting count, root formation, branch count and flower count. In contrast, indirect selection of stem cutting count by branch count or flower count was found to be ineffective. The established phenotypic protocols and two-phase experimental designs are valuable tools for breeding of P. zonale. PMID:28243453

  6. Selection for production-related traits in Pelargonium zonale: improved design and analysis make all the difference.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Heike; Glawe, Martin; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ornamental plant variety improvement is limited by current phenotyping approaches and neglected use of experimental designs. The present study was conducted to show the benefits of using an experimental design and corresponding analysis in ornamental breeding regarding simulated response to selection in Pelargonium zonale for production-related traits. This required establishment of phenotyping protocols for root formation and stem cutting counts, with which 974 genotypes were assessed in a two-phase experimental design. The present paper evaluates this protocol. The possibility of varietal improvement through indirect selection on secondary traits such as branch count and flower count was assessed by genetic correlations. Simulated response to selection varied greatly, depending on the genotypic variances of the breeding population and traits. A varietal improvement of over 20% is possible for stem cutting count, root formation, branch count and flower count. In contrast, indirect selection of stem cutting count by branch count or flower count was found to be ineffective. The established phenotypic protocols and two-phase experimental designs are valuable tools for breeding of P. zonale .

  7. Transient pressure analysis of fractured well in bi-zonal gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Yong-hui; Hu, Shu-Yong; Liu, Qi-Guo

    2015-05-01

    For hydraulic fractured well, how to evaluate the properties of fracture and formation are always tough jobs and it is very complex to use the conventional method to do that, especially for partially penetrating fractured well. Although the source function is a very powerful tool to analyze the transient pressure for complex structure well, the corresponding reports on gas reservoir are rare. In this paper, the continuous point source functions in anisotropic reservoirs are derived on the basis of source function theory, Laplace transform method and Duhamel principle. Application of construction method, the continuous point source functions in bi-zonal gas reservoir with closed upper and lower boundaries are obtained. Sequentially, the physical models and transient pressure solutions are developed for fully and partially penetrating fractured vertical wells in this reservoir. Type curves of dimensionless pseudo-pressure and its derivative as function of dimensionless time are plotted as well by numerical inversion algorithm, and the flow periods and sensitive factors are also analyzed. The source functions and solutions of fractured well have both theoretical and practical application in well test interpretation for such gas reservoirs, especial for the well with stimulated reservoir volume around the well in unconventional gas reservoir by massive hydraulic fracturing which always can be described with the composite model.

  8. Explosion Source Similarity Analysis via SVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Ben Horin, Yochai; Margrave, Gary

    2016-04-01

    An important seismological ingredient for establishing a regional seismic nuclear discriminant is the similarity analysis of a sequence of explosion sources. To investigate source similarity, we are fortunate to have access to a sequence of 1805 three-component recordings of quarry blasts, shot from March 2002 to January 2015. The centroid of these blasts has an estimated location 36.3E and 29.9N. All blasts were detonated by JPMC (Jordan Phosphate Mines Co.) All data were recorded at the Israeli NDC, HFRI, located at 30.03N and 35.03E. Data were first winnowed based on the distribution of maximum amplitudes in the neighborhood of the P-wave arrival. The winnowed data were then detrended using the algorithm of Cleveland et al (1990). The detrended data were bandpass filtered between .1 to 12 Hz using an eighth order Butterworth filter. Finally, data were sorted based on maximum trace amplitude. Two similarity analysis approaches were used. First, for each component, the entire suite of traces was decomposed into its eigenvector representation, by employing singular-valued decomposition (SVD). The data were then reconstructed using 10 percent of the singular values, with the resulting enhancement of the S-wave and surface wave arrivals. The results of this first method are then compared to the second analysis method based on the eigenface decomposition analysis of Turk and Pentland (1991). While both methods yield similar results in enhancement of data arrivals and reduction of data redundancy, more analysis is required to calibrate the recorded data to charge size, a quantity that was not available for the current study. References Cleveland, R. B., Cleveland, W. S., McRae, J. E., and Terpenning, I., Stl: A seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess, Journal of Official Statistics, 6, No. 1, 3-73, 1990. Turk, M. and Pentland, A., Eigenfaces for recognition. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 3(1), 71-86, 1991.

  9. ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina.

    PubMed

    Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C

    2018-01-01

    To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.

  10. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  11. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-15

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  12. EOF analysis of COSMIC observations on the global zonal mean temperature structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere from 2007 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Cornelius Csar Jude H.; Chang, Loren C.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the results of a Conventional Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis on daily global zonal mean temperature profiles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (15-35 km), as measured by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission from January 2007 to June 2013. For validation, results were compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that, the leading global EOF mode (27%) from COSMIC is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the tropical cooling associated with boreal winter Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSW). The second global EOF mode from COSMIC (15.3%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). The third global mode from COSMIC (10.9%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. This work also shows that the second northern hemisphere EOF mode from COSMIC (16.8%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due Rossby-wave breaking (RWB) which is expected to only be resolved by a high vertical and temporal resolution dataset like COSMIC. Our work concludes that the use of a high vertical and temporal resolution dataset like COSMIC yields non-seasonal EOF modes that are consistent with relatively more intricate temperature anomalies due to the SSW, QBO, ENSO and RWB.

  13. Musical structure analysis using similarity matrix and dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Jeong, Hong; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2005-10-01

    Automatic music segmentation and structure analysis from audio waveforms based on a three-level hierarchy is examined in this research, where the three-level hierarchy includes notes, measures and parts. The pitch class profile (PCP) feature is first extracted at the note level. Then, a similarity matrix is constructed at the measure level, where a dynamic time warping (DTW) technique is used to enhance the similarity computation by taking the temporal distortion of similar audio segments into account. By processing the similarity matrix, we can obtain a coarse-grain music segmentation result. Finally, dynamic programming is applied to the coarse-grain segments so that a song can be decomposed into several major parts such as intro, verse, chorus, bridge and outro. The performance of the proposed music structure analysis system is demonstrated for pop and rock music.

  14. Protein structure similarity from Principle Component Correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Chou, James; Wong, Stephen T C

    2006-01-25

    Owing to rapid expansion of protein structure databases in recent years, methods of structure comparison are becoming increasingly effective and important in revealing novel information on functional properties of proteins and their roles in the grand scheme of evolutionary biology. Currently, the structural similarity between two proteins is measured by the root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) in their best-superimposed atomic coordinates. RMSD is the golden rule of measuring structural similarity when the structures are nearly identical; it, however, fails to detect the higher order topological similarities in proteins evolved into different shapes. We propose new algorithms for extracting geometrical invariants of proteins that can be effectively used to identify homologous protein structures or topologies in order to quantify both close and remote structural similarities. We measure structural similarity between proteins by correlating the principle components of their secondary structure interaction matrix. In our approach, the Principle Component Correlation (PCC) analysis, a symmetric interaction matrix for a protein structure is constructed with relationship parameters between secondary elements that can take the form of distance, orientation, or other relevant structural invariants. When using a distance-based construction in the presence or absence of encoded N to C terminal sense, there are strong correlations between the principle components of interaction matrices of structurally or topologically similar proteins. The PCC method is extensively tested for protein structures that belong to the same topological class but are significantly different by RMSD measure. The PCC analysis can also differentiate proteins having similar shapes but different topological arrangements. Additionally, we demonstrate that when using two independently defined interaction matrices, comparison of their maximum eigenvalues can be highly effective in clustering structurally or

  15. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  16. Wordform Similarity Increases With Semantic Similarity: An Analysis of 100 Languages.

    PubMed

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward; Piantadosi, Steven T

    2017-11-01

    Although the mapping between form and meaning is often regarded as arbitrary, there are in fact well-known constraints on words which are the result of functional pressures associated with language use and its acquisition. In particular, languages have been shown to encode meaning distinctions in their sound properties, which may be important for language learning. Here, we investigate the relationship between semantic distance and phonological distance in the large-scale structure of the lexicon. We show evidence in 100 languages from a diverse array of language families that more semantically similar word pairs are also more phonologically similar. This suggests that there is an important statistical trend for lexicons to have semantically similar words be phonologically similar as well, possibly for functional reasons associated with language learning. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Using SQL Databases for Sequence Similarity Searching and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William R; Mackey, Aaron J

    2017-09-13

    Relational databases can integrate diverse types of information and manage large sets of similarity search results, greatly simplifying genome-scale analyses. By focusing on taxonomic subsets of sequences, relational databases can reduce the size and redundancy of sequence libraries and improve the statistical significance of homologs. In addition, by loading similarity search results into a relational database, it becomes possible to explore and summarize the relationships between all of the proteins in an organism and those in other biological kingdoms. This unit describes how to use relational databases to improve the efficiency of sequence similarity searching and demonstrates various large-scale genomic analyses of homology-related data. It also describes the installation and use of a simple protein sequence database, seqdb_demo, which is used as a basis for the other protocols. The unit also introduces search_demo, a database that stores sequence similarity search results. The search_demo database is then used to explore the evolutionary relationships between E. coli proteins and proteins in other organisms in a large-scale comparative genomic analysis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Analysis of Similarity-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to evaluate the claim that category labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. We presented preschool children with discriminable and identical sets of animal pictures and asked them to make perceptual judgments in the presence or absence of labels. Our findings indicate that children who are asked…

  19. PHOG analysis of self-similarity in aesthetic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    non-aesthetic categories of monochrome images. The aesthetic image datasets comprise a large variety of artworks of Western provenance. Other man-made aesthetically pleasing images, such as comics, cartoons and mangas, were also studied. For comparison, a database of natural scene photographs is used, as well as datasets of photographs of plants, simple objects and faces that are in general of low aesthetic value. As expected, natural scenes exhibit the highest degree of PHOG self-similarity. Images of artworks also show high selfsimilarity values, followed by cartoons, comics and mangas. On average, other (non-aesthetic) image categories are less self-similar in the PHOG analysis. A measure of scale-invariant self-similarity (PHOG) allows a good separation of the different aesthetic and non-aesthetic image categories. Our results provide further support for the notion that, like complex natural scenes, images of artworks display a higher degree of self-similarity across different scales of resolution than other image categories. Whether the high degree of self-similarity is the basis for the perception of beauty in both complex natural scenery and artworks remains to be investigated.

  20. [-25]A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Alejandra; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I; Celaya-Padilla, José M; Gamboa-Rosales, Hamurabi; Velasco-Elizondo, Perla; Cárdenas-Vargas, Rogelio

    2017-11-21

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location.

  1. A Similarity Analysis of Audio Signal to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Using Similarity Networks

    PubMed Central

    García-Hernández, Alejandra; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.; Velasco-Elizondo, Perla; Cárdenas-Vargas, Rogelio

    2017-01-01

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is one of the main subjects of study in the areas of computer vision and machine learning due to the great benefits that can be achieved. Examples of the study areas are: health prevention, security and surveillance, automotive research, and many others. The proposed approaches are carried out using machine learning techniques and present good results. However, it is difficult to observe how the descriptors of human activities are grouped. In order to obtain a better understanding of the the behavior of descriptors, it is important to improve the abilities to recognize the human activities. This paper proposes a novel approach for the HAR based on acoustic data and similarity networks. In this approach, we were able to characterize the sound of the activities and identify those activities looking for similarity in the sound pattern. We evaluated the similarity of the sounds considering mainly two features: the sound location and the materials that were used. As a result, the materials are a good reference classifying the human activities compared with the location. PMID:29160799

  2. Representational Similarity Analysis – Connecting the Branches of Systems Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Bandettini, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g., single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement (e.g., fMRI and invasive or scalp electrophysiology), and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs), which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. Building on a rich psychological and mathematical literature on similarity analysis, we propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA), in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing RDMs. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI in early visual cortex and the fusiform face area to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. The RDMs are simultaneously related via second-level application of multidimensional scaling and tested using randomization and bootstrap techniques. We discuss the broad potential of RSA, including novel approaches to experimental design, and argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience. PMID:19104670

  3. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  4. Structural texture similarity metrics for image analysis and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zujovic, Jana; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N; Neuhoff, David L

    2013-07-01

    We develop new metrics for texture similarity that accounts for human visual perception and the stochastic nature of textures. The metrics rely entirely on local image statistics and allow substantial point-by-point deviations between textures that according to human judgment are essentially identical. The proposed metrics extend the ideas of structural similarity and are guided by research in texture analysis-synthesis. They are implemented using a steerable filter decomposition and incorporate a concise set of subband statistics, computed globally or in sliding windows. We conduct systematic tests to investigate metric performance in the context of "known-item search," the retrieval of textures that are "identical" to the query texture. This eliminates the need for cumbersome subjective tests, thus enabling comparisons with human performance on a large database. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed metrics outperform peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity metric (SSIM) and its variations, as well as state-of-the-art texture classification metrics, using standard statistical measures.

  5. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Seyler, Sean L.; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M. F.; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA) that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry) to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS) MD and targeted MD (TMD) and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm) were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM). PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example, showed that

  6. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-07-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling time-scale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  7. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  8. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

  9. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-04-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  10. Dimensional analysis, similarity, analogy, and the simulation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Dimensional analysis, similarity, analogy, and cybernetics are shown to be four consecutive steps in application of the simulation theory. This paper introduces the classes of phenomena which follow the same formal mathematical equations as models of the natural laws and the interior sphere of restraints groups of phenomena in which one can introduce simplfied nondimensional mathematical equations. The simulation by similarity in a specific field of physics, by analogy in two or more different fields of physics, and by cybernetics in nature in two or more fields of mathematics, physics, biology, economics, politics, sociology, etc., appears as a unique theorymore » which permits one to transport the results of experiments from the models, convenably selected to meet the conditions of researches, constructions, and measurements in the laboratories to the originals which are the primary objectives of the researches. Some interesting conclusions which cannot be avoided in the use of simplified nondimensional mathematical equations as models of natural laws are presented. Interesting limitations on the use of simulation theory based on assumed simplifications are recognized. This paper shows as necessary, in scientific research, that one write mathematical models of general laws which will be applied to nature in its entirety. The paper proposes the extent of the second law of thermodynamics as the generalized law of entropy to model life and its activities. This paper shows that the physical studies and philosophical interpretations of phenomena and natural laws cannot be separated in scientific work; they are interconnected and one cannot be put above the others.« less

  11. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpal S.; Serrano, Leona W.; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K.; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. Objective To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. Design, Setting, and Participants A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). Results The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Conclusions and Relevance Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

  12. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  13. Subsurface Zonal and Meridional Flows from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We study the solar-cycle variation of the zonal and meridional flows in the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone from the surface to a depth of about 16 Mm. The flows are determined from SDO/HMI Dopplergrams using the HMI ring-diagram pipeline. The zonal and meridional flows vary with the solar cycle. Bands of faster-than-average zonal flows together with more-poleward-than-average meridional flows move from mid-latitudes toward the equator during the solar cycle and are mainly located on the equatorward side of the mean latitude of solar magnetic activity. Similarly, bands of slower-than-average zonal flows together with less-poleward-than-average meridional flows are located on the poleward side of the mean latitude of activity. Here, we will focus on the variation of these flows at high latitudes (poleward of 50 degree) that are now accessible using HMI data. We will present the latest results.

  14. Similarity spectra analysis of high-performance jet aircraft noise.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Tracianne B; Gee, Kent L; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2013-04-01

    Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation.

  15. Sentence Similarity Analysis with Applications in Automatic Short Answer Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Michael A. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I explore unsupervised techniques for the task of automatic short answer grading. I compare a number of knowledge-based and corpus-based measures of text similarity, evaluate the effect of domain and size on the corpus-based measures, and also introduce a novel technique to improve the performance of the system by integrating…

  16. Similarity Attracts: An Analysis of Recruitment Decisions in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2010-01-01

    The finding and the recruiting of scientists have been a long-standing issue in higher education. Due to the dearth of reliable evidence on scholarly potential at an early stage of a scientist's career, the hiring department often has to look for alternative assessment criteria. Drawing on the similarity-attraction theory, it is hypothesized that…

  17. Eastern Tropical Pacific Precipitation Response to Zonal SPCZ events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Quesada, A. M.; Lintner, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme El Niño events and warming conditions in the eastern tropical Pacific have been linked to pronounced spatial displacements of the South Pacific Convergence Zone known as "zonal SPCZ" events.. Using a global dataset of Lagrangian back trajectories computed with the FLEXPART model for the period 1980-2013, comprehensive analysis of the 3D circulation characteristics associated with the SPCZ is undertaken. Ten days history of along-trajectory specific humidity, potential vorticity and temperature are reconstructed for zonal SPCZ events as well as other states,, with differences related to El Niño intensity and development stage as well as the state of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. How zonal events influence precipitation over the Eastern Tropical Pacific is examined using back trajectories, reanalysis, TRMM precipitation, and additional satellite derived cloud information. It is found that SPCZ displacements are associated with enhanced convection over the Eastern Tropical Pacific in good agreement with prior work. The connection between intensification of precipitation over the eastern Tropical Pacific during zonal events and suppression of rainfall over the Maritime continent is also described.

  18. Axiomatic Analysis of Co-occurrence Similarity Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Formally, the similarity COSW (q, u) of a target node u to the query q based on weight matrix W is: COSW (q, u) = ∑ c∈Γ(q)∩Γ(u) WqcWuc || Wq :||2||Wu:||2...where Wq : and Wu: are the qth and uth row of the W matrix, respectively. 3 Symbol Definition q Query item with respect to which similarities of other...WqcWuc AA 1log|Γ(c)| COS WqcWuc|| Wq :||2||Wu:||2 FRW Wqc∑ j Wqj Wuc∑ iWic JAC 1|Γ(q)∪Γ(u)| BRW Wuc∑ j Wuj Wqc∑ iWic PMI 1|Γ(q)||Γ(u)| MMT Wqc∑ j Wqj Wuc

  19. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    PubMed

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  20. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Keyfitz, Barbara Lee

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  1. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  2. The transformation of vegetation vertical zonality affected by anthropogenic impact in East Fennoscandia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorik, Vadim; Miulgauzen, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems of East Fennoscandia have been affected by intensive anthropogenic influence that resulted in their significant transformation. Study of ecosystems in the framework of vegetation vertical zonality disturbance as well as its recovery allows to understand the trends of anthropogenically induced changes. The aim of the present research is the comparative analysis of vegetation vertical zonality of the two uplands in East Fennoscandia which may be considered as unaffected and affected by anthropogenic impact. The objects of key studies carried out in the north-west of Kola Peninsula in the vicinity of the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant are represented by ecosystems of Kalkupya (h 357 m) and Hangaslachdenvara (h 284 m) uplands. They are characterized by the similarity in sequence of altitudinal belts due to the position on the northern taiga - forest-tundra boundary. Plant communities of Kalkupya upland have no visible signs of anthropogenic influence, therefore, they can be considered as model ecosystems of the area. The sequence of altitudinal belts is the following: - up to 200 m - pine subshrub and green moss ("zonal") forest replaced by mixed pine and birch forest near the upper boundary; - 200-300 m - birch crooked subshrub wood; - above 300 m - tundra subshrub and lichen communities. Ecosystems of Hangaslachdenvara upland have been damaged by air pollution (SO2, Ni, Cu emissions) of the Pechenganikel Plant. This impact has led to plant community suppression and formation of barren lands. Besides the soil cover was significantly disturbed, especially upper horizons. Burying of soil profiles, represented by Podzols (WRB, 2015), also manifested itself in the exploited part of the area. The vegetation cover of Hangaslachdenvara upland is the following: - up to 130 m - birch and aspen subshrub and grass forest instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - 130-200 m - barren lands instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - above 200 m - barren lands instead of

  3. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  4. 24 CFR 965.406 - Benefit/cost analysis for similar projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis for similar... Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.406 Benefit/cost analysis for similar projects. PHAs with more than one project of similar design and utilities service may prepare a benefit/cost analysis for a representative...

  5. Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, E.; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis withmore » respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.« less

  6. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  7. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-02-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  8. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures

    PubMed Central

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc. PMID:26981409

  9. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  10. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  11. simDEF: definition-based semantic similarity measure of gene ontology terms for functional similarity analysis of genes.

    PubMed

    Pesaranghader, Ahmad; Matwin, Stan; Sokolova, Marina; Beiko, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    Measures of protein functional similarity are essential tools for function prediction, evaluation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and other applications. Several existing methods perform comparisons between proteins based on the semantic similarity of their GO terms; however, these measures are highly sensitive to modifications in the topological structure of GO, tend to be focused on specific analytical tasks and concentrate on the GO terms themselves rather than considering their textual definitions. We introduce simDEF, an efficient method for measuring semantic similarity of GO terms using their GO definitions, which is based on the Gloss Vector measure commonly used in natural language processing. The simDEF approach builds optimized definition vectors for all relevant GO terms, and expresses the similarity of a pair of proteins as the cosine of the angle between their definition vectors. Relative to existing similarity measures, when validated on a yeast reference database, simDEF improves correlation with sequence homology by up to 50%, shows a correlation improvement >4% with gene expression in the biological process hierarchy of GO and increases PPI predictability by > 2.5% in F1 score for molecular function hierarchy. Datasets, results and source code are available at http://kiwi.cs.dal.ca/Software/simDEF CONTACT: ahmad.pgh@dal.ca or beiko@cs.dal.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Low-latitude zonal and vertical ion drifts seen by DE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical ion drift data from the DE 2 spacecraft have been used to determine average zonal and vertical plasma flow (electric field) characteristics in the +/- 26-deg dip latitude region during a time of high solar activity. The 'average data' local time profile for an apex height bin centered at 400 km indicates westward plasma flow from 0600 to 1900 solar local time ((SLT) with a maximum westward velocity of 80 m/s in the early afternoon. There is a sharp change to eastward flow at approximately 1900 hours with an early evening peak of 170 m/s. A secondary nighttime maximum exists at 0430 SLT preceeding the reversal to westward flow. This profile is in good agreement with Jicamarca, Peru, radar measurements made under similar solar maximum conditions. Haramonic analysis indicates a net superrotation which is strongest at lower apex altitudes. The diurnal term is dominant, but higher order terms through the quatradiurnal are significant.

  13. Zonal wavefront sensing with enhanced spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array. This eventually leads to a wavefront estimation with an enhanced spatial resolution without much sacrifice on the sensor frame rate, thus making the scheme suitable for high spatial resolution measurement of transient wavefronts. We present experimental and numerical simulation results to demonstrate the importance of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  14. Frequency-dependent behavior of the barotropic and baroclinic modes of zonal jet variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Stratosphere-troposphere interactions are frequently described in terms of the leading modes of variability, i.e. the annular modes. An idealized dynamical core model is used to explore the differences between the low- and high- frequency (periods greater and less than 30 days) behavior of the first two principal components of zonal mean zonal wind and eddy kinetic energy, i.e., the barotropic/baroclinic annular modes of variability of the extratropical circulation. The modes show similar spatial characteristics in the different frequency ranges considered, however the ranking of the modes switches in some cases from one range to the other. There is some cancelation in the signatures of eddy heat flux and eddy kinetic energy in the leading low-pass and high-pass filtered zonal wind mode, partly explaining their small signature in the total. At low frequencies, the first zonal wind mode describes latitudinal shifts of both the midlatitude jet and its associated storm tracks, and the persistence of zonal wind anomalies appears to be sustained primarily by a baroclinic, rather than a barotropic, feedback. On shorter time scales, the behavior is more complicated and transient.

  15. Dynamics of zonal shear collapse with hydrodynamic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theory for the collapse of the edge zonal shear layer, as observed at the density limit at low β. This paper investigates the scaling of the transport and mean profiles with the adiabaticity parameter α, with special emphasizes on fluxes relevant to zonal flow (ZF) generation. We show that the adiabaticity parameter characterizes the strength of production of zonal flows and so determines the state of turbulence. A 1D reduced model that self-consistently describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the mean density n ¯ , the azimuthal flow v¯ y , and the turbulent potential enstrophy ɛ=⟨(n˜ -∇2ϕ˜ ) 2/2 ⟩ —related to fluctuation intensity—is presented. Quasi-linear analysis determines how the particle flux Γn and vorticity flux Π=-χy∇2vy+Πre s scale with α, in both hydrodynamic and adiabatic regimes. As the plasma response passes from adiabatic (α > 1) to hydrodynamic (α < 1), the particle flux Γn is enhanced and the turbulent viscosity χy increases. However, the residual flux Πres—which drives the flow—drops with α. As a result, the mean vorticity gradient ∇2v¯ y=Πre s/χy —representative of the strength of the shear—also drops. The shear layer then collapses and turbulence is enhanced. The collapse is due to a decrease in ZF production, not an increase in damping. A physical picture for the onset of collapse is presented. The findings of this paper are used to motivate an explanation of the phenomenology of low β density limit evolution. A change from adiabatic ( α=kz2vth 2/(|ω|νei)>1 ) to hydrodynamic (α < 1) electron dynamics is associated with the density limit.

  16. Amplification of warming due to intensification of zonal circulation in the mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kharlanenkova, Natalia; Kuzmina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new index to evaluate the impact of atmospheric zonal transport oscillations on inter-annual variability and trends of average air temperature in mid-latitudes, Northern Hemisphere and globe. A simple model of mid-latitude channel "ocean-land-atmosphere" was used to produce the analytic relationship between the zonal circulation and the land-ocean temperature contrast which was used as a basis for index. An inverse relationship was found between indexes and average mid-latitude, hemisphere and global temperatures during the cold half of year and opposite one in summer. These relationships keep under 400 mb height. In winter relationship describes up to 70, 50 and 40 % of surface air temperature inter-annual variability of these averages, respectively. The contribution of zonal circulation to the increase in the average surface air temperature during warming period 1969-2008 reaches 75% in the mid-latitudes and 40% in the Northern Hemisphere. Proposed mid-latitude index correlates negatively with surface air temperature in the Arctic except summer. ECHAM4 projections with the A1B scenario show that increase of zonal circulation defines more than 74% of the warming in the Northern Hemisphere for 2001-2100. Our analysis confirms that the proposed index is an effective indicator of the climate change caused by variations of the zonal circulation that arise due to anthropogenic and/or natural global forcing mechanisms.

  17. Indian Ocean zonal mode activity in 20th century observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendelbeck, Anja; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Ocean zonal mode (IOZM) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with anomalous cooling in the east, warming in the west and easterly wind anomalies, resulting in a complete reversal of the climatological zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The IOZM has a strong influence on East African climate by causing anomalously strong October - December (OND) precipitation. Using observational data and historical CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) model output, the September - November (SON) dipole mode index (DMI), OND East African precipitation and SON zonal wind index (ZWI) are calculated. We pay particular attention to detrending SSTs for calculating the DMI, which seems to have been neglected in some published research. The ZWI is defined as the area-averaged zonal wind component at 850 hPa over the central Indian Ocean. Regression analysis is used to evaluate the models' capability to represent the IOZM and its impact on east African climate between 1948 and 2005. Simple correlations are calculated between SST, zonal wind and precipitation to show their interdependence. High correlation in models implies a good representation of the influence of IOZM on East African climate variability and our goal is to detect the models with the highest correlation coefficients. In future research, these model data might be used to investigate the impact of IOZM on the East African climate variability in the late 20's century with regard to anthropogenic causes and internal variability.

  18. Intra-seasonal Oscillations (ISO) of Zonal-Mean Meridional Winds and Temperatures as Measured by UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Reber, Carl A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an empirical analysis of measurements with the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the UARS spacecraft in the upper mesosphere (95 km), persistent and regular intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) with periods of about 2 to 4 months have recently been reported in the zonal-mean meridional winds. Similar oscillations have also been discussed independently in a modeling study, and they were attributed to wave-mean-flow interactions. The observed and modeled meridional wind ISOs were largely confined to low latitudes. We report here an analysis of concurrent temperature measurements on UARS, which produces oscillations similar to those seen in the meridional winds. Although the temperature oscillations are observed at lower altitudes (55 km), their phase variations with latitude are qualitatively consistent with the inferred properties seen in the meridional winds and thus provide independent evidence for the existence of ISOs in the mesosphere.

  19. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  20. A new similarity index for nonlinear signal analysis based on local extrema patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknazar, Hamid; Motie Nasrabadi, Ali; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2018-02-01

    Common similarity measures of time domain signals such as cross-correlation and Symbolic Aggregate approximation (SAX) are not appropriate for nonlinear signal analysis. This is because of the high sensitivity of nonlinear systems to initial points. Therefore, a similarity measure for nonlinear signal analysis must be invariant to initial points and quantify the similarity by considering the main dynamics of signals. The statistical behavior of local extrema (SBLE) method was previously proposed to address this problem. The SBLE similarity index uses quantized amplitudes of local extrema to quantify the dynamical similarity of signals by considering patterns of sequential local extrema. By adding time information of local extrema as well as fuzzifying quantized values, this work proposes a new similarity index for nonlinear and long-term signal analysis, which extends the SBLE method. These new features provide more information about signals and reduce noise sensitivity by fuzzifying them. A number of practical tests were performed to demonstrate the ability of the method in nonlinear signal clustering and classification on synthetic data. In addition, epileptic seizure detection based on electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing was done by the proposed similarity to feature the potentials of the method as a real-world application tool.

  1. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  2. Using text analysis to quantify the similarity and evolution of scientific disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Laércio; Scharloth, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    We use an information-theoretic measure of linguistic similarity to investigate the organization and evolution of scientific fields. An analysis of almost 20 M papers from the past three decades reveals that the linguistic similarity is related but different from experts and citation-based classifications, leading to an improved view on the organization of science. A temporal analysis of the similarity of fields shows that some fields (e.g. computer science) are becoming increasingly central, but that on average the similarity between pairs of disciplines has not changed in the last decades. This suggests that tendencies of convergence (e.g. multi-disciplinarity) and divergence (e.g. specialization) of disciplines are in balance. PMID:29410857

  3. Using text analysis to quantify the similarity and evolution of scientific disciplines.

    PubMed

    Dias, Laércio; Gerlach, Martin; Scharloth, Joachim; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2018-01-01

    We use an information-theoretic measure of linguistic similarity to investigate the organization and evolution of scientific fields. An analysis of almost 20 M papers from the past three decades reveals that the linguistic similarity is related but different from experts and citation-based classifications, leading to an improved view on the organization of science. A temporal analysis of the similarity of fields shows that some fields (e.g. computer science) are becoming increasingly central, but that on average the similarity between pairs of disciplines has not changed in the last decades. This suggests that tendencies of convergence (e.g. multi-disciplinarity) and divergence (e.g. specialization) of disciplines are in balance.

  4. Observations and analysis of self-similar branching topology in glacier networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, D.B.; Peckham, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Glaciers, like rivers, have a branching structure which can be characterized by topological trees or networks. Probability distributions of various topological quantities in the networks are shown to satisfy the criterion for self-similarity, a symmetry structure which might be used to simplify future models of glacier dynamics. Two analytical methods of describing river networks, Shreve's random topology model and deterministic self-similar trees, are applied to the six glaciers of south central Alaska studied in this analysis. Self-similar trees capture the topological behavior observed for all of the glaciers, and most of the networks are also reasonably approximated by Shreve's theory. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Western classical music development: a statistical analysis of composers similarity, differentiation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Georges, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical analysis that captures similarities and differences between classical music composers with the eventual aim to understand why particular composers 'sound' different even if their 'lineages' (influences network) are similar or why they 'sound' alike if their 'lineages' are different. In order to do this we use statistical methods and measures of association or similarity (based on presence/absence of traits such as specific 'ecological' characteristics and personal musical influences) that have been developed in biosystematics, scientometrics, and bibliographic coupling. This paper also represents a first step towards a more ambitious goal of developing an evolutionary model of Western classical music.

  6. Deep Zonal Flow and Time Variation of Jupiter’s Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the entire planet. The electrical conductivity increases rapidly yet smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn. Deep zonal flows will advect the non-axisymmetric component of the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity, and create time variations in the magnetic field.The observed time variations of the geomagnetic field has been used to derive surface flows of the Earth’s outer core. The same principle applies to Jupiter, however, the connection between the time variation of the magnetic field (dB/dt) and deep zonal flow (Uphi) at Jupiter is not well understood due to strong radial variation of electrical conductivity. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the connection between dB/dt and Uphi for Jupiter adopting realistic interior electrical conductivity profile, taking the likely presence of alkali metals into account. This provides a tool to translate expected measurement of the time variation of Jupiter’s magnetic field to deep zonal flows. We show that the current upper limit on the dipole drift rate of Jupiter (3 degrees per 20 years) is compatible with 10 m/s zonal flows with < 500 km vertical scale height below 0.972 Rj. We further demonstrate that fast drift of resolved magnetic features (e.g. magnetic spots) at Jupiter is a possibility.

  7. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classification model.

    PubMed

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Allen, Bryan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Ercole, Cesar E; Sexton, Wade J; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of the first standardized renal tumor complexity system, many subsequent scoring systems have been introduced, many of which are complicated and can make it difficult to accurately measure data end points. In light of these limitations, we introduce the new zonal NePhRO scoring system. The zonal NePhRO score is based on 4 anatomical components that are assigned a score of 1, 2, or 3, and their sum is used to classify renal tumors. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is made up of the (Ne)arness to collecting system, (Ph)ysical location of the tumor in the kidney, (R)adius of the tumor, and (O)rganization of the tumor. In this retrospective study, we evaluated patients exhibiting clinical stage T1a or T1b who underwent open partial nephrectomy performed by 2 genitourinary surgeons. Each renal unit was assigned both a zonal NePhRO score and a RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) score, and a blinded reviewer used the same preoperative imaging study to obtain both scores. Additional data points gathered included age, clamp time, complication rate, urine leak rate, intraoperative blood loss, and pathologic tumor size. One hundred sixty-six patients underwent open partial nephrectomy. There were 37 perioperative complications quantitated using the validated Clavien-Dindo system; their occurrence was predicted by the NePhRO score on both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .0008). Clinical stage, intraoperative blood loss, and tumor diameter were all correlated with the zonal NePhRO score on univariate analysis only. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is a simpler tool that accurately predicts the surgical complexity of a renal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of perceived similarity between pairs of microcalcification clusters in mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Juan; Jing, Hao; Wernick, Miles N.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Content-based image retrieval aims to assist radiologists by presenting example images with known pathology that are visually similar to the case being evaluated. In this work, the authors investigate several fundamental issues underlying the similarity ratings between pairs of microcalcification (MC) lesions on mammograms as judged by radiologists: the degree of variability in the similarity ratings, the impact of this variability on agreement between readers in retrieval of similar lesions, and the factors contributing to the readers’ similarity ratings. Methods: The authors conduct a reader study on a set of 1000 image pairs of MC lesions, in which amore » group of experienced breast radiologists rated the degree of similarity between each image pair. The image pairs are selected, from among possible pairings of 222 cases (110 malignant, 112 benign), based on quantitative image attributes (features) and the results of a preliminary reader study. Next, the authors apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to quantify the level of variability in the readers’ similarity ratings, and study how the variability in individual reader ratings affects consistency between readers. The authors also measure the extent to which readers agree on images which are most similar to a given query, for which the Dice coefficient is used. To investigate how the similarity ratings potentially relate to the attributes underlying the cases, the authors study the fraction of perceptually similar images that also share the same benign or malignant pathology as the query image; moreover, the authors apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to embed the cases according to their mutual perceptual similarity in a two-dimensional plot, which allows the authors to examine the manner in which similar lesions relate to one another in terms of benign or malignant pathology and clustered MCs. Results: The ANOVA results show that the coefficient of determination in the reader similarity ratings

  9. An improved method for functional similarity analysis of genes based on Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Teng, Zhixia

    2016-12-23

    Measures of gene functional similarity are essential tools for gene clustering, gene function prediction, evaluation of protein-protein interaction, disease gene prioritization and other applications. In recent years, many gene functional similarity methods have been proposed based on the semantic similarity of GO terms. However, these leading approaches may make errorprone judgments especially when they measure the specificity of GO terms as well as the IC of a term set. Therefore, how to estimate the gene functional similarity reliably is still a challenging problem. We propose WIS, an effective method to measure the gene functional similarity. First of all, WIS computes the IC of a term by employing its depth, the number of its ancestors as well as the topology of its descendants in the GO graph. Secondly, WIS calculates the IC of a term set by means of considering the weighted inherited semantics of terms. Finally, WIS estimates the gene functional similarity based on the IC overlap ratio of term sets. WIS is superior to some other representative measures on the experiments of functional classification of genes in a biological pathway, collaborative evaluation of GO-based semantic similarity measures, protein-protein interaction prediction and correlation with gene expression. Further analysis suggests that WIS takes fully into account the specificity of terms and the weighted inherited semantics of terms between GO terms. The proposed WIS method is an effective and reliable way to compare gene function. The web service of WIS is freely available at http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/WIS/ .

  10. Latent semantic analysis cosines as a cognitive similarity measure: Evidence from priming studies.

    PubMed

    Günther, Fritz; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In distributional semantics models (DSMs) such as latent semantic analysis (LSA), words are represented as vectors in a high-dimensional vector space. This allows for computing word similarities as the cosine of the angle between two such vectors. In two experiments, we investigated whether LSA cosine similarities predict priming effects, in that higher cosine similarities are associated with shorter reaction times (RTs). Critically, we applied a pseudo-random procedure in generating the item material to ensure that we directly manipulated LSA cosines as an independent variable. We employed two lexical priming experiments with lexical decision tasks (LDTs). In Experiment 1 we presented participants with 200 different prime words, each paired with one unique target. We found a significant effect of cosine similarities on RTs. The same was true for Experiment 2, where we reversed the prime-target order (primes of Experiment 1 were targets in Experiment 2, and vice versa). The results of these experiments confirm that LSA cosine similarities can predict priming effects, supporting the view that they are psychologically relevant. The present study thereby provides evidence for qualifying LSA cosine similarities not only as a linguistic measure, but also as a cognitive similarity measure. However, it is also shown that other DSMs can outperform LSA as a predictor of priming effects.

  11. Analysis of Magnitude Correlations in a Self-Similar model of Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, A.; Joern, D.

    2017-12-01

    A recent model of seismicity that incorporates a self-similar Omori-Utsu relation, which is used to describe the temporal evolution of earthquake triggering, has been shown to provide a more accurate description of seismicity in Southern California when compared to epidemic type aftershock sequence models. Forecasting of earthquakes is an active research area where one of the debated points is whether magnitude correlations of earthquakes exist within real world seismic data. Prior to this work, the analysis of magnitude correlations of the aforementioned self-similar model had not been addressed. Here we present statistical properties of the magnitude correlations for the self-similar model along with an analytical analysis of the branching ratio and criticality parameters.

  12. The role of zonal flows in reactive fluid closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, WEILAND

    2018-07-01

    We will give an overview of results obtained by our reactive fluid model. It is characterised as a fluid model where all moments with sources in the experiment are kept. Furthermore, full account is taken for the highest moments appearing in unexpanded denominators also including full toroidicity. It has been demonstrated that the strength of zonal flows is dramatically larger in reactive fluid closures than in those which involve dissipation. This gives a direct connection between the fluid closure and the level of excitation of turbulence. This is because zonal flows are needed to absorb the inverse cascade in quasi 2D turbulence. This also explains the similarity in structure of the transport coefficients in our model with a reactive closure in the energy equation and models which have a reactive closure because of zero ion temperature such as the Hasegawa–Wakatani model. Our exact reactive closure unifies several well-known features of tokamak experiments such as the L–H transition, internal transport barriers and the nonlinear Dimits upshift of the critical gradient for onset of transport. It also gives transport of the same level as that in nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Since these include the kinetic resonance this confirms the validity of the thermodynamic properties of our model. Furthermore, we can show that while a strongly nonlinear model is needed in kinetic theory a quasilinear model is sufficient in the fluid description. Thus our quasilinear fluid model will be adequate for treating all relevant problems in bulk transport. This is finally confirmed by the reproduction by the model of the experimental power scaling of the confinement time τ E ∼ P ‑2/3. This confirms the validity of our reactive fluid model. This also gives credibility to our ITER simulations including the H-mode barrier. A new result is here, that alpha heating strongly reduces the slope of the H-mode barrier. This should significantly reduce the effects of ELM’s.

  13. Combining zonal refractive and diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Albarrán-Diego, César; Javaloy, Jaime; Sakla, Hani F; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    To assess visual performance with the combination of a zonal refractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) (Lentis Mplus, Oculentis GmbH) and a diffractive aspheric MIOL (Acri.Lisa 366, Acri.Tech GmbH). This prospective interventional cohort study comprised 80 eyes from 40 cataract patients (mean age: 65.5±7.3 years) who underwent implantation of the Lentis Mplus MIOL in one eye and Acri.Lisa 366 MIOL in the fellow eye. The main outcome measures were refraction; monocular and binocular uncorrected and corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; monocular and binocular defocus curves; binocular photopic contrast sensitivity function compared to a monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) control group (40 age-matched pseudophakic patients implanted with the AR-40e [Abbott Medical Optics]); and quality of vision questionnaire. Binocular uncorrected visual acuities were 0.12 logMAR (0.76 decimal) or better at all distances measured between 6 m and 33 cm. The Lentis Mplus provided statistically significant better vision than the Acri.Lisa at distances between 2 m and 40 cm, and the Acri.Lisa provided statistically significant better vision than the Lentis Mplus at 33 cm. Binocular defocus curve showed little drop-off at intermediate distances. Photopic contrast sensitivity function for distance and near were similar to the monofocal IOL control group except for higher frequencies. Moderate glare (15%), night vision problems (12.5%), and halos (10%) were reported. Complete independence of spectacles was achieved by 92.5% of patients. The combination of zonal refractive aspheric and diffractive aspheric MIOLs resulted in excellent uncorrected binocular distance, intermediate, and near vision, with low incidence of significant photic phenomena and high patient satisfaction. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Polynomial Conjoint Analysis of Similarities: A Model for Constructing Polynomial Conjoint Measurement Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Forrest W.

    A model permitting construction of algorithms for the polynomial conjoint analysis of similarities is presented. This model, which is based on concepts used in nonmetric scaling, permits one to obtain the best approximate solution. The concepts used to construct nonmetric scaling algorithms are reviewed. Finally, examples of algorithmic models for…

  15. On radiating baroclinic instability of zonally varying flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Catherine A.; Nathan, Terrence R.

    1993-01-01

    A quasi-geostrophic, two-layer, beta-plane model is used to study the baroclinic instability characteristics of a zonally inhomogeneous flow. It is assumed that the disturbance varied slowly in the cross-stream direction, and the stability problem was formulated as a 1D initial value problem. Emphasis is placed on determining how the vertically averaged wind, local maximum in vertical wind shear, and length of the locally supercritical region combine to yield local instabilities. Analysis of the local disturbance energetics reveals that, for slowly varying basic states, the baroclinic energy conversion predominates within the locally unstable region. Using calculations of the basic state tendencies, it is shown that the net effect of the local instabilities is to redistribute energy from the baroclinic to the barotropic component of the basic state flow.

  16. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation.

    PubMed

    Balescu, R

    2003-10-01

    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows.

