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Sample records for zonal wind flow

  1. Dynamics in the Modern Upper Atmosphere of Venus: Zonal Wind Transition to Subsolar-to-Antisolar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Fast, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    We observed Venus on 19-23 Aug 2010 (UT) to investigate equatorial wind velocities from above the cloud tops through the lower thermosphere. Measurements were made from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition. High-resolution spectra were acquired on a CO2 pressure-broadened absorption feature that probes the lower mesosphere ( 70 km altitude) with a non-LTE core emission of the same transition that probes the lower thermosphere ( 110 km). The resolving power of λ/Δλ≈3×107 determines line-of-sight velocity from Doppler shifts to high precision. The altitude differential between the features enables investigating the transition from zonal wind flow near the cloud tops to subsolar-to-antisolar flow in the thermosphere. The fully-resolved carbon dioxide transition was measured near 952.8808 cm-1 (10.494 µm) rest frequency at the equator with 1 arcsec field-of-view on Venus (24 arcsec diameter) distributed about the central meridian and across the terminator at ±15° intervals in longitude. The non-LTE emission is solar-pumped and appears only on the daylight side, probing subsolar-to-antisolar wind velocity vector flowing radially from the subsolar point through the terminator, which was near the central meridian in these observations and had zero line-of-sight wind projection at the terminator. The velocity of the zonal flow is approximately uniform, with maximum line-of-sight projection at the limb, and can be measured by the frequency of the absorption line on both the daylight and dark side. Variations in Doppler shift between the observable features and the differing angular dependence of the contributing wind phenomena thus provide independent mechanisms to distinguish the dynamical processes at the altitude of each observed spectral feature. Winds up to >100 m/s were determined in previous investigations with uncertainties of order 10 m/s or less.

  2. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    SciT

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-15

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  3. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  4. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    PubMed

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  5. Saturn’s gravitational field induced by its equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-level zonal winds of Saturn are marked by a substantial equatorially antisymmetric component with a speed of about 50ms‑1 which, if they are sufficiently deep, can produce measurable odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4. This study, based on solutions of the thermal-gravitational wind equation, provides a theoretical basis for interpreting the odd gravitational coefficients of Saturn in terms of its equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow. We adopt a Saturnian model comprising an ice-rock core, a metallic dynamo region and an outer molecular envelope. We use an equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow that is parameterized, confined in the molecular envelope and satisfies the solvability condition required for the thermal-gravitational wind equation. The structure and amplitude of the zonal flow at the cloud level are chosen to be consistent with observations of Saturn. We calculate the odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4 by regarding the depth of the equatorially antisymmetric winds as a parameter. It is found that ΔJ 3 is ‑4.197 × 10‑8 if the zonal winds extend about 13 000 km downward from the cloud tops while it is ‑0.765 × 10‑8 if the depth is about 4000 km. The depth/profile of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds can eventually be estimated when the high-precision measurements of the Cassini Grand Finale become available.

  6. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  7. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  8. Gravitational Anomalies Caused by Zonal Winds in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Kong, D.; Zhang, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an accurate three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the gravitational anomalies caused by zonal winds in Jupiter. The calculation is based on a three-dimensional finite element method and accounts for the full effect of significant departure from spherical geometry caused by rapid rotation. Since the speeds of Jupiter's zonal winds are much smaller than that of its rigid-body rotation, our numerical calculation is carried out in two stages. First, we compute the non-spherical distributions of density and pressure at the equilibrium within Jupiter via a hybrid inverse approach by determining an a priori unknown coefficient in the polytropic equation of state that results in a match to the observed shape of Jupiter. Second, by assuming that Jupiter's zonal winds extend throughout the interior along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis, we compute gravitational anomalies produced by the wind-related density anomalies, providing an upper bound to the gravitational anomalies caused by the Jovian zonal winds.

  9. On radiating baroclinic instability of zonally varying flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Catherine A.; Nathan, Terrence R.

    1993-01-01

    A quasi-geostrophic, two-layer, beta-plane model is used to study the baroclinic instability characteristics of a zonally inhomogeneous flow. It is assumed that the disturbance varied slowly in the cross-stream direction, and the stability problem was formulated as a 1D initial value problem. Emphasis is placed on determining how the vertically averaged wind, local maximum in vertical wind shear, and length of the locally supercritical region combine to yield local instabilities. Analysis of the local disturbance energetics reveals that, for slowly varying basic states, the baroclinic energy conversion predominates within the locally unstable region. Using calculations of the basic state tendencies, it is shown that the net effect of the local instabilities is to redistribute energy from the baroclinic to the barotropic component of the basic state flow.

  10. Transport in zonal flows in analogous geophysical and plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    1999-11-01

    Zonal flows occur naturally in the oceans and the atmosphere of planets. Important examples include the zonal flows in Jupiter, the stratospheric polar jet in Antarctica, and oceanic jets like the Gulf Stream. These zonal flows create transport barriers that have a crucial influence on mixing and confinement (e.g. the ozone depletion in Antarctica). Zonal flows also give rise to long-lasting vortices (e.g. the Jupiter red spot) by shear instability. Because of this, the formation and stability of zonal flows and their role on transport have been problems of great interest in geophysical fluid dynamics. On the other hand, zonal flows have also been observed in fusion plasmas and their impact on the reduction of transport has been widely recognized. Based on the well-known analogy between Rossby waves in quasigeostrophic flows and drift waves in magnetically confined plasmas, I will discuss the relevance to fusion plasmas of models and experiments recently developed in geophysical fluid dynamics. Also, the potential application of plasma physics ideas to geophysical flows will be discussed. The role of shear in the suppression of transport and the effect of zonal flows on the statistics of transport will be studied using simplified models. It will be shown how zonal flows induce large particle displacements that can be characterized as Lévy flights, and that the trapping effect of vortices combined with the zonal flows gives rise to anomalous diffusion and Lévy (non-Gaussian) statistics. The models will be compared with laboratory experiments and with atmospheric and oceanographic qualitative observations.

  11. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  12. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-07-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling time-scale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  13. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-04-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  14. The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin

    1998-09-01

    During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.

  15. Subsurface Zonal and Meridional Flows from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We study the solar-cycle variation of the zonal and meridional flows in the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone from the surface to a depth of about 16 Mm. The flows are determined from SDO/HMI Dopplergrams using the HMI ring-diagram pipeline. The zonal and meridional flows vary with the solar cycle. Bands of faster-than-average zonal flows together with more-poleward-than-average meridional flows move from mid-latitudes toward the equator during the solar cycle and are mainly located on the equatorward side of the mean latitude of solar magnetic activity. Similarly, bands of slower-than-average zonal flows together with less-poleward-than-average meridional flows are located on the poleward side of the mean latitude of activity. Here, we will focus on the variation of these flows at high latitudes (poleward of 50 degree) that are now accessible using HMI data. We will present the latest results.

  16. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Zonal Flows and Turbulence in Fluids and Plasmas

    SciT

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking `zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetricmore » coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type Is instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the

  18. Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear

  19. Trends in the Zonal Winds over the Southern Ocean from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and Scatterometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    The winds over the Southern Ocean for the entire 54-year (1948-2001) period of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis have been decomposed into Principal Components (Empirical Orthogonal Functions). The first EOF describes 83 percent of the variance in the zonal wind. The loading of the EOF shows the predominately westerly surface flow with strongest winds in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The structure of this EOF is similar to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) identified by Thompson, et al 2000. The amplitude of this EOF reveals a large trend of 4.42 cm/s/yr in the strength of the zonal wind corresponding to a nearly 50 percent increase in the wind stress over the Southern Ocean. Such a trend, if real, would be important in the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Recent studies by Gille, et al. (2001), Olbers and Ivchenko (2001) and Gent et al. (2001) have shown that the transport of the ACC is correlated to the variability in the zonal wind with a monotonic increase in the transport with increasing zonal wind strength. However, errors in the data assimilation scheme for surface pressure observations on the Antarctic continent appears to have caused a spurious trend in the sea level pressure south of 40S of -0.2 hPa/yr (Hines, et al. 2000 and Marshall, 2002). The sea level pressure difference between 40S and 60S has risen by 8 hPa over the same period. This sea level pressure difference is used as a proxy for the strength of the zonal winds. Thus, the trend in the zonal wind EOF amplitude may be an artifact of model errors in the NCEP Reanalysis. To check this trend, we analyzed scatterometer winds over the Southern Ocean from the SEASAT, ERS (1 and 2), NSCAT and QuikScat satellites. The scatterometer data is not used in the NCEP Reanalysis and, thus, is an independent estimate of the winds. The SEASAT Scatterometer (SASS) operated for 90 days in July-September, 1978, while the ERS, NSCAT and QuikScat scatterometers provide a continuous dataset from

  20. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  1. On the Variation of Zonal Gravity Coefficients of a Giant Planet Caused by Its Deep Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients \\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, \\Delta {J}_{2n}={J}_{2n}-\\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J 2 coefficient and 0.7% of J 4. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., \\Delta {J}_{2n} \\,{\\ge}\\, \\bar{J}_{2n} for n >= 5.

  2. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    SciT

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-15

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxesmore » to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.« less

  3. Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2011-12-09

    The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.