  17. Comparative analysis of chemical similarity methods for modular natural products with a hypothetical structure enumeration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Franczak, Brian C; McNicholas, Paul D; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2017-08-16

    Natural products represent a prominent source of pharmaceutically and industrially important agents. Calculating the chemical similarity of two molecules is a central task in cheminformatics, with applications at multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Quantifying the similarity of natural products is a particularly important problem, as the biological activities of these molecules have been extensively optimized by natural selection. The large and structurally complex scaffolds of natural products distinguish their physical and chemical properties from those of synthetic compounds. However, no analysis of the performance of existing methods for molecular similarity calculation specific to natural products has been reported to date. Here, we present LEMONS, an algorithm for the enumeration of hypothetical modular natural product structures. We leverage this algorithm to conduct a comparative analysis of molecular similarity methods within the unique chemical space occupied by modular natural products using controlled synthetic data, and comprehensively investigate the impact of diverse biosynthetic parameters on similarity search. We additionally investigate a recently described algorithm for natural product retrobiosynthesis and alignment, and find that when rule-based retrobiosynthesis can be applied, this approach outperforms conventional two-dimensional fingerprints, suggesting it may represent a valuable approach for the targeted exploration of natural product chemical space and microbial genome mining. Our open-source algorithm is an extensible method of enumerating hypothetical natural product structures with diverse potential applications in bioinformatics.

  18. SSAW: A new sequence similarity analysis method based on the stationary discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Wei, Jing; Adjeroh, Donald; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Jiang, Yue

    2018-05-02

    Alignment-free sequence similarity analysis methods often lead to significant savings in computational time over alignment-based counterparts. A new alignment-free sequence similarity analysis method, called SSAW is proposed. SSAW stands for Sequence Similarity Analysis using the Stationary Discrete Wavelet Transform (SDWT). It extracts k-mers from a sequence, then maps each k-mer to a complex number field. Then, the series of complex numbers formed are transformed into feature vectors using the stationary discrete wavelet transform. After these steps, the original sequence is turned into a feature vector with numeric values, which can then be used for clustering and/or classification. Using two different types of applications, namely, clustering and classification, we compared SSAW against the the-state-of-the-art alignment free sequence analysis methods. SSAW demonstrates competitive or superior performance in terms of standard indicators, such as accuracy, F-score, precision, and recall. The running time was significantly better in most cases. These make SSAW a suitable method for sequence analysis, especially, given the rapidly increasing volumes of sequence data required by most modern applications.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Patient Similarity Learning in a Federated Environment: Development and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghye; Sun, Jimeng; Wang, Fei; Wang, Shuang; Jun, Chi-Hyuck; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2018-04-13

    There is an urgent need for the development of global analytic frameworks that can perform analyses in a privacy-preserving federated environment across multiple institutions without privacy leakage. A few studies on the topic of federated medical analysis have been conducted recently with the focus on several algorithms. However, none of them have solved similar patient matching, which is useful for applications such as cohort construction for cross-institution observational studies, disease surveillance, and clinical trials recruitment. The aim of this study was to present a privacy-preserving platform in a federated setting for patient similarity learning across institutions. Without sharing patient-level information, our model can find similar patients from one hospital to another. We proposed a federated patient hashing framework and developed a novel algorithm to learn context-specific hash codes to represent patients across institutions. The similarities between patients can be efficiently computed using the resulting hash codes of corresponding patients. To avoid security attack from reverse engineering on the model, we applied homomorphic encryption to patient similarity search in a federated setting. We used sequential medical events extracted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care-III database to evaluate the proposed algorithm in predicting the incidence of five diseases independently. Our algorithm achieved averaged area under the curves of 0.9154 and 0.8012 with balanced and imbalanced data, respectively, in κ-nearest neighbor with κ=3. We also confirmed privacy preservation in similarity search by using homomorphic encryption. The proposed algorithm can help search similar patients across institutions effectively to support federated data analysis in a privacy-preserving manner. ©Junghye Lee, Jimeng Sun, Fei Wang, Shuang Wang, Chi-Hyuck Jun, Xiaoqian Jiang. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http

  20. Privacy-Preserving Patient Similarity Learning in a Federated Environment: Development and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jimeng; Wang, Fei; Wang, Shuang; Jun, Chi-Hyuck; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2018-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for the development of global analytic frameworks that can perform analyses in a privacy-preserving federated environment across multiple institutions without privacy leakage. A few studies on the topic of federated medical analysis have been conducted recently with the focus on several algorithms. However, none of them have solved similar patient matching, which is useful for applications such as cohort construction for cross-institution observational studies, disease surveillance, and clinical trials recruitment. Objective The aim of this study was to present a privacy-preserving platform in a federated setting for patient similarity learning across institutions. Without sharing patient-level information, our model can find similar patients from one hospital to another. Methods We proposed a federated patient hashing framework and developed a novel algorithm to learn context-specific hash codes to represent patients across institutions. The similarities between patients can be efficiently computed using the resulting hash codes of corresponding patients. To avoid security attack from reverse engineering on the model, we applied homomorphic encryption to patient similarity search in a federated setting. Results We used sequential medical events extracted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care-III database to evaluate the proposed algorithm in predicting the incidence of five diseases independently. Our algorithm achieved averaged area under the curves of 0.9154 and 0.8012 with balanced and imbalanced data, respectively, in κ-nearest neighbor with κ=3. We also confirmed privacy preservation in similarity search by using homomorphic encryption. Conclusions The proposed algorithm can help search similar patients across institutions effectively to support federated data analysis in a privacy-preserving manner. PMID:29653917

  1. Electrostatic Similarity Analysis of Human β-Defensin Binding in the Melanocortin System

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Matthew A.; Kaelin, Christopher B.; Palomino, Rafael; Miller, Jillian L.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The β-defensins are a class of small cationic proteins that serve as components of numerous systems in vertebrate biology, including the immune and melanocortin systems. Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3), which is produced in the skin, has been found to bind to melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 through complementary electrostatics, a unique mechanism of ligand-receptor interaction. This finding indicates that electrostatics alone, and not specific amino acid contact points, could be sufficient for function in this ligand-receptor system, and further suggests that other small peptide ligands could interact with these receptors in a similar fashion. Here, we conducted molecular-similarity analyses and functional studies of additional members of the human β-defensin family, examining their potential as ligands of melanocortin-1 receptor, through selection based on their electrostatic similarity to HBD3. Using Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic calculations and molecular-similarity analysis, we identified members of the human β-defensin family that are both similar and dissimilar to HBD3 in terms of electrostatic potential. Synthesis and functional testing of a subset of these β-defensins showed that peptides with an HBD3-like electrostatic character bound to melanocortin receptors with high affinity, whereas those that were anticorrelated to HBD3 showed no binding affinity. These findings expand on the central role of electrostatics in the control of this ligand-receptor system and further demonstrate the utility of employing molecular-similarity analysis. Additionally, we identified several new potential ligands of melanocortin-1 receptor, which may have implications for our understanding of the role defensins play in melanocortin physiology. PMID:26536271

  2. On the Variation of Zonal Gravity Coefficients of a Giant Planet Caused by Its Deep Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients \\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, \\Delta {J}_{2n}={J}_{2n}-\\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J 2 coefficient and 0.7% of J 4. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., \\Delta {J}_{2n} \\,{\\ge}\\, \\bar{J}_{2n} for n >= 5.

  3. Generalized sample entropy analysis for traffic signals based on similarity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Du; Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-05-01

    Sample entropy is a prevailing method used to quantify the complexity of a time series. In this paper a modified method of generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as traffic signals. The method based on similarity distance presents a different way of signals patterns match showing distinct behaviors of complexity. Simulations are conducted over synthetic data and traffic signals for providing the comparative study, which is provided to show the power of the new method. Compared with previous sample entropy and surrogate data analysis, the new method has two main advantages. The first one is that it overcomes the limitation about the relationship between the dimension parameter and the length of series. The second one is that the modified sample entropy functions can be used to quantitatively distinguish time series from different complex systems by the similar measure.

  4. Fast Depiction Invariant Visual Similarity for Content Based Image Retrieval Based on Data-driven Visual Similarity using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihardi, Y.; Setiawan, W.; Nugraha, E.

    2018-01-01

    On this research we try to build CBIRS based on Learning Distance/Similarity Function using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HoG) feature. Our method is invariant to depiction of image, such as similarity of image to image, sketch to image, and painting to image. LDA can decrease execution time compared to state of the art method, but it still needs an improvement in term of accuracy. Inaccuracy in our experiment happen because we did not perform sliding windows search and because of low number of negative samples as natural-world images.

  5. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. This corresponds to a “dark energy” fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure (γ>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically “quasi-Friedmann,” in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<γ<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.

  6. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. I. Formulation and asymptotic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki; Centro de Estudios Cientificos

    2008-01-15

    Based on the asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations, we classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions to the Einstein equations which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. This corresponds to a 'dark energy' fluid and the Friedmann solution is accelerated in this case due to antigravity. This extends the previous analysis of spherically symmetric self-similar solutions for fluids with positive pressure ({gamma}>1). However, in the latter case there is an additional parameter associated with the weak discontinuity at the sonic point and the solutions are only asymptotically 'quasi-Friedmann',more » in the sense that they exhibit an angle deficit at large distances. In the 0<{gamma}<2/3 case, there is no sonic point and there exists a one-parameter family of solutions which are genuinely asymptotically Friedmann at large distances. We find eight classes of asymptotic behavior: Friedmann or quasi-Friedmann or quasistatic or constant-velocity at large distances, quasi-Friedmann or positive-mass singular or negative-mass singular at small distances, and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs at intermediate distances. The self-similar asymptotically quasistatic and quasi-Kantowski-Sachs solutions are analytically extendible and of great cosmological interest. We also investigate their conformal diagrams. The results of the present analysis are utilized in an accompanying paper to obtain and physically interpret numerical solutions.« less

  7. Zonal wavefront reconstruction in quadrilateral geometry for phase measuring deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo

    2017-06-14

    There are wide applications for zonal reconstruction methods in slope-based metrology due to its good capability of reconstructing the local details on surface profile. It was noticed in the literature that large reconstruction errors occur when using zonal reconstruction methods designed for rectangular geometry to process slopes in a quadrilateral geometry, which is a more general geometry with phase measuring deflectometry. In this paper, we present a new idea for the zonal methods for quadrilateral geometry. Instead of employing the intermediate slopes to set up height-slope equations, we consider the height increment as a more general connector to establish themore » height-slope relations for least-squares regression. The classical zonal methods and interpolation-assisted zonal methods are compared with our proposal. Results of both simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed idea. In implementation, the modification on the classical zonal methods is addressed. Finally, the new methods preserve many good aspects of the classical ones, such as the ability to handle a large incomplete slope dataset in an arbitrary aperture, and the low computational complexity comparable with the classical zonal method. Of course, the accuracy of the new methods is much higher when integrating the slopes in quadrilateral geometry.« less

  8. Transport in zonal flows in analogous geophysical and plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    1999-11-01

    Zonal flows occur naturally in the oceans and the atmosphere of planets. Important examples include the zonal flows in Jupiter, the stratospheric polar jet in Antarctica, and oceanic jets like the Gulf Stream. These zonal flows create transport barriers that have a crucial influence on mixing and confinement (e.g. the ozone depletion in Antarctica). Zonal flows also give rise to long-lasting vortices (e.g. the Jupiter red spot) by shear instability. Because of this, the formation and stability of zonal flows and their role on transport have been problems of great interest in geophysical fluid dynamics. On the other hand, zonal flows have also been observed in fusion plasmas and their impact on the reduction of transport has been widely recognized. Based on the well-known analogy between Rossby waves in quasigeostrophic flows and drift waves in magnetically confined plasmas, I will discuss the relevance to fusion plasmas of models and experiments recently developed in geophysical fluid dynamics. Also, the potential application of plasma physics ideas to geophysical flows will be discussed. The role of shear in the suppression of transport and the effect of zonal flows on the statistics of transport will be studied using simplified models. It will be shown how zonal flows induce large particle displacements that can be characterized as Lévy flights, and that the trapping effect of vortices combined with the zonal flows gives rise to anomalous diffusion and Lévy (non-Gaussian) statistics. The models will be compared with laboratory experiments and with atmospheric and oceanographic qualitative observations.

  9. Effectiveness of Spectral Similarity Measures to Develop Precise Crop Spectra for Hyperspectral Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, H.; Krishna Mohan, B.

    2014-11-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective to check effectiveness of spectral similarity measures to develop precise crop spectra from the collected hyperspectral field spectra. In Multispectral and Hyperspectral remote sensing, classification of pixels is obtained by statistical comparison (by means of spectral similarity) of known field or library spectra to unknown image spectra. Though these algorithms are readily used, little emphasis has been placed on use of various spectral similarity measures to select precise crop spectra from the set of field spectra. Conventionally crop spectra are developed after rejecting outliers based only on broad-spectrum analysis. Here a successful attempt has been made to develop precise crop spectra based on spectral similarity. As unevaluated data usage leads to uncertainty in the image classification, it is very crucial to evaluate the data. Hence, notwithstanding the conventional method, the data precision has been performed effectively to serve the purpose of the present research work. The effectiveness of developed precise field spectra was evaluated by spectral discrimination measures and found higher discrimination values compared to spectra developed conventionally. Overall classification accuracy for the image classified by field spectra selected conventionally is 51.89% and 75.47% for the image classified by field spectra selected precisely based on spectral similarity. KHAT values are 0.37, 0.62 and Z values are 2.77, 9.59 for image classified using conventional and precise field spectra respectively. Reasonable higher classification accuracy, KHAT and Z values shows the possibility of a new approach for field spectra selection based on spectral similarity measure.

  10. Measuring User Similarity Using Electric Circuit Analysis: Application to Collaborative Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user–item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems PMID:23145095

  11. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  12. Zonal structure and variability of the Western Pacific dynamic warm pool edge in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jaclyn N.; Langlais, Clothilde; Maes, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The equatorial edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is operationally identified by one isotherm ranging between 28° and 29 °C, chosen to align with the interannual variability of strong zonal salinity gradients and the convergence of zonal ocean currents. The simulation of this edge is examined in 19 models from the World Climate Research Program Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), over the historical period from 1950 to 2000. The dynamic warm pool edge (DWPE), where the zonal currents converge, is difficult to determine from limited observations and biased models. A new analysis technique is introduced where a proxy for DWPE is determined by the isotherm that most closely correlates with the movements of the strong salinity gradient. It can therefore be a different isotherm in each model. The DWPE is simulated much closer to observations than if a direct temperature-only comparison is made. Aspects of the DWPE remain difficult for coupled models to simulate including the mean longitude, the interannual excursions, and the zonal convergence of ocean currents. Some models have only very weak salinity gradients trapped to the western side of the basin making it difficult to even identify a DWPE. The model's DWPE are generally 1-2 °C cooler than observed. In line with theory, the magnitude of the zonal migrations of the DWPE are strongly related to the amplitudes of the Nino3.4 SST index. Nevertheless, a better simulation of the mean location of the DWPE does not necessarily improve the amplitude of a model's ENSO. It is also found that in a few models (CSIROMk3.6, inmcm and inmcm4-esm) the warm pool displacements result from a net heating or cooling rather than a zonal advection of warm water. The simulation of the DWPE has implications for ENSO dynamics when considering ENSO paradigms such as the delayed action oscillator mechanism, the Advective-Reflective oscillator, and the zonal-advective feedback. These are also discussed in the context

  13. A-DaGO-Fun: an adaptable Gene Ontology semantic similarity-based functional analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Mazandu, Gaston K; Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Mulder, Nicola J

    2016-02-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) semantic similarity measures are being used for biological knowledge discovery based on GO annotations by integrating biological information contained in the GO structure into data analyses. To empower users to quickly compute, manipulate and explore these measures, we introduce A-DaGO-Fun (ADaptable Gene Ontology semantic similarity-based Functional analysis). It is a portable software package integrating all known GO information content-based semantic similarity measures and relevant biological applications associated with these measures. A-DaGO-Fun has the advantage not only of handling datasets from the current high-throughput genome-wide applications, but also allowing users to choose the most relevant semantic similarity approach for their biological applications and to adapt a given module to their needs. A-DaGO-Fun is freely available to the research community at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/ITGOM/adagofun. It is implemented in Linux using Python under free software (GNU General Public Licence). gmazandu@cbio.uct.ac.za or Nicola.Mulder@uct.ac.za Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. NaviGO: interactive tool for visualization and functional similarity and coherence analysis with gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; Khan, Ishita K; Ding, Ziyun; Yerneni, Satwica; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-03-20

    The number of genomics and proteomics experiments is growing rapidly, producing an ever-increasing amount of data that are awaiting functional interpretation. A number of function prediction algorithms were developed and improved to enable fast and automatic function annotation. With the well-defined structure and manual curation, Gene Ontology (GO) is the most frequently used vocabulary for representing gene functions. To understand relationship and similarity between GO annotations of genes, it is important to have a convenient pipeline that quantifies and visualizes the GO function analyses in a systematic fashion. NaviGO is a web-based tool for interactive visualization, retrieval, and computation of functional similarity and associations of GO terms and genes. Similarity of GO terms and gene functions is quantified with six different scores including protein-protein interaction and context based association scores we have developed in our previous works. Interactive navigation of the GO function space provides intuitive and effective real-time visualization of functional groupings of GO terms and genes as well as statistical analysis of enriched functions. We developed NaviGO, which visualizes and analyses functional similarity and associations of GO terms and genes. The NaviGO webserver is freely available at: http://kiharalab.org/web/navigo .

  15. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  16. Understanding sequence similarity and framework analysis between centromere proteins using computational biology.

    PubMed

    Doss, C George Priya; Chakrabarty, Chiranjib; Debajyoti, C; Debottam, S

    2014-11-01

    Certain mysteries pointing toward their recruitment pathways, cell cycle regulation mechanisms, spindle checkpoint assembly, and chromosome segregation process are considered the centre of attraction in cancer research. In modern times, with the established databases, ranges of computational platforms have provided a platform to examine almost all the physiological and biochemical evidences in disease-associated phenotypes. Using existing computational methods, we have utilized the amino acid residues to understand the similarity within the evolutionary variance of different associated centromere proteins. This study related to sequence similarity, protein-protein networking, co-expression analysis, and evolutionary trajectory of centromere proteins will speed up the understanding about centromere biology and will create a road map for upcoming researchers who are initiating their work of clinical sequencing using centromere proteins.

  17. Similarities among receptor pockets and among compounds: analysis and application to in silico ligand screening.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mikami, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Haruki

    2005-09-01

    We developed a new method to evaluate the distances and similarities between receptor pockets or chemical compounds based on a multi-receptor versus multi-ligand docking affinity matrix. The receptors were classified by a cluster analysis based on calculations of the distance between receptor pockets. A set of low homologous receptors that bind a similar compound could be classified into one cluster. Based on this line of reasoning, we proposed a new in silico screening method. According to this method, compounds in a database were docked to multiple targets. The new docking score was a slightly modified version of the multiple active site correction (MASC) score. Receptors that were at a set distance from the target receptor were not included in the analysis, and the modified MASC scores were calculated for the selected receptors. The choice of the receptors is important to achieve a good screening result, and our clustering of receptors is useful to this purpose. This method was applied to the analysis of a set of 132 receptors and 132 compounds, and the results demonstrated that this method achieves a high hit ratio, as compared to that of a uniform sampling, using a receptor-ligand docking program, Sievgene, which was newly developed with a good docking performance yielding 50.8% of the reconstructed complexes at a distance of less than 2 A RMSD.

  18. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing framemore » rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.« less

  19. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  20. Zonally Asymmetric Ozone and the Morphology of the Planetary Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    sections for the 271 troposphere , J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2600-2616. 272 Eyring, V., et al. (2007), Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone ...GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, JULY 15, 2011 Zonally asymmetric ozone and the morphology of the 1 planetary waveguide...that zonally asymmetric 6 ozone (ZAO) profoundly changes the morphology of the Northern Hemisphere planetary 7 waveguide (PWG). ZAO causes the PWG to

  1. A novel model for DNA sequence similarity analysis based on graph theory.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingqin; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Yusen; Fuller, Eddie; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Determination of sequence similarity is one of the major steps in computational phylogenetic studies. As we know, during evolutionary history, not only DNA mutations for individual nucleotide but also subsequent rearrangements occurred. It has been one of major tasks of computational biologists to develop novel mathematical descriptors for similarity analysis such that various mutation phenomena information would be involved simultaneously. In this paper, different from traditional methods (eg, nucleotide frequency, geometric representations) as bases for construction of mathematical descriptors, we construct novel mathematical descriptors based on graph theory. In particular, for each DNA sequence, we will set up a weighted directed graph. The adjacency matrix of the directed graph will be used to induce a representative vector for DNA sequence. This new approach measures similarity based on both ordering and frequency of nucleotides so that much more information is involved. As an application, the method is tested on a set of 0.9-kb mtDNA sequences of twelve different primate species. All output phylogenetic trees with various distance estimations have the same topology, and are generally consistent with the reported results from early studies, which proves the new method's efficiency; we also test the new method on a simulated data set, which shows our new method performs better than traditional global alignment method when subsequent rearrangements happen frequently during evolutionary history.

  2. Analysis of the human diseasome using phenotype similarity between common, genetic, and infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Schofield, Paul N.; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-06-01

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism arising from its response to the environment. Phenotypes associated with engineered and natural genetic variation are widely recorded using phenotype ontologies in model organisms, as are signs and symptoms of human Mendelian diseases in databases such as OMIM and Orphanet. Exploiting these resources, several computational methods have been developed for integration and analysis of phenotype data to identify the genetic etiology of diseases or suggest plausible interventions. A similar resource would be highly useful not only for rare and Mendelian diseases, but also for common, complex and infectious diseases. We apply a semantic text-mining approach to identify the phenotypes (signs and symptoms) associated with over 6,000 diseases. We evaluate our text-mined phenotypes by demonstrating that they can correctly identify known disease-associated genes in mice and humans with high accuracy. Using a phenotypic similarity measure, we generate a human disease network in which diseases that have similar signs and symptoms cluster together, and we use this network to identify closely related diseases based on common etiological, anatomical as well as physiological underpinnings.

  3. Functional Module Search in Protein Networks based on Semantic Similarity Improves the Analysis of Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Boyanova, Desislava; Nilla, Santosh; Klau, Gunnar W.; Dandekar, Thomas; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The continuously evolving field of proteomics produces increasing amounts of data while improving the quality of protein identifications. Albeit quantitative measurements are becoming more popular, many proteomic studies are still based on non-quantitative methods for protein identification. These studies result in potentially large sets of identified proteins, where the biological interpretation of proteins can be challenging. Systems biology develops innovative network-based methods, which allow an integrated analysis of these data. Here we present a novel approach, which combines prior knowledge of protein-protein interactions (PPI) with proteomics data using functional similarity measurements of interacting proteins. This integrated network analysis exactly identifies network modules with a maximal consistent functional similarity reflecting biological processes of the investigated cells. We validated our approach on small (H9N2 virus-infected gastric cells) and large (blood constituents) proteomic data sets. Using this novel algorithm, we identified characteristic functional modules in virus-infected cells, comprising key signaling proteins (e.g. the stress-related kinase RAF1) and demonstrate that this method allows a module-based functional characterization of cell types. Analysis of a large proteome data set of blood constituents resulted in clear separation of blood cells according to their developmental origin. A detailed investigation of the T-cell proteome further illustrates how the algorithm partitions large networks into functional subnetworks each representing specific cellular functions. These results demonstrate that the integrated network approach not only allows a detailed analysis of proteome networks but also yields a functional decomposition of complex proteomic data sets and thereby provides deeper insights into the underlying cellular processes of the investigated system. PMID:24807868

  4. ProteMiner-SSM: a web server for efficient analysis of similar protein tertiary substructures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Darby Tien-Hau; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chung, Wen-Chin; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng

    2004-07-01

    Analysis of protein-ligand interactions is a fundamental issue in drug design. As the detailed and accurate analysis of protein-ligand interactions involves calculation of binding free energy based on thermodynamics and even quantum mechanics, which is highly expensive in terms of computing time, conformational and structural analysis of proteins and ligands has been widely employed as a screening process in computer-aided drug design. In this paper, a web server called ProteMiner-SSM designed for efficient analysis of similar protein tertiary substructures is presented. In one experiment reported in this paper, the web server has been exploited to obtain some clues about a biochemical hypothesis. The main distinction in the software design of the web server is the filtering process incorporated to expedite the analysis. The filtering process extracts the residues located in the caves of the protein tertiary structure for analysis and operates with O(nlogn) time complexity, where n is the number of residues in the protein. In comparison, the alpha-hull algorithm, which is a widely used algorithm in computer graphics for identifying those instances that are on the contour of a three-dimensional object, features O(n2) time complexity. Experimental results show that the filtering process presented in this paper is able to speed up the analysis by a factor ranging from 3.15 to 9.37 times. The ProteMiner-SSM web server can be found at http://proteminer.csie.ntu.edu.tw/. There is a mirror site at http://p4.sbl.bc.sinica.edu.tw/proteminer/.

  5. Illuminating the conceptual structure of the space of moral violations with searchlight representational similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, E A; Chakroff, A; Saxe, R; Young, L

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing how representations of moral violations are organized, cognitively and neurally, is central to understanding how people conceive and judge them. Past work has identified brain regions that represent morally relevant features and distinguish moral domains, but has not yet advanced a broader account of where and on what basis neural representations of moral violations are organized. With searchlight representational similarity analysis, we investigate where category membership drives similarity in neural patterns during moral judgment of violations from two key moral domains: Harm and Purity. Representations converge across domains in a network of regions resembling the mentalizing network. However, Harm and Purity violation representations respectively converge in different regions: precuneus (PC) and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). Examining substructure within moral domains, Harm violations converge in PC regardless of subdomain (physical harms, psychological harms), while Purity subdomains (pathogen-related violations, sex-related violations) converge in distinct sets of regions - mirroring a dissociation observed in principal-component analysis of behavioral data. Further, we find initial evidence for representation of morally relevant features within these two domain-encoding regions. The present analyses offer a case study for understanding how organization within the complex conceptual space of moral violations is reflected in the organization of neural patterns across the cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic similarity analysis of protein data: assessment with biological features and issues.

    PubMed

    Guzzi, Pietro H; Mina, Marco; Guerra, Concettina; Cannataro, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The integration of proteomics data with biological knowledge is a recent trend in bioinformatics. A lot of biological information is available and is spread on different sources and encoded in different ontologies (e.g. Gene Ontology). Annotating existing protein data with biological information may enable the use (and the development) of algorithms that use biological ontologies as framework to mine annotated data. Recently many methodologies and algorithms that use ontologies to extract knowledge from data, as well as to analyse ontologies themselves have been proposed and applied to other fields. Conversely, the use of such annotations for the analysis of protein data is a relatively novel research area that is currently becoming more and more central in research. Existing approaches span from the definition of the similarity among genes and proteins on the basis of the annotating terms, to the definition of novel algorithms that use such similarities for mining protein data on a proteome-wide scale. This work, after the definition of main concept of such analysis, presents a systematic discussion and comparison of main approaches. Finally, remaining challenges, as well as possible future directions of research are presented.

  7. GFD-Net: A novel semantic similarity methodology for the analysis of gene networks.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Montaña, Juan J; Díaz-Díaz, Norberto; Gómez-Vela, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Since the popularization of biological network inference methods, it has become crucial to create methods to validate the resulting models. Here we present GFD-Net, the first methodology that applies the concept of semantic similarity to gene network analysis. GFD-Net combines the concept of semantic similarity with the use of gene network topology to analyze the functional dissimilarity of gene networks based on Gene Ontology (GO). The main innovation of GFD-Net lies in the way that semantic similarity is used to analyze gene networks taking into account the network topology. GFD-Net selects a functionality for each gene (specified by a GO term), weights each edge according to the dissimilarity between the nodes at its ends and calculates a quantitative measure of the network functional dissimilarity, i.e. a quantitative value of the degree of dissimilarity between the connected genes. The robustness of GFD-Net as a gene network validation tool was demonstrated by performing a ROC analysis on several network repositories. Furthermore, a well-known network was analyzed showing that GFD-Net can also be used to infer knowledge. The relevance of GFD-Net becomes more evident in Section "GFD-Net applied to the study of human diseases" where an example of how GFD-Net can be applied to the study of human diseases is presented. GFD-Net is available as an open-source Cytoscape app which offers a user-friendly interface to configure and execute the algorithm as well as the ability to visualize and interact with the results(http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/gfdnet). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible and useful to compare gene expression profiles across species in the studies of pathology, toxicology, drug repositioning, and drug action mechanism. Results We developed a cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human diseases and effectiveness in drug research by utilizing the existing animal gene expression data in the public database, and mined some meaningful information to help drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and analysis in pharmacology. New animal models could be evaluated by our method before they are used in drug discovery. We applied the method to several cases of known animal model expression profiles and obtained some useful information to help drug research. We found that trichostatin A and some other HDACs could have very similar response across cell lines and species at gene expression level. Mouse hypoxia model could accurately mimic the human hypoxia, while mouse diabetes drug model might have some limitation. The transgenic mouse of Alzheimer was a useful model and we deeply analyzed the biological mechanisms of some drugs in this case. In addition, all the cases could provide some ideas for drug discovery and drug repositioning. Conclusions We developed a new cross-species gene expression module comparison method to use animal models' expression data to analyse the effectiveness of animal models in drug research. Moreover, through data integration, our method could be applied for

  9. A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuhao; Zheng, Lulu; Li, Yun; Li, Chunyan; Ma, Chenchen; Li, Yixue; Li, Xuan; Hao, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible and useful to compare gene expression profiles across species in the studies of pathology, toxicology, drug repositioning, and drug action mechanism. We developed a cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human diseases and effectiveness in drug research by utilizing the existing animal gene expression data in the public database, and mined some meaningful information to help drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and analysis in pharmacology. New animal models could be evaluated by our method before they are used in drug discovery. We applied the method to several cases of known animal model expression profiles and obtained some useful information to help drug research. We found that trichostatin A and some other HDACs could have very similar response across cell lines and species at gene expression level. Mouse hypoxia model could accurately mimic the human hypoxia, while mouse diabetes drug model might have some limitation. The transgenic mouse of Alzheimer was a useful model and we deeply analyzed the biological mechanisms of some drugs in this case. In addition, all the cases could provide some ideas for drug discovery and drug repositioning. We developed a new cross-species gene expression module comparison method to use animal models' expression data to analyse the effectiveness of animal models in drug research. Moreover, through data integration, our method could be applied for drug research, such as

  10. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  11. Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-03

    Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data.

  12. Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Winter, Rudolph E; Singh, Ajay P; Reding, Michael E; Frantz, Jonathan M; Locke, James C; Krause, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution-MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C(5)H(7)N(3)O(5)), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an L-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic L-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920.

  13. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  14. Estimating multivariate similarity between neuroimaging datasets with sparse canonical correlation analysis: an application to perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria J; Mehta, Mitul A; Pich, Emilio M; Risterucci, Celine; Zelaya, Fernando; Reinders, Antje A T S; Williams, Steve C R; Dazzan, Paola; Doyle, Orla M; Marquand, Andre F

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies are based on either combining more than one data modality (inter-modal) or combining more than one measurement from the same modality (intra-modal). To date, most intra-modal studies using multivariate statistics have focused on differences between datasets, for instance relying on classifiers to differentiate between effects in the data. However, to fully characterize these effects, multivariate methods able to measure similarities between datasets are needed. One classical technique for estimating the relationship between two datasets is canonical correlation analysis (CCA). However, in the context of high-dimensional data the application of CCA is extremely challenging. A recent extension of CCA, sparse CCA (SCCA), overcomes this limitation, by regularizing the model parameters while yielding a sparse solution. In this work, we modify SCCA with the aim of facilitating its application to high-dimensional neuroimaging data and finding meaningful multivariate image-to-image correspondences in intra-modal studies. In particular, we show how the optimal subset of variables can be estimated independently and we look at the information encoded in more than one set of SCCA transformations. We illustrate our framework using Arterial Spin Labeling data to investigate multivariate similarities between the effects of two antipsychotic drugs on cerebral blood flow.

  15. Spectral analysis of four surprisingly similar hot hydrogen-rich subdwarf O stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Irrgang, A.; Fontaine, G.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Post-extreme horizontal branch stars (post-EHB) are helium-shell burning objects evolving away from the EHB and contracting directly towards the white dwarf regime. While the stars forming the EHB have been extensively studied in the past, their hotter and more evolved progeny are not so well characterized. Aims: We perform a comprehensive spectroscopic analysis of four such bright sdO stars, namely Feige 34, Feige 67, AGK+81°266, and LS II+18°9, among which the first three are used as standard stars for flux calibration. Our goal is to determine their atmospheric parameters, chemical properties, and evolutionary status to better understand this class of stars that are en route to become white dwarfs. Methods: We used non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres in combination with high quality optical and UV spectra. Photometric data were also used to compute the spectroscopic distances of our stars and to characterize the companion responsible for the infrared excess of Feige 34. Results: The four bright sdO stars have very similar atmospheric parameters with Teff between 60 000 and 63 000 K and log g (cm s-2) in the range 5.9 to 6.1. This places these objects right on the theoretical post-EHB evolutionary tracks. The UV spectra are dominated by strong iron and nickel lines and suggest abundances that are enriched with respect to those of the Sun by factors of 25 and 60. On the other hand, the lighter elements, C, N, O, Mg, Si, P, and S are depleted. The stars have very similar abundances, although AGK+81°266 shows differences in its light element abundances. For instance, the helium abundance of this object is 10 times lower than that observed in the other three stars. All our stars show UV spectral lines that require additional line broadening that is consistent with a rotational velocity of about 25 km s-1. The infrared excess of Feige 34 is well reproduced by a M0 main-sequence companion and the surface area ratio of the two stars

  16. Mapping potential vorticity dynamics on saturn: Zonal mean circulation from Cassini and Voyager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Gierasch, P. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Zuchowski, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    Maps of Ertel potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces (IPV) and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) are well established in dynamical meteorology as powerful sources of insight into dynamical processes involving 'balanced' flow (i.e. geostrophic or similar). Here we derive maps of zonal mean IPV and QGPV in Saturn's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by making use of a combination of velocity measurements, derived from the combined tracking of cloud features in images from the Voyager and Cassini missions, and thermal measurements from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument. IPV and QGPV are mapped and compared for the entire globe between latitudes 89∘S-82∘N. As on Jupiter, profiles of zonally averaged PV show evidence for a step-like "stair-case" pattern suggestive of local PV homogenisation, separated by strong PV gradients in association with eastward jets. The northward gradient of PV (IPV or QGPV) is found to change sign in several places in each hemisphere, however, even when baroclinic contributions are taken into account. The stability criterion with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem may be violated near the peaks of westward jets. Visible, near-IR and thermal-IR Cassini observations have shown that these regions exhibit many prominent, large-scale eddies and waves, e.g. including 'storm alley'. This suggests the possibility that at least some of these features originate from instabilities of the background zonal flow.

  17. Three-dimensional assembly of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs results in cartilaginous tissue formation without retainment of zonal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, W; Harimulyo, E B; Gawlitta, D; Woodfield, T B F; Dhert, W J A; van Weeren, P R; Malda, J

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capabilities. Chondrocytes from different layers of cartilage have specific properties, and regenerative approaches using zonal chondrocytes may yield better replication of the architecture of native cartilage than when using a single cell population. To obtain high seeding efficiency while still mimicking zonal architecture, cell pellets of expanded deep zone and superficial zone equine chondrocytes were seeded and cultured in two layers on poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT-PBT) scaffolds. Scaffolds seeded with cell pellets consisting of a 1:1 mixture of both cell sources served as controls. Parallel to this, pellets of superficial or deep zone chondrocytes, and combinations of the two cell populations, were cultured without the scaffold. Pellet cultures of zonal chondrocytes in scaffolds resulted in a high seeding efficiency and abundant cartilaginous tissue formation, containing collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in all groups, irrespective of the donor (n = 3), zonal population or stratified scaffold-seeding approach used. However, whereas total GAG production was similar, the constructs retained significantly more GAG compared to pellet cultures, in which a high percentage of the produced GAGs were secreted into the culture medium. Immunohistochemistry for zonal markers did not show any differences between the conditions. We conclude that spatially defined pellet culture in 3D scaffolds is associated with high seeding efficiency and supports cartilaginous tissue formation, but did not result in the maintenance or restoration of the original zonal phenotype. The use of pellet-assembled constructs leads to a better retainment of newly produced GAGs than the use of pellet cultures alone. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  19. Measuring Zonal Transport Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Using GRACE Ocean Bottom Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, J.; Chambers, D. P.; Bonin, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ocean bottom pressure (OBP) can be used to measure the transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Using OBP data from the JPL ECCO model and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), we examine the zonal transport variability of the ACC integrated between the major fronts between 2003-2010. The JPL ECCO data are used to determine average front positions for the time period studies, as well as where transport is mainly zonal. Statistical analysis will be conducted to determine the uncertainty of the GRACE observations using a simulated data set. We will also begin looking at low frequency changes and how coherent transport variability is from region to region of the ACC. Correlations with bottom pressure south of the ACC and the average basin transports will also be calculated to determine the probability of using bottom pressure south of the ACC as a means for describing the ACC dynamics and transport.

  20. Syntactic Computations in the Language Network: Characterizing Dynamic Network Properties Using Representational Similarity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Cheung, Teresa P. L.; Devereux, Barry J.; Clarke, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The core human capacity of syntactic analysis involves a left hemisphere network involving left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) and the anatomical connections between them. Here we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the spatio-temporal properties of syntactic computations in this network. Listeners heard spoken sentences containing a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., “… landing planes …”), at the offset of which they heard a disambiguating verb and decided whether it was an acceptable/unacceptable continuation of the sentence. We charted the time-course of processing and resolving syntactic ambiguity by measuring MEG responses from the onset of each word in the ambiguous phrase and the disambiguating word. We used representational similarity analysis (RSA) to characterize syntactic information represented in the LIFG and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG) over time and to investigate their relationship to each other. Testing a variety of lexico-syntactic and ambiguity models against the MEG data, our results suggest early lexico-syntactic responses in the LpMTG and later effects of ambiguity in the LIFG, pointing to a clear differentiation in the functional roles of these two regions. Our results suggest the LpMTG represents and transmits lexical information to the LIFG, which responds to and resolves the ambiguity. PMID:23730293

  1. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  2. Future Effects of Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Zonal Asymmetries on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, K.; Solomon, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Fyfe, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric zonal asymmetries in the Southern Hemisphere have been shown to have significant influences on both stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics and climate. Accurate representation of stratospheric ozone in particular is important for realistic simulation of the polar vortex strength and temperature trends. This is therefore also important for stratospheric ozone change's effect on the troposphere, both through modulation of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and more localized climate. Here, we characterization the impact of future changes in Southern Hemisphere zonal asymmetry on tropospheric climate, including changes to future tropospheric temperature, and precipitation. The separate impacts of increasing GHGs and ozone recovery on the zonal asymmetric influence on the surface are also investigated. For this purpose, we use a variety of models, including Chemistry Climate Model Initiative simulations from the Community Earth System Model, version 1, with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)) and the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model (ACCESS-CCM). These models have interactive chemistry and can therefore more accurately represent the zonally asymmetric nature of the stratosphere. The CESM1(WACCM) and ACCESS-CCM models are also compared to simulations from the Canadian Can2ESM model and CESM-Large Ensemble Project (LENS) that have prescribed ozone to further investigate the importance of simulating stratospheric zonal asymmetry.

  3. Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals Commonalities and Differences in the Semantic Processing of Words and Objects

    PubMed Central

    Devereux, Barry J.; Clarke, Alex; Marouchos, Andreas; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the meanings of words and objects requires the activation of underlying conceptual representations. Semantic representations are often assumed to be coded such that meaning is evoked regardless of the input modality. However, the extent to which meaning is coded in modality-independent or amodal systems remains controversial. We address this issue in a human fMRI study investigating the neural processing of concepts, presented separately as written words and pictures. Activation maps for each individual word and picture were used as input for searchlight-based multivoxel pattern analyses. Representational similarity analysis was used to identify regions correlating with low-level visual models of the words and objects and the semantic category structure common to both. Common semantic category effects for both modalities were found in a left-lateralized network, including left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG), left angular gyrus, and left intraparietal sulcus (LIPS), in addition to object- and word-specific semantic processing in ventral temporal cortex and more anterior MTG, respectively. To explore differences in representational content across regions and modalities, we developed novel data-driven analyses, based on k-means clustering of searchlight dissimilarity matrices and seeded correlation analysis. These revealed subtle differences in the representations in semantic-sensitive regions, with representations in LIPS being relatively invariant to stimulus modality and representations in LpMTG being uncorrelated across modality. These results suggest that, although both LpMTG and LIPS are involved in semantic processing, only the functional role of LIPS is the same regardless of the visual input, whereas the functional role of LpMTG differs for words and objects. PMID:24285896

  4. Time-frequency techniques in biomedical signal analysis. a tutorial review of similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Wacker, M; Witte, H

    2013-01-01

    This review outlines the methodological fundamentals of the most frequently used non-parametric time-frequency analysis techniques in biomedicine and their main properties, as well as providing decision aids concerning their applications. The short-term Fourier transform (STFT), the Gabor transform (GT), the S-transform (ST), the continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT), and the Hilbert transform (HT) are introduced as linear transforms by using a unified concept of the time-frequency representation which is based on a standardized analytic signal. The Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) serves as an example of the 'quadratic transforms' class. The combination of WVD and GT with the matching pursuit (MP) decomposition and that of the HT with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) are explained; these belong to the class of signal-adaptive approaches. Similarities between linear transforms are demonstrated and differences with regard to the time-frequency resolution and interference (cross) terms are presented in detail. By means of simulated signals the effects of different time-frequency resolutions of the GT, CMWT, and WVD as well as the resolution-related properties of the interference (cross) terms are shown. The method-inherent drawbacks and their consequences for the application of the time-frequency techniques are demonstrated by instantaneous amplitude, frequency and phase measures and related time-frequency representations (spectrogram, scalogram, time-frequency distribution, phase-locking maps) of measured magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. The appropriate selection of a method and its parameter settings will ensure readability of the time-frequency representations and reliability of results. When the time-frequency characteristics of a signal strongly correspond with the time-frequency resolution of the analysis then a method may be considered 'optimal'. The MP-based signal-adaptive approaches are preferred as these provide an appropriate time

  5. Representational similarity analysis reveals commonalities and differences in the semantic processing of words and objects.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Barry J; Clarke, Alex; Marouchos, Andreas; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2013-11-27

    Understanding the meanings of words and objects requires the activation of underlying conceptual representations. Semantic representations are often assumed to be coded such that meaning is evoked regardless of the input modality. However, the extent to which meaning is coded in modality-independent or amodal systems remains controversial. We address this issue in a human fMRI study investigating the neural processing of concepts, presented separately as written words and pictures. Activation maps for each individual word and picture were used as input for searchlight-based multivoxel pattern analyses. Representational similarity analysis was used to identify regions correlating with low-level visual models of the words and objects and the semantic category structure common to both. Common semantic category effects for both modalities were found in a left-lateralized network, including left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG), left angular gyrus, and left intraparietal sulcus (LIPS), in addition to object- and word-specific semantic processing in ventral temporal cortex and more anterior MTG, respectively. To explore differences in representational content across regions and modalities, we developed novel data-driven analyses, based on k-means clustering of searchlight dissimilarity matrices and seeded correlation analysis. These revealed subtle differences in the representations in semantic-sensitive regions, with representations in LIPS being relatively invariant to stimulus modality and representations in LpMTG being uncorrelated across modality. These results suggest that, although both LpMTG and LIPS are involved in semantic processing, only the functional role of LIPS is the same regardless of the visual input, whereas the functional role of LpMTG differs for words and objects.

  6. An Application of the Acoustic Similarity Law to the Numerical Analysis of Centrifugal Fan Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Wan-Ho; Lee, Duck-Joo; Rhee, Huinam

    Centrifugal fans, which are frequently used in our daily lives and various industries, usually make severe noise problems. Generally, the centrifugal fan noise consists of tones at the blade passing frequency and its higher harmonics. These tonal sounds come from the interaction between the flow discharged from the impeller and the cutoff in the casing. Prediction of the noise from a centrifugal fan becomes more necessary to optimize the design to meet both the performance and noise criteria. However, only some limited studies on noise prediction method exist because there are difficulties in obtaining detailed information about the flow field and casing effect on noise radiation. This paper aims to investigate the noise generation mechanism of a centrifugal fan and to develop a prediction method for the unsteady flow and acoustic pressure fields. In order to do this, a numerical analysis method using acoustic similarity law is proposed, and it is verified that the method can predict the noise generation mechanism very well by comparing the predicted results with available experimental results.

  7. Hierarchical Organization of Auditory and Motor Representations in Speech Perception: Evidence from Searchlight Similarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Samuel; Davis, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    How humans extract the identity of speech sounds from highly variable acoustic signals remains unclear. Here, we use searchlight representational similarity analysis (RSA) to localize and characterize neural representations of syllables at different levels of the hierarchically organized temporo-frontal pathways for speech perception. We asked participants to listen to spoken syllables that differed considerably in their surface acoustic form by changing speaker and degrading surface acoustics using noise-vocoding and sine wave synthesis while we recorded neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found evidence for a graded hierarchy of abstraction across the brain. At the peak of the hierarchy, neural representations in somatomotor cortex encoded syllable identity but not surface acoustic form, at the base of the hierarchy, primary auditory cortex showed the reverse. In contrast, bilateral temporal cortex exhibited an intermediate response, encoding both syllable identity and the surface acoustic form of speech. Regions of somatomotor cortex associated with encoding syllable identity in perception were also engaged when producing the same syllables in a separate session. These findings are consistent with a hierarchical account of how variable acoustic signals are transformed into abstract representations of the identity of speech sounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yuan; Günthner, Willibald A.; Kessler, Stephan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-06-01

    As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR), such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  9. Hierarchical Organization of Auditory and Motor Representations in Speech Perception: Evidence from Searchlight Similarity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Samuel; Davis, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    How humans extract the identity of speech sounds from highly variable acoustic signals remains unclear. Here, we use searchlight representational similarity analysis (RSA) to localize and characterize neural representations of syllables at different levels of the hierarchically organized temporo-frontal pathways for speech perception. We asked participants to listen to spoken syllables that differed considerably in their surface acoustic form by changing speaker and degrading surface acoustics using noise-vocoding and sine wave synthesis while we recorded neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found evidence for a graded hierarchy of abstraction across the brain. At the peak of the hierarchy, neural representations in somatomotor cortex encoded syllable identity but not surface acoustic form, at the base of the hierarchy, primary auditory cortex showed the reverse. In contrast, bilateral temporal cortex exhibited an intermediate response, encoding both syllable identity and the surface acoustic form of speech. Regions of somatomotor cortex associated with encoding syllable identity in perception were also engaged when producing the same syllables in a separate session. These findings are consistent with a hierarchical account of how variable acoustic signals are transformed into abstract representations of the identity of speech sounds. PMID:26157026

  10. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by the WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. We also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.

  12. Zonal Flows and Turbulence in Fluids and Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking `zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetricmore » coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type Is instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the

  13. Nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation. I - Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Ka Kit

    1986-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations (mass conservation, thermodynamics, and zonal momentum) on a sphere. The relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate is studied. Differences between results of nongeostropic theory and the geostrophic formulation concerning the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation and the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit versus the geostrophic limit are discussed. Consideration is given to the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence, the Eliassen-Palm pseudodivergence, the nonacceleration theorem, and the nonlinear nongeostrophic Taylor relationship.

  14. Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear

  15. An Analysis of Context-Based Similarity Tasks in Textbooks from Brazil and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelos Amaral, Rúbia; Hollebrands, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Three textbooks from Brazil and three textbooks from the United States were analysed with a focus on similarity and context-based tasks. Students' opportunities to learn similarity were examined by considering whether students were provided context-based tasks of high cognitive demand and whether those tasks included missing or superfluous…

  16. Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.; Kofman-Alfaro, S.

    1996-05-17

    True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Muellerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaicsmore » was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. Both Mexican and non-South African 46,XX true hermaphrodites may be SRY positive. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  17. An analysis of context-based similarity tasks in textbooks from Brazil and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelos Amaral, Rúbia; Hollebrands, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Three textbooks from Brazil and three textbooks from the United States were analysed with a focus on similarity and context-based tasks. Students' opportunities to learn similarity were examined by considering whether students were provided context-based tasks of high cognitive demand and whether those tasks included missing or superfluous information. Although books in the United States included more tasks, the proportion of tasks focused on similarity were about the same. Context-based similarity tasks accounted for 9%-29% of the similarity tasks, and many of these contextual tasks were of low cognitive demand. In addition, the types of contexts that were included in the textbooks were critiqued and examples provided.

  18. Human allometry: adult bodies are more nearly geometrically similar than regression analysis has suggested.

    PubMed

    Burton, Richard F

    2010-01-01

    It is almost a matter of dogma that human body mass in adults tends to vary roughly in proportion to the square of height (stature), as Quetelet stated in 1835. As he realised, perfect isometry or geometric similarity requires that body mass varies with height cubed, so there seems to be a trend for tall adults to be relatively much lighter than short ones. Much evidence regarding component tissues and organs seems to accord with this idea. However, the hypothesis is presented that the proportions of the body are actually very much less size-dependent. Past evidence has mostly been obtained by least-squares regression analysis, but this cannot generally give a true picture of the allometric relationships. This is because there is considerable scatter in the data (leading to a low correlation between mass and height) and because neither variable causally determines the other. The relevant regression equations, though often formulated in logarithmic terms, effectively treat the masses as proportional to (body height)(b). Values of b estimated by regression must usually underestimate the true functional values, doing so especially when mass and height are poorly correlated. It is therefore telling support for the hypothesis that published estimates of b both for the whole body (which range between 1.0 and 2.5) and for its component tissues and organs (which vary even more) correlate with the corresponding correlation coefficients for mass and height. There is no simple statistical technique for establishing the true functional relationships, but Monte Carlo modelling has shown that the results obtained for total body mass are compatible with a true height exponent of three. Other data, on relationships between body mass and the girths of various body parts such as the thigh and chest, are also more consistent with isometry than regression analysis has suggested. This too is demonstrated by modelling. It thus seems that much of anthropometry needs to be re

  19. The 4-5 day mode oscillation in zonal winds of Indian middle atmosphere during MONEX-79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. S.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Indira, K.; Murty, B. V. R.

    1985-12-01

    In the early studies based on time series of balloon observations, the existence of 4 to 5 day period waves and 10 to 20 day wind fluctuations were found in the tropical lower stratosphere, and they are identified theoretically as the mixed Rossby-gravity wave and the Kelvin wave, respectively. On the basis of these studies, it was established that the vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) in the mean zonal wind through the mechanism of wave-zonal interaction. These studies are mainly concentrated over the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Similar prominent wave disturbances have been observed over the region east of the Indian Ocean during a quasi-biennial oscillation. Zonal winds in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (10 to 20) km of the middle atmosphere over the Indian subcontinent may bear association with the activity of summer monsoon (June-September). Monsoon Experiment (MONEX-79) has provided upper air observations at Balasore (21 deg. 30 min.N; 85 deg. 56 min.E), during the peak of monsoon months July and August. A unique opportunity has, therefore, been provided to study the normal oscillations present in the zonal winds of lower middle atmosphere over India, which may have implication on large scale wave dynamics. This aspect is examined in the present study.

  20. Why the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind changes trend in the mid -1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, P.

    2016-12-01

    This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis data especially monthly mean of geopotential from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role..

  1. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  2. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Schizophrenics' and Normals' Perceptions of Verbal Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-eight schizophrenics (14 paranoid and 14 nonparanoid) were compared with 14 normals on their judgments of similarity among words. The judgments were analyzed using an individual-differences multidimensional scaling procedure. (Editor)

  3. Gravitational Anomalies Caused by Zonal Winds in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Kong, D.; Zhang, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an accurate three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the gravitational anomalies caused by zonal winds in Jupiter. The calculation is based on a three-dimensional finite element method and accounts for the full effect of significant departure from spherical geometry caused by rapid rotation. Since the speeds of Jupiter's zonal winds are much smaller than that of its rigid-body rotation, our numerical calculation is carried out in two stages. First, we compute the non-spherical distributions of density and pressure at the equilibrium within Jupiter via a hybrid inverse approach by determining an a priori unknown coefficient in the polytropic equation of state that results in a match to the observed shape of Jupiter. Second, by assuming that Jupiter's zonal winds extend throughout the interior along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis, we compute gravitational anomalies produced by the wind-related density anomalies, providing an upper bound to the gravitational anomalies caused by the Jovian zonal winds.

  4. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  5. Multiple search methods for similarity-based virtual screening: analysis of search overlap and precision

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data fusion methods are widely used in virtual screening, and make the implicit assumption that the more often a molecule is retrieved in multiple similarity searches, the more likely it is to be active. This paper tests the correctness of this assumption. Results Sets of 25 searches using either the same reference structure and 25 different similarity measures (similarity fusion) or 25 different reference structures and the same similarity measure (group fusion) show that large numbers of unique molecules are retrieved by just a single search, but that the numbers of unique molecules decrease very rapidly as more searches are considered. This rapid decrease is accompanied by a rapid increase in the fraction of those retrieved molecules that are active. There is an approximately log-log relationship between the numbers of different molecules retrieved and the number of searches carried out, and a rationale for this power-law behaviour is provided. Conclusions Using multiple searches provides a simple way of increasing the precision of a similarity search, and thus provides a justification for the use of data fusion methods in virtual screening. PMID:21824430

  6. Trends in the Zonal Winds over the Southern Ocean from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and Scatterometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    The winds over the Southern Ocean for the entire 54-year (1948-2001) period of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis have been decomposed into Principal Components (Empirical Orthogonal Functions). The first EOF describes 83 percent of the variance in the zonal wind. The loading of the EOF shows the predominately westerly surface flow with strongest winds in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The structure of this EOF is similar to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) identified by Thompson, et al 2000. The amplitude of this EOF reveals a large trend of 4.42 cm/s/yr in the strength of the zonal wind corresponding to a nearly 50 percent increase in the wind stress over the Southern Ocean. Such a trend, if real, would be important in the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Recent studies by Gille, et al. (2001), Olbers and Ivchenko (2001) and Gent et al. (2001) have shown that the transport of the ACC is correlated to the variability in the zonal wind with a monotonic increase in the transport with increasing zonal wind strength. However, errors in the data assimilation scheme for surface pressure observations on the Antarctic continent appears to have caused a spurious trend in the sea level pressure south of 40S of -0.2 hPa/yr (Hines, et al. 2000 and Marshall, 2002). The sea level pressure difference between 40S and 60S has risen by 8 hPa over the same period. This sea level pressure difference is used as a proxy for the strength of the zonal winds. Thus, the trend in the zonal wind EOF amplitude may be an artifact of model errors in the NCEP Reanalysis. To check this trend, we analyzed scatterometer winds over the Southern Ocean from the SEASAT, ERS (1 and 2), NSCAT and QuikScat satellites. The scatterometer data is not used in the NCEP Reanalysis and, thus, is an independent estimate of the winds. The SEASAT Scatterometer (SASS) operated for 90 days in July-September, 1978, while the ERS, NSCAT and QuikScat scatterometers provide a continuous dataset from

  7. Similarity analysis of spectra obtained via reflectance spectrometry in legal medicine.

    PubMed

    Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, a series of reflectance spectra of postmortem lividity, pallor, and putrefaction-affected skin for 195 investigated cases in the course of cooling down the corpse has been collected. The reflectance spectrometric measurements were stored together with their respective metadata in a MySQL database. The latter has been managed via a scientific information repository. We propose similarity measures and a criterion of similarity that capture similar spectra recorded at corpse skin. We systematically clustered reflectance spectra from the database as well as their metadata, such as case number, age, sex, skin temperature, duration of cooling, and postmortem time, with respect to the given criterion of similarity. Altogether, more than 500 reflectance spectra have been pairwisely compared. The measures that have been used to compare a pair of reflectance curve samples include the Euclidean distance between curves and the Euclidean distance between derivatives of the functions represented by the reflectance curves at the same wavelengths in the spectral range of visible light between 380 and 750 nm. For each case, using the recorded reflectance curves and the similarity criterion, the postmortem time interval during which a characteristic change in the shape of reflectance spectrum takes place is estimated. The latter is carried out via a software package composed of Java, Python, and MatLab scripts that query the MySQL database. We show that in legal medicine, matching and clustering of reflectance curves obtained by means of reflectance spectrometry with respect to a given criterion of similarity can be used to estimate the postmortem interval.

  8. Self-similarity analysis of eubacteria genome based on weighted graph.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhao-Hui; Li, Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Meng; Qi, Xiao-Qin

    2011-07-07

    We introduce a weighted graph model to investigate the self-similarity characteristics of eubacteria genomes. The regular treating in similarity comparison about genome is to discover the evolution distance among different genomes. Few people focus their attention on the overall statistical characteristics of each gene compared with other genes in the same genome. In our model, each genome is attributed to a weighted graph, whose topology describes the similarity relationship among genes in the same genome. Based on the related weighted graph theory, we extract some quantified statistical variables from the topology, and give the distribution of some variables derived from the largest social structure in the topology. The 23 eubacteria recently studied by Sorimachi and Okayasu are markedly classified into two different groups by their double logarithmic point-plots describing the similarity relationship among genes of the largest social structure in genome. The results show that the proposed model may provide us with some new sights to understand the structures and evolution patterns determined from the complete genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Similarities and Differences: A Meta-Analysis of Its Effects and Emergent Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen S.; Igel, Charles; Dean, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update previous meta-analytic findings on the effectiveness of using similarities and differences as an instructional strategy. The strategy includes facilitating student comparison, classification, use of analogies, and use of metaphors. Previously, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock reported a mean effect size of…

  10. Analysis on the similarity between steel ladles and hot-water models regarding natural convection phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liviu, Pascu; Adriana, Putan; Vasile, Putan; Alina, Lascutoni

    2012-09-01

    The similarity between steel ladles and hot water model regarding natural convection phenomena has been analyzed through examination of the numerical solutions of turbulent Navier-Stokes partial differential equations governing the phenomena in question. Key similarity criteria for non-isothermal physical modeling of steel ladles with hot-water models have been derived as Frm = Frp and (β∇T)m = (β∇T)p where the subscript m and p stand for the water model and the prototype steel ladle, respectively. Accordingly, appropriate conditions fulfilling the above criteria, such as model size, water temperature, time scale factor and the scale factor of boundary heat loss fluxes, have been proposed and discussed.

  11. A New Approach to Diagnose Parkinson's Disease Using a Structural Cooccurrence Matrix for a Similarity Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João W M; Alves, Shara S A; Rebouças, Elizângela de S; Almeida, Jefferson S; Rebouças Filho, Pedro P

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease affects millions of people around the world and consequently various approaches have emerged to help diagnose this disease, among which we can highlight handwriting exams. Extracting features from handwriting exams is an important contribution of the computational field for the diagnosis of this disease. In this paper, we propose an approach that measures the similarity between the exam template and the handwritten trace of the patient following the exam template. This similarity was measured using the Structural Cooccurrence Matrix to calculate how close the handwritten trace of the patient is to the exam template. The proposed approach was evaluated using various exam templates and the handwritten traces of the patient. Each of these variations was used together with the Naïve Bayes, OPF, and SVM classifiers. In conclusion the proposed approach was proven to be better than the existing methods found in the literature and is therefore a promising tool for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Analysis of network motifs in cellular regulation: Structural similarities, input-output relations and signal integration.

    PubMed

    Straube, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    Much of the complexity of regulatory networks derives from the necessity to integrate multiple signals and to avoid malfunction due to cross-talk or harmful perturbations. Hence, one may expect that the input-output behavior of larger networks is not necessarily more complex than that of smaller network motifs which suggests that both can, under certain conditions, be described by similar equations. In this review, we illustrate this approach by discussing the similarities that exist in the steady state descriptions of a simple bimolecular reaction, covalent modification cycles and bacterial two-component systems. Interestingly, in all three systems fundamental input-output characteristics such as thresholds, ultrasensitivity or concentration robustness are described by structurally similar equations. Depending on the system the meaning of the parameters can differ ranging from protein concentrations and affinity constants to complex parameter combinations which allows for a quantitative understanding of signal integration in these systems. We argue that this approach may also be extended to larger regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    PubMed

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound

  14. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound

  15. Zonal wind indices to reconstruct United States winter precipitation during El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, D. J.; Steinschneider, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The highly discussed 2015/16 El Niño event, which many likened to the similarly strong 1997/98 El Niño event, led to precipitation impacts over the continental United States (CONUS) inconsistent with general expectations given past events and model-based forecasts. This presents a challenge for regional water managers and others who use seasonal precipitation forecasts who previously viewed El Niño events as times of enhanced confidence in seasonal water availability and flood risk forecasts. It is therefore useful to understand the extent to which wintertime CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by seasonal sea surface temperature heating patterns and the extent to which the precipitation is a product of natural variability. In this work, we define two seasonal indices based on the zonal wind field spanning from the eastern Pacific to the western Atlantic over CONUS that can explain El Niño precipitation variation spatially throughout CONUS over 11 historic El Niño events from 1950 to 2016. The indices reconstruct El Niño event wintertime (Jan-Mar) gridded precipitation over CONUS through cross-validated regression much better than the traditional ENSO sea surface temperature indices or other known modes of variability. Lastly, we show strong relationships between sea surface temperature patterns and the phases of the zonal wind indices, which in turn suggests that some of the disparate CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by different heating patterns. The primary contribution of this work is the identification of intermediate variables (in the form of zonal wind indices) that can facilitate further studies into the distinct hydroclimatic response to specific El Niño events.

  16. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.

    2012-11-01

    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  17. 2D and 3D similarity landscape analysis identifies PARP as a novel off-target for the drug Vatalanib.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Bjoern-Oliver; Overkamp, Tim; Richter, Anja; Richter, Antje; Daniel, Peter T; Gillissen, Bernd; Preissner, Robert

    2015-09-24

    Searching for two-dimensional (2D) structural similarities is a useful tool to identify new active compounds in drug-discovery programs. However, as 2D similarity measures neglect important structural and functional features, similarity by 2D might be underestimated. In the present study, we used combined 2D and three-dimensional (3D) similarity comparisons to reveal possible new functions and/or side-effects of known bioactive compounds. We utilised more than 10,000 compounds from the SuperTarget database with known inhibition values for twelve different anti-cancer targets. We performed all-against-all comparisons resulting in 2D similarity landscapes. Among the regions with low 2D similarity scores are inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and inhibitors of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). To demonstrate that 3D landscape comparison can identify similarities, which are untraceable in 2D similarity comparisons, we analysed this region in more detail. This 3D analysis showed the unexpected structural similarity between inhibitors of VEGFR and inhibitors of PARP. Among the VEGFR inhibitors that show similarities to PARP inhibitors was Vatalanib, an oral "multi-targeted" small molecule protein kinase inhibitor being studied in phase-III clinical trials in cancer therapy. An in silico docking simulation and an in vitro HT universal colorimetric PARP assay confirmed that the VEGFR inhibitor Vatalanib exhibits off-target activity as a PARP inhibitor, broadening its mode of action. In contrast to the 2D-similarity search, the 3D-similarity landscape comparison identifies new functions and side effects of the known VEGFR inhibitor Vatalanib.

  18. A similarity based learning framework for interim analysis of outcome prediction of acupuncture for neck pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Liang, Zhaohui; Yin, Jian; Fu, Wenbin; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common morbid disorder in modern society. Acupuncture has been administered for treating chronic pain as an alternative therapy for a long time, with its effectiveness supported by the latest clinical evidence. However, the potential effective difference in different syndrome types is questioned due to the limits of sample size and statistical methods. We applied machine learning methods in an attempt to solve this problem. Through a multi-objective sorting of subjective measurements, outstanding samples are selected to form the base of our kernel-oriented model. With calculation of similarities between the concerned sample and base samples, we are able to make full use of information contained in the known samples, which is especially effective in the case of a small sample set. To tackle the parameters selection problem in similarity learning, we propose an ensemble version of slightly different parameter setting to obtain stronger learning. The experimental result on a real data set shows that compared to some previous well-known methods, the proposed algorithm is capable of discovering the underlying difference among different syndrome types and is feasible for predicting the effective tendency in clinical trials of large samples.

  19. Analysis of pulse thermography using similarities between wave and diffusion propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenson, M.

    2017-05-01

    Pulse thermography or thermal wave imaging are commonly used as nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. While the technical aspect has evolve with time, theoretical interpretation is lagging. Interpretation is still using curved fitting on a log log scale. A new approach based directly on the governing differential equation is introduced. By using relationships between wave propagation and the diffusive propagation of thermal excitation, it is shown that one can transform from solutions in one type of propagation to the other. The method is based on the similarities between the Laplace transforms of the diffusion equation and the wave equation. For diffusive propagation we have the Laplace variable s to the first power, while for the wave propagation similar equations occur with s2. For discrete time the transformation between the domains is performed by multiplying the temperature data vector by a matrix. The transform is local. The performance of the techniques is tested on synthetic data. The application of common back projection techniques used in the processing of wave data is also demonstrated. The combined use of the transform and back projection makes it possible to improve both depth and lateral resolution of transient thermography.

  20. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-15

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxesmore » to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.« less

  1. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  2. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirablemore » to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.« less

  3. Massive problem reports mining and analysis based parallelism for similar search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ya; Hu, Cailin; Xiong, Han; Wei, Xiafei; Li, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Massive problem reports and solutions accumulated over time and continuously collected in XML Spreadsheet (XMLSS) format from enterprises and organizations, which record a series of comprehensive description about problems that can help technicians to trace problems and their solutions. It's a significant and challenging issue to effectively manage and analyze these massive semi-structured data to provide similar problem solutions, decisions of immediate problem and assisting product optimization for users during hardware and software maintenance. For this purpose, we build a data management system to manage, mine and analyze these data search results that can be categorized and organized into several categories for users to quickly find out where their interesting results locate. Experiment results demonstrate that this system is better than traditional centralized management system on the performance and the adaptive capability of heterogeneous data greatly. Besides, because of re-extracting topics, it enables each cluster to be described more precise and reasonable.

  4. Similar Familial Underpinnings for Full and Subsyndromal Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Familial Risk Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Janet; Uchida, Mai; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fitzgerald, Maura; Vaudreuil, Carrie; Carrellas, Nicholas; Davis, Jacqueline; Wolenski, Rebecca; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity of subthreshold pediatric bipolar-I (BP-I) disorder, we compared the familial risk for BP-I disorder in child probands with full BP-I disorder, subthreshold BP-I disorder, ADHD, and non-ADHD/non-bipolar disorder controls. Methods Probands were youth ages 6–17 meeting criteria for BP-I disorder, full (N=239) or subthreshold (N=43), and their first degree relatives (N=687 and N=120, respectively). Comparators were youth with ADHD (N=162), controls (N=136), and their first-degree relatives (N=511 and N=411, respectively). We randomly selected 162 non-bipolar ADHD probands and 136 non-bipolar non-ADHD control probands of similar age and sex distribution to the BP-I probands from our case-control ADHD family studies. Psychiatric assessments were made by trained psychometricians using the KSADS-E and SCID structured diagnostic interviews. We analyzed rates of bipolar disorder using multinomial logistic regression. Results Rates of full bipolar-I disorder significantly differed between the four groups (χ23 = 32.72, p<0.001): relatives of full BP-I and relatives of subthreshold BP-I probands had significantly higher rates of full BP-I disorder than relatives of ADHD probands and relatives of control probands. Relatives of full BP-I, subthreshold BP-I, and ADHD probands also had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to relatives of control probands. Conclusions Our results showed that youth with subthreshold BP-I disorder had similarly elevated risk for BP-I disorder and MDD in first-degree relatives as youth with full BP-I disorder. These findings support the diagnostic continuity between subsyndromal and fully syndromatic states of pediatric BP-I disorder. PMID:28544732

  5. Environmental Influences on Well-Being: A Dyadic Latent Panel Analysis of Spousal Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Lucas, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses dyadic latent panel analysis (DLPA) to examine environmental influences on well-being. DLPA requires longitudinal dyadic data. It decomposes the observed variance of both members of a dyad into a trait, state, and an error component. Furthermore, state variance is decomposed into initial and new state variance. Total observed…

  6. Review on Graph Clustering and Subgraph Similarity Based Analysis of Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jaya; Seo, Dongmin; Sael, Lee

    2016-01-01

    How can complex relationships among molecular or clinico-pathological entities of neurological disorders be represented and analyzed? Graphs seem to be the current answer to the question no matter the type of information: molecular data, brain images or neural signals. We review a wide spectrum of graph representation and graph analysis methods and their application in the study of both the genomic level and the phenotypic level of the neurological disorder. We find numerous research works that create, process and analyze graphs formed from one or a few data types to gain an understanding of specific aspects of the neurological disorders. Furthermore, with the increasing number of data of various types becoming available for neurological disorders, we find that integrative analysis approaches that combine several types of data are being recognized as a way to gain a global understanding of the diseases. Although there are still not many integrative analyses of graphs due to the complexity in analysis, multi-layer graph analysis is a promising framework that can incorporate various data types. We describe and discuss the benefits of the multi-layer graph framework for studies of neurological disease. PMID:27258269

  7. Review on Graph Clustering and Subgraph Similarity Based Analysis of Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jaya; Seo, Dongmin; Sael, Lee

    2016-06-01

    How can complex relationships among molecular or clinico-pathological entities of neurological disorders be represented and analyzed? Graphs seem to be the current answer to the question no matter the type of information: molecular data, brain images or neural signals. We review a wide spectrum of graph representation and graph analysis methods and their application in the study of both the genomic level and the phenotypic level of the neurological disorder. We find numerous research works that create, process and analyze graphs formed from one or a few data types to gain an understanding of specific aspects of the neurological disorders. Furthermore, with the increasing number of data of various types becoming available for neurological disorders, we find that integrative analysis approaches that combine several types of data are being recognized as a way to gain a global understanding of the diseases. Although there are still not many integrative analyses of graphs due to the complexity in analysis, multi-layer graph analysis is a promising framework that can incorporate various data types. We describe and discuss the benefits of the multi-layer graph framework for studies of neurological disease.

  8. Gender Differences and Similarities in Management Communication: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Brenda M.; Andersen, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a meta-analysis of 25 primary research studies of managerial gender communication issues. Addresses issues of behavioral differences and research methodologies. Concludes that communication differences between male and female managers are minimal and of little social importance. Suggests the use of an interactionist perspective in future…

  9. Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2011-12-09

    The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.

  10. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  11. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  12. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  13. Similar familial underpinnings for full and subsyndromal pediatric bipolar disorder: A familial risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Janet; Uchida, Mai; Faraone, Stephen V; Fitzgerald, Maura; Vaudreuil, Carrie; Carrellas, Nicholas; Davis, Jacqueline; Wolenski, Rebecca; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    To examine the validity of subthreshold pediatric bipolar I disorder (BP-I), we compared the familial risk for BP-I in the child probands who had either full BP-I, subthreshold BP-I, ADHD, or were controls that neither had ADHD nor bipolar disorder. BP-I probands were youth aged 6-17 years meeting criteria for BP-I, full (N=239) or subthreshold (N=43), and also included were their first-degree relatives (N=687 and N=120, respectively). Comparators were youth with ADHD (N=162), controls without ADHD or bipolar disorder (N=136), and their first-degree relatives (N=511 and N=411, respectively). We randomly selected 162 non-bipolar ADHD probands and 136 non-bipolar, non-ADHD control probands of similar age and sex distribution to the BP-I probands from our case-control ADHD family studies. Psychiatric assessments were made by trained psychometricians using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiological Version (KSADS-E) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) structured diagnostic interviews. We analyzed rates of bipolar disorder using multinomial logistic regression. Rates of full BP-I significantly differed between the four groups (χ 2 3 =32.72, P<.001): relatives of full BP-I probands and relatives of subthreshold BP-I probands had significantly higher rates of full BP-I than relatives of ADHD probands and relatives of control probands. Relatives of full BP-I, subthreshold BP-I, and ADHD probands also had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder compared to relatives of control probands. Our results showed that youth with subthreshold BP-I had similarly elevated risk for BP-I and major depressive disorder in first-degree relatives as youth with full BP-I. These findings support the diagnostic continuity between subsyndromal and fully syndromatic states of pediatric BP-I disorder. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An Empirical Approach to Analysis of Similarities between Software Failure Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    cycle costs after the soft- ware has been marketed (Alberts, 1976). 1 Unfortunately, extensive software testing is frequently necessary in spite of...incidence is primarily syntactic. This mixing of semantic and syntactic forms in the same analysis could lead to some distortion, especially since the...of formulae to improve readability or to indicate precedence of operations. * All defintions within ’Condition I’ of a failure region are assumed to

  15. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Similarities and Dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strains Response to Nitrogen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Catarina; García-Martínez, José; Pérez-Ortín, José E.; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23), under low (67 mg/L) and high nitrogen (670 mg/L) regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12h, 24h and 96h). Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this nutrient in the grape

  16. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  17. The 10-30-day oscillation of winter zonal wind in the entrance region of the East Asian subtropical jet and its relationship with precipitation in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenyu; Huang, Qian; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    Using ECMWF ERA-Interim 6-h reanalysis data, zonal wind intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs) in the entrance region of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) in winter from 1979/1980 to 2012/2013 are studied. The results first show that there is an area with large ISO strength in the northwest of the EASWJ; in the key region, zonal wind has a dominant period of 10-30 days. The composite analysis reveals that zonal wind at 200 hPa in this key region has 10-30-day oscillation characteristics. On the 10-30-day time scale, the center of zonal wind anomaly moves eastward. The propagation of zonal wind oscillation relates to temperature tendencies at different latitudes. The remarkable increase (or decrease) in zonal wind in the key region is mostly determined by temperature anomalies to the north. The 10-30-day filtered temperature advection to the north of the key region leads to either a decrease or an increase in temperature; on the other hand, temperature variations south of the key region have trends opposite of the northern trends, which changes the temperature gradient. On the 10-30-day time scale, zonal wind anomalies are associated with precipitation in southern China. When there are easterly wind anomalies over the key region, precipitation occurs over the Yangtze River basin and its south. Diabatic heating during precipitation corresponds with warming to the south of the key region, which combines with the temperature advection to weaken the easterly wind and strengths the westerly wind. Then, the intra-seasonal precipitation moves to southwest China with warm advection and the enhanced westerly wind, which brings the positive relative vorticity advection there.

  18. Similarities and differences between weight loss maintainers and regainers: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Naomi R; Oliver, Tracy L; Klotz, Alicia A; Lagrotte, Caitlin A; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Virus, Amy; Bailer, Brooke A; Foster, Gary D

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is remarkably refractory to treatment. Despite a plethora of quantitative studies, little qualitative research has been conducted on the topic of weight loss maintenance. This study used six focus groups to explore which factors promoted or prevented maintaining weight loss among a diverse, urban population. Eligible participants were those who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their body weight in the past 2 years and were categorized as either "regainers" or "maintainers" using self-reported length of weight maintenance and amount (%) regained. Regainers had regained ≥33% of their weight loss and maintainers had regained ≤15%. Participants (n=29) were predominantly African-American (58.6%) females (65.6%) with a mean age of 46.9±11.2 years. Four themes reflected similarities between regainers and maintainers, and four reflected differences between the groups. Both groups experienced lapses, used clothing fit for feedback on weight status, desired greater support during maintenance, and decreased self-monitoring of food intake over time. When compared with regainers, maintainers more often continued strategies used during weight loss, weighed themselves regularly, and used productive problem-solving skills and positive self-talk. Regainers experienced greater difficulty independently continuing food and exercise behaviors during maintenance, identifying decreased accountability and waning motivation as barriers. These findings suggest that weight loss maintenance efforts can be improved by addressing challenges such as long-term self-monitoring and problem-solving skills, and that maintenance success might depend on how people think as much as what they do. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogenomic analysis of Copepoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) reveals unexpected similarities with earlier proposed morphological phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Eyun, Seong-Il

    2017-01-19

    Copepods play a critical role in marine ecosystems but have been poorly investigated in phylogenetic studies. Morphological evidence supports the monophyly of copepods, whereas interordinal relationships continue to be debated. In particular, the phylogenetic position of the order Harpacticoida is still ambiguous and inconsistent among studies. Until now, a small number of molecular studies have been done using only a limited number or even partial genes and thus there is so far no consensus at the order-level. This study attempted to resolve phylogenetic relationships among and within four major copepod orders including Harpacticoida and the phylogenetic position of Copepoda among five other crustacean groups (Anostraca, Cladocera, Sessilia, Amphipoda, and Decapoda) using 24 nuclear protein-coding genes. Phylogenomics has confirmed the monophyly of Copepoda and Podoplea. However, this study reveals surprising differences with the majority of the copepod phylogenies and unexpected similarities with postembryonic characters and earlier proposed morphological phylogenies; More precisely, Cyclopoida is more closely related to Siphonostomatoida than to Harpacticoida which is likely the most basally-branching group of Podoplea. Divergence time estimation suggests that the origin of Harpacticoida can be traced back to the Devonian, corresponding well with recently discovered fossil evidence. Copepoda has a close affinity to the clade of Malacostraca and Thecostraca but not to Branchiopoda. This result supports the hypothesis of the newly proposed clades, Communostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida but further challenges the validity of Hexanauplia and Vericrustacea. The first phylogenomic study of Copepoda provides new insights into taxonomic relationships and represents a valuable resource that improves our understanding of copepod evolution and their wide range of ecological adaptations.

  20. Time-Series Similarity Analysis of Satellite Derived Data to Understand Changes in Forest Biomass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Fritz, B.

    2017-12-01

    One of the goals of promoting bioenergy is reducing green-house gas emissions by replacing fossil fuels. However, there are concerns that carbon emissions due to changes in land use resulting from crop production for ethanol will negate the impact of biofuels on the environment. So, the current focus is to use lignocellulose feedstocks also referred to as second generation biofuels as the new source of bioenergy. Wood based pellets derived from the forests of southeastern United States are one such source which is being exported to Europe as a carbon-neutral fuel. These wood-pellets meet the EU standard for carbon emissions and are being used to replace coal for energy generation and heating. As a result US exports of wood-based pellets have increased from nearly zero to over 6 million metric tons over the past 8 years. Wood-based pellets are traditionally produced from softwood trees which have a relatively shorter life-cycle and propagate easily, and thus are expected to provide a sustainable source of wood chips used for pellet production. However, there are concerns that as the demand and price of wood pellets increases, lumber mills will seek wood chips from other sources as well, particularly from hardwood trees resulting in higher carbon emissions as well as loss of biodiversity. In this study we use annual stacks of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data at a 16-day temporal resolution to monitor biomass around pellet mills in southeastern United States. We use a combination of time series similarity technique and supervised learning to understand if there have been significant changes in biomass around pellet mills in the southeastern US. We also demonstrate how our method can be used to monitor biomass over large geographic regions using phenological properties of growing vegetation.

  1. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  2. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  3. Saturn Ring Mass and Zonal Gravitational Harmonics Estimate at the End of the Cassini "Grand Finale"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Roth, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    "Solstice" mission is the 7-year extension of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft exploration of the Saturn system that will culminate with the "Grand Finale". Beginning in mid-2017, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute 22 orbits that have their periapses between the innermost D-ring and the upper layers of Saturn's atmosphere. These orbits will be perturbed by the gravitational field of Saturn as well as by the rings. We present an analysis of simulated "Grand Finale" radiometric data, and we investigate their sensitivity to the ring mass and higher zonal gravitational harmonics of the planet. We model the data quantity with respect to the available coverage of the tracking stations on Earth, and we account for the times when the spacecraft is occulted either by Saturn or the rings. We also use different data weights to simulate changes in the data quality. The dynamical model of the spacecraft motion includes both gravitational and non-gravitational forces, such as the daily momentum management due to Reaction Wheel Assembly and radioisotope thermo-electric generator accelerations. We solve the equations of motion and use a weighted-least squares fit to obtain spacecraft's state vector, mass(es) of the ring or the individual rings, zonal harmonics, and non-gravitational accelerations. We also investigate some a-priori values of the A- and B-ring masses from Tiscareno et al. (2007) and Hedman et al. (2015) analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the "Grand Finale" orbits should remain sensitive to the ring mass even for GMring<2 km3/s2 and that they will also provide high accuracy estimates of the zonal harmonics J8, J10, and J12.

  4. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; ...

    2018-05-29

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  5. Engineering zonal cartilage through bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Fuyou; Chen, Cheng; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Li; Yang, Liu

    2016-07-20

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for repairing and regenerating cartilage tissue. To date, attempts have been made to construct zonal cartilage that mimics the cartilaginous matrix in different zones. However, little attention has been paid to the chondrocyte density gradient within the articular cartilage. We hypothesized that the chondrocyte density gradient plays an important role in forming the zonal distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, collagen type II hydrogel/chondrocyte constructs were fabricated using a bioprinter. Three groups were created according to the total cell seeding density in collagen type II pre-gel: Group A, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL; Group B, 1 × 10(7) cells/mL; and Group C, 0.5 × 10(7) cells/mL. Each group included two types of construct: one with a biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient and the other with a single cell density. The constructs were cultured in vitro and harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks for cell viability testing, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), biochemical assays, and histological analysis. We found that total ECM production was positively correlated with the total cell density in the early culture stage, that the cell density gradient distribution resulted in a gradient distribution of ECM, and that the chondrocytes' biosynthetic ability was affected by both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern. Our results suggested that zonal engineered cartilage could be fabricated by bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with a biomimetic cell density gradient. Both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern should be optimized to achieve synergistic biological effects.

  6. Zonal-Mean Temperature Variations Inferred from SABER Measurements on TIMED Compared with UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Reber, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, Mayr et al., 2003), small-scale gravity waves propagating in the north/south direction can generate zonal mean (m = 0) meridional wind oscillations with periods between 2 and 4 months. These oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and have been interpreted to be the meridional counterpart of the wave-driven Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the zonal circulation. Wave driven meridional winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. We have analyzed SABER temperature measurements in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to investigate the existence such variations. Because there are also strong tidal signatures (up to approximately 20 K) in the data, our algorithm estimates both mean values and tides together from the data. Based on SABER temperature data, the intra-annual variations with periods between 2 and 4 months can have amplitudes up to 5 K or more, depending on the altitude. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with those inferred Erom UARS data (from different years). The SABER temperature variations also reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, which are qualitatively consistent with wave driven meridional wind oscillations across the equator. Oscillations with similar periods have been seen in the meridional winds based on UARS data (Huang and Reber, 2003).

  7. Proximity sounding analysis for derechos and supercells: an assessment of similarities and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doswell, Charles A.; Evans, Jeffry S.

    Proximity soundings (within 2 h and 167 km) of derechos (long-lived, widespread damaging convective windstorms) and supercells have been obtained. More than 65 derechos, accompanied by 115 proximity soundings, are identified during the years 1983 to 1993. The derechos have been divided into categories according to the synoptic situation: strong forcing (SF), weak forcing (WF), and "hybrid" cases (which are neither weakly nor strongly forced). Nearly 100 supercell proximity soundings have been found for the period 1998 to 2001, subdivided into nontornadic and tornadic supercells; tornadic supercells were further subdivided into those producing significant (>F1 rating) tornadoes and weak tornadoes (F0-F1 rating). WF derecho situations typically are characterized by warm, moist soundings with large convective available potential instability (CAPE) and relatively weak vertical wind shear. SF derechos usually have stronger wind shears, and cooler and less moist soundings with lower CAPE than the weakly forced cases. Most derechos exhibit strong storm-relative inflow at low levels. In WF derechos, this is usually the result of rapid convective system movement, whereas in SF derechos, storm-relative inflow at low levels is heavily influenced by relatively strong low-level windspeeds. "Hybrid" cases collectively are similar to an average of the SF and WF cases. Supercells occur in environments that are not all that dissimilar from those that produce SF derechos. It appears that some parameter combining instability and deep layer shear, such as the Energy-Helicity Index (EHI), can help discriminate between tornadic and nontornadic supercell situations. Soundings with significant tornadoes (F2 and greater) typically show high 0-1 km relative humidities, and strong 0-1 km shear. Results suggest it may not be easy to forecast the mode of severe thunderstorm activity (i.e., derecho versus supercell) on any particular day, given conditions that favor severe thunderstorm activity

  8. Zonal subdivision of marine sequences: achievements and discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    It was 150 years ago when a notion of zone was introduced into stratigraphy. By the present time zonal units with a duration of 0.3-3.0 M.y. in average have been established virtually for all systems and stages of the Phanerozoic. Their quantity reached 300. It is not a chance that zonal stratigraphy is considered to be one of the most significant achievement of the modern geology. There are different interpretations of essence and goals of zonal stratigraphy, techniques of separation of zones, and evaluation of zones as stratigraphic units. Particularly it is reflected in International Stratigraphic Guide (Murphy, Salvador, 1999), Russian Stratigraphic Code (Zhamoida, 2006), and a number of stratigraphic reports of the last years. It concerns different approaches to: (a) establishment of different types of zones (biostratigraphic zones and chronozones, oppel-zones and biohorizons, etc.); (b) assessment of spatial distribution of zones (global or provincial) and a role of sedimentological factor; (c) definition of zones as stratigraphic units (relationships with geostratigraphic units of the standard and regional scales). The latest publications show that because of the different interpretations of zones, authors should explain usage of certain type of zone (for example, when they use the terms "interval-zone" or "assemblage-zone", what limitations stem from application of datum-levels, and others). It is common opinion, that biostratigraphic zones used widely by paleontologists and stratigraphers cannot be a final goal of stratigraphy although they provide a base for solution of many important problems (definition of certain stratigraphic levels, correlation of different biofacies, and others). At the same time, the most important stratigraphic units are chronozones, which correspond to stages or phases of geological evolutio of basins and are marked by distinct fossil assemblages and other properties (magnetic and other characteristics) in the type sections

  9. Analysis of Outcomes After TKA: Do All Databases Produce Similar Findings?

    PubMed

    Bedard, Nicholas A; Pugely, Andrew J; McHugh, Michael; Lux, Nathan; Otero, Jesse E; Bozic, Kevin J; Gao, Yubo; Callaghan, John J

    2018-01-01

    Use of large clinical and administrative databases for orthopaedic research has increased exponentially. Each database represents unique patient populations and varies in their methodology of data acquisition, which makes it possible that similar research questions posed to different databases might result in answers that differ in important ways. (1) What are the differences in reported demographics, comorbidities, and complications for patients undergoing primary TKA among four databases commonly used in orthopaedic research? (2) How does the difference in reported complication rates vary depending on whether only inpatient data or 30-day postoperative data are analyzed? Patients who underwent primary TKA during 2010 to 2012 were identified within the National Surgical Quality Improvement Programs (NSQIP), the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), the Medicare Standard Analytic Files (MED), and the Humana Administrative Claims database (HAC). NSQIP is a clinical registry that captures both inpatient and outpatient events up to 30 days after surgery using clinical reviewers and strict definitions for each variable. The other databases are administrative claims databases with their comorbidity and adverse event data defined by diagnosis and procedure codes used for reimbursement. NIS is limited to inpatient data only, whereas HAC and MED also have outpatient data. The number of patients undergoing primary TKA from each database was 48,248 in HAC, 783,546 in MED, 393,050 in NIS, and 43,220 in NSQIP. NSQIP definitions for comorbidities and surgical complications were matched to corresponding International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision/Current Procedural Terminology codes and these coding algorithms were used to query NIS, MED, and HAC. Age, sex, comorbidities, and inpatient versus 30-day postoperative complications were compared across the four databases. Given the large sample sizes, statistical significance was often detected for small, clinically unimportant

  10. Sensitivity of human auditory cortex to rapid frequency modulation revealed by multivariate representational similarity analysis.

    PubMed

    Joanisse, Marc F; DeSouza, Diedre D

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the extent, magnitude, and pattern of brain activity in response to rapid frequency-modulated sounds. We examined this by manipulating the direction (rise vs. fall) and the rate (fast vs. slow) of the apparent pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN) bursts. Acoustic parameters were selected to capture features used in phoneme contrasts, however the stimuli themselves were not perceived as speech per se. Participants were scanned as they passively listened to sounds in an event-related paradigm. Univariate analyses revealed a greater level and extent of activation in bilateral auditory cortex in response to frequency-modulated sweeps compared to steady-state sounds. This effect was stronger in the left hemisphere. However, no regions showed selectivity for either rate or direction of frequency modulation. In contrast, multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) revealed feature-specific encoding for direction of modulation in auditory cortex bilaterally. Moreover, this effect was strongest when analyses were restricted to anatomical regions lying outside Heschl's gyrus. We found no support for feature-specific encoding of frequency modulation rate. Differential findings of modulation rate and direction of modulation are discussed with respect to their relevance to phonetic discrimination.

  11. A Zonal Climate Model for the 1-D Mars Evolution Code: Explaining Meridiani Planum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. V.; McKay, C. P.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Recent MER Opportunity observations suggest there existed an extensive body of shallow water in the present Meridiani Planum during the late Noachian [1]. Observations of roughly contemporaneous valley networks show little net erosion [2]. Hypsometric analysis [3] finds that martian drainage basins are similar to terrestrial drainage basins in very arid regions. The immaturity of martian drainage basins suggests they were formed by infrequent fluvial action. If similar fluvial discharges are responsible for the laminations in the salt-bearing outcrops of Meridiani Planum, their explanation may require a climate model based on surface thermal equilibrium with diurnally averaged temperatures greater than freezing. In the context of Mars' chaotic obliquity, invoking a moderately thick atmosphere with seasonal insolation patterns may uncover the conditions under which the outcrops formed. We compounded a 1-D model of the evolution of Mars' inventories of CO2 over its lifetime called the Mars Evolution Code (MEC) [4]. We are assembling a zonal climate model that includes meridional heat transport, heat conduction to/from the regolith, latent heat deposition, and an albedo distribution based on the depositional patterns of ices. Since water vapor is an important greenhouse gas, and whose ice affects the albedo, we must install a full hydrological cycle. This requires a thermal model of the regolith to model diffusion of water vapor to/from a permafrost layer. Our model carries obliquity and eccentricity distributions consistent with Laskar et al. [5], so we will be able to model the movement of the ice cap with changes in obliquity. The climate model will be used to investigate the conditions under which ponded water could have occurred in the late Noachian, thus supplying a constraint on the free inventory of CO2 at that time. Our evolution code can then investigate Hesperian and Amazonian climates. The model could also be used to understand evidence of recent climate

  12. Assessing similarity analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Cyclopia subternata extracts as potential screening tool for in vitro glucose utilisation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Alexandra E; De Beer, Dalene; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Muller, Christo J F; Roux, Candice; Willenburg, Elize L; Nyunaï, Nyemb; Louw, Johan; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Similarity analysis of the phenolic fingerprints of a large number of aqueous extracts of Cyclopia subternata, obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was evaluated as a potential tool to screen extracts for relative bioactivity. The assessment was based on the (dis)similarity of their fingerprints to that of a reference active extract of C. subternata, proven to enhance glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. In vitro testing of extracts, selected as being most similar (n = 5; r ≥ 0.962) and most dissimilar (n = 5; r ≤ 0.688) to the reference active extract, showed that no clear pattern in terms of relative glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes emerged, irrespective of the dose. Some of the most dissimilar extracts had higher glucose-lowering activity than the reference active extract. Principal component analysis revealed the major compounds responsible for the most variation within the chromatographic fingerprints, as mangiferin, isomangiferin, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside-4-O-β-D-glucoside, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside, scolymoside, and phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-D-glucoside. Quantitative analysis of the selected extracts showed that the most dissimilar extracts contained the highest mangiferin and isomangiferin levels, whilst the most similar extracts had the highest scolymoside content. These compounds demonstrated similar glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes. It can be concluded that (dis)similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of extracts of unknown activity to that of a proven bioactive extract does not necessarily translate to lower or higher bioactivity.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Mass Spectral Similarity Measures on Peak Alignment for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peak alignment is a critical procedure in mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery in metabolomics. One of peak alignment approaches to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) data is peak matching-based alignment. A key to the peak matching-based alignment is the calculation of mass spectral similarity scores. Various mass spectral similarity measures have been developed mainly for compound identification, but the effect of these spectral similarity measures on the performance of peak matching-based alignment still remains unknown. Therefore, we selected five mass spectral similarity measures, cosine correlation, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation, partial correlation, and part correlation, and examined their effects on peak alignment using two sets of experimental GC×GC-MS data. The results show that the spectral similarity measure does not affect the alignment accuracy significantly in analysis of data from less complex samples, while the partial correlation performs much better than other spectral similarity measures when analyzing experimental data acquired from complex biological samples. PMID:24151524

  14. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations during Juno's first year around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Peralta, J.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Chen-Chen, H.; Mendikoa, I.; Peach, D.; Go, C.; Wesley, A.; Miles, P.; Olivetti, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present an analysis of Jupiter's atmospheric activity over Juno's first year around the planet based on ground-based observations. We present variability of the zonal winds associated to large outbreaks of convective activity at different belts in the planet, a study of short-scale atmospheric waves at low latitudes and examine polar views of the planet that can be compared with JunoCam observations.

  15. Temporal Variability and Latitudinal Jets in Venus's Zonal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Bullock, M. A.; Tavenner, T.; Coyote, S.; Murphy, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We have observed Venus's night hemisphere from NASA's IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) during each inferior conjunction since 2001 to quantify the motion of features in Venus's lower and middle cloud decks. We now present latitudinal profiles from 11 nights, obtained in May and July 2004, February 2006 and September 2007. In about 7 of the 11 nights there are zonal jets near 45N and/or -50S, with speed differentials of 5 to 15 m/s relative to the adjacent equatorward latitude bands. These jets may be evidence of episodic Hadley cell-type circulation. About half of the nights show relatively constant velocity profiles between the latitudes of 50N to 50S, suggesting that considerable mixing is taking place between latitudes. Our most remarkable result is the temporal variability in the median zonal speeds from day to day. For example, the median velocity near the equator increases from 53 to 65 m/s over the period from July 11 - 13, 2004, and increases from 65 to 82 m/s over the period from Sept. 9 - 11, 2007. These velocity changes are too great to be due to the tracking of clouds that are in the middle vs. lower cloud deck, nor can they be caused by clouds that occupy different altitudes; a velocity variation of 25% corresponds to an altitude difference of 15 km, based on vertical profiles of zonal windspeeds from tracking of Pioneer Venus and Venera descent probes. Fifteen km is greater than the expected variation in either cloud base. VIRTIS observations of Venus's southern hemisphere were also obtained in September 2007 and should be able to corroborate or contradict the observed variations. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Atmospheres programs.

  16. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few diskmore » scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.« less

  17. On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the zonal wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).

  18. Subcellular fractionation by zonal centrifugation of glucose-repressed anaerobically grown Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    PubMed Central

    Cartledge, T. G.; Lloyd, D.

    1972-01-01

    1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of anaerobically grown, glucoserepressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, and the distributions of marker enzymes investigated after zonal centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 2mm-MgCl2. 2. These homogenates contained no detectable cytochrome c oxidase, succinate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase, succinate–ferricyanide oxidoreductase, l(+)-lactate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase or catalase. Cytochromes a+a3 and c were not detected. 3. Zonal centrifugation of whole homogenates indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases, adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), adenosine pyrophosphatase (ADPase), pyrophosphatase and acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase. Several different ATPases were distinguished on the basis of their sensitivities to oligomycin and ouabain. 4. Differential centrifugation of whole homogenates at 105g-min left 80–90% of the protein, dithionite-reducible cytochrome b, acid hydrolases and pyrophosphatase in a supernatant (S1) together with 65 and 56% of the NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases respectively, 25% of the ATPases and 71% of the adenosine monophosphatase. 5. Further analysis of supernatant S1 revealed the presence of a class of small particles containing NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases and ATPases. 6. At least four different populations of large particles were distinguished. 7. Electron microscopy indicated that one of these corresponded to `promitochondria' as described by other workers. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3 PMID:4405573

  19. ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY.

    PubMed

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography findings. Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test used for comparisons of nonparametric continuous variables. All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (five of the five eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard fundus autofluorescence centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). The UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography abnormalities. The UWFFAF along with optical coherence tomography can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy patients.

  20. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  1. A simple inertial model for Neptune's zonal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Lumetta, James T.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of zonal cloud-tracked winds on Neptune revealed a strongly subrotational equatorial jet with a speed approaching 500 m/s and generally decreasing retrograde motion toward the poles. The wind data are interpreted with a speculative but revealingly simple model based on steady gradient flow balance and an assumed global homogenization of potential vorticity for shallow layer motion. The prescribed model flow profile relates the equatorial velocity to the mid-latitude shear, in reasonable agreement with the available data, and implies a global horizontal deformation scale L(D) of about 3000 km.

  2. Dynamic Stall Computations Using a Zonal Navier-Stokes Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL lotMonterey ,California CD Lj STATF ,-S THESIS DYNAMIC STALL CALCULATIONS USING A ZONAL.-,_ % 0 NVETESISDE by Jack H...Conroyd, Jr. June 1988 Thesis Co-advisors: M.F. Platzer Lawrence W. Carr Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitedDOTIC , ~~~~~~~~ELECT...OINT %, Master s Thesis OM To June 212 6 SLP;’LEENTARY NOTATION ri The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the

  3. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  4. Modeling the zonal disintegration of rocks near deep level tunnels by gradient internal variable continuous phase transition theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haoxiang, Chen; Qi, Chengzhi; Peng, Liu; Kairui, Li; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of alternating damage zones surrounding underground openings (commonly known as zonal disintegration) is treated as a "far from thermodynamic equilibrium" dynamical process or a nonlinear continuous phase transition phenomenon. The approach of internal variable gradient theory with diffusive transport, which may be viewed as a subclass of Landau's phase transition theory, is adopted. The order parameter is identified with an irreversible strain quantity, the gradient of which enters into the expression for the free energy of the rock system. The gradient term stabilizes the material behavior in the post-softening regime, where zonal disintegration occurs. The results of a simplified linearized analysis are confirmed by the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem.

  5. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

    2013-01-01

    Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent. PMID:23930008

  6. Observed correlation of Venus topography with the zonal wind and albedo at cloud top level: the role of stationary gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojtek; Emmanuel, Marcq; Sébastien, Lebonnois; Marina, Patsaeva; Alex, Turin; Anna, Fedorova

    2016-04-01

    Based on the analysis of UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top (altitude 67±2 km) collected with VMC (Venus Monitoring Camera) on board Venus Express (VEX), it is found that the zonal wind speed south of the equator (from 5°S to 15°s) shows a conspicuous variation (from -101 to -83 m/s) with geographic longitude of Venus, correlated with the underlying relief of Aphrodite Terra. We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. Such upward propagation of gravity waves and influence on the wind speed vertical profile was shown to play an important role in the middle atmosphere of the Earth by Lindzen [1981], but is not reproduced in a current GCM of Venus atmosphere. Consistent with present findings, the two VEGA mission balloons experienced a small, but significant, difference of westward velocity, at their 53 km floating altitude. The albedo at 365 nm varies also with longitude and latitude in a pattern strikingly similar in the low latitude regions to a recent map of cloud top H2O [Fedorova et al., 2015], in which a lower UV albedo is correlated with increased H2O. We argue that H2O enhancement is the sign of upwelling, suggesting that the UV absorber is also brought to cloud top by upwelling.

  7. Implementing Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications Using MPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. Unfortunately, simple message passing models, like Intel's NX library, only allow point-to-point and global communication within a single system-defined partition. This makes implementation of these applications quite difficult, if not impossible. In this report it is shown that the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard is a viable portable library for implementing the message passing portion of multidisciplinary applications. Further, with the extension of a portable loader, fully portable multidisciplinary application programs can be developed. Finally, the performance of MPI is compared to that of some native message passing libraries. This comparison shows that MPI can be implemented to deliver performance commensurate with native message libraries.

  8. Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin

    2007-04-01

    Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.

  9. A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-03-01

    A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  10. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  11. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

  12. Similarity Evaluation of Different Origins and Species of Dendrobiums by GC-MS and FTIR Analysis of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Dong; Chen, Nai-Fu; Li, Jun; Cao, Cai-Yun; Wang, Jin-Mei; Huang, He-Ping

    2015-01-01

    GC-MS method combined with FTIR techniques by the analysis of polysaccharide was applied to evaluate the similarity between wild (W) and tissue-cultured (TC) Dendrobium huoshanense (DHS), Dendrobium officinale (DO), and Dendrobium moniliforme (DM) as well as 3 wild Dendrobium spp.: Dendrobium henanense (DHN), Dendrobium loddigesii (DL), and Dendrobium crepidatum (DC). Eight monosaccharides involving xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, mannose, fructose, galactose, and galacturonic acid were identified in the polysaccharide from each Dendrobium sample while the contents of the monosugars varied remarkably across origins and species. Further similarity evaluation based on GC-MS data showed that the r cor values of different origins of DHS, DO, and DM were 0.831, 0.865, and 0.884, respectively, while the r cor values ranged from 0.475 to 0.837 across species. FTIR files of the polysaccharides revealed that the similarity coefficients between W and TC-DHS, DO, and DM were 88.7%, 86.8%, and 88.5%, respectively, in contrast to the similarity coefficients varying from 57.4% to 82.6% across species. These results suggested that the structures of polysaccharides between different origins of the investigated Dendrobiums might be higher than what we had supposed. PMID:26539215

  13. Genetic similarity analysis within Pyropia yezoensis blades developed from both conchospores and blade archeospores using AFLP(1).

    PubMed

    He, Linwen; Zhu, Jianyi; Lu, Qinqin; Niu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Baoyu; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2013-06-01

    Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M. S. Hwang et H. G. Choi (previously called Porphyra yezoensis) is an economically important alga. The blades generated from conchospores are genetic chimeras, which are not suitable for genetic similarity analysis. In this study, two types of blades from a single filament of P. yezoensis sporophyte filament were obtained. One type, ConB, consisted of 40 blades that had germinated from conchospores. The other type, ArcB, consisted of 88 blades that had germinated from archeospores released from ConB. Both of them were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The low genetic similarity levels for both conchospore-germinated and archeospore-germinated blades demonstrated that the conchcelis we used was cross-fertilized. Furthermore, a higher polymorphic loci ratio (98.6%) was detected in ArcB than in ConB (80.7%), and the average genetic similarity of ArcB (average 0.61) was lower than that of ConB (average 0.71). These differences indicated that genetic analysis using ArcB gives more accurate results. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) of microbial community and other time series data with replicates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li C; Steele, Joshua A; Cram, Jacob A; Cardon, Zoe G; Simmons, Sheri L; Vallino, Joseph J; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of time series microbial community data from metagenomics and other molecular biological studies has enabled the analysis of large-scale microbial co-occurrence and association networks. Among the many analytical techniques available, the Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) method is unique in that it captures local and potentially time-delayed co-occurrence and association patterns in time series data that cannot otherwise be identified by ordinary correlation analysis. However LSA, as originally developed, does not consider time series data with replicates, which hinders the full exploitation of available information. With replicates, it is possible to understand the variability of local similarity (LS) score and to obtain its confidence interval. We extended our LSA technique to time series data with replicates and termed it extended LSA, or eLSA. Simulations showed the capability of eLSA to capture subinterval and time-delayed associations. We implemented the eLSA technique into an easy-to-use analytic software package. The software pipeline integrates data normalization, statistical correlation calculation, statistical significance evaluation, and association network construction steps. We applied the eLSA technique to microbial community and gene expression datasets, where unique time-dependent associations were identified. The extended LSA analysis technique was demonstrated to reveal statistically significant local and potentially time-delayed association patterns in replicated time series data beyond that of ordinary correlation analysis. These statistically significant associations can provide insights to the real dynamics of biological systems. The newly designed eLSA software efficiently streamlines the analysis and is freely available from the eLSA homepage, which can be accessed at http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa.

  15. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) of microbial community and other time series data with replicates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing availability of time series microbial community data from metagenomics and other molecular biological studies has enabled the analysis of large-scale microbial co-occurrence and association networks. Among the many analytical techniques available, the Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) method is unique in that it captures local and potentially time-delayed co-occurrence and association patterns in time series data that cannot otherwise be identified by ordinary correlation analysis. However LSA, as originally developed, does not consider time series data with replicates, which hinders the full exploitation of available information. With replicates, it is possible to understand the variability of local similarity (LS) score and to obtain its confidence interval. Results We extended our LSA technique to time series data with replicates and termed it extended LSA, or eLSA. Simulations showed the capability of eLSA to capture subinterval and time-delayed associations. We implemented the eLSA technique into an easy-to-use analytic software package. The software pipeline integrates data normalization, statistical correlation calculation, statistical significance evaluation, and association network construction steps. We applied the eLSA technique to microbial community and gene expression datasets, where unique time-dependent associations were identified. Conclusions The extended LSA analysis technique was demonstrated to reveal statistically significant local and potentially time-delayed association patterns in replicated time series data beyond that of ordinary correlation analysis. These statistically significant associations can provide insights to the real dynamics of biological systems. The newly designed eLSA software efficiently streamlines the analysis and is freely available from the eLSA homepage, which can be accessed at http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa. PMID:22784572

  16. Zonal harmonic model of Saturn's magnetic field from Voyager 1 and 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the magnetic field of Saturn is presented which takes into account both the Voyager 1 and 2 vector magnetic field observations. The analysis is based on the traditional spherical harmonic expansion of a scale potential to derive the magnetic field within 8 Saturn radii. A third-order zonal harmonic model fitted to Voyager 1 and 2 observations is found to be capable of predicting the magnetic field characteristics at one encounter based on those observed at another, unlike models including dipole and quadrupole terms only. The third-order model is noted to lead to significantly enhanced polar surface field intensities with respect to dipole models, and probably represents the axisymmetric part of a complex dynamo field.

  17. Boston Community Energy Study - Zonal Analysis for Urban Microgrids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    macrogrid. Fully autonomous micro- grids are ordinarily rural systems that have generation assets such as wind turbines (WTs) [14] or photovoltaic (PV...or wind turbines ; they also could include direct current devices such as fuel cells or photovoltaic arrays [6,17]. Traditional storage systems include...economic and human impact that severe weather can have on urban areas such as New York City. While flooding and wind damaged or destroyed some of the

  18. Boston Community Energy Study - Zonal Analysis for Urban Microgrids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ordinarily rural systems that have generation assets such as wind turbines (WTs) [14] or photovoltaic (PV) panels [15] that power loads such as lights and...movers powered by internal combustion engines, diesel engines, microturbines, geothermal systems, hydro systems, or wind turbines ; they also could include...can have on urban areas such as New York City. While flooding and wind damaged or destroyed some of the energy infrastructure, all installed

  19. Simplification and shift in cognition of political difference: applying the geometric modeling to the analysis of semantic similarity judgment.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junko; Okada, Kensuke

    2011-01-01

    Perceiving differences by means of spatial analogies is intrinsic to human cognition. Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis based on Minkowski geometry has been used primarily on data on sensory similarity judgments, leaving judgments on abstractive differences unanalyzed. Indeed, analysts have failed to find appropriate experimental or real-life data in this regard. Our MDS analysis used survey data on political scientists' judgments of the similarities and differences between political positions expressed in terms of distance. Both distance smoothing and majorization techniques were applied to a three-way dataset of similarity judgments provided by at least seven experts on at least five parties' positions on at least seven policies (i.e., originally yielding 245 dimensions) to substantially reduce the risk of local minima. The analysis found two dimensions, which were sufficient for mapping differences, and fit the city-block dimensions better than the Euclidean metric in all datasets obtained from 13 countries. Most city-block dimensions were highly correlated with the simplified criterion (i.e., the left-right ideology) for differences that are actually used in real politics. The isometry of the city-block and dominance metrics in two-dimensional space carries further implications. More specifically, individuals may pay attention to two dimensions (if represented in the city-block metric) or focus on a single dimension (if represented in the dominance metric) when judging differences between the same objects. Switching between metrics may be expected to occur during cognitive processing as frequently as the apparent discontinuities and shifts in human attention that may underlie changing judgments in real situations occur. Consequently, the result has extended strong support for the validity of the geometric models to represent an important social cognition, i.e., the one of political differences, which is deeply rooted in human nature.

  20. Simplification and Shift in Cognition of Political Difference: Applying the Geometric Modeling to the Analysis of Semantic Similarity Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Junko; Okada, Kensuke

    2011-01-01

    Perceiving differences by means of spatial analogies is intrinsic to human cognition. Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis based on Minkowski geometry has been used primarily on data on sensory similarity judgments, leaving judgments on abstractive differences unanalyzed. Indeed, analysts have failed to find appropriate experimental or real-life data in this regard. Our MDS analysis used survey data on political scientists' judgments of the similarities and differences between political positions expressed in terms of distance. Both distance smoothing and majorization techniques were applied to a three-way dataset of similarity judgments provided by at least seven experts on at least five parties' positions on at least seven policies (i.e., originally yielding 245 dimensions) to substantially reduce the risk of local minima. The analysis found two dimensions, which were sufficient for mapping differences, and fit the city-block dimensions better than the Euclidean metric in all datasets obtained from 13 countries. Most city-block dimensions were highly correlated with the simplified criterion (i.e., the left–right ideology) for differences that are actually used in real politics. The isometry of the city-block and dominance metrics in two-dimensional space carries further implications. More specifically, individuals may pay attention to two dimensions (if represented in the city-block metric) or focus on a single dimension (if represented in the dominance metric) when judging differences between the same objects. Switching between metrics may be expected to occur during cognitive processing as frequently as the apparent discontinuities and shifts in human attention that may underlie changing judgments in real situations occur. Consequently, the result has extended strong support for the validity of the geometric models to represent an important social cognition, i.e., the one of political differences, which is deeply rooted in human nature. PMID:21673959

  1. Computer-assisted image analysis of human cilia and Chlamydomonas flagella reveals both similarities and differences in axoneme structure.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H; Porter, Mary E; Ostrowski, Lawrence E

    2012-08-01

    In the past decade, investigations from several different fields have revealed the critical role of cilia in human health and disease. Because of the highly conserved nature of the basic axonemal structure, many different model systems have proven useful for the study of ciliopathies, especially the unicellular, biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Although the basic axonemal structure of cilia and flagella is highly conserved, these organelles often perform specialized functions unique to the cell or tissue in which they are found. These differences in function are likely reflected in differences in structural organization. In this work, we directly compare the structure of isolated axonemes from human cilia and Chlamydomonas flagella to identify similarities and differences that potentially play key roles in determining their functionality. Using transmission electron microscopy and 2D image averaging techniques, our analysis has confirmed the overall structural similarity between these two species, but also revealed clear differences in the structure of the outer dynein arms, the central pair projections, and the radial spokes. We also show how the application of 2D image averaging can clarify the underlying structural defects associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Overall, our results document the remarkable similarity between these two structures separated evolutionarily by over a billion years, while highlighting several significant differences, and demonstrate the potential of 2D image averaging to improve the diagnosis and understanding of PCD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mechanical design, analysis, and laboratory testing of a dental implant with axial flexibility similar to natural tooth with periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Pektaş, Ömer; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-11-01

    At the interface between the jawbone and the roots of natural teeth, a thin, elastic, shock-absorbing tissue, called the periodontal ligament, forms a cushion which provides certain flexibility under mechanical loading. The dental restorations supported by implants, however, involve comparatively rigid connections to the jawbone. This causes overloading of the implant while bearing functional loading together with neighboring natural teeth, which leads to high stresses within the implant system and in the jawbone. A dental implant, with resilient components in the upper structure (abutment) in order to mimic the mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament in the axial direction, was designed, analyzed in silico, and produced for mechanical testing. The aims of the design were avoiding high levels of stress, loosening of the abutment connection screw, and soft tissue irritations. The finite element analysis of the designed implant revealed that the elastic abutment yielded a similar axial mobility with the natural tooth while keeping stress in the implant at safe levels. The in vitro mechanical testing of the prototype resulted in similar axial mobility predicted by the analysis and as that of a typical natural tooth. The abutment screw did not loosen under repeated loading and there was no static or fatigue failure. © IMechE 2014.

  3. Gender similarities and differences in brain activation strategies: Voxel-based meta-analysis on fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    AlRyalat, Saif Aldeen

    2017-01-01

    Gender similarities and differences have long been a matter of debate in almost all human research, especially upon reaching the discussion about brain functions. This large scale meta-analysis was performed on functional MRI studies. It included more than 700 active brain foci from more than 70 different experiments to study gender related similarities and differences in brain activation strategies for three of the main brain functions: Visual-spatial cognition, memory, and emotion. Areas that are significantly activated by both genders (i.e. core areas) for the tested brain function are mentioned, whereas those areas significantly activated exclusively in one gender are the gender specific areas. During visual-spatial cognition task, and in addition to the core areas, males significantly activated their left superior frontal gyrus, compared with left superior parietal lobule in females. For memory tasks, several different brain areas activated by each gender, but females significantly activated two areas from the limbic system during memory retrieval tasks. For emotional task, males tend to recruit their bilateral prefrontal regions, whereas females tend to recruit their bilateral amygdalae. This meta-analysis provides an overview based on functional MRI studies on how males and females use their brain.

  4. Prediction of Rare Transitions in Planetary Atmosphere Dynamics Between Attractors with Different Number of Zonal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, F.; Laurie, J.; Zaboronski, O.

    2012-12-01

    We describe transitions between attractors with either one, two or more zonal jets in models of turbulent atmosphere dynamics. Those transitions are extremely rare, and occur over times scales of centuries or millennia. They are extremely hard to observe in direct numerical simulations, because they require on one hand an extremely good resolution in order to simulate accurately the turbulence and on the other hand simulations performed over an extremely long time. Those conditions are usually not met together in any realistic models. However many examples of transitions between turbulent attractors in geophysical flows are known to exist (paths of the Kuroshio, Earth's magnetic field reversal, atmospheric flows, and so on). Their study through numerical computations is inaccessible using conventional means. We present an alternative approach, based on instanton theory and large deviations. Instanton theory provides a way to compute (both numerically and theoretically) extremely rare transitions between turbulent attractors. This tool, developed in field theory, and justified in some cases through the large deviation theory in mathematics, can be applied to models of turbulent atmosphere dynamics. It provides both new theoretical insights and new type of numerical algorithms. Those algorithms can predict transition histories and transition rates using numerical simulations run over only hundreds of typical model dynamical time, which is several order of magnitude lower than the typical transition time. We illustrate the power of those tools in the framework of quasi-geostrophic models. We show regimes where two or more attractors coexist. Those attractors corresponds to turbulent flows dominated by either one or more zonal jets similar to midlatitude atmosphere jets. Among the trajectories connecting two non-equilibrium attractors, we determine the most probable ones. Moreover, we also determine the transition rates, which are several of magnitude larger than a

  5. Saturn’s gravitational field induced by its equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-level zonal winds of Saturn are marked by a substantial equatorially antisymmetric component with a speed of about 50ms‑1 which, if they are sufficiently deep, can produce measurable odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4. This study, based on solutions of the thermal-gravitational wind equation, provides a theoretical basis for interpreting the odd gravitational coefficients of Saturn in terms of its equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow. We adopt a Saturnian model comprising an ice-rock core, a metallic dynamo region and an outer molecular envelope. We use an equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow that is parameterized, confined in the molecular envelope and satisfies the solvability condition required for the thermal-gravitational wind equation. The structure and amplitude of the zonal flow at the cloud level are chosen to be consistent with observations of Saturn. We calculate the odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4 by regarding the depth of the equatorially antisymmetric winds as a parameter. It is found that ΔJ 3 is ‑4.197 × 10‑8 if the zonal winds extend about 13 000 km downward from the cloud tops while it is ‑0.765 × 10‑8 if the depth is about 4000 km. The depth/profile of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds can eventually be estimated when the high-precision measurements of the Cassini Grand Finale become available.

  6. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  7. A Zonal Approach for Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    A zonal approach for direct computation of sound generation and propagation from a supersonic jet is investigated. The present work splits the computational domain into a nonlinear, acoustic-source regime and a linear acoustic wave propagation regime. In the nonlinear regime, the unsteady flow is governed by the large-scale equations, which are the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the linear acoustic regime, the sound wave propagation is described by the linearized Euler equations. Computational results are presented for a supersonic jet at M = 2. 1. It is demonstrated that no spurious modes are generated in the matching region and the computational expense is reduced substantially as opposed to fully large-scale simulation.

  8. Convection driven zonal flows and vortices in the major planets.

    PubMed

    Busse, F. H.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamical properties of convection in rotating cylindrical annuli and spherical shells are reviewed. Simple theoretical models and experimental simulations of planetary convection through the use of the centrifugal force in the laboratory are emphasized. The model of columnar convection in a cylindrical annulus not only serves as a guide to the dynamical properties of convection in rotating sphere; it also is of interest as a basic physical system that exhibits several dynamical properties in their most simple form. The generation of zonal mean flows is discussed in some detail and examples of recent numerical computations are presented. The exploration of the parameter space for the annulus model is not yet complete and the theoretical exploration of convection in rotating spheres is still in the beginning phase. Quantitative comparisons with the observations of the dynamics of planetary atmospheres will have to await the consideration in the models of the effects of magnetic fields and the deviations from the Boussinesq approximation.

  9. Biohazards Assessment in Large-Scale Zonal Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, C. L.; Lemp, J. F.; Barbeito, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biohazards associated with use of the large-scale zonal centrifuge for purification of moderate risk oncogenic viruses. To safely and conveniently assess the hazard, coliphage T3 was substituted for the virus in a typical processing procedure performed in a National Cancer Institute contract laboratory. Risk of personnel exposure was found to be minimal during optimal operation but definite potential for virus release from a number of centrifuge components during mechanical malfunction was shown by assay of surface, liquid, and air samples collected during the processing. High concentration of phage was detected in the turbine air exhaust and the seal coolant system when faulty seals were employed. The simulant virus was also found on both centrifuge chamber interior and rotor surfaces. Images PMID:1124921

  10. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  11. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  12. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lyle

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mudmore » losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability

  13. Relativistic satellite orbits: central body with higher zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanner, Maximilian; Soffel, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Satellite orbits around a central body with arbitrary zonal harmonics are considered in a relativistic framework. Our starting point is the relativistic Celestial Mechanics based upon the first post-Newtonian approximation to Einstein's theory of gravity as it has been formulated by Damour et al. (Phys Rev D 43:3273-3307, 1991; 45:1017-1044, 1992; 47:3124-3135, 1993; 49:618-635, 1994). Since effects of order (GM/c^2R) × J_k with k ≥ 2 for the Earth are very small (of order 7 × 10^{-10} × J_k) we consider an axially symmetric body with arbitrary zonal harmonics and a static external gravitational field. In such a field the explicit J_k/c^2-terms (direct terms) in the equations of motion for the coordinate acceleration of a satellite are treated first with first-order perturbation theory. The derived perturbation theoretical results of first order have been checked by purely numerical integrations of the equations of motion. Additional terms of the same order result from the interaction of the Newtonian J_k-terms with the post-Newtonian Schwarzschild terms (relativistic terms related to the mass of the central body). These `mixed terms' are treated by means of second-order perturbation theory based on the Lie-series method (Hori-Deprit method). Here we concentrate on the secular drifts of the ascending node <{\\dot{Ω }}> and argument of the pericenter <{\\dot{ω }}>. Finally orders of magnitude are given and discussed.

  14. Forest response to rising CO2 drives zonally asymmetric rainfall change over tropical land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Chen, Yang; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Koven, Charles D.; Lindsay, Keith; Pritchard, Michael S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Randerson, James T.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how anthropogenic CO2 emissions will influence future precipitation is critical for sustainably managing ecosystems, particularly for drought-sensitive tropical forests. Although tropical precipitation change remains uncertain, nearly all models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 predict a strengthening zonal precipitation asymmetry by 2100, with relative increases over Asian and African tropical forests and decreases over South American forests. Here we show that the plant physiological response to increasing CO2 is a primary mechanism responsible for this pattern. Applying a simulation design in the Community Earth System Model in which CO2 increases are isolated over individual continents, we demonstrate that different circulation, moisture and stability changes arise over each continent due to declines in stomatal conductance and transpiration. The sum of local atmospheric responses over individual continents explains the pan-tropical precipitation asymmetry. Our analysis suggests that South American forests may be more vulnerable to rising CO2 than Asian or African forests.

  15. A zonal computational procedure adapted to the optimization of two-dimensional thrust augmentor inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.

    1985-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction methodology based on a zonal description of the flowfield is developed as a mean of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. An inviscid zone comprising the irrotational flow about the device is patched together with a viscous zone containing the turbulent mixing flow. The inviscid region is computed by a higher order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. A non-linear, constrained optimization study is undertaken for the design of the inlet region. In this study, the viscous-inviscid analysis is complemented with a boundary layer calculation to account for flow separation from the walls of the inlet region. The thrust-based Reynolds number as well as the free stream velocity are shown to be important parameters in the design of a thrust augmentor inlet.

  16. Rossby waves and two-dimensional turbulence in a large-scale zonal jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Theodor G.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous barotropic beta-plane turbulence is investigated, taking into account the effects of spatial inhomogeneity in the form of a zonal shear flows. Attention is given to the case of zonal flows that are barotropically stable and of larger scale than the resulting transient eddy field. Numerical simulations reveal that large-scale zonal flows alter the picture of classical beta-plane turbulence. It is found that the disturbance field penetrates to the largest scales of motion, that the larger disturbance scales show a tendency to meridional rather than zonal anisotropy, and that the initial spectral transfer rate away from an isotropic intermediate-scale source is enhanced by the shear-induced transfer associated with straining by the zonal flow.

  17. Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residuala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William

    2007-05-01

    Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.

  18. Inter-expert agreement and similarity analysis of traditional diagnoses and acupuncture prescriptions in textbook- and pragmatic-based practices.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Danielle Terra; Ferreira, Arthur Sá

    2018-02-01

    This study examined (1) the agreement of acupuncture experts with textbook prescriptions and among themselves, and (2) the association between similar traditional diagnoses and textbook acupuncture prescriptions, examining whether pragmatic practice (i.e., modifying prescriptions according to personal clinical practice) alters such an association. A computational analysis quantified the diagnosis-prescription association from a textbook. Eight acupuncture experts were independently interviewed. Experts modified the textbook prescriptions according to their pragmatic practice. Experts mostly agreed (19-90%) or strongly agreed (0-29%) with the textbook prescriptions, with no-better-than-chance agreement on their ratings (Light's κ = 0.036, CI 95%  = [0.003; 0.081]). The number of manifestations in traditional diagnoses weakly explains the variability (Spearman's ρ = 0.260, p = 0.038) of the number of acupoints in prescriptions. The association between similar traditional diagnoses and acupuncture prescriptions is strong in the textbook (γ = 0.720, CI 95%  = [0.658, 0.783]), whereas pragmatic practice had little effect on this association (γ = 0.724-0.769). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal functional specialization within medial prefrontal cortex in high-functioning autism: a multi-voxel similarity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Julia D.I.; Towgood, Karren J.; Frith, Christopher D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analyses have proved successful in ‘decoding’ mental states from fMRI data, but have not been used to examine brain differences associated with atypical populations. We investigated a group of 16 (14 males) high-functioning participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 non-autistic control participants (12 males) performing two tasks (spatial/verbal) previously shown to activate medial rostral prefrontal cortex (mrPFC). Each task manipulated: (i) attention towards perceptual versus self-generated information and (ii) reflection on another person's mental state (‘mentalizing'versus ‘non-mentalizing’) in a 2 × 2 design. Behavioral performance and group-level fMRI results were similar between groups. However, multi-voxel similarity analyses revealed strong differences. In control participants, the spatial distribution of activity generalized significantly between task contexts (spatial/verbal) when examining the same function (attention/mentalizing) but not when comparing different functions. This pattern was disrupted in the ASD group, indicating abnormal functional specialization within mrPFC, and demonstrating the applicability of multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigations of atypical populations. PMID:19174370

  20. Sequence Similarity of Clostridium difficile Strains by Analysis of Conserved Genes and Genome Content Is Reflected by Their Ribotype Affiliation

    PubMed Central

    Kurka, Hedwig; Ehrenreich, Armin; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Monot, Marc; Rupnik, Maja; Barbut, Frederic; Indra, Alexander; Dupuy, Bruno; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    PCR-ribotyping is a broadly used method for the classification of isolates of Clostridium difficile, an emerging intestinal pathogen, causing infections with increased disease severity and incidence in several European and North American countries. We have now carried out clustering analysis with selected genes of numerous C. difficile strains as well as gene content comparisons of their genomes in order to broaden our view of the relatedness of strains assigned to different ribotypes. We analyzed the genomic content of 48 C. difficile strains representing 21 different ribotypes. The calculation of distance matrix-based dendrograms using the neighbor joining method for 14 conserved genes (standard phylogenetic marker genes) from the genomes of the C. difficile strains demonstrated that the genes from strains with the same ribotype generally clustered together. Further, certain ribotypes always clustered together and formed ribotype groups, i.e. ribotypes 078, 033 and 126, as well as ribotypes 002 and 017, indicating their relatedness. Comparisons of the gene contents of the genomes of ribotypes that clustered according to the conserved gene analysis revealed that the number of common genes of the ribotypes belonging to each of these three ribotype groups were very similar for the 078/033/126 group (at most 69 specific genes between the different strains with the same ribotype) but less similar for the 002/017 group (86 genes difference). It appears that the ribotype is indicative not only of a specific pattern of the amplified 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer but also reflects specific differences in the nucleotide sequences of the conserved genes studied here. It can be anticipated that the sequence deviations of more genes of C. difficile strains are correlated with their PCR-ribotype. In conclusion, the results of this study corroborate and extend the concept of clonal C. difficile lineages, which correlate with ribotypes affiliation. PMID:24482682

  1. Longitudinal differences and inter-annual variations of zonal wind in the tropical stratosphere and troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. A.; Raghava Reddi, C.

    1986-12-01

    A quantitative assessment has been made of the longitude-dependent differences and the interannual variations of the zonal wind components in the equatorial stratosphere and troposphere, from the analysis of rocket and balloon data for 1979 and 1980 for three stations near ±8.5° latitude (Ascension Island at 14.4°W, Thumba at 76.9°E and Kwajalein at 67.7°E) and two stations near 21.5° latitude (Barking Sands at 159.6°W and Balasore at 86.9°E). The longitude-dependent differences are found to be about 10-20 m s -1 (amounting to 50-200% in some cases) for the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) and the annual oscillation (AO) amplitudes, depending upon the altitude and latitude. Inter-annual variations of about 10 m s -1 also exist in both oscillations. The phase of the SAO exhibits an almost 180° shift at Kwajalein compared to that at the other two stations near 8.5°, while the phase of the AO is independent of longitude, in the stratosphere. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) are found to be almost independent of longitude in the 18-38 km range, but above 40 km height the QBO amplitude and phase have different values in different longitude sectors for the three stations near ±8.5° latitude. The mean zonal wind shows no change from 1979 to 1980, but in the troposphere at 8.5° latitude strong easterlies prevail in the Indian zone, in contrast to the westerlies at the Atlantic and Pacific stations.

  2. Zonally resolved impact of ENSO on the stratospheric circulation and water vapor entry values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Riese, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Based on simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) for the period 1979-2013, with model transport driven by the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the variability of the dynamics, water vapor, ozone, and mean age of air (AoA) in the tropical lower stratosphere during boreal winter. Our zonally resolved analysis at the 390 K potential temperature level reveals that not only (deseasonalized) ENSO-related temperature anomalies are confined to the tropical Pacific (180-300°E) but also anomalous wave propagation and breaking, as quantified in terms of the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux divergence, with strongest local contribution during the La Niña phase. This anomaly is coherent with respective anomalies of water vapor (±0.5 ppmv) and ozone (±100 ppbv) derived from CLaMS being in excellent agreement with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Thus, during El Niño a more zonally symmetric wave forcing drives a deep branch of the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation. During La Niña this forcing increases at lower levels (≈390 K) over the tropical Pacific, likely influencing the shallow branch of the BD circulation. In agreement with previous studies, wet (dry) and young (old) tape recorder anomalies propagate upward in the subsequent months following El Niño (La Niña). Using CLaMS, these anomalies are found to be around +0.3 (-0.2) ppmv and -4 (+4) months for water vapor and AoA, respectively. The AoA ENSO anomaly is more strongly affected by the residual circulation (≈2/3) than by eddy mixing (≈1/3).

  3. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, Christos; Kapsomenakis, John; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Hubert, Daan; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Frith, Stacey; Sofieva, Viktoria; Hassler, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV) satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle) and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD), tropopause height changes (including global warming) and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC). Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC) and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  4. Fludarabine Melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning allotransplanation provides similar disease control in lymphoid and myeloid malignancies: analysis of 344 patients.

    PubMed

    Bryant, A; Nivison-Smith, I; Pillai, E S; Kennedy, G; Kalff, A; Ritchie, D; George, B; Hertzberg, M; Patil, S; Spencer, A; Fay, K; Cannell, P; Berkahn, L; Doocey, R; Spearing, R; Moore, J

    2014-01-01

    This was an Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry (ABMTRR)-based retrospective study assessing the outcome of Fludarabine Melphalan (FluMel) reduced-intensity conditioning between 1998 and 2008. Median follow-up was 3.4 years. There were 344 patients with a median age of 54 years (18-68). In all, 234 patients had myeloid malignancies, with AML (n=166) being the commonest indication. There were 110 lymphoid patients with non-hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) (n=64) the main indication. TRM at day 100 was 14% with no significant difference between the groups. OS and disease-free survival (DFS) were similar between myeloid and lymphoid patients (57 and 50% at 3 years, respectively). There was no difference in cumulative incidence of relapse or GVHD between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed four significant adverse risk factors for DFS: donor other than HLA-identical sibling donor, not in remission at transplant, previous autologous transplant and recipient CMV positive. Chronic GVHD was associated with improved DFS in multivariate analysis predominantly due to a marked reduction in relapse (HR:0.44, P=0.003). This study confirms that FluMel provides durable and equivalent remissions in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Disease stage and chronic GVHD remain important determinants of outcome for FluMel allografting.

  5. Role of zonal flows in trapped electron mode turbulence through nonlinear gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. R.; Lang, J.; Nevins, W. M.; Hoffman, M.; Chen, Y.; Dorland, W.; Parker, S.

    2009-05-01

    Trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of collisional and zonal flow physics. This work explores the parametric variation of zonal flows and underlying mechanisms through a series of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, using both particle-in-cell and continuum methods. A new stability diagram for electron modes is presented, identifying a critical boundary at ηe=1, separating long and short wavelength TEMs. A novel parity test is used to separate TEMs from electron temperature gradient driven modes. A nonlinear scan of ηe reveals fine scale structure for ηe≳1, consistent with linear expectation. For ηe<1, zonal flows are the dominant saturation mechanism, and TEM transport is insensitive to ηe. For ηe>1, zonal flows are weak, and TEM transport falls inversely with a power law in ηe. The role of zonal flows appears to be connected to linear stability properties. Particle and continuum methods are compared in detail over a range of ηe=d ln Te/d ln ne values from zero to five. Linear growth rate spectra, transport fluxes, fluctuation wavelength spectra, zonal flow shearing spectra, and correlation lengths and times are in close agreement. In addition to identifying the critical parameter ηe for TEM zonal flows, this paper takes a challenging step in code verification, directly comparing very different methods of simulating simultaneous kinetic electron and ion dynamics in TEM turbulence.

  6. Clustering Heart Rate Dynamics Is Associated with β-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms: Analysis by Information-Based Similarity Index

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Albert C.; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Wang, Cynthia; Chen, Tai-Jui; Liou, Ying-Jay; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding the β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) have a pivotal role in the functions of the autonomic nervous system. Using heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of autonomic function, we present a bottom-up genotype–phenotype analysis to investigate the association between β-AR gene polymorphisms and heart rate dynamics. Methods A total of 221 healthy Han Chinese adults (59 males and 162 females, aged 33.6±10.8 years, range 19 to 63 years) were recruited and genotyped for three common β-AR polymorphisms: β1-AR Ser49Gly, β2-AR Arg16Gly and β2-AR Gln27Glu. Each subject underwent two hours of electrocardiogram monitoring at rest. We applied an information-based similarity (IBS) index to measure the pairwise dissimilarity of heart rate dynamics among study subjects. Results With the aid of agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis, we categorized subjects into major clusters, which were found to have significantly different distributions of β2-AR Arg16Gly genotype. Furthermore, the non-randomness index, a nonlinear HRV measure derived from the IBS method, was significantly lower in Arg16 homozygotes than in Gly16 carriers. The non-randomness index was negatively correlated with parasympathetic-related HRV variables and positively correlated with those HRV indices reflecting a sympathovagal shift toward sympathetic activity. Conclusions We demonstrate a bottom-up categorization approach combining the IBS method and hierarchical cluster analysis to detect subgroups of subjects with HRV phenotypes associated with β-AR polymorphisms. Our results provide evidence that β2-AR polymorphisms are significantly associated with the acceleration/deceleration pattern of heart rate oscillation, reflecting the underlying mode of autonomic nervous system control. PMID:21573230

  7. Meta-analysis shows similar re-bleeding rates among Western and Eastern populations after index video capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Hassan, Cesare; Toth, Ervin; Zullo, Angelo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the first-line diagnostic procedure for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Different re-bleeding rates following index VCE have been reported among Western and Eastern studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify studies examining re-bleeding rates after VCE for OGIB. Meta-analysis assessed the pooled proportion of re-bleeding events after VCE for OGIB according to study's origin (Western vs. Eastern) and according to the length of follow-up (≥24 months vs. <24 months). We also calculated the re-bleeding odds ratios (OR; 95% CI) after positive vs. negative index VCE, overt vs. occult initial presentation of bleeding and after interventional treatment for positive index cases, according to the study's origin. We included 46 (30 Western and 16 Eastern) studies with 5796 patients. Significant heterogeneity was detected among meta-analyzed studies. Overall, the pooled re-bleeding rate was similar between Western (29%; 95% CI: 23-34) and Eastern (21%; 95% CI: 15-27) populations, irrespective of the length of follow-up. The odds of re-bleeding was significantly higher after positive as compared to negative index VCE in Eastern studies (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.94). Application of specific treatment after positive index VCE was associated with lower re-bleeding odds in both Western (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16-0.87) and Eastern (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72) populations. Patients undergoing VCE for OGIB have similar re-bleeding rates in the East and the West, regardless of the length of follow-up. However, increased re-bleeding odds after positive index VCE is observed in Eastern studies. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The cognitive profile of behavioural variant FTD and its similarities with ALS: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Klein Twennaar, Michelle; Govaarts, Rosanne; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; de Haan, Rob J; de Visser, Marianne; Schmand, Ben A

    2018-02-09

    Approximately 30% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have cognitive impairment and 8%-14% fulfil the criteria for behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD). The cognitive profiles of ALS and bv-FTD have been reported to be comparable, but this has never been systematically investigated. We aimed to determine the cognitive profile of bv-FTD and examine its similarities with that of ALS, to provide evidence for the existence of a cognitive disease continuum encompassing bv-FTD and ALS. We therefore systematically reviewed neuropsychological studies on bv-FTD patients and healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological tests were divided in 10 cognitive domains and effect sizes were calculated for all domains and compared with the cognitive profile of ALS by means of a visual comparison and a Pearson's r correlation coefficient. We included 120 studies, totalling 2425 bv-FTD patients and 2798 healthy controls. All cognitive domains showed substantial effect sizes, indicating cognitive impairment in bv-FTD patients compared to healthy controls. The cognitive domains with the largest effect sizes were social cognition, verbal memory and fluency (1.77-1.53). The cognitive profiles of bv-FTD and ALS (10 cognitive domains, 1287 patients) showed similarities on visual comparison and a moderate correlation 0.58 (p=0.13). When social cognition, verbal memory, fluency, executive functions, language and visuoperception were considered, i.e. the cognitive profile of ALS, Pearson's r was 0.73 (p=0.09), which raised to 0.92 (p=0.03), when language was excluded in this systematic analysis of patients with a non-language subtype of FTD. The cognitive profile of bv-FTD consists of deficits in social cognition, verbal memory, fluency and executive functions and shows similarities with the cognitive profile of ALS. These findings support a cognitive continuum encompassing ALS and bv-FTD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  9. On the tertiary instability formalism of zonal flows in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Seiferling, F.; Weikl, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the so-called tertiary instabilities driven by the zonal flow in gyro-kinetic tokamak core turbulence. The Kelvin Helmholtz instability is first considered within a 2D fluid model and a threshold in the zonal flow wave vector kZF>kZF,c for instability is found. This critical scale is related to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by flux-surfaces, which is incorporated into the modified adiabatic electron response. The stability of undamped Rosenbluth-Hinton zonal flows is then investigated in gyro-kinetic simulations. Absolute instability, in the sense that the threshold zonal flow amplitude tends towards zero, is found above a zonal flow wave vector kZF,cρi≈1.3 ( ρi is the ion thermal Larmor radius), which is comparable to the 2D fluid results. Large scale zonal flows with kZFzonal temperature perturbations on the tertiary instability is examined. Although temperature perturbations favor instability, the realistic values of gradient-driven gyro-kinetic simulations still lie deeply in the stable parameter regime. Therefore, the relevance of the tertiary instability as a saturation mechanism to the zonal flow amplitude is questioned, as most of the zonal flow intensity is concentrated in modes satisfying kZF≪kZF,c as well as ωE×B≪ωE×B,c .

  10. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  11. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  12. [Landscape and zonal distribution of bloodsucking mosquitoes and horse flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae) in the northeastern Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    Pestov, S V; Paniukova, E V

    2013-01-01

    The data on the distribution of 34 species of bloodsucking mosquitoes and on 42 horsefly species of the fauna of the northeastern Russian Plain are given. The analysis of the landscape and zonal changes in species diversity and their abundance was performed. Species diversity of these families increased northwards. Two borders of the fauna's depletion were discovered: at the border between the middle and northern taiga subzones (mosquitoes and horseflies) and at the border between the northernmost taiga subzone and the forest-tundra zone (horseflies only). The northern and southern boundaries of species ranges in the region are identified.

  13. A New Look at Titan's Zonal Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schinder, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    We use the existing thirteen Cassini radio'occultation soundings to construct a meridional cross section of geopotential height vs. pressure and latitude. The assumption of balanced flow permits the construction of a similar cross section of zonal winds, from near the surface to the 0.1'mbar level. In the lower troposphere, the winds are approx.10 m/s, except within 20deg of the equator, where they are much smaller. The winds increase higher up in the troposphere to nearly 40 m/s in the tropopause region, but then decay rapidly in the lower stratosphere to near'zero values at 20 mbar (approx.80 km), reminiscent of the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment result. This null zone extends over most latitudes, except for limited bands at mid'latitudes. Higher up in the stratosphere, the winds become larger. They are highest in the northern (winter) hemisphere. We compare the occultation results with the DWE and CIRS retrievals and discuss the similarities and differences among the data sets.

  14. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  15. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  16. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  17. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  18. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  19. Comments on "extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Barrett, Christopher D.

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, Li et al. (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006) used results of atomistic simulations to advance a growth mechanism of ? ? twinning in titanium based on the concept of two elementary twinning dislocations which nucleate and glide in pairs but separately and sequentially on two neighbouring planes. This new Comment was stimulated after A. Serra, D.J. Bacon and R.C. Pond privately raised concerns on this growth model to one of the present authors, H. El Kadiri, who This was a co-author of the original paper (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006). We repeated the simulations and obtained nearly the same simulations results as Li et al. However, after re-analysing these results, we have concluded that the extended extrinsic zonal dislocation mechanism claimed to be that for twin growth in titanium is in fact false, confirming the accuracy of the Comment by Serra et al that results of Li and co-authors were misinterpreted.

  20. Generation of zonal flows through symmetry breaking of statistical homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2014-03-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows (ZFs) are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from homogeneous turbulence without ZFs to inhomogeneous turbulence with steady ZFs. Starting from the equation for barotropic flow on a β plane, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking zonostrophic instability and show that it is an example of a Type {{\\text{I}}_{s}} instability within the pattern formation literature. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the ZF wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of ZF wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system. We also conclude that the stability of the equilibria near the bifurcation point, which is governed by the Eckhaus instability, is independent of the Rayleigh-Kuo criterion.

  1. Equatorial superrotation in a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    Near the equator where the Coriolis force vanishes, the momentum balance for the axially symmetric circulation is established between horizontal and vertical diffusion, which, a priori, does not impose constraints on the direction or magnitude of the zonal winds. Solar radiation absorbed at low latitudes is a major force in driving large scale motions with air rising near the equator and falling at higher latitudes. In the upper leg of the meridional cell, angular momentum is redistributed so that the atmosphere tends to subrotate (or corotate) at low latitudes and superrotate at high latitudes. In the lower leg, however, the process is reversed and produces a tendency for the equatorial region to superrotate. The outcome depends on the energy budget which is closely coupled to the momentum budget through the thermal wind equation; a pressure (temperature) maximum is required to sustain equatorial superrotation. Such a condition arises in regions which are convectively unstable and the temperature lapse rate is superadiabatic. It should arise in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; planetary energy from the interior is carried to higher altitudes where radiation to space becomes important. Upward equatorial motions in the direct and indirect circulations (Ferrel-Thomson type) imposed by insolation can then trap dynamic energy for equatorial heating which can sustain the superrotation of the equatorial region.

  2. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  3. Temporal-pattern similarity analysis reveals the beneficial and detrimental effects of context reinstatement on human memory.

    PubMed

    Staudigl, Tobias; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful force in human memory is the context in which memories are encoded (Tulving and Thomson, 1973). Several studies suggest that the reinstatement of neural encoding patterns is beneficial for memory retrieval (Manning et al., 2011; Staresina et al., 2012; Jafarpour et al., 2014). However, reinstatement of the original encoding context is not always helpful, for instance, when retrieving a memory in a different contextual situation (Smith and Vela, 2001). It is an open question whether such context-dependent memory effects can be captured by the reinstatement of neural patterns. We investigated this question by applying temporal and spatial pattern similarity analysis in MEG and intracranial EEG in a context-match paradigm. Items (words) were tagged by individual dynamic context stimuli (movies). The results show that beta oscillatory phase in visual regions and the parahippocampal cortex tracks the incidental reinstatement of individual context trajectories on a single-trial level. Crucially, memory benefitted from reinstatement when the encoding and retrieval contexts matched but suffered from reinstatement when the contexts did not match. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355373-12$15.00/0.

  4. Molecular similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  5. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  6. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge E r. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge E r well with a wave number k rρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-modemore » transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  7. Parameterization of eddy sensible heat transports in a zonally averaged dynamic model of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genthon, Christophe; Le Treut, Herve; Sadourny, Robert; Jouzel, Jean

    1990-01-01

    A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a general circulation model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear appoximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.

  8. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger thanmore » or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.« less

  9. Rossby Wave Propagation into the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere: The Role of Zonal Phase Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Martius, Olivia; Jiménez-Esteve, Bernat

    2018-02-01

    Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are to a dominant part induced by upward propagating planetary waves. While theory predicts that the zonal phase speed of a tropospheric wave forcing affects wave propagation into the stratosphere, its relevance for SSW events has so far not been considered. This study shows in a linear wave diagnostic and in reanalysis data that phase speeds tend eastward as waves propagate upward, indicating that the stratosphere preselects eastward phase speeds for propagation, especially for zonal wave number 2. This also affects SSW events: Split SSW events tend to be preceded by anomalously eastward zonal phase speeds. Zonal phase speed may indeed explain part of the increased wave flux observed during the preconditioning of SSW events, as, for example, for the record 2009 SSW event.

  10. Theory of Fine-scale Zonal Flow Generation From Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρθ¡ << 1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρθ¡ is the ion poloidal gyrora- dius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρθ¡ ~ 1 [Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN/TH/P2-8 (2006); D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009)]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarizationmore » shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2009)] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit is applied.« less

  11. Microarray analysis to identify the similarities and differences of pathogenesis between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guofu; Bi, Lechang; Wang, Gaofeng; Huang, Feilai; Lu, Mingjing; Zhu, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Expression profile of GSE57691 was analyzed to identify the similarities and differences between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods The expression profile of GSE57691 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 20 small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 29 large abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 9 aortic occlusive disease samples, and 10 control samples. Using the limma package in R, the differentially expressed genes were screened. Followed by enrichment analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery online tool. Based on string online tool and Cytoscape software, protein-protein interaction network and module analyses were carried out. Moreover, integrated TF platform database and Cytoscape software were used for constructing transcriptional regulatory networks. Results As a result, 1757, 354, and 396 differentially expressed genes separately were identified in aortic occlusive disease, large abdominal aortic aneurysm, and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples. UBB was significantly enriched in proteolysis related pathways with a high degree in three groups. SPARCL1 was another gene shared by these groups and regulated by NFIA, which had a high degree in transcriptional regulatory network. ACTB, a significant upregulated gene in abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, could be regulated by CLIC4, which was significantly enriched in cell motions. ACLY and NFIB were separately identified in aortic occlusive disease and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, and separately enriched in lipid metabolism and negative regulation of cell proliferation. Conclusions The downregulated UBB, NFIA, and SPARCL1 might play key roles in both aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, while the upregulated ACTB might only involve in abdominal aortic aneurysm. ACLY and NFIB were specifically involved in aortic occlusive

  12. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  13. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  14. The Role of Reversed Equatorial Zonal Transport in Terminating an ENSO Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Hu, Z. Z.; Huang, B.; Sui, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a sudden reversal of anomalous equatorial zonal current at the peaking ENSO phase triggers the rapid termination of an ENSO event. Throughout an ENSO cycle, the anomalous equatorial zonal current is strongly controlled by the concavity of the anomalous thermocline meridional structure near the equator. During the ENSO developing phase, the anomalous zonal current in the central and eastern Pacific generally enhances the ENSO growth through its zonal SST advection. In the mature phase of ENSO, however, the equatorial thermocline depth anomalies are reflected in the eastern Pacific and slowly propagate westward off the equator in both hemispheres. As a result, the concavity of the thermocline anomalies near the equator is reversed, i.e., the off-equatorial thermocline depth anomalies become higher than that on the equator for El Niño events and lower for La Niño events. This meridional change of thermocline structure reverses zonal transport rapidly in the central-to-eastern equatorial Pacific, which weakens the ENSO SST anomalies by reversed advection. More importantly, the reversed zonal mass transport weakens the existing zonal tilting of equatorial thermocline and suppresses the thermocline feedback. Both processes are concentrated in the eastern equatorial Pacific and can be effective on subseasonal time scales. These current reversal effects are built-in to the ENSO peak phase and independent of the zonal wind effect on thermocline slope. It functions as an oceanic control on ENSO evolution during both El Niño and La Niña events.

  15. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  16. Zonally Symmetric Oscillations of the Thermosphere at Planetary Wave Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Maute, Astrid; Hagan, Maura E.

    2018-05-01

    New mechanisms for imposing planetary wave (PW) variability on the ionosphere-thermosphere system are discovered in numerical experiments conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. First, it is demonstrated that a tidal spectrum modulated at PW periods (3-20 days) entering the ionosphere-thermosphere system near 100 km is responsible for producing ±40 m/s and ±10-15 K PW period oscillations between 110 and 150 km at low to middle latitudes. The dominant response is broadband and zonally symmetric (i.e., "S0") over a range of periods and is attributable to tidal dissipation; essentially, the ionosphere-thermosphere system "vacillates" in response to dissipation of the PW-modulated tidal spectrum. In addition, some specific westward propagating PWs such as the quasi-6-day wave are amplified by the presence of the tidal spectrum; the underlying mechanism is hypothesized to be a second-stage nonlinear interaction. The S0 total neutral mass density (ρ) response at 325 km consists of PW period fluctuations of order ±3-4%, roughly equivalent to the day-to-day variability associated with low-level geomagnetic activity. The variability in ρ over short periods (˜< 9 days) correlates with temperature changes, indicating a response of hydrostatic origin. Over longer periods ρ is also controlled by composition and mean molecular mass. While the upper-thermosphere impacts are modest, they do translate to more significant changes in the F region ionosphere.

  17. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  18. Jet and storm track variability and change: adiabatic QG zonal averages and beyond... (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The zonally averaged structures of extratropical jets and stormtracks, their slow variations, and their responses to climate change are all tightly constrained on the one hand by thermal wind balance and the necessary application of eddy torques to produce zonally averaged meridional motion, and, on the other hand, by the necessity that eddies propagate upshear to extract energy from the mean flow. Combining these constraints with the well developed theory of linear Rossby-wave propagation on zonally symmetric basic states has led to a large and growing number of plausible mechanisms to explain observed and modeled jet/storm track variability and responses to climate change and idealized forcing. Hidden within zonal averages is the reality that most baroclinic eddy activity is destroyed at the same latitude at which is generated: from one end to another of the fixed stormtracks in the Northern Hemisphere and baroclinic wave packets in the Southern Hemisphere. Ignored within adiabatic QG theory is the reality that baroclinic eddies gain significant energy from latent heating that involves sub-syntopic scale structures and dynamics. Here we use results from high-resolution regional and global simulations of the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to explore the importance of non-zonal and diabatic dynamics in influencing jet change and variability and their influences on the much-studied zonal means.

  19. Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2003-10-01

    Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST variations with a meridionally confined structure are placed at various latitudes. Having these SST variations centered at 30°N leads to a zonally localized storm track, while the storm track becomes nearly zonally uniform when the same SST forcing is moved farther north at 40° and 50°N. Large (small) baroclinic energy conversion north of the warm (cold) SST anomaly near the axis of the storm track (near 40°N) is responsible for the large (small) storm growth. The equatorward transfer of eddy kinetic energy by the ageostrophic motion and the mechanical damping are important to diminish the storm track activity in the zonal direction.Significant stationary eddies form in the upper troposphere, with a ridge (trough) northeast of the warm (cold) SST anomaly at 30°N. Heat and vorticity budget analyses indicate that zonally localized condensational heating in the storm track is the major cause for these stationary eddies, which in turn exert a positive feedback to maintain the localized storm track by strengthening the vertical shear near the surface. These results indicate an active role of synoptic eddies in inducing deep, tropospheric-scale response to midlatitude SST variations. Finally, the application of the model results to the real atmosphere is discussed.

  20. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  1. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  2. Using Response Surface Analysis to Interpret the Impact of Parent–Offspring Personality Similarity on Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Laceulle, Odillia M.; Van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Ormel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Personality similarity between parent and offspring has been suggested to play an important role in offspring's development of externalizing problems. Nonetheless, much remains unknown regarding the nature of this association. This study aimed to investigate the effects of parent–offspring similarity at different levels of personality traits, comparing expectations based on evolutionary and goodness‐of‐fit perspectives. Two waves of data from the TRAILS study (N = 1587, 53% girls) were used to study parent–offspring similarity at different levels of personality traits at age 16 predicting externalizing problems at age 19. Polynomial regression analyses and Response Surface Analyses were used to disentangle effects of different levels and combinations of parents and offspring personality similarity. Although several facets of the offspring's personality had an impact on offspring's externalizing problems, few similarity effects were found. Therefore, there is little support for assumptions based on either an evolutionary or a goodness‐of‐fit perspective. Instead, our findings point in the direction that offspring personality, and at similar levels also parent personality might impact the development of externalizing problems during late adolescence. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28303077

  3. Zonal hierarchy of differentiation markers and nestin expression during oval cell mediated rat liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Sarah; Probst, Irmelin; Becker, Heinz; Krause, Petra

    2006-12-01

    Oval cells constitute a heterogeneous population of proliferating progenitors found in rat livers following carcinogenic treatment (2-acetylaminofluorene and 70% hepatectomy). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular pattern of various differentiation and cell type markers in this model of liver regeneration. Immunophenotypic characterisation revealed at least two subtypes emerging from the portal field. First, a population of oval cells formed duct-like structures and expressed bile duct (CD49f) as well as hepatocytic markers (alpha-foetoprotein, CD26). Second, a population of non-ductular oval cells was detected between and distally from the ductules expressing the neural marker nestin and the haematopoietic marker Thy1. Following oval cell isolation, a subset of the nestin-positive cells was shown to co-express hepatocytic and epithelial markers (albumin, CD26, pancytokeratin) and could be clearly distinguished from anti-desmin reactive hepatic stellate cells. The gene expression profiles (RT-PCR) of isolated oval cells and oval cell liver tissue were found to be similar to foetal liver (ED14). The present results suggest that the two oval cell populations are organised in a zonal hierarchy with a marker gradient from the inner (displaying hepatocytic and biliary markers) to the outer zone (showing hepatocytic and extrahepatic progenitor markers) of the proliferating progeny clusters.

  4. Saturn meteorology - A diagnostic assessment of thin-layer configurations for the zonal flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Stone, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager imaging, infrared, and radio observations for Saturn have been recently interpreted by Smith et al. (1982) as an indication that the jet streams observed at the cloud tops extend to depths greater than the 10,000-bar level. This analysis assumes a maximum latitudinal temperature contrast of a few percent, a mean atmospheric rotation rate at depth given by Saturn's ratio period, and no variation with latitude of the bottom pressure level for the zonal flow system. These assumptions are not, however, firmly constrained by observation. The diagnostic analysis of plausible alternative configurations for Saturn's atmospheric structure demonstrates that a thin weather layer system (confined at mid to high latitudes to levels above 200 bar) cannot be excluded by any of the available observations. A quantitative estimate of the effects of moisture condensation (including the differentiation of mean molecular weight) suggests that these might provide the buoyancy contrasts necessary to support a thin-layer flow provided that Saturn's outer envelope is enriched approximately 10 times in water abundance relative to a solar composition atmosphere and strongly differentiated with latitude at the condensation level.

  5. A quantum molecular similarity analysis of changes in molecular electron density caused by basis set flotation and electric field application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sílvia; Duran, Miquel

    1997-08-01

    Quantum molecular similarity (QMS) techniques are used to assess the response of the electron density of various small molecules to application of a static, uniform electric field. Likewise, QMS is used to analyze the changes in electron density generated by the process of floating a basis set. The results obtained show an interrelation between the floating process, the optimum geometry, and the presence of an external field. Cases involving the Le Chatelier principle are discussed, and an insight on the changes of bond critical point properties, self-similarity values and density differences is performed.

  6. Numerical analysis of similarity of barrier discharges in the 0.95 Ne/0.05 Xe mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Kulumbaev, E. B.

    2009-04-15

    Established dynamic regimes of similar (with a scale factor of 10) barrier discharges in the 0.95 Ne/0.05 Xe mixture are simulated in a one-dimensional drift-diffusion model. The similarity is examined of barrier discharges excited in gaps of lengths 0.4 and 4 mm at gas pressures of 350 and 35 Torr and dielectric layer thicknesses of 0.2 and 2 mm, the frequencies of the 400-V ac voltage applied to the discharge electrodes being 100 and 10 kHz, respectively.

  7. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    to get decreasing monotonously to the statistically significant lowest power of 20 K^2 in the height of 450 Pascal level. Similar to the 0-30E longitude region, there is no significant wave in all the heights above the 450 Pascal level. The 190-230 E region shows similar wave characteristics (both the power and height structure) as observed for the 0-30 E region. This would indicate that the here reporting 3.5 day wave might be associated with eastward propagating (observed the zonal phase speed of ~0.5 days per 30 degree longitude) wave number 2 Rossby wave as the wave shows similar characteristics in the two longitude regions of 0-30E and 190-230 E with the longitudinal interval of 180 degrees. Peculiarly, in the 250-280 E region, the wave shows maximum power (120 K^2) in the two heights of 550 and 700 Pascal levels. As a further support for the zonal wave number 2 structure, there is no significant 3.5-day oscillation in all the height levels in the 290-320 E longitude region which is similar to what observed in the 35-60E longitude sector. A detailed investigation of this 3.5 day oscillation will be presented also for other periods of different years.

  8. Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2009-09-01

    This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25

  9. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations before and during Juno's first perijove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Iñurrigarro, P.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Mendikoa, I.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Go, C.; Peach, D.; Colas, F.; Vedovato, M.

    2017-05-01

    We analyze Jupiter observations between December 2015 and August 2016 in the 0.38-1.7 μm wavelength range from the PlanetCam instrument at the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory and in the optical range by amateur observers contributing to the Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory. Over this time Jupiter was in a quiescent state without notable disturbances. Analysis of ground-based images and Hubble Space Telescope observations in February 2016 allowed the retrieval of mean zonal winds from -74.5° to +73.2°. These winds did not change over 2016 or when compared with winds from previous years with the sole exception of intense zonal winds at the North Temperate Belt. We also present results concerning the major wave systems in the North Equatorial Belt and in the upper polar hazes visible in methane absorption bands, a description of the planet's overall cloud morphology and observations of Jupiter hours before Juno's orbit insertion.

  10. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  11. Vaporization and Zonal Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and zonal mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.

  12. ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E.; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electroretinography (ERG) findings. Methods Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U-test used for comparisons of non-parametric continuous variables. Results All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (5 of 5 eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard FAF centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, OCT, and ERG abnormalities. Conclusions UWFFAF along with OCT can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of AZOOR patients. PMID:27755372

  13. Forest response to rising CO 2 drives zonally asymmetric rainfall change over tropical land

    DOE PAGES

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Chen, Yang; Hoffman, Forrest M.; ...

    2018-04-27

    Understanding how anthropogenic CO 2 emissions will influence future precipitation is critical for sustainably managing ecosystems, particularly for drought-sensitive tropical forests. Although tropical precipitation change remains uncertain, nearly all models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 predict a strengthening zonal precipitation asymmetry by 2100, with relative increases over Asian and African tropical forests and decreases over South American forests. Here we show that the plant physiological response to increasing CO 2 is a primary mechanism responsible for this pattern. Applying a simulation design in the Community Earth System Model in which CO 2 increases are isolated over individualmore » continents, we demonstrate that different circulation, moisture and stability changes arise over each continent due to declines in stomatal conductance and transpiration. The sum of local atmospheric responses over individual continents explains the pan-tropical precipitation asymmetry. Our analysis suggests that South American forests may be more vulnerable to rising CO 2 than Asian or African forests.« less

  14. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T. D.; I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 2 University Str., 0186 Tbilisi; Shad, M.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift wavesmore » and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less

  15. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Howard, N. T.

    2016-06-15

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  16. The Role of Monsoon-Like Zonally Asymmetric Heating in Interhemispheric Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gang; Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn

    2017-01-01

    While the importance of the seasonal migration of the zonally averaged Hadley circulation on interhemispheric transport of trace gases has been recognized, few studies have examined the role of the zonally asymmetric monsoonal circulation. This study investigates the role of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating on interhemispheric transport using a dry atmospheric model that is forced by idealized Newtonian relaxation to a prescribed radiative equilibrium temperature. When only the seasonal cycle of zonally symmetric heating is considered, the mean age of air in the Southern Hemisphere since last contact with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude boundary layer, is much larger than the observations. The introduction of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating not only reduces the mean age of tropospheric air to more realistic values, but also produces an upper-tropospheric cross-equatorial transport pathway in boreal summer that resembles the transport pathway simulated in the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Chemistry Transport Model driven with MERRA meteorological fields. These results highlight the monsoon-induced eddy circulation plays an important role in the interhemispheric transport of long-lived chemical constituents.

  17. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Staebler, Gary M.; Candy, John; Howard, Nathan T.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. Finally, the zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ionscale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  18. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by low-frequency dispersive electromagnetic waves in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K

    2004-04-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields can be parametrically excited by low-frequency dispersive driftlike compressional electromagnetic (DDCEM) modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma. For this purpose, we derive a pair of coupled equations which exhibits the nonlinear coupling between DDCEM modes and zonal magnetic fields. The coupled mode equations are Fourier analyzed to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation. The latter depicts that zonal magnetic fields are nonlinearly generated at the expense of the low-frequency DDCEM wave energy. The relevance of our investigation to the transfer of energy from short scale DDCEM waves to long scale zonal magnetic field structures in dark molecular clouds is discussed.

  19. Similarities and differences in signal transduction by interleukin 4 and interleukin 13: analysis of Janus kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Keegan, A D; Johnston, J A; Tortolani, P J; McReynolds, L J; Kinzer, C; O'Shea, J J; Paul, W E

    1995-08-15

    The cytokines interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 induce many of the same biological responses, including class switching to IgE and induction of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and CD23 on human B cells. It has recently been shown that IL-4 induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kDa protein, a substrate called 4PS, and of the Janus kinase (JAK) family members JAK1 and JAK3. Because IL-13 has many functional effects similar to those of IL-4, we compared the ability of IL-4 and IL-13 to activate these signaling molecules in the human multifactor-dependent cell line TF-1. In this report we demonstrate that both IL-4 and IL-13 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS and JAK1. Interestingly, although IL-4 induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3, we did not detect JAK3 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. These data suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 signal in similar ways via the activation of JAK1 and 4PS. However, our data further indicate that there are significant differences because IL-13 does not activate JAK3.

  20. [Rapid analysis of metronidazole tablets by optic-fiber sensing technologies and the similarity of ultraviolet spectra].

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Li, Li; Li, Xin-xia; Yang, Ting; Kong, Bin; Xu, Ping-ping

    2011-02-01

    The paper is to report the development of an optic-fiber sensing technology method to analyze metronidazole tablets rapidly. In this fiber-optic sensing system, the light from source delivering to probe can be dipped into simple-handling sample solution, absorbed by the solution and reflected to the fiber-optic and detected in the detection system at last. Then the drug content can be shown in the screen from the ultraviolet absorption spectra and the consistency between that obtained by this method and that in China Pharmacopoeia can be compared. With regard to data processing, a new method is explored to identify the authenticity of drugs using the similarity between the sample map and the standard pattern by full ultraviolet spectrum. The results indicate that ultraviolet spectra of tablets can be obtained from this technology and the determination results showed no significant difference as compared with the method in China Pharmacopoeia (P > 0.05), and the similarity can be a parameter to identify the authenticity of drugs.

  1. Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.

  2. Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.

    2013-04-15

    Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allowsmore » to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.« less

  3. Nonlinear saturation of the slab ITG instability and zonal flow generation with fully kinetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Sturdevant, Benjamin J.; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E.

    2018-05-01

    Fully kinetic turbulence models are of interest for their potential to validate or replace gyrokinetic models in plasma regimes where the gyrokinetic expansion parameters are marginal. Here, we demonstrate fully kinetic ion capability by simulating the growth and nonlinear saturation of the ion-temperature-gradient instability in shearless slab geometry assuming adiabatic electrons and including zonal flow dynamics. The ion trajectories are integrated using the Lorentz force, and the cyclotron motion is fully resolved. Linear growth and nonlinear saturation characteristics show excellent agreement with analogous gyrokinetic simulations across a wide range of parameters. The fully kinetic simulation accurately reproduces the nonlinearly generated zonal flow. This work demonstrates nonlinear capability, resolution of weak gradient drive, and zonal flow physics, which are critical aspects of modeling plasma turbulence with full ion dynamics.

  4. Jupiter: New estimates of mean zonal flow at the cloud level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reexamine the magnitude differences of the Jovian atmosphere's jets, as determined by Voyager 1 and 2 images, a novel approach is used to ascertain the zonal mean east-west component of motion. This technique is based on digital pattern matching, and is applied on pairs of mapped images to yield a profile of the mean zonal component that reproduces the exact locations of the easterly and westerly jets between + and 60 deg latitude. Results were obtained for all of the Voyager 1 and 2 cylindrical mosaics; the correlation coefficient between Voyagers 1 and 2 in mean zonal flow between + and - 60 deg latitude, determined from violet filter mosaics, is 0.998.

  5. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  6. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  7. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  8. IntNetLncSim: an integrative network analysis method to infer human lncRNA functional similarity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Yang, Haixiu; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Jie; Zhou, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in various biological processes and complex diseases by communicating with mRNAs/miRNAs each other. Exploiting interactions between lncRNAs and mRNA/miRNAs to lncRNA functional similarity (LFS) is an effective method to explore function of lncRNAs and predict novel lncRNA-disease associations. In this article, we proposed an integrative framework, IntNetLncSim, to infer LFS by modeling the information flow in an integrated network that comprises both lncRNA-related transcriptional and post-transcriptional information. The performance of IntNetLncSim was evaluated by investigating the relationship of LFS with the similarity of lncRNA-related mRNA sets (LmRSets) and miRNA sets (LmiRSets). As a result, LFS by IntNetLncSim was significant positively correlated with the LmRSet (Pearson correlation γ2=0.8424) and LmiRSet (Pearson correlation γ2=0.2601). Particularly, the performance of IntNetLncSim is superior to several previous methods. In the case of applying the LFS to identify novel lncRNA-disease relationships, we achieved an area under the ROC curve (0.7300) in experimentally verified lncRNA-disease associations based on leave-one-out cross-validation. Furthermore, highly-ranked lncRNA-disease associations confirmed by literature mining demonstrated the excellent performance of IntNetLncSim. Finally, a web-accessible system was provided for querying LFS and potential lncRNA-disease relationships: http://www.bio-bigdata.com/IntNetLncSim. PMID:27323856

  9. IntNetLncSim: an integrative network analysis method to infer human lncRNA functional similarity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Shi, Hongbo; Wang, Zhenzhen; Hu, Yang; Yang, Haixiu; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Jie; Zhou, Meng

    2016-07-26

    Increasing evidence indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in various biological processes and complex diseases by communicating with mRNAs/miRNAs each other. Exploiting interactions between lncRNAs and mRNA/miRNAs to lncRNA functional similarity (LFS) is an effective method to explore function of lncRNAs and predict novel lncRNA-disease associations. In this article, we proposed an integrative framework, IntNetLncSim, to infer LFS by modeling the information flow in an integrated network that comprises both lncRNA-related transcriptional and post-transcriptional information. The performance of IntNetLncSim was evaluated by investigating the relationship of LFS with the similarity of lncRNA-related mRNA sets (LmRSets) and miRNA sets (LmiRSets). As a result, LFS by IntNetLncSim was significant positively correlated with the LmRSet (Pearson correlation γ2=0.8424) and LmiRSet (Pearson correlation γ2=0.2601). Particularly, the performance of IntNetLncSim is superior to several previous methods. In the case of applying the LFS to identify novel lncRNA-disease relationships, we achieved an area under the ROC curve (0.7300) in experimentally verified lncRNA-disease associations based on leave-one-out cross-validation. Furthermore, highly-ranked lncRNA-disease associations confirmed by literature mining demonstrated the excellent performance of IntNetLncSim. Finally, a web-accessible system was provided for querying LFS and potential lncRNA-disease relationships: http://www.bio-bigdata.com/IntNetLncSim.

  10. Interactive 3D segmentation of the prostate in magnetic resonance images using shape and local appearance similarity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahedi, Maysam; Fenster, Aaron; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Ward, Aaron D.

    2013-03-01

    3D segmentation of the prostate in medical images is useful to prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy guidance, but is time-consuming to perform manually. Clinical translation of computer-assisted segmentation algorithms for this purpose requires a comprehensive and complementary set of evaluation metrics that are informative to the clinical end user. We have developed an interactive 3D prostate segmentation method for 1.5T and 3.0T T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2W MRI) acquired using an endorectal coil. We evaluated our method against manual segmentations of 36 3D images using complementary boundary-based (mean absolute distance; MAD), regional overlap (Dice similarity coefficient; DSC) and volume difference (ΔV) metrics. Our technique is based on inter-subject prostate shape and local boundary appearance similarity. In the training phase, we calculated a point distribution model (PDM) and a set of local mean intensity patches centered on the prostate border to capture shape and appearance variability. To segment an unseen image, we defined a set of rays - one corresponding to each of the mean intensity patches computed in training - emanating from the prostate centre. We used a radial-based search strategy and translated each mean intensity patch along its corresponding ray, selecting as a candidate the boundary point with the highest normalized cross correlation along each ray. These boundary points were then regularized using the PDM. For the whole gland, we measured a mean+/-std MAD of 2.5+/-0.7 mm, DSC of 80+/-4%, and ΔV of 1.1+/-8.8 cc. We also provided an anatomic breakdown of these metrics within the prostatic base, mid-gland, and apex.

  11. An Analysis of the Reading Strategies Used by Deaf and Hearing Adults: Similarities and Differences in Phonological Processing and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestri, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study is a mixed methods analysis of reading processes and language experiences of deaf and hearing readers. The sample includes four groups each with fifteen adults--identified as: deaf/high-achieving readers, deaf/struggling/non-academic readers, hearing/high-achieving readers, and hearing/non-academic readers. The purpose of this study is…

  12. Using a Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis to Examine Conceptual Similarities of Three Self-Regulated Learning Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Jamieson-Noel, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Background: A programme of construct validity research is necessary to clarify previous research on self-regulation and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: A multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis was conducted to assess convergent and discriminant validity of three self-regulation measures: the Learning and Study Strategies…

  13. A Meta-Analysis: Identification of Common Mir-145 Target Genes that have Similar Behavior in Different GEO Datasets.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, Elnaz; Guzel, Esra; Ozgurses, Mete Emir; Demirel, Goksun; Aydin, Nizamettin; Ozen, Mustafa

    MicroRNAs, which are small regulatory RNAs, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding 3'-UTR of their mRNA targets. Their deregulation has been shown to cause increased proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. miR-145, an important tumor supressor microRNA, has shown to be downregulated in many cancer types and has crucial roles in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, invasion, recurrence, and chemo-radioresistance. Our aim is to investigate potential common target genes of miR-145, and to help understanding the underlying molecular pathways of tumor pathogenesis in association with those common target genes. Eight published microarray datasets, where targets of mir-145 were investigated in cell lines upon mir-145 over expression, were included into this study for meta-analysis. Inter group variabilities were assessed by box-plot analysis. Microarray datasets were analyzed using GEOquery package in Bioconducter 3.2 with R version 3.2.2 and two-way Hierarchical Clustering was used for gene expression data analysis. Meta-analysis of different GEO datasets showed that UNG, FUCA2, DERA, GMFB, TF, and SNX2 were commonly downregulated genes, whereas MYL9 and TAGLN were found to be commonly upregulated upon mir-145 over expression in prostate, breast, esophageal, bladder cancer, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Biological process, molecular function, and pathway analysis of these potential targets of mir-145 through functional enrichments in PPI network demonstrated that those genes are significantly involved in telomere maintenance, DNA binding and repair mechanisms. As a conclusion, our results indicated that mir-145, through targeting its common potential targets, may significantly contribute to tumor pathogenesis in distinct cancer types and might serve as an important target for cancer therapy.

  14. Endoscopic and Open Release Similarly Safe for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, Haris S.; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Shrier, Ian; Lunn, Michael P.; Brassington, Ruth; Scholten, Rob J. P.; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Background The Endoscopic Release of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (ECTR) is a minimal invasive approach for the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. There is scepticism regarding the safety of this technique, based on the assumption that this is a rather “blind” procedure and on the high number of severe complications that have been reported in the literature. Purpose To evaluate whether there is evidence supporting a higher risk after ECTR in comparison to the conventional open release. Methods We searched MEDLINE (January 1966 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (November 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, issue 11 in The Cochrane Library). We hand-searched reference lists of included studies. We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (e.g. study using alternation, date of birth, or case record number) that compare any ECTR with any OCTR technique. Safety was assessed by the incidence of major, minor and total number of complications, recurrences, and re-operations.The total time needed before return to work or to return to daily activities was also assessed. We synthesized data using a random-effects meta-analysis in STATA. We conducted a sensitivity analysis for rare events using binomial likelihood. We judged the conclusiveness of meta-analysis calculating the conditional power of meta-analysis. Conclusions ECTR is associated with less time off work or with daily activities. The assessment of major complications, reoperations and recurrence of symptoms does not favor either of the interventions. There is an uncertain advantage of ECTR with respect to total minor complications (more transient paresthesia but fewer skin-related complications). Future studies are unlikely to alter these findings because of the rarity of the outcome. The effect of a learning curve might be responsible for reduced recurrences and reoperations with ECTR in studies that are more recent

  15. Endoscopic and Open Release Similarly Safe for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Shrier, Ian; Lunn, Michael P; Brassington, Ruth; Scholten, Rob J P; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    The Endoscopic Release of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (ECTR) is a minimal invasive approach for the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. There is scepticism regarding the safety of this technique, based on the assumption that this is a rather "blind" procedure and on the high number of severe complications that have been reported in the literature. To evaluate whether there is evidence supporting a higher risk after ECTR in comparison to the conventional open release. We searched MEDLINE (January 1966 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (November 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, issue 11 in The Cochrane Library). We hand-searched reference lists of included studies. We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (e.g. study using alternation, date of birth, or case record number) that compare any ECTR with any OCTR technique. Safety was assessed by the incidence of major, minor and total number of complications, recurrences, and re-operations.The total time needed before return to work or to return to daily activities was also assessed. We synthesized data using a random-effects meta-analysis in STATA. We conducted a sensitivity analysis for rare events using binomial likelihood. We judged the conclusiveness of meta-analysis calculating the conditional power of meta-analysis. ECTR is associated with less time off work or with daily activities. The assessment of major complications, reoperations and recurrence of symptoms does not favor either of the interventions. There is an uncertain advantage of ECTR with respect to total minor complications (more transient paresthesia but fewer skin-related complications). Future studies are unlikely to alter these findings because of the rarity of the outcome. The effect of a learning curve might be responsible for reduced recurrences and reoperations with ECTR in studies that are more recent, although formal statistical analysis failed

  16. The Relationship Between the Zonal Mean ITCZ and Regional Precipitation during the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda, K.; Noone, D.; Konecky, B.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of the zonal mean Tropical Rain Belt (TRB, i.e. the ITCZ + the land-based monsoons) are often inferred from individual proxy records of precipitation or other hydroclimatic variables. However, these inferences can be misleading. Here, an isotope-enabled climate model simulation is used to evaluate metrics of the zonal mean ITCZ vs. regional hydrological characteristics during the mid-Holocene (MH, 6 kya). The MH provides a unique perspective on the relationship between the ITCZ and regional hydrology because of large, orbitally-driven shifts in tropical precipitation as well as a critical mass of proxy records. By using a climate model with simulated water isotopes, characteristics of atmospheric circulation and water transport processes can be inferred, and comparison with isotope proxies can be made more directly. We find that estimations of the zonal-mean ITCZ are insufficient for evaluating regional responses of hydrological cycles to forcing changes. For example, one approximation of a 1.5-degree northward shift in the zonal-mean ITCZ position during the MH corresponded well with northward shifts in maximum rainfall in tropical Africa, but did not match southward shifts in the tropical Pacific or longitudinal shifts in the Indian monsoon region. In many regions, the spatial distribution of water vapor isotopes suggests that changes in moisture source and atmospheric circulation were a greater influence on precipitation distribution, intensity, and isotope ratio than the average northward shift in ITCZ latitude. These findings reinforce the idea that using tropical hydrological proxy records to infer zonal-mean characteristics of the ITCZ may be misleading. Rather, tropical proxy records of precipitation, particularly those that record precipitation isotopes, serve as a guideline for regional hydrological changes while model simulations can put them in the context of zonal mean tropical convergence.

  17. Analysis of HIV-1 intersubtype recombination breakpoints suggests region with high pairing probability may be a more fundamental factor than sequence similarity affecting HIV-1 recombination.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Li, Lin; Gui, Tao; Liu, Siyang; Li, Hanping; Han, Jingwan; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Jingyun

    2016-09-21

    With increasing data on HIV-1, a more relevant molecular model describing mechanism details of HIV-1 genetic recombination usually requires upgrades. Currently an incomplete structural understanding of the copy choice mechanism along with several other issues in the field that lack elucidation led us to perform an analysis of the correlation between breakpoint distributions and (1) the probability of base pairing, and (2) intersubtype genetic similarity to further explore structural mechanisms. Near full length sequences of URFs from Asia, Europe, and Africa (one sequence/patient), and representative sequences of worldwide CRFs were retrieved from the Los Alamos HIV database. Their recombination patterns were analyzed by jpHMM in detail. Then the relationships between breakpoint distributions and (1) the probability of base pairing, and (2) intersubtype genetic similarities were investigated. Pearson correlation test showed that all URF groups and the CRF group exhibit the same breakpoint distribution pattern. Additionally, the Wilcoxon two-sample test indicated a significant and inexplicable limitation of recombination in regions with high pairing probability. These regions have been found to be strongly conserved across distinct biological states (i.e., strong intersubtype similarity), and genetic similarity has been determined to be a very important factor promoting recombination. Thus, the results revealed an unexpected disagreement between intersubtype similarity and breakpoint distribution, which were further confirmed by genetic similarity analysis. Our analysis reveals a critical conflict between results from natural HIV-1 isolates and those from HIV-1-based assay vectors in which genetic similarity has been shown to be a very critical factor promoting recombination. These results indicate the region with high-pairing probabilities may be a more fundamental factor affecting HIV-1 recombination than sequence similarity in natural HIV-1 infections. Our

  18. Single-site Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery Provides Similar Clinical Outcomes Compared to Standard Laparoscopic Surgery: An Analysis of 626 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, William; Messaris, Evangelos; Berg, Arthur S.; Stewart, David B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Compared to standard laparoscopy, single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgerymay potentially offer advantages by creating fewer surgical incisions and providing a multi-functional trocar. Previous comparisons, however, have been limited by small sample sizes and selection bias. OBJECTIVE To compare 60-day outcomes between standard laparoscopic and single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery patients undergoing elective and urgent surgeries. DESIGN This was an unselected retrospective cohort study comparing patients who underwent elective and unplanned standard laparoscopic or single-site laparoscopic colorectal resections for benign and malignant disease between 2008 and 2014. Outcomes were compared using univariate analyses. SETTING This study was conducted at a single institution. PATIENTS A total of 626 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Morbidity and mortality within 60 postoperative days. RESULTS 318 (51%) and 308 (49%) patients underwent standard laparoscopic and single-site laparoscopic procedures, respectively. No significant difference was noted in mean operative time (Standard laparoscopy 182.1 ± 81.3 vs. Single-site laparoscopy 177±86.5, p=0.30) and postoperative length of stay (Standard laparoscopy 4.8±3.4 vs. Single-site laparoscopy 5.5 ± 6.9, p=0.14). Conversions to laparotomy and 60-day readmissions were also similar for both cohorts across all procedures performed. A significant difference was identified in the number of patients who developed postoperative complications (Standard laparoscopy 19.2% vs. Single-site laparoscopy 10.7%, p=0.004), especially with respect to surgical-site infections (Standard laparoscopy 11.3% vs. Single-site laparoscopy 5.8%, p=0.02). LIMITATIONS This was a retrospective, single institution study. CONCLUSIONS Single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery demonstrates similar results to standard laparoscopic colorectal surgery in regards to

  19. Triple Cascade Behavior in Quasigeostrophic and Drift Turbulence and Generation of Zonal Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2009-09-11

    We study quasigeostrophic (QG) and plasma drift turbulence within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. We focus on the zonostrophy, an extra invariant in the CHM model, and on its role in the formation of zonal jets. We use a generalized Fjoertoft argument for the energy, enstrophy, and zonostrophy and show that they cascade anisotropically into nonintersecting sectors in k space with the energy cascading towards large zonal scales. Using direct numerical simulations of the CHM equation, we show that zonostrophy is well conserved, and the three invariants cascade as predicted by the Fjoertoft argument.

  20. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Generation of large-scale eddies and zonal winds in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Astafieva, N. M.

    2008-06-01

    The review deals with a theoretical description of the generation of zonal winds and vortices in a turbulent barotropic atmosphere. These large-scale structures largely determine the dynamics and transport processes in planetary atmospheres. The role of nonlinear effects on the formation of mesoscale vortical structures (cyclones and anticyclones) is examined. A new mechanism for zonal wind generation in planetary atmospheres is discussed. It is based on the parametric generation of convective cells by finite-amplitude Rossby waves. Weakly turbulent spectra of Rossby waves are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the results of satellite microwave monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Type Synthesis Products: Are they Similar to Organics in Chondritic Meteorites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Locke, Darren R.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis of organic compounds has been hypothesized to occur in the early solar nebula that formed our Solar System. FTT is a collection of abiotic chemical reactions that convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen over nano-catalysts into hydrocarbons and other more complex aromatic compounds. We hypothesized that FTT can generate similar organic compounds as those seen in chondritic meteorites; fragments of asteroids that are characteristic of the early solar system. Specific goals for this project included: 1) determining the effects of different FTT catalyst, reaction temperature, and cycles on organic compounds produced, 2) imaging of organic coatings found on the catalyst, and 3) comparison of organic compounds produced experimentally by FTT synthesis and those found in the ordinary chondrite LL5 Chelyabinsk meteorite. We used Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (PY-GCMS) to release organic compounds present in experimental FTT and meteorite samples, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to take images of organic films on catalyst grains.

  2. Comparative analysis of total body vs. dermatoscopic photographic monitoring of nevi in similar patient populations at risk for cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Agnessa Gadeliya; Florell, Scott R.; Hyde, Mark; Bowen, Glen M.; Grossman, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background Our previous experience monitoring nevi in high risk patients by serial digital epiluminescence microscopy (DELM) photography achieved low biopsy rates, but was limited by melanomas presenting as new lesions or arising from nevi that had not been photographed. Objective To determine whether biopsy rates, efficiency of melanoma detection, and melanoma origin (de novo vs. nevus-derived) differed in a similar patient population monitored by total body (TB) photography. Methods 1076 patients (including 187 from prior cohort) underwent TB photography and were monitored using photographs obtained at the initial visit. Risk factors and median monitoring periods for these patients were comparable to patients previously monitored by DELM photography. Results 275 biopsies were performed in 467 patients on follow-up visits. Of 12 melanomas detected on follow-up, five were invasive; five presented as changing lesions and two as new lesions; nine arose de novo and the remainder was nevus-derived. Conclusions In our experience with both approaches, monitoring patients at risk for melanoma by TB (compared to DELM) photography was associated with lower biopsy rates and lower nevus to melanoma ratios, and facilitated detection of both new and changing lesions. In both cohorts, the majority of melanomas detected on follow-up arose de novo. PMID:20653722

  3. [A multi-measure analysis of the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects in multi-attribute decision making].

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    In multi-attribute decision making, the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects warrant specific investigation as they cause violations of principles in rational choice. In order to investigate these three effects simultaneously, we assigned 145 undergraduates to three context effect conditions. We requested them to solve the same 20 hypothetical purchase problems, each of which had three alternatives described along two attributes. We measured their choices, confidence ratings, and response times. We found that manipulating the third alternative had significant context effects for choice proportions and confidence ratings in all three conditions. Furthermore, the attraction effect was the most prominent with regard to choice proportions. In the compromise effect condition, although the choice proportion of the third alternative was high, the confidence rating was low and the response time was long. These results indicate that the relationship between choice proportions and confidence ratings requires further theoretical investigation. They also suggest that a combination of experimental and modeling studies is imperative to reveal the mechanisms underlying the context effects in multi-attribute, multi-alternative decision making.

  4. Geographic distribution of zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level from VMC camera on Venus Express: Influence of Venus topography through stationary gravity waves vertical propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Marcq, Emmanuel; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top collected with VMC camera on board Venus Express allowed to derive a large number of wind measurements at altitude 67±2 km from tracking of cloud features in the period 2006-2012. Both manual (45,600) and digital (391,600) individual wind measurements over 127 orbits were analyzed showing various patterns with latitude and local time. A new longitude-latitude geographic map of the zonal wind shows a conspicuous region of strongly decreased zonal wind, a remarkable feature that was unknown up to now. While the average zonal wind near equator (from 5°S to 15°s) is -100.9 m/s in the longitude range 200-330°, it reaches -83.4 m/s in the range 60-100°, a difference of 17.5 m/s. When compared to the altimetry map of Venus, it is found that the zonal wind pattern is well correlated with the underlying relief in the region of Aphrodite Terra, with a downstream shift of about 30° (˜3,200 km). We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. A similar phenomenon is known to operate on Earth with an influence on mesospheric winds. The LMD-GCM for Venus was run with or without topography, with and without a parameterization of gravity waves and does not display such an observed change of velocity near equator. The cloud albedo map at 365 nm varies also in longitude and latitude. We speculate that it might be the result of increased vertical mixing associated to wave breaking, and decreased abundance of the UV absorber which makes the contrast in images. The impact of these new findings on current super rotation theories remains to be assessed. This work was triggered by the presence of a conspicuous peak at 117 days in a time series of wind measurements. This is the length of the solar day as seen at the

  5. Meta-Analysis of Quantification Methods Shows that Archaea and Bacteria Have Similar Abundances in the Subseafloor

    PubMed Central

    May, Megan K.; Kevorkian, Richard T.; Steen, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition FISH (CARD-FISH), polyribonucleotide FISH, or quantitative PCR (qPCR). To estimate efficiency, we defined “yield” to be the sum of bacteria and archaea counted by these techniques divided by the total number of cells. In seawater, the yield was high (median, 71%) and was similar for FISH, CARD-FISH, and polyribonucleotide FISH. In sediments, only measurements by CARD-FISH in which archaeal cells were permeabilized with proteinase K showed high yields (median, 84%). Therefore, the majority of cells in both environments appear to be alive, since they contain intact ribosomes. In sediments, the sum of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene qPCR counts was not closely related to cell counts, even after accounting for variations in copy numbers per genome. However, qPCR measurements were precise relative to other qPCR measurements made on the same samples. qPCR is therefore a reliable relative quantification method. Inconsistent results for the relative abundance of bacteria versus archaea in deep subsurface sediments were resolved by the removal of CARD-FISH measurements in which lysozyme was used to permeabilize archaeal cells and qPCR measurements which used ARCH516 as an archaeal primer or TaqMan probe. Data from best-practice methods showed that archaea and bacteria decreased as the depth in seawater and marine sediments increased, although archaea decreased more slowly. PMID:24096423

  6. The handyman's brain: a neuroimaging meta-analysis describing the similarities and differences between grip type and pattern in humans.

    PubMed

    King, M; Rauch, H G; Stein, D J; Brooks, S J

    2014-11-15

    Handgrip is a ubiquitous human movement that was critical in our evolution. However, the differences in brain activity between grip type (i.e. power or precision) and pattern (i.e. dynamic or static) are not fully understood. In order to address this, we performed Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analysis between grip type and grip pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. ALE provides a probabilistic summary of the BOLD response in hundreds of subjects, which is often beyond the scope of a single fMRI experiment. We collected data from 28 functional magnetic resonance data sets, which included a total of 398 male and female subjects. Using ALE, we analyzed the BOLD response during power, precision, static and dynamic grip in a range of forces and age in right handed healthy individuals without physical impairment, cardiovascular or neurological dysfunction using a variety of grip tools, feedback and experimental training. Power grip generates unique activation in the postcentral gyrus (areas 1 and 3b) and precision grip generates unique activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA, area 6) and precentral gyrus (area 4a). Dynamic handgrip generates unique activation in the precentral gyrus (area 4p) and SMA (area 6) and of particular interest, both dynamic and static grip share activation in the area 2 of the postcentral gyrus, an area implicated in the evolution of handgrip. According to effect size analysis, precision and dynamic grip generates stronger activity than power and static, respectively. Our study demonstrates specific differences between grip type and pattern. However, there was a large degree of overlap in the pre and postcentral gyrus, SMA and areas of the frontal-parietal-cerebellar network, which indicates that other mechanisms are potentially involved in regulating handgrip. Further, our study provides empirically based regions of interest, which can be downloaded here within, that can be used to more effectively

  7. How to "Save Your Skin" When Processing L2 Idioms: An Eye Movement Analysis of Idiom Transparency and Cross-Language Similarity among Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicka, Anna B.; Heredia, Roberto R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study looks at whether bilinguals varying in language dominance show a processing advantage for idiomatic over non-idiomatic phrases and to what extent this effect is modulated by idiom transparency (i.e., the degree to which the idiom's figurative meaning can be inferred from its literal analysis) and cross-language similarity (i.e.,…

  8. Variations in zonal fruit starch concentrations of apples – a developmental phenomenon or an indication of ripening?

    PubMed Central

    Doerflinger, Franziska C; Miller, William B; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of starch hydrolysis in stem, equatorial, and calyx zones of ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Empire’ apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.) during maturation and ripening, and in ‘Gala’ apples in response to propylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments after harvest, were studied. Differences in zonal starch concentrations were found for ‘Empire’ and ‘Gala’ fruits, but not for ‘Honeycrisp’. During maturation and ripening of ‘Empire’, the concentration of starch was highest in the calyx end and lowest in the stem region. Differences in rates of starch hydrolysis among zones were not detected. ‘Honeycrisp’ and ‘Empire’ had the highest concentration of sorbitol in the calyx region, whereas it was highest in the stem-end region in ‘Gala’. The distribution differences of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were similar in all three cultivars; higher fructose and glucose concentrations in the stem region, and higher sucrose concentrations in the calyx end of the fruit. Postharvest treatment of ‘Gala’ with propylene did not affect the internal ethylene concentration of the fruit but 1-MCP markedly inhibited it. Starch concentrations were highest in the calyx end but gradients of starch among zones were not changed by postharvest treatment. The rate of hydrolysis was slowed by 1-MCP treatment, but was unaffected by propylene. Postharvest treatments influenced sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations. Patterns of starch concentration among the zones did not confirm differences in ripening, but reflected its uneven distribution throughout the fruit during development. Therefore, measured differences in zonal starch are most likely related to starch accumulation during fruit development, rather than differences in rates of starch degradation during ripening. PMID:26504584

  9. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maletzki, Claudia; Huehns, Maja; Bauer, Ingrid; Ripperger, Tim; Mork, Maureen M; Vilar, Eduardo; Klöcking, Sabine; Zettl, Heike; Prall, Friedrich; Linnebacher, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFβR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis of the similar epicenter earthquakes on 22 January 2013 and 01 June 2013, Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, Mostafa; Barth, Andreas; Ali, Sherif M.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-09-01

    On 22 January 2013 an earthquake with local magnitude ML 4.1 occurred in the central part of the Gulf of Suez. Six months later on 1 June 2013 another earthquake with local magnitude ML 5.1 took place at the same epicenter and different depths. These two perceptible events were recorded and localized by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) and additional networks in the region. The purpose of this study is to determine focal mechanisms and source parameters of both earthquakes to analyze their tectonic relation. We determine the focal mechanisms by applying moment tensor inversion and first motion analysis of P- and S-waves. Both sources reveal oblique focal mechanisms with normal faulting and strike-slip components on differently oriented faults. The source mechanism of the larger event on 1 June in combination with the location of aftershock sequence indicates a left-lateral slip on N-S striking fault structure in 21 km depth that is in conformity with the NE-SW extensional Shmin (orientation of minimum horizontal compressional stress) and the local fault pattern. On the other hand, the smaller earthquake on 22 January with a shallower hypocenter in 16 km depth seems to have happened on a NE-SW striking fault plane sub-parallel to Shmin. Thus, here an energy release on a transfer fault connecting dominant rift-parallel structures might have resulted in a stress transfer, triggering the later ML 5.1 earthquake. Following Brune's model and using displacement spectra, we calculate the dynamic source parameters for the two events. The estimated source parameters for the 22 January 2013 and 1 June 2013 earthquakes are fault length (470 and 830 m), stress drop (1.40 and 2.13 MPa), and seismic moment (5.47E+21 and 6.30E+22 dyn cm) corresponding to moment magnitudes of MW 3.8 and 4.6, respectively.

  11. Comparative analysis of topoisomerase IB inhibition and DNA intercalation by flavonoids and similar compounds: structural determinates of activity

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds have been shown to inhibit human topoisomerase IB (topo I) through both inhibition of relaxation activity and through stabilization of the cleavable complex (poisoning). Some flavonoids have also been shown to intercalate DNA, and an association of topoisomerase inhibition with intercalation has been noted. We surveyed 34 polyphenolic compounds, primarily flavonoid glycones and aglycones, for their ability to inhibit topo I and to intercalate DNA using an in vitro gel electrophoresis method. We show that the most potent topo I poisons are the flavones and flavonols, and that these generally, but not always, are found to be DNA intercalators. There was no clear correlation, however, of topo-I-poisoning activity with the degree of DNA unwinding. Surprisingly, both DNA intercalation and topo I poisoning were shown to occur with some flavone glycones, including the C-glycosylflavone orientin. Inhibition of relaxation activity by flavonoids was found to be difficult to quantify and was most likely to be due to non-specific inhibition through flavonoid aggregation. As part of a structure–activity analysis, we also investigated the acid–base chemistry of flavonoids and determined that many flavonoids show acid–base activity with a pKa in the physiological pH region. For this reason, subtle pH changes can have significant effects on solution activity of flavonoids and their concomitant biological activity. In addition, these effects may be complicated by pH-dependent aggregation and oxidative degradation. Finally, we develop a simple model for the intercalation of flavonoids into DNA and discuss possible consequences of intercalation and topoisomerase inhibition on a number of cellular processes. PMID:15312049

  12. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  13. Time-varying zonal asymmetries in stratospheric nitrous oxide and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Previously analyses of Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data of atmospheric constituent gases have dealt almost exclusively with zonal means (and mostly monthly means), owing perhaps to concern over data quality. The purpose of this note is to show that, with care, time-dependent zonally-asymmetric features may be recovered from the SAMS nitrous oxide and methane data. As an example, we demonstrate the existence of zonal wave-1 constituent perturbations with periods of a few weeks in the middle and upper stratosphere. When the perturbations are normalized by the constituent zonal-mean mixing ratio to compensate for the slowly varying (in both space and time) background concentration of constituents, wavepacket-like features are found over all latitudes and seasons in the three-year SAMS record. One specific low-latitude case discussed had features which appear to be consistent with constituent oscillations induced by episodic equatorial Kelvin waves. Further studies are needed to better identify the nature of the plethora of observed wave-like phenomena.

  14. Numerical simulation of phenomenon on zonal disintegration in deep underground mining in case of unsupported roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengshan; Wu, Xinli; Li, Xia; Zhu, Dekang

    2018-02-01

    Zonal disintegration phenomenon was found in deep mining roadway surrounding rock. It seriously affects the safety of mining and underground engineering and it may lead to the occurrence of natural disasters. in deep mining roadway surrounding rock, tectonic stress in deep mining roadway rock mass, horizontal stress is much greater than the vertical stress, When the direction of maximum principal stress is parallel to the axis of the roadway in deep mining, this is the main reasons for Zonal disintegration phenomenon. Using ABAQUS software to numerical simulation of the three-dimensional model of roadway rupture formation process systematically, and the study shows that when The Direction of maximum main stress in deep underground mining is along the roadway axial direction, Zonal disintegration phenomenon in deep underground mining is successfully reproduced by our numerical simulation..numerical simulation shows that using ABAQUA simulation can reproduce Zonal disintegration phenomenon and the formation process of damage of surrounding rock can be reproduced. which have important engineering practical significance.

  15. Self-Organization of Zonal Jets in Outer Planet Atmospheres: Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechnical theory of a two-dimensional Euler fluid is appleid for the first time to explore the spontaneous self-oganization of zonal jets in outer planet atmospheres. Globally conserved integralls of motion are found to play a central role in defining jet structure.

  16. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Educational Change Leadership through a New Zonal Theory Lens: Using Mathematics Curriculum Change as the Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen; Branson, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines actions that educational change leaders can take to better meet their curriculum change obligations and responsibilities. In order to do this we extend Vygotsky's (1978) zonal theory and its many extensions and elaborations by positioning educational change leadership within this theory. We rename the zones to Zone of Principal…

  19. Isolation of Intact Chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis by Zonal Centrifugation 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Aurea; Pollack, Marilyn; Mendiola, Leticia R.; Hoffmann, H.-P.; Brown, D. H.; Price, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Chloroplasts were separated from Euglena gracilis by zonal centrifugation at low speed in density gradients of Ficoll or dextran. The chloroplasts were intact by the criteria of ultrastructure and their content of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and soluble protein. The chloroplasts also contained ribosomes and ribosomal RNA uncontaminated by the corresponding cytoplasmic particles. Images PMID:16657599

  20. The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin

    1998-09-01

    During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.

  1. On the Longitudinal Morphology of Zonal Irregularity Drift Measured using Networks of GPS Scintillation Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Valladares, C. E.; Delay, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    A complete characterization of field-aligned ionospheric irregularities responsible for the scintillation of satellite signals includes not only their spectral properties (power spectral strength, spectral index, anisotropy ratio, and outer-scale) but also their horizontal drift velocity. From a system impacts perspective, the horizontal drift velocity is important in that it dictates the rate of signal fading and also, to an extent, the level of phase fluctuations encountered by the receiver. From a physics perspective, studying the longitudinal morphology of zonal irregularity may lead to an improved understanding of the F region dynamo and regional electrodynamics at low latitudes. The irregularity drift at low latitudes is predominantly zonal and is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of satellite signals made by a pair of closely-spaced antennas. The AFRL-SCINDA network operates a small number of VHF spaced-antenna systems at low latitude stations for this purpose. A far greater number of GPS scintillation monitors are operated by AFRL-SCINDA (25-30) and the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are situated too far apart to monitor the drift using cross-correlation techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory (Rino, Radio Sci., 1979) to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GPS measurements of S4, sigma-phi, and the propagation geometry alone. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this technique requires assumptions for the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment show that the ratio of sigma-phi to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift, and hence the zonal drift can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. In

  2. Similar call signs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-18

    This presentation was given at the Partnership for Safety Meeting in Washington, DC. It examines the similarities that are found when calls signs are visually similar or similar sounding. Visually similar call signs increase the chances of controller...

  3. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  4. Theoretical and experimental zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift velocity observations and their comparison with model calculations. The bubble zonal velocities were measured using airglow OI630 nm all-sky digital images and the model calculations were performed taking into account flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and conductivity weighted neutral zonal winds. The digital images were obtained from an all-sky imaging system operated over the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (Geogr. 22.5S, 45W, dip angle 31.5S) during the period from October 1998 to August 2000. Out of the 138 nights of imager observation, 29 nights with the presence of plasma bubbles are used in this study. These 29 nights correspond to geomagnetically rather quiet days (∑K P < 24+) and were grouped according to season. During the early night hours, the calculated zonal drift velocities were found to be larger than the experimental values. The best matching between the calculated and observed zonal velocities were seen to be for a few hours around midnight. The model calculation showed two humps around 20 LT and 24 LT that were not present in the data. Average decelerations obtained from linear regression between 20 LT and 24 LT were found to be: (a) Spring 1998, -8.61 ms -1 h -1; (b) Summer 1999, -0.59 ms -1 h -1; (c) Spring 1999, -11.72 ms -1 h -1; and (d) Summer 2000, -8.59 ms -1 h -1. Notice that Summer and Winter here correspond to southern hemisphere Summer and Winter, not northern hemisphere.

  5. GRAVOTURBULENT PLANETESIMAL FORMATION: THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF LONG-LIVED ZONAL FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, K.; Klahr, H.; Johansen, A., E-mail: dittrich@mpia.de

    2013-02-15

    Recent numerical simulations have shown long-lived axisymmetric sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of disks unstable to the magnetorotational instability. This paper covers our study of the strength and lifetime of zonal flows and the resulting long-lived gas over- and underdensities as functions of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. We further investigate dust particle concentrations without feedback on the gas and without self-gravity. The strength and lifetime of zonal flows increase with the radial extent of the simulation box, but decrease withmore » the azimuthal box size. Our simulations support earlier results that zonal flows have a natural radial length scale of 5-7 gas pressure scale heights. This is the first study that combines three-dimensional MHD simulations of zonal flows and dust particles feeling the gas pressure. The pressure bumps trap particles with St = 1 very efficiently. We show that St = 0.1 particles (of some centimeters in size if at 5 AU in a minimum mass solar nebula) reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially. This opens the path for particles of St = 0.1 and dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 or for particles of St {>=} 0.5 and dust-to-gas ratio 10{sup -4} to still reach densities that potentially trigger the streaming instability and thus gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals.« less

  6. Equinoctial asymmetry in the zonal distribution of scintillation as observed by GPS receivers in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Husin, A.; Liu, Huixin; Saito, S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the azimuthal distribution of amplitude scintillation observed by Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at Pontianak (0.0°S, 109.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.8°S) and Bandung (6.9°S, 107.6°E; magnetic latitude: 16.7°S) in Indonesia in March and September from 2011 to 2015. The scintillation is found to occur more to the west than to the east in March at both stations, whereas no such zonal difference is found in September. We also analyze the zonal scintillation drift as estimated using three closely spaced single-frequency GPS receivers at Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.9°S) in Indonesia during 2003-2015 and the zonal thermospheric neutral wind as measured by the CHAMP satellite at longitudes of 90°-120°E during 2001-2008. We find that the velocities of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind decrease with increasing latitudes. Interestingly, the latitudinal gradients of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind are steeper in March than in September. These steeper March gradients may be responsible for the increased westward altitudinal and latitudinal tilting of plasma bubbles in March. This equinoctial asymmetry could be responsible for the observed westward bias in scintillation in March, because the scintillation is more likely to occur when radio waves pass through longer lengths of plasma irregularities in the plasma bubbles.

  7. An Update on Oceanic Precipitation Rate and its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Stephens, Graeme; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Lebstock, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the estimation of the global mean and zonal distribution of oceanic precipitation rate using complementary information from advanced precipitation measuring sensors and provides an independent reference to assess current precipitation products. Precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) and CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) were merged, as the two complementary sensors yield an unprecedented range of sensitivity to quantify rainfall from drizzle through the most intense rates. At higher latitudes, where TRMM PR does not exist, precipitation estimates from Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) complemented CloudSat CPR to capture intense precipitation rates. The high sensitivity of CPR allows estimation of snow rate, an important type of precipitation at high latitudes, not directly observed in current merged precipitation products. Using the merged precipitation estimate from the CloudSat, TRMM, and Aqua platforms (this estimate is abbreviated to MCTA), the authors' estimate for 3-yr (2007-09) nearglobal (80degS-80degN) oceanic mean precipitation rate is approx. 2.94mm/day. This new estimate of mean global ocean precipitation is about 9% higher than that of the corresponding Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) value (2.68mm/day) and about 4% higher than that of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; 2.82mm/day). Furthermore, MCTA suggests distinct differences in the zonal distribution of precipitation rate from that depicted in GPCPand CMAP, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

  8. Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Fang, Min; Guo, Min-Min

    2016-12-27

    To reveal the force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation. A total of 15 participants were recruited in this study and assigned to an expert group, a skilled group and a novice group, with 5 participants in each group. Mechanical signals were collected from a biomechanical testing platform, and these data were further observed via similarity analysis and cluster analysis. Comparing the force waveforms of manipulation revealed that the manipulation forces were similar between the expert group and the skilled group (P>0.05). The mean value of vertical force was 9.8 N, and 95% CI rang from 6.37 to 14.70 N, but there were significant differences compared with the novice group (P<0.05). The result of overall similarity coefficient cluster analysis showed that two kinds of manipulation forces curves were existed between the expert group and the skilled group. Pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation is a kind of light stimulation manipulation on the acupoint, and force characteristics of double waveforms continuously alternated during manual operation.

  9. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  10. Results of a zonally truncated three-dimensional model of the Venus middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equatorial rotational speed of the solid surface of Venus is only 4 m s(exp-1), the atmospheric rotational speed reaches a maximum of approximately 100 m s(exp-1) near the equatorial cloud top level (65 to 70 km). This phenomenon, known as superrotation, is the central dynamical problem of the Venus atmosphere. We report here the results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the mechanism for maintaining the equatorial cloud top rotation. Maintenance of an equatorial rotational speed maximum above the surface requires waves or eddies that systematically transport angular momentum against its zonal mean gradient. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is driven thermally and acts to reduce the rotational speed at the equatorial cloud top level; thus wave or eddy transport must counter this tendency as well as friction. Planetary waves arising from horizontal shear instability of the zonal flow (barotropic instability) could maintain the equatorial rotation by transporting angular momentum horizontally from midlatitudes toward the equator. Alternatively, vertically propagating waves could provide the required momentum source. The relative motion between the rotating atmosphere and the pattern of solar heating, which as a maximum where solar radiation is absorbed near the cloud tops, drives diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that propagate vertically away from the cloud top level. The effect of this wave propagation is to transport momentum toward the cloud top level at low latitudes and accelerate the mean zonal flow there. We employ a semispectral primitive equation model with a zonal mean flow and zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. These waves correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, but they can also be excited by barotropic or baroclinic instability. Waves of higher wavenumbers and interactions between the waves are neglected. Symmetry about the equator is assumed, so the model applies to one hemisphere and covers the altitude range 30 to

  11. Marital assortment for genetic similarity.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Ronael E; Williams, Robert; Nagoshi, Craig

    2002-10-01

    The present study involved analyses of a Caucasian American sample (n=949) and a Japanese American sample (n=400) for factors supporting Genetic Similarity Theory (GST). The analyses found no evidence for the presence of genetic similarity between spouses in either sample for the blood group analyses of nine loci. All results indicated random mating for blood group genes. The results did not provide consistent substantial support to show that spousal similarity is correlated with the degree of genetic component of a trait for a set of seventeen individual differences variables, with only the Caucasian sample yielding significant correlations for this analysis. A third analysis examining the correlation between presence of spousal genetic similarity and spousal similarity on observable traits was not performed because spousal genetic similarity was not observed in either sample. The overall implication of the study is that GST is not supported as an explanation for spousal similarity in humans.

  12. Zonal flow evolution and overstability in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a linear analytical calculation on the stability and evolution of a compressible, viscous self-gravitating (SG) Keplerian disc with both horizontal thermal diffusion and a constant cooling time-scale when an axisymmetric structure is present and freely evolving. The calculation makes use of the shearing sheet model and is carried out for a range of cooling times. Although the solutions to the inviscid problem with no cooling or diffusion are well known, it is non-trivial to predict the effect caused by the introduction of cooling and of small diffusivities; this work focuses on perturbations of intermediate wavelengths, therefore representing an extension to the classical stability analysis on thermal and viscous instabilities. For density wave modes, the analysis can be simplified by means of a regular perturbation analysis; considering both shear and thermal diffusivities, the system is found to be overstable for intermediate and long wavelengths for values of the Toomre parameter Q ≲ 2; a non-SG instability is also detected for wavelengths ≳18H, where H is the disc scale-height, as long as γ ≲ 1.305. The regular perturbation analysis does not, however, hold for the entropy and potential vorticity slow modes as their ideal growth rates are degenerate. To understand their evolution, equations for the axisymmetric structure's amplitudes in these two quantities are analytically derived and their instability regions obtained. The instability appears boosted by increasing the value of the adiabatic index and of the Prandtl number, while it is quenched by efficient cooling.

  13. Direct phase measurement in zonal wavefront reconstruction using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Kerlin, Aaron; MacLennan, Bryan; Ji, Na

    2014-01-27

    In traditional zonal wavefront sensing for adaptive optics, after local wavefront gradients are obtained, the entire wavefront can be calculated by assuming that the wavefront is a continuous surface. Such an approach will lead to sub-optimal performance in reconstructing wavefronts which are either discontinuous or undersampled by the zonal wavefront sensor. Here, we report a new method to reconstruct the wavefront by directly measuring local wavefront phases in parallel using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique. This method determines the relative phases of each pupil segment independently, and thus produces an accurate wavefront for even discontinuous wavefronts. We implemented this method in an adaptive optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated its superior performance in correcting large or discontinuous aberrations.

  14. On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.

  15. Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function, from zero to 18th order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are usually tabulated in normalized form to provide immediate information as to the relative significance of the coefficients in the gravity model. The normalized form of the geopotential coefficients cannot be used for computational purposes unless the gravity model has been modified to receive them. This modification is usually not done because the absolute or unnormalized form of the coefficients can be obtained from the simple mathematical relationship that relates the two forms. This computation can be quite tedious for hand calculation, especially for the higher order terms, and can be costly in terms of storage and execution time for machine computation. In this report, zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are tabulated in absolute or unnormalized form. The report is designed to be used as a ready reference for both hand and machine calculation to save the user time and effort.

  16. Inclusion of inhomogeneous deformation and strength characteristics in the problem on zonal disintegration of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyshev, AI; Belousova, OE

    2018-03-01

    The authors determine stress and deformation in a heterogeneous rock mass at the preset displacement and Cauchy stress vector at the boundary of an underground excavation. The influence of coordinates on Young’s modulus, shear modulus and ultimate strength is shown. It is found that regions of tension and compression alternate at the excavation boundary—i.e. zonal rock disintegration phenomenon is observed.

  17. Nonlinear growth of zonal flows by secondary instability in general magnetic geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Plunk, G. G.; Navarro, A. Banon

    2017-02-23

    Here we present a theory of the nonlinear growth of zonal flows in magnetized plasma turbulence, by the mechanism of secondary instability. The theory is derived for general magnetic geometry, and is thus applicable to both tokamaks and stellarators. The predicted growth rate is shown to compare favorably with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, with the error scaling as expected with the small parameter of the theory.

  18. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    a r-re complete set of equations is used, but their effect is imposed by means of a right hand side forcing function, not by means of a zonal boundary...modifications of flow-simulation algorithms The explicit finite-difference code of Magnus and are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions...used to simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse achieve computational efficiency. More recently, effect on flow-field algorithms and

  19. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  20. MPIRUN: A Portable Loader for Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. One method for implementing the message passing portion of these codes is with the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Unfortunately, this standard only specifies the message passing portion of an application, but does not specify any portable mechanisms for loading an application. MPIRUN was developed to provide a portable means for loading MPI programs, and was specifically targeted at multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications. Programs using MPIRUN for loading and MPI for message passing are then portable between all machines supported by MPIRUN. MPIRUN is currently implemented for the Intel iPSC/860, TMC CM5, IBM SP-1 and SP-2, Intel Paragon, and workstation clusters. Further, MPIRUN is designed to be simple enough to port easily to any system supporting MPI.

  1. Zonal Flows and Long-lived Axisymmetric Pressure Bumps in Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.

  2. Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.

  3. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  4. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  6. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.

    2005-07-01

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  7. Hispanic Americans and Non-Hispanic White Americans Have a Similar Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Danny J; Mendoza-Ladd, Antonio; Zuckerman, Marc J; Bashashati, Mohammad; Alvarado, Andres; Dwivedi, Alok; Damas, Oriana M

    2018-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a devastating immune-mediated disease on the rise in Hispanics living in the USA. Prior observational studies comparing IBD characteristics between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites (NHW) have yielded mixed results. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies examining IBD phenotype in Hispanics compared to NHW. We conducted a systematic search of US-based studies comparing IBD subtype (Ulcerative Colitis: UC or Crohn's disease: CD) and phenotype (disease location and behavior) between Hispanics and NHW. We evaluated differences in age at IBD diagnosis, the presence of family history and smoking history. A random effects model was chosen "a priori." Categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using odds ratio (OR) or standard mean difference (SMD), respectively. Seven studies were included with 687 Hispanics and 1586 NHW. UC was more common in Hispanics compared to NHW (OR 2.07, CI 1.13-3.79, p = 0.02). Location of disease was similar between Hispanics and NHW except for the presence of upper gastrointestinal CD, which was less common in Hispanics (OR 0.58, CI 0.32-1.06, p = 0.07). Hispanics were less likely to smoke (OR 0.48, CI 0.26-0.89, p = 0.02) or have a family history of IBD (OR 0.35, CI 0.22-0.55, p < 0.001). CD behavior classified by Montreal classification and age at IBD diagnosis were similar between Hispanics and NHW. UC was more common among US Hispanics compared to NHW. Age at IBD diagnosis is similar for both Hispanics and NHW. For CD, disease behavior is similar, but Hispanics show a trend for less upper gastrointestinal involvement. A family history of IBD and smoking history were less common in Hispanics.

  8. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    SciTech Connect

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth's angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are shearedmore » flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.« less

  9. Multi-Layer Identification of Highly-Potent ABCA1 Up-Regulators Targeting LXRβ Using Multiple QSAR Modeling, Structural Similarity Analysis, and Molecular Docking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Kang, Jie; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-11-29

    In this study, in silico approaches, including multiple QSAR modeling, structural similarity analysis, and molecular docking, were applied to develop QSAR classification models as a fast screening tool for identifying highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ based on a series of new flavonoids. Initially, four modeling approaches, including linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, radial basis function neural network, and classification and regression trees, were applied to construct different QSAR classification models. The statistics results indicated that these four kinds of QSAR models were powerful tools for screening highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators. Then, a consensus QSAR model was developed by combining the predictions from these four models. To discover new ABCA1 up-regulators at maximum accuracy, the compounds in the ZINC database that fulfilled the requirement of structural similarity of 0.7 compared to known potent ABCA1 up-regulator were subjected to the consensus QSAR model, which led to the discovery of 50 compounds. Finally, they were docked into the LXRβ binding site to understand their role in up-regulating ABCA1 expression. The excellent binding modes and docking scores of 10 hit compounds suggested they were highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ. Overall, this study provided an effective strategy to discover highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators.

  10. Zonal asymmetric evolution of aerosol optical depth in the subtropics of northern hemisphere in boreal spring and its association with the thermal forcing of Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Jin, Q.; He, J.

    2017-12-01

    More than 70% population living in the subtropics of the northern hemisphere are exposed to the serious air pollution. In the present, the zonal asymmetric evolution of the 550-nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) over this region has been observed between the East Asian (EA) and the East North American (ENA) continent from boreal winter to summer. The peak of AOD emerges in April over the EA and decreases evidently till June, meanwhile the AOD is still increasing over the ENA, although the low-level southerly is prevailing over the two areas. The diagnosis suggests that such zonal asymmetry is ascribed to the distinct feedback between general circulation and atmospheric heat source (AHS) in situ. The condensation heating becomes dominant in the AHS over the East Asia in April, along with the low-level southerly and the upper-tropospheric northerly, implicating the formation of summertime circulation pattern. Afterwards, the deep convection and the ventilation with strong ascending is generated to reduce the AOD over the EA. Whereas the similar configuration between circulation and AHS takes place over the ENA in June. Furthermore, the possible reason for the different evolution of atmospheric heating source between East Asia and East North America has been discussed.

  11. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  12. Raman Spectroscopy Reveals New Insights into the Zonal Organization of Native and Tissue-Engineered Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tissue architecture is intimately linked with its functions, and loss of tissue organization is often associated with pathologies. The intricate depth-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) arrangement in articular cartilage is critical to its biomechanical functions. In this study, we developed a Raman spectroscopic imaging approach to gain new insight into the depth-dependent arrangement of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage using bovine tissues and cells. Our results revealed previously unreported tissue complexity into at least six zones above the tidemark based on a principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis of the distribution and orientation of the main ECM components. Correlation of nanoindentation and Raman spectroscopic data suggested that the biomechanics across the tissue depth are influenced by ECM microstructure rather than composition. Further, Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate analysis revealed changes in the collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and water distributions in tissue-engineered constructs over time. These changes were assessed using simple metrics that promise to instruct efforts toward the regeneration of a broad range of tissues with native zonal complexity and functional performance. PMID:28058277

  13. Zonal Winds Between 25 and 120 Km Retrieved from Solar Occultation Spectra. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancleef, Garrett Warren; Shaw, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric winds at heights between 25 and 120 km have been retrieved with precisions of 5/ms from the Doppler shifts of atmospheric absorption lines measured from a satellite-borne instrument. Lines of the upsilon 3 CO2 and upsilon 2 H2O rotation-vibration bands caused by gases in the instrument allowed the instrumental frequency scale to be absolutely calibrated so that accurate relative speeds could be obtained. By comparing the positions of both sets of instrumental lines the calibration of the frequency scale was determined to be stable to a precision of less than 2 x 10(-5) cm during the course of each occultation. It was found that the instrumental resolution of 0.015 cm after apodization, the signal to noise ratio of about 100 and stable calibration allowed relative speeds to be determined to a precision of 5 ms or better by using small numbers of absorption lines between 1600 and 3200 cm. Absolute absorption line positions were simultaneously recovered to precisions of 5 x 10(-5) cm or better. The wind speed profiles determined from four sunset occultations and one sunrise occultation show remarkable similarities in the magnitudes and directions of the zonal wind velocities as functions of height. These wind profiles appear to be manifestations of atmospheric tides.

  14. Climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density anomaly with zonal wind and large-scale FAC based on CHAMP observations: IMF By and solar cycle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Lühr, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    We present climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density enhancement with the neutral zonal wind velocity, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC), small-scale FAC, and electron temperature using the superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method. The dependence of these variables on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component orientation and solar cycle are of particular interest. In addition, the obtained results of relative density enhancement (ρrel), zonal wind, electron temperature and FAC are subdivided into three local seasons of 130 days each: local winter (1 January ±65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April ±32 days and 1 October ±32 days), and local summer (1 July ±65 days). Our investigation is based on CHAMP satellite observations and NASA/GSFC's OMNI online data set for solar maximum (Mar/2002-2007) and minimum (Mar/2004-2009) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA technique uses the time and location of the thermospheric mass density anomaly peaks as reference parameters. The relative amplitude of cusp-related density enhancement does on average not depend on the IMF By orientation, solar cycle phase, and local season. Also, it is apparent that the IMF By amplitude does not have a big influence on the relative amplitude of the density anomaly. Conversely, there exists a good correlation between ρrel and the negative amplitude of IMF Bz prevailing about half an hour earlier. In the cusp region, both large-scale FAC distribution and thermospheric zonal wind velocity exhibit a clear dependence on the IMF By orientation. In the case of positive (negative) IMF By there is a systematic imbalance between downward (upward) and upward (downward) FACs peaks equatorward and poleward of the reference point, respectively. The zonal wind velocity is directed towards west i.e. towards dawn in a geomagnetic latitude-magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. This is true for all local seasons and solar conditions. The thermospheric density

  15. Biosimilar Insulins: How Similar is Similar?

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the “original” insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  16. Biosimilar insulins: how similar is similar?

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-05-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the "original" insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Donor Age-Based Analysis of Liver Transplantation Outcomes: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes Are Similar Regardless of Donor Age.

    PubMed

    Chapman, William C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Collins, Kelly M; Garonzik-Wang, Jackie; Park, Yikyung; Wellen, Jason R; Lin, Yiing; Shenoy, Surendra; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Doyle, M B Majella

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of donor organs has led to increasing use of extended criteria donors, including older donors. The upper limit of donor age that produces acceptable outcomes continues to be explored. In liver transplantation, with appropriate selection, graft survival and patient outcomes would be comparable regardless of age. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,036 adult orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) from a prospectively maintained database performed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013. The study focus group was liver transplantations performed using grafts from older (older than 60 years) deceased donors. Deceased donor liver transplantations done during the same time period using grafts from younger donors (younger than 60 years) were analyzed for comparison. Both groups were further divided based on recipient age (less than 60 years and 60 years or older). Donor age was the primary variable. Recipient variables included were demographics, indication for transplantation, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), graft survival, and patient survival. Operative details and postoperative complications were analyzed. Patient demographics and perioperative details were similar between groups. Patient and graft survival rates were similar in the 4 groups. Rates of rejection (p = 0.07), bile leak (p = 0.17), and hepatic artery thrombosis were comparable across all groups (p = 0.84). Hepatitis C virus recurrence was similar across all groups (p = 0.10). Thirty-one young recipients (less than 60 years) received grafts from donors aged 70 or older. Their survival and other complication rates were comparable to those in the young donor to young recipient group. Comparable outcomes in graft and patient survivals were achieved using older donors (60 years or more), regardless of recipient age, without increased rate of complications. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Principal component similarity analysis of Raman spectra to study the effects of pH, heating, and kappa-carrageenan on whey protein structure.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh-Pasdar, Nooshin; Nakai, Shuryo; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2002-10-09

    Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate structural changes of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), whey protein isolate (WPI), and bovine serum albumin (BSA), at 15% concentration, as a function of pH (5.0, 7.0, and 9.0), heating (80 degrees C, 30 min), and presence of 0.24% kappa-carrageenan. Three data-processing techniques were used to assist in identifying significant changes in Raman spectral data. Analysis of variance showed that of 12 characteristics examined in the Raman spectra, only a few were significantly affected by pH, heating, kappa-carrageenan, and their interactions. These included amide I (1658 cm(-1)) for WPI and BLG, alpha-helix for BLG and BSA, beta-sheet for BSA, CH stretching (2880 cm(-1)) for BLG and BSA, and CH stretching (2930 cm(-1)) for BSA. Principal component analysis reduced dimensionality of the characteristics. Heating and its interaction with kappa-carrageenan were identified as the most influential in overall structure of the whey proteins, using principal component similarity analysis.

  19. Similar but Different: Dynamic Social Network Analysis Highlights Fundamental Differences between the Fission-Fusion Societies of Two Equid Species, the Onager and Grevy’s Zebra

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Sundaresan, Siva R.; Fischhoff, Ilya R.; Tantipathananandh, Chayant; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why animal societies take on the form that they do has benefited from insights gained by applying social network analysis to patterns of individual associations. Such analyses typically aggregate data over long time periods even though most selective forces that shape sociality have strong temporal elements. By explicitly incorporating the temporal signal in social interaction data we re-examine the network dynamics of the social systems of the evolutionarily closely-related Grevy’s zebras and wild asses that show broadly similar social organizations. By identifying dynamic communities, previously hidden differences emerge: Grevy’s zebras show more modularity than wild asses and in wild asses most communities consist of solitary individuals; and in Grevy’s zebras, lactating females show a greater propensity to switch communities than non-lactating females and males. Both patterns were missed by static network analyses and in general, adding a temporal dimension provides insights into differences associated with the size and persistence of communities as well as the frequency and synchrony of their formation. Dynamic network analysis provides insights into the functional significance of these social differences and highlights the way dynamic community analysis can be applied to other species. PMID:26488598

  20. Analysis of genetic similarities between Clostridium perfringens isolates isolated from patients with gas gangrene and from hospital environment conducted with the use of the PFGE method.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of genetic similarity, with the use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), of Clostridium perfringens isolates originating from patients with gas gangrene and from the hospital environment. The study encompassed two patients with a clinical and microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene, who were hospitalized in one of the hospitals of the Małopolska province in the time period between 31st March 2012 and 18th May 2012. Clostridium perfringens isolates genotyping indicated that the isolates originating from the two studied patients did not display genetic similarity and represented two different PFGE types, which corresponded to two different clones (clone A and B). Whereas the strains isolated from the hospital environment were genetically identical with the strain coming from the second patient and represented one PFGE type, which corresponded to one clone (clone A). As a result of the study, it is possible to conclude that both patients developed endogenous infection. Even so, the examination of the hospital environment indicates the possibility of the appearance of exogenous infections. It prompts recommending and following the exact regulations of sanitary regime in the ward and the operating theater if a patient is diagnosed with gas gangrene.

  1. No Evidence of Sex-Related Survival Disparities among Head and Neck Cancer Patients Receiving Similar Multidisciplinary Care: A Matched-Pair Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jess C.; Li, Guojun; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose It is unknown whether there are survival disparities between men and women with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), though some data suggest that men have worse outcomes. We conducted a matched-pair study that controlled for several potentially confounding prognostic variables to assess whether a survival advantage exists for female compared with male SCCHN patients receiving similar care. Experimental Design We selected 286 female patients and 286 matched male patients from within a prospective epidemiologic study of 1654 patients with incident SCCHN evaluated and treated at a single large multidisciplinary cancer center. Matching variables included age (± 10 years), race/ethnicity, smoking status (never versus ever), tumor site (oral cavity versus oropharynx versus larynx versus hypopharynx), tumor classification (T1–2 versus T3–4), nodal status (negative versus positive), and treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, surgery and radiation therapy, surgery and chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or surgery and chemoradiotherapy). Results Matched-pair and log-rank analyses showed no significant differences between women and men in recurrence-free, disease-specific, or overall survival. When the analysis was restricted to individual sites (oral cavity, oropharynx, or larynx/hypopharynx), there was also no evidence of a disparity in survival associated with sex. Conclusions We conclude that there is no evidence to suggest that a survival advantage exists for women as compared to men with SCCHN receiving similar multidisciplinary directed care at a tertiary cancer center. PMID:20943762

  2. Similar cerebral protective effectiveness of antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic surgery: a meta-analysis of 7023 patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shasha; Sun, Yanhua; Ji, Bingyang; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Guyan; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    In aortic arch surgery, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) combined with cerebral perfusion is employed worldwide as a routine practice. Even though antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is more widely used than retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), the difference in benefit and risk between ACP and RCP during DHCA is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare neurologic outcomes and early mortality between ACP and RCP in patients who underwent aortic surgery during DHCA. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "antegrade," "retrograde," "cerebral perfusion," "cardiopulmonary bypass," "extracorporeal circulation," and "cardiac surgery" for studies reporting on clinical endpoints including early mortality, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction (TND), and permanent neurologic dysfunction (PND) in aortic surgery requiring DHCA with ACP or RCP. Heterogeneity was analyzed with the Cochrane Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Publication bias was tested with Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test. Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 4262 patients undergoing DHCA + ACP and 2761 undergoing DHCA + RCP. The overall pooled relative risk for TND was 0.722 (95% CI = [0.579, 0.900]), and the z-score for overall effect was 2.9 (P = 0.004). There was low heterogeneity (I(2) = 18.7%). The analysis showed that patients undergoing DHCA + ACP had better outcomes than those undergoing DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while there were no significant differences between groups in terms of PND, stroke, and early mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that DHCA + ACP has an advantage over DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while the two methods show similar results in terms of PND, early mortality, and stroke. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: part II—dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shujuan; Cheng, Jianbo; Xu, Ming; Chou, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional

  4. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  5. Similarity and Congruence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Daniel L.

    This instructional unit is an introduction to the common properties of similarity and congruence. Manipulation of objects leads to a recognition of these properties. The ASA, SAS, and SSS theorems are not mentioned. Limited use is made in the application of the properties of size and shape preserved by similarity or congruence. A teacher's guide…

  6. The Gender Similarities Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-01-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses…

  7. A new paradigm for predicting zonal-mean climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Roe, G.; Donohoe, A.; Siler, N.; Markle, B. R.; Liu, X.; Feldl, N.; Battisti, D. S.; Frierson, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    How will the pole-to-equator temperature gradient, or large-scale patterns of precipitation, change under global warming? Answering such questions typically involves numerical simulations with comprehensive general circulation models (GCMs) that represent the complexities of climate forcing, radiative feedbacks, and atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Yet, our understanding of these predictions hinges on our ability to explain them through the lens of simple models and physical theories. Here we present evidence that zonal-mean climate, and its changes, can be understood in terms of a moist energy balance model that represents atmospheric heat transport as a simple diffusion of latent and sensible heat (as a down-gradient transport of moist static energy, with a diffusivity coefficient that is nearly constant with latitude). We show that the theoretical underpinnings of this model derive from the principle of maximum entropy production; that its predictions are empirically supported by atmospheric reanalyses; and that it successfully predicts the behavior of a hierarchy of climate models - from a gray radiation aquaplanet moist GCM, to comprehensive GCMs participating in CMIP5. As an example of the power of this paradigm, we show that, given only patterns of local radiative feedbacks and climate forcing, the moist energy balance model accurately predicts the evolution of zonal-mean temperature and atmospheric heat transport as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble. These results suggest that, despite all of its dynamical complexity, the atmosphere essentially responds to energy imbalances by simply diffusing latent and sensible heat down-gradient; this principle appears to explain zonal-mean climate and its changes under global warming.

  8. The climatology of low-latitude ionospheric densities and zonal drifts from IMAGE-FUV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, T. J.; Sagawa, E.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Patel, J.

    2004-12-01

    The IMAGE satellite was the first dedicated to magnetospheric imaging, but has also provided numerous images of the nightside ionosphere with its Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) spectrographic imager. Nightside emissions of O I at 135.6-nm originating away from the aurora are due to recombination of ionospheric O+, and vary in intensity with (O+)2. IMAGE-FUV, operating in a highly elliptical orbit with apogee at middle latitudes and >7 Re altitude, measures this emission globally with 100-km resolution. During each 14.5 hour orbit, IMAGE-FUV is able to monitor nightside ionospheric densities for up to 6-7 hours. Hundreds of low-latitude ionospheric bubbles, their development and drift speed, and a variety of other dynamical variations in brightness and morphology of the equatorial anomalies have been observed during this mission. Furthermore, the average global distribution of low-latitude ionospheric plasma densities can be determined in 3 days. Imaging data collected from February through June of 2002 are used to compile a dataset containing a variety of parameters (e.g., latitude and brightness of peak plasma density, zonal bubble drift speed) which can be drawn from for climatological studies. Recent results indicate that the average ground speed of low-latitude zonal plasma drifts vary with longitude by up to 50%, and that a periodic variation in ionospheric densities with longitude suggests the influence of a lower-thermospheric non-migrating tide with wave number = 4 on ionospheric densities. An excellent correlation between zonal drift speed and the magnetic storm index Dst is also found.

  9. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-12-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  10. Recursive analytical solution describing artificial satellite motion perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical first order solution has been developed which describes the motion of an artificial satellite perturbed by an arbitrary number of zonal harmonics of the geopotential. A set of recursive relations for the solution, which was deduced from recursive relations of the geopotential, was derived. The method of solution is based on Von-Zeipel's technique applied to a canonical set of two-body elements in the extended phase space which incorporates the true anomaly as a canonical element. The elements are of Poincare type, that is, they are regular for vanishing eccentricities and inclinations. Numerical results show that this solution is accurate to within a few meters after 500 revolutions.

  11. Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to Zonal Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.

    2013-08-01

    A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.

  12. Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection

  13. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  14. Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.

  15. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) reveals unique associations between bacterial community structure and odor emission during pig carcasses decomposition.

    PubMed

    Ki, Bo-Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2018-02-22

    Soil burial and composting methods have been widely used for the disposal of pig carcasses. The relationship between bacterial community structure and odor emission was examined using extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) during the degradation of pig carcasses in soil and compost. In soil, Hyphomicrobium, Niastella, Rhodanobacter, Polaromonas, Dokdonella and Mesorhizobium were associated with the emission of sulfur-containing odors such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl disulfide. Sphingomonas, Rhodanobacter, Mesorhizobium, Dokdonella, Leucobacter and Truepera were associated with the emission of nitrogen-containing odors including ammonia and trimetylamine. In compost, however, Carnobacteriaceae, Lachnospiaceae and Clostridiales were highly correlated with the emission of sulfur-containing odors, while Rumincoccaceae was associated with the emission of nitrogen-containing odors. The emission of organic acids was closely related to Massilia, Sphaerobacter and Bradyrhizobiaceae in soil, but to Actinobacteria, Sporacetigenium, Micromonosporaceae and Solirubrobacteriales in compost. This study suggests that network analysis using eLSA is a useful strategy for exploring the mechanisms of odor emission during biodegradation of pig carcasses.

  16. The gender similarities hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2005-09-01

    The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Do Parents Treat Siblings Similarly or Differently with Regard to Feeding Practices, Weight-Related Conversations, and Support for Physical Activity? An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is unknown if parents with more than one adolescent child use similar or different parenting practices of relevance to weight-related health with different children. In particular, it is unclear whether parenting practices differ based on whether siblings are discordant on weight status (i.e., one is overweight/obese, one is nonoverweight/obese) or are different sexes. Methods: Data from two linked population-based studies, Eating and Activity in Teens (EAT) 2010 and Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (F-EAT), were used in this exploratory cross-sectional analysis. Participants included socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse parents (n = 57; 93% females) and adolescent siblings (n = 57 pairs; 60% girls; mean age = 14.5, range = 11–18). Students filled out surveys and had anthropometric measures taken in school. Parents filled out mailed surveys in their homes. Results: Overall, results from this exploratory study showed limited evidence that parents use different parenting practices with adolescents of different weight status or sex. However, potentially important patterns emerged when exploring parenting practices and siblings' weight status. For example, within sibling dyads with discordant weight status, parents reported significantly more negative weight-related conversations with overweight/obese siblings compared to nonoverweight/obese siblings (p < 0.05). Although observed differences were not statistically significant, parents also reported higher levels of food restriction (p = 0.05) and encouragement to diet (p = 0.07) with overweight/obese siblings compared to nonoverweight/obese siblings. There were no significant differences in parenting practices by adolescent sex. Conclusions: Results generally suggest that parents use similar parenting practices with adolescent siblings. However, notable patterns emerged when examining parenting practices and siblings' weight status that may be

  18. Contribution to the study of the zonal variation of the climate aridity in central northern Sahara (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benseghier-Hadjaidji, Fatiha; Talbi, Nadjib; Derridj, Arezki

    2018-05-01

    The environment degradation at the level of all its compartments which we notice at present, calls us to the risks that it would underestimate the climatic and consequently bioclimatic crisis there, in the North as in the South of the Mediterranean region. To protect the environment is not a luxury. In this respect, we wondered about the zonal variation of the climate aridity at the level of three bordering climatic stations: El-Oued, Touggourt and Ouargla. These are distant from 160 km on average some of the others. For that purpose, we based ourselves on the statistical tool the software "instat +" for the estimation of the ETP (PM) and afterward the determination of the pluvio-evapotranspiration "quotient P/ETP". For this analysis, the climatic data spread out over a period of 20 years. The results allowed to specify the aridity degree of the studied zone. So, they reveal a mitigation of the aridity of the climate in Touggourt and El-Oued while the hyper-aridity distinguishes well the Ouargla region. This approach contributes to a better knowledge of the dry ecosystems. This is important to indicate it to turn better in the eremologic search later.

  19. Being First Matters: Topographical Representational Similarity Analysis of ERP Signals Reveals Separate Networks for Audiovisual Temporal Binding Depending on the Leading Sense.

    PubMed

    Cecere, Roberto; Gross, Joachim; Willis, Ashleigh; Thut, Gregor

    2017-05-24

    In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Intersensory timing is crucial in this process because only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window, revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input: auditory-visual (AV) or visual-auditory (VA). Here, we tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV-VA dichotomy in humans. We recorded high-density EEG while participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task including various AV-VA asynchronies and unisensory control conditions (visual-only, auditory-only) and tested whether AV and VA processing generate different patterns of brain activity. After isolating the multisensory components of AV-VA event-related potentials (ERPs) from the sum of their unisensory constituents, we ran a time-resolved topographical representational similarity analysis (tRSA) comparing the AV and VA ERP maps. Spatial cross-correlation matrices were built from real data to index the similarity between the AV and VA maps at each time point (500 ms window after stimulus) and then correlated with two alternative similarity model matrices: AV maps = VA maps versus AV maps ≠ VA maps The tRSA results favored the AV maps ≠ VA maps model across all time points, suggesting that audiovisual temporal binding (indexed by synchrony perception) engages different neural pathways depending on the leading sense. The existence of such dual route supports recent theoretical accounts proposing that multiple binding mechanisms are implemented in the brain to accommodate different information parsing strategies in auditory and visual sensory systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intersensory timing is a crucial aspect of multisensory integration, determining whether and how

  20. Being First Matters: Topographical Representational Similarity Analysis of ERP Signals Reveals Separate Networks for Audiovisual Temporal Binding Depending on the Leading Sense

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In multisensory integration, processing in one sensory modality is enhanced by complementary information from other modalities. Intersensory timing is crucial in this process because only inputs reaching the brain within a restricted temporal window are perceptually bound. Previous research in the audiovisual field has investigated various features of the temporal binding window, revealing asymmetries in its size and plasticity depending on the leading input: auditory–visual (AV) or visual–auditory (VA). Here, we tested whether separate neuronal mechanisms underlie this AV–VA dichotomy in humans. We recorded high-density EEG while participants performed an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task including various AV–VA asynchronies and unisensory control conditions (visual-only, auditory-only) and tested whether AV and VA processing generate different patterns of brain activity. After isolating the multisensory components of AV–VA event-related potentials (ERPs) from the sum of their unisensory constituents, we ran a time-resolved topographical representational similarity analysis (tRSA) comparing the AV and VA ERP maps. Spatial cross-correlation matrices were built from real data to index the similarity between the AV and VA maps at each time point (500 ms window after stimulus) and then correlated with two alternative similarity model matrices: AVmaps = VAmaps versus AVmaps ≠ VAmaps. The tRSA results favored the AVmaps ≠ VAmaps model across all time points, suggesting that audiovisual temporal binding (indexed by synchrony perception) engages different neural pathways depending on the leading sense. The existence of such dual route supports recent theoretical accounts proposing that multiple binding mechanisms are implemented in the brain to accommodate different information parsing strategies in auditory and visual sensory systems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intersensory timing is a crucial aspect of multisensory integration, determining whether and how

  1. Determining when a fracture occurred: Does the method matter? Analysis of the similarity of three different methods for estimating time since fracture of juvenile long bones.

    PubMed

    Drury, Anne; Cunningham, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Radiographic fracture date estimation is a critical component of skeletal trauma analysis in the living. Several timetables have been proposed for how the appearance of radiographic features can be interpreted to provide a likely time frame for fracture occurrence. This study compares three such timetables for pediatric fractures, by Islam et al. (2000), Malone et al. (2011), and Prosser et al. (2012), in order to determine whether the fracture date ranges produced by using these methods are in agreement with one another. Fracture date ranges were estimated for 112 long bone fractures in 96 children aged 1-17 years, using the three different timetables. The extent of similarity of the intervals was tested by statistically comparing the overlap between the ranges. Results showed that none of the methods were in perfect agreement with one another. Differences seen included the size of the estimated date range for when a fracture occurred, and the specific dates given for both the upper and lower ends of the fracture date range. There was greater similarity between the ranges produced by Malone et al. (2011) and both the other two studies than there was between Islam et al. (2000) and Prosser et al. (2012). The greatest similarity existed between Malone et al. (2011) and Islam et al. (2000). The extent of differences between methods can vary widely, depending on the fracture analysed. Using one timetable gives an average earliest possible fracture date of less than 2 days before another, but the range was extreme, with one method estimating minimum time since fracture as 25 days before another method for a given fracture. In most cases, one method gave maximum time since fracture as a week less than the other two methods, but range was extreme and some estimates were nearly two months different. The variability in fracture date estimates given by these timetables indicates that caution should be exercised when estimating the timing of a juvenile fracture if relying

  2. Solar-QBO Interaction and Its Impact on Stratospheric Ozone in a Zonally Averaged Photochemical Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-28

    Solar- QBO interaction and its impact on stratospheric ozone in a zonally averaged photochemical transport model of the middle atmosphere J. P...investigate the solar cycle modulation of the quasi-biennial oscillation ( QBO ) in stratospheric zonal winds and its impact on stratospheric ozone with an...updated version of the zonally averaged CHEM2D middle atmosphere model. We find that the duration of the westerly QBO phase at solar maximum is 3 months

  3. Multiple zonal jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.

  4. Laboratory modeling of multiple zonal jets on the polar beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Zonal jets observed in the oceans and atmospheres of planets are studied in a laboratory rotating tank. The fluid layer in the rotating tank has parabolic free surface and dynamically simulates the polar beta-plane where the Coriolis parameter varies quadratically with distance from the pole. Velocity and surface elevation fields are measured with an optical altimetry method (Afanasyev et al., Exps Fluids 2009). The flows are induced by a localized buoyancy source along radial direction. The baroclinic flow consisting of a field of eddies propagates away from the source due West and forms zonal jets (Fig. 1). Barotropic jets ahead of the baroclinic flow are formed by radiation of beta plumes. Inside the baroclinic flow the jets flow between the chains of eddies. Experimental evidence of so-called noodles (baroclinic instability mode with motions in the radial, North-South direction) theoretically predicted by Berloff et al. (JFM, JPO 2009) was found in our experiments. Beta plume radiation mechanism and the mechanism associated with the instability of noodles are likely to contribute to formation of jets in the baroclinic flow.

  5. The Brown Alga Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium zonale and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. zonale may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071

  6. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  7. SPCZ zonal events and downstream influence on surface ocean conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Rixen, Tim; Charles, Christopher D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Moore, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal surface freshening of the Makassar Strait, the main conduit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), is a key factor controlling the ITF. Here we present a 262 year reconstruction of seasonal sea-surface-salinity variability from 1742 to 2004 Common Era by using coral δ18O records from the central Makassar Strait. Our record reveals persistent seasonal freshening and also years with significant truncations of seasonal freshening that correlate exactly with South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) zonal events >4000 km to the east. During these events, the SPCZ dramatically rotates 15° north to near the equator and stronger westward flowing South Pacific boundary currents force higher-salinity water through the Makassar Strait in February-May halting the normal seasonal freshening in the strait. By these teleconnections, our Makassar coral δ18O series provides the first record of the recurrence interval of these zonal SPCZ events and demonstrates that they have occurred on a semiregular basis since the mid-1700s.

  8. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current demonstrate similar effects in relieving acute and chronic pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camila Cadena de; Silva, Vinicius Z Maldaner da; Júnior, Gerson Cipriano; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2018-02-02

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current have been widely used in clinical practice. However, a systematic review comparing their effects on pain relief has not yet been performed. To investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current on acute and chronic pain. We use Pubmed, Embase, LILACS, PEDro and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials as data sources. Two independent reviewers that selected studies according to inclusion criteria, extracted information of interest and verified the methodological quality of the studies made study selection. The studies were selected if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current were used as treatment and they had pain as the main outcome, as evaluated by a visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes were the Western Ontario Macmaster and Rolland Morris Disability questionnaires, which were added after data extraction. Eight studies with a pooled sample of 825 patients were included. The methodological quality of the selected studies was moderate, with an average of six on a 0-10 scale (PEDro). In general, both transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current improved pain and functional outcomes without a statistical difference between them. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current have similar effects on pain outcome The low number of studies included in this meta-analysis indicates that new clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management are similar across races: subgroup analysis across the SCALE and phase II randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Ard, J; Cannon, A; Lewis, C E; Lofton, H; Vang Skjøth, T; Stevenin, B; Pi-Sunyer, X

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as adjunct to diet and exercise, was evaluated in racial subgroups. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from five double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials was conducted in 5325 adults with either a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) plus ≥1 comorbidity or a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2). Statistical interaction tests evaluated possible treatment effect differences between racial subgroups: white (4496, 84.4%), black/African-American (550, 10.3%), Asian (168, 3.2%) and other (111, 2.1%). Effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on weight loss, associated metabolic effects and safety profile were generally consistent across racial subgroups. All achieved statistically significant mean weight loss at end-of-treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo: white 7.7% versus 2.3%, black/African-American 6.3% versus 1.4%, Asian 6.3% versus 2.5%, other 7.3% versus 0.49%. Treatment effects on weight and cardiovascular risk markers generally showed no dependence on race (interaction test p > 0.05). Adverse events were similar across racial subgroups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Spectrum similarities-based analysis of spatial difference of snow cover for multi-scale satellite data-a case study of MODIS and HJ-1B data].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yang; Yang, Yun; Jian, Ji

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation and bare soil were collected in the areas of Miyaluo district in northwest of Sichuan province, the Qilian Mountains in Qinghai province and northern areas of Xinjiang during the years of 2007 and 2013. Then these data were converted to spectral reflectance by applying sensor response function of MODIS and HJ-1B respectively within the range of visible light, near-infrared and shortwave infrared. Comprehensive analysis was made on spectral characteristics and reflectivity similarities and differences of different sensors between old and new snowmelt, under the condition of different snow depth and different snow cover. The conclusions can be drawn That is, there exists high consistency of spectral response between new snow and dirty snow for each sensor in the visible wavelength range, also it is true for bare soil and low vegetation. However, low consistency happens to other types of snow; especially snowmelt and frozen snow. The range of NDSI is relatively stable under the condition of different snow depth for full snow cover and the trend of NDSI shows great consistency for different sensors; NDSI threshold method for monitoring snow by using MODIS and HJ-1B data showed very obvious difference in spatial scales, which is a reasonable explanation of the existence of mixed pixels.

  11. An Analysis of Looking Back Method in Problem-Based Learning: Case Study on Congruence and Similarity in Junior High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosasih, U.; Wahyudin, W.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to understand how learners do look back their idea of problem solving. This research is based on qualitative approach with case study design. Participants in this study were xx students of Junior High School, who were studying the material of congruence and similarity. The supporting instruments in this research are test and interview sheet. The data obtained were analyzed by coding and constant-comparison. The analysis find that there are three ways in which the students review the idea of problem solving, which is 1) carried out by comparing answers to the completion measures exemplified by learning resources; 2) carried out by examining the logical relationship between the solution and the problem; and 3) carried out by means of confirmation to the prior knowledge they have. This happens because most students learn in a mechanistic way. This study concludes that students validate the idea of problem solving obtained, influenced by teacher explanations, learning resources, and prior knowledge. Therefore, teacher explanations and learning resources contribute to the success or failure of students in solving problems.

  12. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A., E-mail: alain.ghizzo@univ-lorraine.fr; Palermo, F.

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was foundmore » that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.« less

  13. A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with Zonal Exchange Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter zonal operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter zonal operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the zonal exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.

  14. Similar hemodynamic decongestion with vasodilators and inotropes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of 35 studies on acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Shiro; Gayat, Etienne; Sato, Naoki; Arrigo, Mattia; Laribi, Said; Legrand, Matthieu; Placido, Rui; Manivet, Philippe; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Abraham, William T; Jessup, Mariell; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) with reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often a biventricular congested state. The comparative effect of vasodilators and inotropes on the right- and/or left-sided congestion is unknown. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of AHF studies using pulmonary artery catheter were performed using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. Data from 35 studies, including 3016 patients, were studied. Included patients had a weighted mean age of 60 years, left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 24 %, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) of 892 pg/ml. Both the left- and right-ventricular filling pressures were elevated: weighted mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) was 25 mmHg (range 17-31 mmHg) and right atrial pressure (RAP) 12 mmHg (range 7-18 mmHg). Vasodilators and inotropes had similar beneficial effects on PAWP [-6.3 mmHg (95 % CI -7.4 to -5.2 mmHg) and -5.8 mmHg (95 % CI -7.6 to -4.0 mmHg), respectively] and RAP [-2.9 mmHg (95 % CI -3.8 to -2.1 mmHg) and -2.8 mmHg (95 % CI -3.8 to -1.7 mmHg), respectively]. Among inotropes, inodilators, such as levosimendan, have greater beneficial effect on the left-ventricular filling pressure than dobutamine. Drug-induced improvement of PAWP tightly paralleled that of RAP with all studied drugs (r 2  = 0.90, p < 0.001). Vasodilators and inotropes had no short-term effect of renal function. The left- and right-sided filling pressures are similarly improved by vasodilators or inotropes, in AHF with reduced LVEF.

  15. Direct evidence of stationary zonal flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, Jon

    2015-11-01

    High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  16. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2017-07-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF ( 35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM ( 15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  17. Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects in the Goat with Frozen Versus Fresh Osteochondral Allografts: Effects on Cartilage Stiffness, Zonal Composition, and Structure at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, Andrea L.; Görtz, Simon; Chen, Albert C.; Healey, Robert M.; Chase, Derek C.; Ball, Scott T.; Amiel, David; Sah, Robert L.; Bugbee, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the effectiveness of frozen as compared with fresh osteochondral allografts at six months after surgery and the resultant consequences of traditional freezing may facilitate in vivo maintenance of cartilage integrity. Our hypothesis was that the state of the allograft at implantation affects its performance after six months in vivo. Methods: The effect of frozen as compared with fresh storage on in vivo allograft performance was determined for osteochondral allografts that were transplanted into seven recipient goats and analyzed at six months. Allograft performance was assessed by examining osteochondral structure (cartilage thickness, fill, surface location, surface degeneration, and bone-cartilage interface location), zonal cartilage composition (cellularity, matrix content), and cartilage biomechanical function (stiffness). Relationships between cartilage stiffness or cartilage composition and surface degeneration were assessed with use of linear regression. Results: Fresh allografts maintained cartilage load-bearing function, while also maintaining zonal organization of cartilage cellularity and matrix content, compared with frozen allografts. Overall, allograft performance was similar between fresh allografts and nonoperative controls. However, cartilage stiffness was approximately 80% lower (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 87%) in the frozen allografts than in the nonoperative controls or fresh allografts. Concomitantly, in frozen allografts, matrix content and cellularity were approximately 55% (95% CI, 22% to 92%) and approximately 96% (95% CI, 94% to 99%) lower, respectively, than those in the nonoperative controls and fresh allografts. Cartilage stiffness correlated positively with cartilage cellularity and matrix content, and negatively with surface degeneration. Conclusions: Maintenance of cartilage load-bearing function in allografts is associated with zonal maintenance of cartilage cellularity and matrix content. In

  18. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  19. Thermal zonal winds in the Venus mesosphere from the Venus Express temperature soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Titov, Dmitri; Tellmann, Silvia; Migliorini, Alessandra; Read, Peter; Grassi, Davide; Paetzold, Martin; Haeusler, Bernd; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    The Venus mesosphere (60-100 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by extremely complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate in the troposphere and lower meso-sphere while a solar-antisolar circulation can be observed in the upper mesosphere. The super-rotation extends from the surface up to the cloud top (˜65 km altitude) with wind speeds of only a few meters per second near the surface and reaching a maximum value of ˜100 m s-1 at cloud top, corresponding to a rotation period of ˜4 Earth days (˜60 times faster than Venus itself). The solar-antisolar circulation is driven by the day-night contrast in solar heating, and occurs above 110 km altitude with speeds of 120 m s-1 . The processes responsible for maintain-ing the zonal super-rotation in the lower atmosphere and its transition to the solar-antisolar circulation in the upper atmosphere are still poorly understood (Schubert et al.,2007). Different techniques have been used to obtain direct observations of wind at various altitudes: tracking of clouds in ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) images give information on wind speeds at the cloud top (Moissl et al., 2009; Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) and within the clouds (˜47 km, ˜61 km) (Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) while ground-based measurements of Doppler shifts in the CO2 band at 10 µm (Sornig et al., 2008) and in several CO millimiter lines (Rengel et al., 2008) provide wind speeds above the clouds up to ˜110 km altitude. The deep atmosphere from the surface up to the cloud top has been investigated through the Doppler tracking of descent probes and balloons (Counselman et al., 1980; Kerzhanovich and Limaye, 1985). In the mesosphere, between 45-85 km of altitude, where direct observations of wind are not possible, the zonal wind field can be derived from the vertical temperature structure using a special approximation of the thermal wind equation: based on cyclostrophic balance. Previous studies (Leovy, 1973; Newman et al

  20. Effects of Categorical Labels on Similarity Judgments: A Critical Evaluation of a Critical Analysis--Comment on Noles and Gelman (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2012-01-01

    Noles and Gelman (2012) attempt to critically reevaluate the claim that linguistic labels affect children's judgments of visual similarity. They report results of an experiment that used a modified version of Sloutsky and Fisher's (2004) task and conclude that "labels do not generally affect children's perceptual similarity judgments; rather,…

  1. Similar Outcomes After Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Intact and -Reconstructed Knees: A Comparative Matched-Group Analysis With Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dean; Eliasberg, Claire D; Wang, Tim; Fader, Ryan R; Coxe, Francesca R; Pais, Mollyann D; Williams, Riley J

    2017-12-01

    To compare failure rates and clinical outcomes of osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-intact versus ACL-reconstructed knees at midterm follow-up. After a priori power analysis, a prospective registry of patients treated with OCA for focal chondral lesions ≥2 cm 2 in size with minimum 2-year follow-up was used to match ACL-reconstructed knees with ACL-intact knees by age, sex, and primary chondral defect location. Exclusion criteria included meniscus transplantation, realignment osteotomy, or other ligamentous injury. Complications, reoperations, and patient responses to validated outcome measures were reviewed. Failure was defined by any procedure involving allograft removal/revision or conversion to arthroplasty. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression were performed to evaluate the association of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with failure. A total of 50 ACL-intact and 25 ACL-reconstructed (18 prior, 7 concomitant) OCA patients were analyzed. The mean age was 36.2 years (range, 14-62 years). Mean follow-up was 3.9 years (range, 2-14 years). Patient demographics and chondral lesion characteristics were similar between groups. ACL-reconstructed patients averaged 2.2 ± 1.9 prior surgeries on the ipsilateral knee compared with 1.4 ± 1.4 surgeries for ACL-intact patients (P = .014). Grafts used for the last ACLR included bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, hamstring autograft, Achilles tendon allograft, and tibialis allograft (data available for only 11 of 25 patients). At final follow-up, 22% of ACL-intact and 32% of ACL-reconstructed patients had undergone reoperation. OCA survivorship was 90% and 96% at 2 years and 79% and 85% at 5 years in ACL-intact and ACL-reconstructed patients, respectively (P = .774). ACLR was not independently associated with failure. Both groups demonstrated clinically significant improvements in the Short Form-36 pain and physical functioning, International Knee

  2. Numerical Analysis of Storm Surge and Seiche at Tokyo Bay caused by the 2 Similar Typhoons, Typhoon Phanphon and Vongfong in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, T.; Takagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    A long period damped oscillation, or seiche, sometimes happens inside a harbor after passing typhoon. For some cases, a maximum sea level is observed due to the superposition of astronomical tide and seiche rather than a peak of storm surge. Hence to clarify seiche factors for reducing disaster potential is important, a long-period seiche with a fundamental period of 5.46 hours in Tokyo Bay (Konishi, 2008) was investigated through numerical simulations and analyses. We examined the case of Typhoon Phanphon and Vongfong in 2014 (Hereafter Case P and V). The intensity and moving velocity were similar and the best-tracks were an arc-shaped, typical one approaching to Tokyo Bay. The track of Case V was about 1.5 degree higher latitude than that of Case P, only Typhoon Phanphon caused significant seiche.Firstly, numerical simulations for the 2 storm surges at Tokyo Bay were conducted by Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and Meso-Scale Model Grid Point Values (MSM-GPV). MSM-GPV gave the 10m wind speed and Sea Level Pressure (SLP), especially the Mean Error (ME) and Root Mean Squire Error (RMSE) of SLP were low compared to the 12 JMA observation points data (Case P: ME -0.303hPa, RMSE 1.87hPa, Case V: ME -0.285hPa, RMSE 0.74hPa). The computational results showed that the maximum of storm surge was underestimated but the difference was less than 20cm at 5 observation points in Tokyo Bay(Fig.1, 2).Then, power spectrals, coherences and phase differences of storm surges at the 5 observation points were obtained by spectral analysis of observed and simulated waveforms. For Case P, the phase-difference between the bay mouth and innermost part of Tokyo Bay was little, and coherence was almost 1(Fig.3, 4). However, for Case V, coherence was small around the fundamental period of 5.46 hours. Furthermore, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of storm surge, SLP and sea surface stress were conducted. The contributions of EOF1 were above 90% for the all variables, the

  3. Zonal characterization of hillslope erosion processes in a semi-arid high mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Raquel; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Moñino, Antonio; Ángel Losada, Miguel; José Polo, María

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean and semi-arid catchments, generally suffer heterogeneous erosive processes at different spatio-temporal scales which produce, in a synergistic manner, a large amount of sediment supply. In mountainous catchments, the influence of pluvio-nival hydrological regime leads to a clear subdivision into homogeneous zones regarding the nature of hillslope processes. Here, a distinction could be addressed with 1) subsurface erosion due to saturated soil by intense snowmelt pulses and 2) steepest mid-mountain soil loss with rill/interrill, small-scale landslides and ephemeral or permanent gullying. Furthermore, the associated channels in these areas are formed by wide alluvial floodplains with important bedload contributions. This complexity conditions the evaluation of erosion and monitoring at catchment scale with elevated costs in time, devices and staff. The catchment of the Guadalfeo river encloses 1200 km², with important presence of snow in the summits height on its right margin, and semiarid low range hills with very erodible soils on its left margin. Gully erosion, landslides and stream bed-load processes, extremely actives in this area, are responsible of a real problem of soil loss and desertification with a high associated cost. This work suggests a methodology for the zonal assessment of different erosive processes taking into account the described heterogeneity and the reduction of research costs. To do this, high resolution bathymetric and topographic surveys supported in a reservoir (110 hm3) allowed the differentiation of bedload and suspended sediments as both are deposited in different locations and hence the validation of the hillslope sediment yield. In parallel, measurements in homogeneous areas were selected in order to obtain zonal results to achieve the representative processes involved. The use of portable samplers allows the remote changing of sampling routines, and thus to capture the temporal scale of the processes and the

  4. Are Strong Zonal Winds in Giant Planets Caused by Density-Stratification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, J.; Stellmach, S.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn are the zonal wind patterns observed on their surfaces. The mechanism that drives this differential rotation is still not clearly identified and is currently strongly debated in the astro- and geophysics community. Different mechanisms have been proposed over the last decades. Here, a recently discovered mechanism based on background density stratification (Glatzmaier et al., 2009) is investigated. This mechanism has the potential to overcome known difficulties of previous explanations and its efficiency has been demonstrated in 2-d simulations covering equatorial planes. By performing highly resolved numerical simulations in a local Cartesian geometry, we are able to test the efficiency and functionality of this mechanism in turbulent, rotating convection in three spatial dimensions. The choice of a Cartesian model geometry naturally excludes other known mechanisms capable of producing differential rotation, thus allowing us to investigate the role of density stratification in isolation. Typically, the dynamics can be classified into two main regimes: A regime exhibiting strong zonal winds for weak to moderate thermal driving and a regime where zonal winds are largely absent in the case of a strong thermal forcing. Our results indicate that previous 2-d results must be handled with care and can only explain parts of the full 3-d behavior. We show that the density-stratification mechanism tends to operate in a more narrow parameter range in 3-d as compared to 2-d simulations. The dynamics of the regime transition is shown to differ in both cases, which renders scaling laws derived from two-dimensional studies questionable. Based on our results, we provide estimates for the importance of the density-stratification mechanism for giant planets like Jupiter (strong density stratification), for systems like the Earth's core (weak density stratification) and compare its efficiency with other

  5. Meta-analysis reveals that seed-applied neonicotinoids and pyrethroids have similar negative effects on abundance of arthropod natural enemies

    PubMed Central

    Tooker, John F.

    2016-01-01

    crop species, neonicotinoid active ingredients, or methodological choices. Discussion Our meta-analysis of nearly 1,000 observations from North American and European field studies revealed that seed-applied neonicotinoids reduced the abundance of arthropod natural enemies similarly to broadcast applications of pyrethroid insecticides. These findings suggest that substituting pyrethroids for seed-applied neonicotinoids, or vice versa, will have little net affect on natural enemy abundance. Consistent with previous lab work, our results also suggest that seed-applied neonicotinoids are less toxic to spiders and mites, which can contribute substantially to biological control in many agricultural systems. Finally, our ability to interpret the negative effect of neonicotinoids on natural enemies is constrained by difficulty relating natural-enemy abundance to biological control function; this is an important area for future study. PMID:27957400

  6. Meta-analysis reveals that seed-applied neonicotinoids and pyrethroids have similar negative effects on abundance of arthropod natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Margaret R; Tooker, John F

    2016-01-01

    , neonicotinoid active ingredients, or methodological choices. Our meta-analysis of nearly 1,000 observations from North American and European field studies revealed that seed-applied neonicotinoids reduced the abundance of arthropod natural enemies similarly to broadcast applications of pyrethroid insecticides. These findings suggest that substituting pyrethroids for seed-applied neonicotinoids, or vice versa, will have little net affect on natural enemy abundance. Consistent with previous lab work, our results also suggest that seed-applied neonicotinoids are less toxic to spiders and mites, which can contribute substantially to biological control in many agricultural systems. Finally, our ability to interpret the negative effect of neonicotinoids on natural enemies is constrained by difficulty relating natural-enemy abundance to biological control function; this is an important area for future study.

  7. Comparison of analytical models for zonal flow generation in ion-temperature-gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Miki, K.; Uzawa, K.

    2006-11-30

    During the past years the understanding of the multi scale interaction problems have increased significantly. However, at present there exists a flora of different analytical models for investigating multi scale interactions and hardly any specific comparisons have been performed among these models. In this work two different models for the generation of zonal flows from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) background turbulence are discussed and compared. The methods used are the coherent mode coupling model and the wave kinetic equation model (WKE). It is shown that the two models give qualitatively the same results even though the assumption on the spectral difference ismore » used in the (WKE) approach.« less

  8. Using a zonal atmospheric model to test biogeophysical feedback-caused drought in the subtropical desert

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, G.L.; MacCracken, M.C.; Ellsaesser, H.W.

    1975-08-01

    Recent interest in the cause of the sub-Sahara drought has initiated several investigations implying possible anthropogenic origin through increased surface albedo due to reduced plant cover from overgrazing. Results of two integrations of the Zonal Atmospheric Model (ZAM2) are presented, differing only in the prescribed surface albedo for the subtropical land masses of the northern hemisphere. These studies were initiated to determine whether an albedo change alone can bring about such dramatic impacts on local precipitation rates as have been implied. Preliminary results indicate that an albedo change can affect the climate, not just at the latitude of change butmore » also at other latitudes due to various atmospheric feedback mechanisms. (auth)« less

  9. Radiative modelling by the zonal method and WSGG model in inhomogeneous axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO2-H2O- N2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the zonal method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces.

  10. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  11. Using box models to quantify zonal distributions and emissions of halocarbons in the background atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; Miller, B.; Butler, J. H.; Mondeel, D. J.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Rigby, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) of NOAA's Global Monitoring Division started measurements of the major chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide in 1977 from flask samples collected at five remote sites around the world. Our program has expanded to over 40 compounds at twelve sites, which includes six in situ instruments and twelve flask sites. The Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments has helped to decrease the concentrations of many of the ozone depleting compounds in the atmosphere. Our goal is to provide zonal emission estimates for these trace gases from multi-box models and their estimated atmospheric lifetimes in this presentation and make the emission values available on our web site. We plan to use our airborne measurements to calibrate the exchange times between the boxes for 5-box and 12-box models using sulfur hexafluoride where emissions are better understood.

  12. Tertiary instability of zonal flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The stability of zonal flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Periodical oscillation of zonal wind velocities at the cloud top of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyama, T.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Satoh, T.; Futaana, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Zonal wind velocity of Venus increases with height and reaches about 100 m s-1 at the cloud top level (~70km). The speed is approximately 60 times faster than the rotation speed of the solid body of Venus (~1.6 m s-1, at the equator) and this phenomenon is called a "super-rotation". From previous observations, it is known that the super-rotation changes on a long timescale. At the cloud top level, it was suggested that the super-rotation has a few years period oscillation based on observations made by Pioneer Venus orbiter of USA from 1979 to 1985 (Del Genio et al.,1990). However, the period, the amplitude, the spatial structure and the mechanism of the long period oscillation have not been understood well. Venus Express (VEX) of European Space Agency has been observing Venus since its orbital insertion in April 2006. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard VEX has an ultra violet (UV) filter (365 nm), and VMC has taken day-side cloud images at the cloud top level with this filter. Such images exhibit various cloud features made by unknown UV absorber in the atmosphere. For investigating the characteristics of long-timescale variations of the super-rotation, we analyzed zonal velocity fields derived from UV cloud images from May 2006 to January 2010 using a cloud tracking method. UV imaging of VMC is done when the spacecraft is in the ascending portion of its elongated polar orbit. Since the orbital plane is nearly fixed in the inertial space, the local time of VMC/UV observation changes with a periodicity of one Venus year. As a result, periods when VMC observation covered day-side areas of Venus, large enough for cloud trackings, are not continuous. For deriving wind velocities we were able to use cloud images taken in 280 orbits during this period. The derived zonal wind velocity from 10°S to 40°S latitude shows a prominent year-to-year variation, and the variation is well fitted by a periodical oscillation with a period of about 260 Earth days, although not all

  14. Impact of impurities on zonal flow driven by trapped electron mode turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weixin; Wang, Lu; Zhuang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    The impact of impurities on the generation of zonal flow (ZF) driven by collisonless trapped electron mode turbulence in deuterium (D)-tritium (T) plasmas is investigated. An expression for ZF growth rate with impurities is derived by balancing the ZF potential shielded by polarization effects and the ZF modulated radial turbulent current. Then, it is shown that the maximum normalized ZF growth rate is reduced by the presence of fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively flat density profile, and slightly reduced by highly ionized trace tungsten, while the maximum normalized ZF growth rate can be enhanced by fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively steep density profile. In particular, the effects of high temperature helium from D-T reaction on ZF depend on the temperature ratio between electrons and high temperature helium. The possible relevance of our findings to recent experimental results and future burning plasmas is also discussed.

  15. IsoCleft Finder – a web-based tool for the detection and analysis of protein binding-site geometric and chemical similarities

    PubMed Central

    Najmanovich, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    IsoCleft Finder is a web-based tool for the detection of local geometric and chemical similarities between potential small-molecule binding cavities and a non-redundant dataset of ligand-bound known small-molecule binding-sites. The non-redundant dataset developed as part of this study is composed of 7339 entries representing unique Pfam/PDB-ligand (hetero group code) combinations with known levels of cognate ligand similarity. The query cavity can be uploaded by the user or detected automatically by the system using existing PDB entries as well as user-provided structures in PDB format. In all cases, the user can refine the definition of the cavity interactively via a browser-based Jmol 3D molecular visualization interface. Furthermore, users can restrict the search to a subset of the dataset using a cognate-similarity threshold. Local structural similarities are detected using the IsoCleft software and ranked according to two criteria (number of atoms in common and Tanimoto score of local structural similarity) and the associated Z-score and p-value measures of statistical significance. The results, including predicted ligands, target proteins, similarity scores, number of atoms in common, etc., are shown in a powerful interactive graphical interface. This interface permits the visualization of target ligands superimposed on the query cavity and additionally provides a table of pairwise ligand topological similarities. Similarities between top scoring ligands serve as an additional tool to judge the quality of the results obtained. We present several examples where IsoCleft Finder provides useful functional information. IsoCleft Finder results are complementary to existing approaches for the prediction of protein function from structure, rational drug design and x-ray crystallography. IsoCleft Finder can be found at: http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca/isocleftfinder. PMID:24555058

  16. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations before and during Juno exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Iñurrigarro, P.; Mendikoa, I.; Rojas, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a long term campaign between September 2015 and August 2016 of imaging of Jupiter's cloud morphology and zonal winds in the 0.38 - 1.7 μm wavelength spectral range. We use PlanetCam lucky imaging camera at the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and for the optical range, the contribution of a network of observers to the Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory database (PVOL-IOPW at http://pvol.ehu.eus). We have complemented the study with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera images taken in the 0.275 - 0.89 μm wavelength spectral range during the OPAL program on 9 February 2016. The PlanetCam images have been calibrated in radiance using spectrophotometric standard stars providing absolute reflectivity across the disk in a large series of broadband and narrowband filters sensitive to the altitude distribution and size of aerosols above the ammonia cloud level, and to the spectral dependence of the chromophore coloring agents. The cloud morphology evolution has been studied with an horizontal resolution ranging from 150 to 1000 km. Zonal wind profiles have been retrieved along the whole observing period from tracking cloud motions that span the latitude range from -80° to +77º. Combining all these results we characterized the 3D-dynamical state and cloud and haze distribution in Jupiter's atmosphere in the altitude range between 10 mbar and 1.5 bar before and during Juno initial exploration.

  17. Analysis and improvement of Brinkman lattice Boltzmann schemes: bulk, boundary, interface. Similarity and distinctness with finite elements in heterogeneous porous media.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Irina; Silva, Goncalo; Talon, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the numerical solution of the Stokes-Brinkman equation for a voxel-type porous-media grid, resolved by one to eight spacings per permeability contrast of 1 to 10 orders in magnitude. It is first analytically demonstrated that the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the linear-finite-element method (FEM) both suffer from the viscosity correction induced by the linear variation of the resistance with the velocity. This numerical artefact may lead to an apparent negative viscosity in low-permeable blocks, inducing spurious velocity oscillations. The two-relaxation-times (TRT) LBM may control this effect thanks to free-tunable two-rates combination Λ. Moreover, the Brinkman-force-based BF-TRT schemes may maintain the nondimensional Darcy group and produce viscosity-independent permeability provided that the spatial distribution of Λ is fixed independently of the kinematic viscosity. Such a property is lost not only in the BF-BGK scheme but also by "partial bounce-back" TRT gray models, as shown in this work. Further, we propose a consistent and improved IBF-TRT model which vanishes viscosity correction via simple specific adjusting of the viscous-mode relaxation rate to local permeability value. This prevents the model from velocity fluctuations and, in parallel, improves for effective permeability measurements, from porous channel to multidimensions. The framework of our exact analysis employs a symbolic approach developed for both LBM and FEM in single and stratified, unconfined, and bounded channels. It shows that even with similar bulk discretization, BF, IBF, and FEM may manifest quite different velocity profiles on the coarse grids due to their intrinsic contrasts in the setting of interface continuity and no-slip conditions. While FEM enforces them on the grid vertexes, the LBM prescribes them implicitly. We derive effective LBM continuity conditions and show that the heterogeneous viscosity correction impacts them, a property also shared

  18. Revisiting a dogma: similar survival of patients with small bowel and gastric GIST. A population-based propensity score SEER analysis.

    PubMed

    Guller, Ulrich; Tarantino, Ignazio; Cerny, Thomas; Ulrich, Alexis; Schmied, Bruno M; Warschkow, Rene

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present analysis was to assess whether small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is associated with worse cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) compared with gastric GIST on a population-based level. Data on patients aged 18 years or older with histologically proven GIST was extracted from the SEER database from 1998 to 2011. OS and CSS for small bowel GIST were compared with OS and CSS for gastric GIST by application of adjusted and unadjusted Cox regression analyses and propensity score analyses. GIST were located in the stomach (n = 3011, 59 %), duodenum (n = 313, 6 %), jejunum/ileum (n = 1288, 25 %), colon (n = 139, 3 %), rectum (n = 172, 3 %), and extraviscerally (n = 173, 3 %). OS and CSS of patients with GIST in the duodenum [OS, HR 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.19; CSS, HR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.76-1.29] and in the jejunum/ileum (OS, HR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.85-1.10; CSS, HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.81-1.10) were similar to those of patients with gastric GIST in multivariate analyses. Conversely, OS and CSS of patients with GIST in the colon (OS, HR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.07-1.83; CSS, HR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.41-2.54) and in an extravisceral location (OS, HR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.14-1.77; CSS, HR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.11-1.84) were significantly worse than those of patients with gastric GIST. Contrary to common belief, OS and CSS of patients with small bowel GIST are not statistically different from those of patients with gastric GIST when adjustment is made for confounding variables on a population-based level. The prognosis of patients with nongastric GIST is worse because of a colonic and extravisceral GIST location. These findings have implications regarding adjuvant treatment of GIST patients. Hence, the dogma that small bowel GIST patients have worse prognosis than gastric GIST patients and therefore should receive adjuvant treatment to a greater extent must be revisited.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the 1990 equatorial disturbance on Saturn - Zonal winds and central meridian albedos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, C. D.; Westphal, J. A.; Beebe, R. F.; Huber, L. F.

    1992-12-01

    The present comparison of two sets of HST data from August and November 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 data acquired in 1980 and 1981 gives attention to Saturn's equatorial-region disturbance of September 1990. Longitudinal variations in the equatorial zonal winds are interpreted as evidence for interaction between the storm nucleus that was generated during the disturbance and the local wind field.

  20. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of themore » temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.« less

  2. Transonic Navier-Stokes wing solutions using a zonal approach. Part 2: High angle-of-attack simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code is under development whereby the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are to be applied to realistic fighter-aircraft configurations. This transonic Navier-Stokes code (TNS) utilizes a zonal approach in order to treat complex geometries and satisfy in-core computer memory constraints. The zonal approach has been applied to isolated wing geometries in order to facilitate code development. Part 1 of this paper addresses the TNS finite-difference algorithm, zonal methodology, and code validation with experimental data. Part 2 of this paper addresses some numerical issues such as code robustness, efficiency, and accuracy at high angles of attack. Special free-stream-preserving metrics proved an effective way to treat H-mesh singularities over a large range of severe flow conditions, including strong leading-edge flow gradients, massive shock-induced separation, and stall. Furthermore, lift and drag coefficients have been computed for a wing up through CLmax. Numerical oil flow patterns and particle trajectories are presented both for subcritical and transonic flow. These flow simulations are rich with complex separated flow physics and demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the zonal approach.

  3. The qualitative similarity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Peter V; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within the purview of two groups of cognitive models: those that emphasize the cognitive development of individuals and those that pertain to disciplinary or knowledge structures. It is argued that the QSH has scientific merit with implications for classroom instruction. Future research should examine the validity of the QSH in other disciplines such as mathematics and science and should include perspectives from social as well as cognitive models.

  4. Fast and slow shifts of the zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone in response to an idealized anthropogenic aerosol

    DOE PAGES

    Voigt, Aiko; Pincus, Robert; Stevens, Bjorn; ...

    2017-04-03

    Previous modeling work showed that aerosol can affect the position of the tropical rain belt, i.e., the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Yet it remains unclear which aspects of the aerosol impact are robust across models, and which are not. Here we present simulations with seven comprehensive atmosphere models that study the fast and slow impacts of an idealized anthropogenic aerosol on the zonal-mean ITCZ position. The fast impact, which results from aerosol atmospheric heating and land cooling before sea-surface temperature (SST) has time to respond, causes a northward ITCZ shift. Yet the fast impact is compensated locally by decreased evaporationmore » over the ocean, and a clear northward shift is only found for an unrealistically large aerosol forcing. The local compensation implies that while models differ in atmospheric aerosol heating, this does not contribute to model differences in the ITCZ shift. The slow impact includes the aerosol impact on the ocean surface energy balance and is mediated by SST changes. The slow impact is an order of magnitude more effective than the fast impact and causes a clear southward ITCZ shift for realistic aerosol forcing. Models agree well on the slow ITCZ shift when perturbed with the same SST pattern. However, an energetic analysis suggests that the slow ITCZ shifts would be substantially more model-dependent in interactive-SST setups due to model differences in clear-sky radiative transfer and clouds. In conclusion, we also discuss implications for the representation of aerosol in climate models and attributions of recent observed ITCZ shifts to aerosol.« less

  5. Shape, zonal winds and gravitational field of Jupiter: a fully self-consistent, multi-layered model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke

    2016-10-01

    We construct a three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, multi-layered,non-spheroidal model of Jupiter consisting of an inner core, a metallic electrically conducting dynamo region and an outer molecular electrically insulating envelope. We assume that the Jovian zonal winds are on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis but, due to the effect of magnetic braking, are confined within the outer molecular envelope. Two related calculations are carried out. The first provides an accurate description of the shape and internal density profile of Jupiter; the effect of rotational distortion is not treated as a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. This calculation determines the density, size and shape of the inner core, the irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level, and the internal structure of Jupiter; the full effect of rotational distortion, without the influence of the zonal winds, is accounted for. Our multi-layered model is able to produce the known mass, the known equatorial and polar radii, and the known zonal gravitational coefficient J2 of Jupiter within their error bars; it also yields the coefficients J4 and J6 within about 5% accuracy, and the core equatorial radius 0.09RJ containing 3.73 Earth masses.The second calculation determines the variation of the gravitational field caused solely by the effect of the zonal winds on the rotationally distorted non-spheroidal Jupiter. Four different cases, ranging from a deep wind profile to a very shallow profile, are considered and implications for accurate interpretation of the zonal gravitational coefficients expected from the Juno mission are discussed.

  6. Intergenerational Perceptions, Similarities and Differences: A Comparative Analysis of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Millennial Youth with Generation X and Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    This article shares the findings from a qualitative study of 49 lesbian, gay, and bisexual people from three generations: Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial. Baby Boomer and Generation X perceptions of Millennials are compared to the lived experiences as told by the youth themselves. While there were more intergenerational similarities than…

  7. An Analysis of the Applicability of the Hypersonic Similarity Law to the Study of Flow About Bodies of Revolution at Zero Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehret, Dorris M.; Rossow, Vernon J.; Stevens, Victor I.

    1950-01-01

    The hypersonic similarity law as derived by Tsien has been investigated by comparing the pressure distributions along bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. In making these comparisons, particular attention was given to determining the limits of Mach number and fineness ratio for which the similarity law applies. For the purpose of this investigation, pressure distributions determined by the method of characteristics for ogive cylinders for values of Mach numbers and fineness ratios varying from 1.5 to 12 were compared. Pressures on various cones and on cone cylinders were also compared in this study. The pressure distributions presented demonstrate that the hypersonic similarity law is applicable over a wider range of values of Mach numbers and fineness ratios than might be expected from the assumptions made in the derivation. This is significant since within the range of applicability of the law a single pressure distribution exists for all similarly shaped bodies for which the ratio of free-stream Mach number to fineness ratio is constant. Charts are presented for rapid determination of pressure distributions over ogive cylinders for any combination of Mach number and fineness ratio within defined limits.

  8. Analysis and identification of two similar traditional Chinese medicines by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy: Ligusticum chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis and their different extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Wang, Jingjuan; Zhang, Guijun; Rong, Lixin; Wu, Haozhong; Sun, Suqin; Guo, Yizhen; Yang, Yanfang; Lu, Lina; Qu, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Rhizoma Chuanxiong (CX) and Radix Angelica sinensis (DG) are very important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and usually used in clinic. They both are from the Umbelliferae family, and have almost similar chemical constituents with each other. It is complicated, time-consuming and laborious to discriminate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, to find a fast, applicable and effective identification method for two herbs is urged in quality research of TCM. In this paper, by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)), we analyzed and discriminated CX, DG and their different extracts (aqueous extract, alcoholic extract and petroleum ether extract). In FT-IR, all the CX and DG samples' spectra seemed similar, but they had their own unique macroscopic fingerprints to identify. Through comparing with the spectra of sucrose and the similarity calculation, we found the content of sucrose in DG raw materials was higher than in CX raw materials. The significant differences in alcoholic extract appeared that in CX alcoholic extract, the peaks at 1743 cm-1 was obviously stronger than the peak at same position in DG alcoholic extract. Besides in petroleum ether extract, we concluded CX contained much more ligustilide than DG by the similarity calculation. With the function of SD-IR, some tiny differences were amplified and overlapped peaks were also unfolded in FT-IR. In the range of 1100-1175 cm-1, there were six peaks in the SD-IR spectra of DG and the intensity, shape and location of those six peaks were similar to that of sucrose, while only two peaks could be observed in that of CX and those two peaks were totally different from sucrose in shape and relative intensity. This result was consistent with that of the

  9. Unusual behavior of quiet-time zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities over Jicamarca during the recent extended solar minimum of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ângela M.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, José H. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the recent deep and prolonged solar minimum on the daytime zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities during quiet time is investigated in this work. Analyzing the data obtained from incoherent scatter radar from Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W) we observe an anomalous behavior of the zonal plasma drift during June 2008 characterized by lower than usual daytime westward drift and its early afternoon reversal to eastward. As a case study the zonal drift observed on 24 June 2008 is modeled using a realistic low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE (SUPIM-INPE). The results show that an anomalously low zonal wind was mainly responsible for the observed anomalous behavior in the zonal drift. A comparative study of the vertical plasma drifts obtained from magnetometer data for some periods of maximum (2000-2002) and minimum solar activity (1998, 2008, 2010) phases reveal a considerable decrease on the E-region conductivity and the dynamo electric field during 2008. However, we believe that the contribution of these characteristics to the unusual behavior of the zonal plasma drift is significantly smaller than that arising from the anomalously low zonal wind. The SUPIM-INPE result of the critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) over Jicamarca suggested a lower radiation flux than that predicted by solar irradiance model (SOLAR2000) for June 2008.

  10. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY OF ZONAL SOILS OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF THE SOVIET UNION (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrebov, M.T.

    1959-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of zonal soils and of their soil forming rocks up to 220-240 cm in depth as well as of the suprasoil air at a 20 cm altitude from the soil surface has been studled from 29.VM to 13.X 1957 in the natural zones of the European part of the USSR located along the meridian from the Arkhangelsk taiga down to the southern coast of Crimea. The measurements were carried out by mica counters (BFL-T-80 and Si-2b), by an aluminum (AS-2) and glass copper cathode (MS-4) which registers alpha , BETA -soft, BETA -hard and gamma - radiation, respectivelymore » with the aid of a field radiometric device PK-10b and a spherical and hemispherical 9-cm lead shield. It was found that natural radioactivity of zonal soils increased in the following order: highly podzol on carbonate moraine (Arkhangelsk region), sod-highly podzol soil on loess-like loam (Vologodsk region), sodmedium podzol soil on loess-like loam (Moscow region), light-gray forest soil on loess loam (Tula region), powerful leached chernozem on loess-like loam (Kursk region), dark chestnut on carbonate loess-like loam (Kherson region) brown forest on slate schists (Crimea region). A 5-mm superficial layer of the accumulative A: horizon invariably showed maximal natural radioactivity in all kinds of soil surpassing the natural radioactivity value of the lower A/sub 1/ horizon and of all soil horizons and rocks by 2.2-3.5 times. In the podzol A/sub 2/ horizons a decrease of natural radioactivity was mostiy noted as compared with the natural radioactivity value of the accumulative Ai horizon. In the alluvial horizon (B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/) natural radioactivity increases by 12 to 33% when compared with natural radioactivity of the A: horizon. Most of the soilforming rocks tested showed a lesser natural radioactivity (by 33 to 50%) than natural radioactivity of the accumulative (A/ sub 1/) and alluvial (B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/) soil horizons which have developed on these rocks. (auth)« less

  11. Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based

  12. Prostate Zonal Volumetry as a Predictor of Clinical Outcomes for Prostate Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Assis, André Moreira de, E-mail: andre.assis@criep.com.br, E-mail: andre.maa@gmail.com; Maciel, Macello Sampaio, E-mail: macielmjs@gmail.com; Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: airton.mota@criep.com.br

    PurposeTo determine prostate baseline zonal volumetry and correlate these findings with clinical outcomes for patients who underwent prostate artery embolization (PAE) for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study that included patients treated by PAE from 2010 to 2014. Baseline and 6-month follow-up evaluations included prostate MRI with whole prostate (WP) and central gland (CG) volume measurements—as well as prostate zonal volumetry index (ZVi) calculation, defined as the CG/WP volumes relation—the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the Quality of life (QoL) index. Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi were statistical compared to IPSS andmore » QoL values at 6 months.ResultsA total of 93 consecutive patients were included, with mean age of 63.4 years (range, 51–86). Clinical failure, defined as IPSS > 7 or QoL > 2, was seen in four cases (4.3%). Mean reductions in prostate volumes after PAE were of 30.6% and 31.2% for WP and CG, respectively (p < 0.0001). Clinical parameters had mean decrease from 21 to 3.3 points for IPSS, and from 4.7 to 1.2 points for QoL (p < 0.0001). Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi correlated to the degree of clinical improvement (p < 0.05 for all). The baseline ZVi cut-off calculated for better clinical outcomes was > 0.45, with 85% sensitivity and 75% specificity.ConclusionsBaseline CG and WP volumes as well as ZVi presented strong correlation with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PAE, and its assessment should be considered in pre-treatment evaluation whenever possible. Both patients and medical team should be aware of the possibility of less favorable outcomes when ZVi < 0.45.« less

  13. A PV view of the zonal mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extratropical troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the zonal mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of pontential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley circulation. Of particular interest is whether the distribution of temperature and wind corresponding to a constant potential vorticity (PV) along isentropes resembles the observed, and the implications of PV homogenization along isentropes for the role of the tropics. With the assumption that PV is homogenized along isentropes, it is found that the temperature distribution in the extratropical troposphere may be determined by a linear, first-order partial differential equation. When the observed surface temperature distribution and tropical lapse rate are used as the boundary conditions, the solution of the equation is close to the observed temperature distribution except in the upper troposphere adjacent to the Hadley circulation, where the troposphere with no PV gradient is considerably colder. Consequently, the jet is also stronger. It is also found that the meridional distribution of the balanced zonal wind is very sensitive to the meridional distribution of the tropopause temperature. The result may suggest that the requirement of the global momentum balance has no practical role in determining the extratropical temperature distribution. The authors further investigated the sensitivity of the extratropical troposphere with constant PV along isentropes to changes in conditions at the tropical boundary (the edge of the Hadley circulation). It is found that the temperature and wind distributions in the extratropical troposphere are sensitive to the vertical distribution of PV at the tropical boundary. With a surface distribution of temperature that decreases linearly with latitude, the jet maximum occurs at the tropical boundary and moves with it. The overall pattern of wind distribution is not sensitive to the change of

  14. Indentation mapping revealed poroelastic, but not viscoelastic, properties spanning native zonal articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Joseph A; DelRio, Frank W; Randolph, Mark A; Aziz, Aaron H; Heveran, Chelsea M; Bryant, Stephanie J; Neu, Corey P; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthrosis is a debilitating disease affecting millions, yet engineering materials for cartilage regeneration has proven difficult because of the complex microstructure of this tissue. Articular cartilage, like many biological tissues, produces a time-dependent response to mechanical load that is critical to cell's physiological function in part due to solid and fluid phase interactions and property variations across multiple length scales. Recreating the time-dependent strain and fluid flow may be critical for successfully engineering replacement tissues but thus far has largely been neglected. Here, microindentation is used to accomplish three objectives: (1) quantify a material's time-dependent mechanical response, (2) map material properties at a cellular relevant length scale throughout zonal articular cartilage and (3) elucidate the underlying viscoelastic, poroelastic, and nonlinear poroelastic causes of deformation in articular cartilage. Untreated and trypsin-treated cartilage was sectioned perpendicular to the articular surface and indentation was used to evaluate properties throughout zonal cartilage on the cut surface. The experimental results demonstrated that within all cartilage zones, the mechanical response was well represented by a model assuming nonlinear biphasic behavior and did not follow conventional viscoelastic or linear poroelastic models. Additionally, 10% (w/w) agarose was tested and, as anticipated, behaved as a linear poroelastic material. The approach outlined here provides a method, applicable to many tissues and biomaterials, which reveals and quantifies the underlying causes of time-dependent deformation, elucidates key aspects of material structure and function, and that can be used to provide important inputs for computational models and targets for tissue engineering. Elucidating the time-dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage, and other biological materials, is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory

  15. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Heike; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Robust phenotypic data allow adequate statistical analysis and are crucial for any breeding purpose. Such data is obtained from experiments laid out to best control local variation. Additionally, experiments frequently involve two phases, each contributing environmental sources of variation. For example, in a former experiment we conducted to evaluate production related traits in Pelargonium zonale , there were two consecutive phases, each performed in a different greenhouse. Phase one involved the propagation of the breeding strains to obtain the stem cutting count, and phase two involved the assessment of root formation. The evaluation of the former study raised questions regarding options for improving the experimental layout: (i) Is there a disadvantage to using exactly the same design in both phases? (ii) Instead of generating a separate layout for each phase, can the design be optimized across both phases, such that the mean variance of a pair-wise treatment difference (MVD) can be decreased? To answer these questions, alternative approaches were explored to generate two-phase designs either in phase-wise order (Option 1) or across phases (Option 2). In Option 1 we considered the scenarios (i) using in both phases the same experimental design and (ii) randomizing each phase separately. In Option 2, we considered the scenarios (iii) generating a single design with eight replicates and splitting these among the two phases, (iv) separating the block structure across phases by dummy coding, and (v) design generation with optimal alignment of block units in the two phases. In both options, we considered the same or different block structures in each phase. The designs were evaluated by the MVD obtained by the intra-block analysis and the joint inter-block-intra-block analysis. The smallest MVD was most frequently obtained for designs generated across phases rather than for each phase separately, in particular when both phases of the design were separated with a

  16. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Heike; Boehm, Robert; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2018-01-01

    Robust phenotypic data allow adequate statistical analysis and are crucial for any breeding purpose. Such data is obtained from experiments laid out to best control local variation. Additionally, experiments frequently involve two phases, each contributing environmental sources of variation. For example, in a former experiment we conducted to evaluate production related traits in Pelargonium zonale, there were two consecutive phases, each performed in a different greenhouse. Phase one involved the propagation of the breeding strains to obtain the stem cutting count, and phase two involved the assessment of root formation. The evaluation of the former study raised questions regarding options for improving the experimental layout: (i) Is there a disadvantage to using exactly the same design in both phases? (ii) Instead of generating a separate layout for each phase, can the design be optimized across both phases, such that the mean variance of a pair-wise treatment difference (MVD) can be decreased? To answer these questions, alternative approaches were explored to generate two-phase designs either in phase-wise order (Option 1) or across phases (Option 2). In Option 1 we considered the scenarios (i) using in both phases the same experimental design and (ii) randomizing each phase separately. In Option 2, we considered the scenarios (iii) generating a single design with eight replicates and splitting these among the two phases, (iv) separating the block structure across phases by dummy coding, and (v) design generation with optimal alignment of block units in the two phases. In both options, we considered the same or different block structures in each phase. The designs were evaluated by the MVD obtained by the intra-block analysis and the joint inter-block–intra-block analysis. The smallest MVD was most frequently obtained for designs generated across phases rather than for each phase separately, in particular when both phases of the design were separated with a

  17. Unreported links between trial registrations and published articles were identified using document similarity measures in a cross-sectional analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2018-03-01

    Trial registries can be used to measure reporting biases and support systematic reviews, but 45% of registrations do not provide a link to the article reporting on the trial. We evaluated the use of document similarity methods to identify unreported links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed. We extracted terms and concepts from a data set of 72,469 ClinicalTrials.gov registrations and 276,307 PubMed articles and tested methods for ranking articles across 16,005 reported links and 90 manually identified unreported links. Performance was measured by the median rank of matching articles and the proportion of unreported links that could be found by screening ranked candidate articles in order. The best-performing concept-based representation produced a median rank of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 1-21) for reported links and 3 (IQR 1-19) for the manually identified unreported links, and term-based representations produced a median rank of 2 (1-20) for reported links and 2 (IQR 1-12) in unreported links. The matching article was ranked first for 40% of registrations, and screening 50 candidate articles per registration identified 86% of the unreported links. Leveraging the growth in the corpus of reported links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed, we found that document similarity methods can assist in the identification of unreported links between trial registrations and corresponding articles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Valero, M Adela; Peixoto, Raquel V; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. In any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infection must always be considered the starting point before implementing any control measure. Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of different epidemiological, pathological and control characteristics depending on the endemic area and the causal agent, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciolagigantica. Classically it has been accepted that F. hepatica is present worldwide, while the distribution of the two species overlaps in many areas of Africa and Asia. Fascioliasis caused by F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms is present in Guilan province, a complicated epidemiological situation where the highest human infection rates have been described in Iran. Morphometric tools were used to analyse the possible relationship between liver-fluke metric traits and geographical and altitudinal distribution. This is the first study in which a detailed distribution of both Fasciola species is analysed in a human fascioliasis endemic area with a zonal overlap transmission pattern. An accurate analysis was conducted to phenotypically discriminate between fasciolids from naturally infected livestock (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats). The distribution of the % F. hepatica-like (F.h.) and F. gigantica-like (F.g.) flukes detected in each liver versus altitude (m) in each group was analysed. The presence of F.g. specimens mainly in locations below sea level (average: 11.23% F.h., 88.77% F.g.), the presence of both species with similar intensity at 1-99m (average: 56.95% F.h., 43.05% F.g.) and the presence of F.h. specimens mainly from 100 to 999m (average: 71.69% F.h., 28.31% F.g.) as well as in locations with an altitude above 1000m (average: 97.48% F.h., 2.52% F.g.) are noteworthy. A significant positive correlation was obtained between altitude and % F.h., and a significant negative correlation was obtained between altitude and

  19. The mean zonal flow response to Rossby wave and gravity wave forcing in the equatorial lower stratosphere: Relationship to the QBO. [QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation)

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Holton, J.R.

    1991-09-15

    Observations show that the westerly acceleration of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) can be accounted for by Kelvin waves, but that there is a deficiency in the easterly acceleration due to Rossby-gravity waves. Rossby waves and westward propagating gravity waves have been suggested as alternative sources for the easterly acceleration. We have tested the possible role of these two wave modes in a two-dimensional model of the QBO. When the easterly acceleration is due to Rossby waves, the zonal-mean response is steady; when it is due to gravity waves, an oscillation with some features similar to the QBO occurs, butmore » it is of short period and weak amplitude. A similar result occurs when a standing-wave forcing pattern is imposed. These results suggest that Rossby waves play only a minor role in the QBO, and that while the Rossby-gravity mode is essential, other gravity modes may also be important for the easterly phase. 12 refs., 22 figs.« less

  20. The mean zonal flow response to Rossby wave and gravity wave forcing in the equatorial lower stratosphere - Relationship to the QBO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Holton, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations show that the westerly acceleration of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) can be accounted for by Kelvin waves, but that there is a deficiency in the easterly acceleration due to Rossby-gravity waves. Rossby waves and westward propagating gravity waves have been suggested as alternative sources for the easterly acceleration. The possible role of these two wave modes has been tested in a two-dimensional model of the QBO. When the easterly acceleration is due to Rossby waves, the zonal-mean response is steady; when it is due to gravity waves, an oscillation with some features similar to the QBO occurs, but it is of short period and weak amplitude. A similar result occurs when a standing-wave forcing pattern is imposed. These results suggest that Rossby waves play only a minor role in the QBO, and that while the Rossby-gravity mode is essential, other gravity modes may also be important for the easterly phase.

  1. Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2009-04-15

    The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determinedmore » not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.« less

  2. A cyclostrophic transformed Eulerian zonal mean model for the middle atmosphere of slowly rotating planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, King-Fai; Yao, Kaixuan; Taketa, Cameron; Zhang, Xi; Liang, Mao-Chang; Jiang, Xun; Newman, Claire; Tung, Ka-Kit; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-04-01

    With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As an example, we apply this model to Titan. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss an application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.

  3. Subcellular fractionation by differential and zonal centrifugation of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    PubMed Central

    Cartledge, T. G.; Lloyd, D.

    1972-01-01

    1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and the distributions of marker enzymes were investigated after differential centrifugation. Cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c were sedimented almost completely at 105g-min, and this fraction also contained 37% of the catalase, 27% of the acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, 53 and 54% respectively of the NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases. 2. Zonal centrifugation indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of these enzymes and of adenosine triphosphatases and suggested the presence of two mitochondrial populations, as well as a bimodal distribution of peroxisomes and heterogeneity of the acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase-containing particles. 3. Several different adenosine triphosphatases were distinguished in a post-mitochondrial supernatant that contained no mitochondrial fragments; these enzymes varied in their sensitivities to oligomycin and ouabain and their distributions were different from those of pyrophosphatase, adenosine phosphatase and adenosine pyrophosphatase. 4. The distribution of NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductase demonstrated that it cannot be used in S. carlsbergensis as a specific marker enzyme for the microsomal fraction. Glucose 6-phosphatase, inosine pyrophosphatase, cytochrome P-450 and five other enzymes frequently assigned to microsomal fractions of mammalian origin were not detected in yeast under these growth conditions. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 (cont.)PLATE 1PLATE 2 (cont.) PMID:4400904

  4. Comparison of Photoacoustic Signals in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Leaf Tissues of Variegated Pelargonium zonale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljović-Jovanović, S.; Vidović, M.; Morina, F.; Prokić, Lj.; Todorović, D. M.

    2016-09-01

    Green-white variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale were studied using the photoacoustic method. Our aim was to characterize photosynthetically active green tissue and nonphotosynthetically active white tissue by the photoacoustic amplitude signals. We observed lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature in white tissue than in green tissue. Besides these thermal differences, significantly higher absorbance in green tissue was based on chlorophyll and carotenoids which were absent in white tissue. However, optical properties of epidermal layers of both tissues were equal. The photoacoustic amplitude of white tissue was over four times higher compared to green tissue, which was correlated with lower stomatal conductance. In addition, at frequencies >700 Hz, the significant differences between the photoacoustic signals of green and white tissue were obtained. We identified the photoacoustic signal deriving from photosynthetic oxygen evolution in green tissue, using high intensity of red light modulated at 10 Hz. Moreover, the photoacoustic amplitude of green tissue increased progressively with time which corresponded to the period of induction of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. For the first time, very high frequencies (1 kHz to 5 kHz) were applied on leaf material.

  5. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    DOE PAGES

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-10

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in anmore » $$\\boldsymbol{E}\\times \\boldsymbol{B}$$ nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.« less

  6. The zonally averaged transport characteristics of the atmosphere as determined by a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Two dimensional modeling has become an established technique for the simulation of the global structure of trace constituents. Such models are simpler to formulate and cheaper to operate than three dimensional general circulation models, while avoiding some of the gross simplifications of one dimensional models. Nevertheless, the parameterization of eddy fluxes required in a 2-D model is not a trivial problem. This fact has apparently led some to interpret the shortcomings of existing 2-D models as indicating that the parameterization procedure is wrong in principle. There are grounds to believe that these shortcomings result primarily from incorrect implementations of the predictions of eddy transport theory and that a properly based parameterization may provide a good basis for atmospheric modeling. The existence of these GCM-derived coefficients affords an unprecedented opportunity to test the validity of the flux-gradient parameterization. To this end, a zonally averaged (2-D) model was developed, using these coefficients in the transport parameterization. Results from this model for a number of contrived tracer experiments were compared with the parent GCM. The generally good agreement substantially validates the flus-gradient parameterization, and thus the basic principle of 2-D modeling.

  7. Automated Processing of Plasma Samples for Lipoprotein Separation by Rate-Zonal Ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Carl N; Evans, Iain E J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are the primary means of lipid transport among tissues. Defining alterations in lipid metabolism is critical to our understanding of disease processes. However, lipoprotein measurement is limited to specialized centers. Preparation for ultracentrifugation involves the formation of complex density gradients that is both laborious and subject to handling errors. We created a fully automated device capable of forming the required gradient. The design has been made freely available for download by the authors. It is inexpensive relative to commercial density gradient formers, which generally create linear gradients unsuitable for rate-zonal ultracentrifugation. The design can easily be modified to suit user requirements and any potential future improvements. Evaluation of the device showed reliable peristaltic pump accuracy and precision for fluid delivery. We also demonstrate accurate fluid layering with reduced mixing at the gradient layers when compared to usual practice by experienced laboratory personnel. Reduction in layer mixing is of critical importance, as it is crucial for reliable lipoprotein separation. The automated device significantly reduces laboratory staff input and reduces the likelihood of error. Overall, this device creates a simple and effective solution to formation of complex density gradients. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.

  9. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomographic findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Imamura, Yutaka; Giovinazzo, Vincent J; Spaide, Richard F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). A retrospective observational case series of the fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with AZOOR. There were 19 eyes of 11 patients (10 women), who had a mean age of 49.1 +/- 13.9 years. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities were seen in 17 of the 19 eyes, were more common in the peripapillary area, and were smaller in extent than the optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Nine eyes showed progression of hypoautofluorescence area during the mean follow-up of 69.7 months. The mean thickness of the photoreceptor layer at fovea was 177 microm in eyes with AZOOR, which was significantly thinner than controls (193 microm, P = 0.049). Abnormal retinal laminations were found in 12 eyes and were located over areas of loss of the photoreceptors. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was 243 microm, which is normal. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities in AZOOR showed distinct patterns of retinal pigment epithelial involvement, which may be progressive. Thinning of photoreceptor cell layer with loss of the outer segments and abnormal inner retinal lamination in the context of a normal choroid are commonly found in AZOOR.

  10. A cyclostrophic transformed Eulerian zonal mean model for the middle atmosphere of slowly rotating planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. F.; Yao, K.; Taketa, C.; Zhang, X.; Liang, M. C.; Jiang, X.; Newman, C. E.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As examples, we apply this model to Titan and Venus. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss the application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.

  11. The generation of a zonal-wind oscillation by nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lucy

    2003-11-01

    Nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves give rise to numerous large-scale phenomena that are observed in the atmosphere, for example the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). This is an oscillation in zonal wind direction which is observed in the equatorial stratosphere; it is characterized by alternating regimes of easterly and westerly shear that descend with time. In the past few decades, a number of theories have been developed to explain the mechanism by which the QBO is generated. These theories are all based on ``quasi-linear'' representations of wave-mean-flow interactions. In this presentation, a fully nonlinear numerical simulation of the QBO is described. A spectrum of gravity waves over a range of phase speeds is forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagates upwards in a density-stratified shear flow. As a result of the absorption and reflection of the waves at their critical levels, regions of large shear develop in the background flow and propagate downwards with time.

  12. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-loc