  4. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  5. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  6. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciT

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  7. A New Look at Titan's Zonal Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schinder, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    We use the existing thirteen Cassini radio'occultation soundings to construct a meridional cross section of geopotential height vs. pressure and latitude. The assumption of balanced flow permits the construction of a similar cross section of zonal winds, from near the surface to the 0.1'mbar level. In the lower troposphere, the winds are approx.10 m/s, except within 20deg of the equator, where they are much smaller. The winds increase higher up in the troposphere to nearly 40 m/s in the tropopause region, but then decay rapidly in the lower stratosphere to near'zero values at 20 mbar (approx.80 km), reminiscent of the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment result. This null zone extends over most latitudes, except for limited bands at mid'latitudes. Higher up in the stratosphere, the winds become larger. They are highest in the northern (winter) hemisphere. We compare the occultation results with the DWE and CIRS retrievals and discuss the similarities and differences among the data sets.

  8. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciT

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few diskmore » scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.« less

  9. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  10. A PV view of the zonal mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extratropical troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the zonal mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of pontential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley circulation. Of particular interest is whether the distribution of temperature and wind corresponding to a constant potential vorticity (PV) along isentropes resembles the observed, and the implications of PV homogenization along isentropes for the role of the tropics. With the assumption that PV is homogenized along isentropes, it is found that the temperature distribution in the extratropical troposphere may be determined by a linear, first-order partial differential equation. When the observed surface temperature distribution and tropical lapse rate are used as the boundary conditions, the solution of the equation is close to the observed temperature distribution except in the upper troposphere adjacent to the Hadley circulation, where the troposphere with no PV gradient is considerably colder. Consequently, the jet is also stronger. It is also found that the meridional distribution of the balanced zonal wind is very sensitive to the meridional distribution of the tropopause temperature. The result may suggest that the requirement of the global momentum balance has no practical role in determining the extratropical temperature distribution. The authors further investigated the sensitivity of the extratropical troposphere with constant PV along isentropes to changes in conditions at the tropical boundary (the edge of the Hadley circulation). It is found that the temperature and wind distributions in the extratropical troposphere are sensitive to the vertical distribution of PV at the tropical boundary. With a surface distribution of temperature that decreases linearly with latitude, the jet maximum occurs at the tropical boundary and moves with it. The overall pattern of wind distribution is not sensitive to the change of

  11. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Generation of large-scale eddies and zonal winds in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Astafieva, N. M.

    2008-06-01

    The review deals with a theoretical description of the generation of zonal winds and vortices in a turbulent barotropic atmosphere. These large-scale structures largely determine the dynamics and transport processes in planetary atmospheres. The role of nonlinear effects on the formation of mesoscale vortical structures (cyclones and anticyclones) is examined. A new mechanism for zonal wind generation in planetary atmospheres is discussed. It is based on the parametric generation of convective cells by finite-amplitude Rossby waves. Weakly turbulent spectra of Rossby waves are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the results of satellite microwave monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Temporal Variability and Latitudinal Jets in Venus's Zonal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Bullock, M. A.; Tavenner, T.; Coyote, S.; Murphy, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We have observed Venus's night hemisphere from NASA's IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) during each inferior conjunction since 2001 to quantify the motion of features in Venus's lower and middle cloud decks. We now present latitudinal profiles from 11 nights, obtained in May and July 2004, February 2006 and September 2007. In about 7 of the 11 nights there are zonal jets near 45N and/or -50S, with speed differentials of 5 to 15 m/s relative to the adjacent equatorward latitude bands. These jets may be evidence of episodic Hadley cell-type circulation. About half of the nights show relatively constant velocity profiles between the latitudes of 50N to 50S, suggesting that considerable mixing is taking place between latitudes. Our most remarkable result is the temporal variability in the median zonal speeds from day to day. For example, the median velocity near the equator increases from 53 to 65 m/s over the period from July 11 - 13, 2004, and increases from 65 to 82 m/s over the period from Sept. 9 - 11, 2007. These velocity changes are too great to be due to the tracking of clouds that are in the middle vs. lower cloud deck, nor can they be caused by clouds that occupy different altitudes; a velocity variation of 25% corresponds to an altitude difference of 15 km, based on vertical profiles of zonal windspeeds from tracking of Pioneer Venus and Venera descent probes. Fifteen km is greater than the expected variation in either cloud base. VIRTIS observations of Venus's southern hemisphere were also obtained in September 2007 and should be able to corroborate or contradict the observed variations. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Atmospheres programs.

  13. Convection driven zonal flows and vortices in the major planets.

    PubMed

    Busse, F. H.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamical properties of convection in rotating cylindrical annuli and spherical shells are reviewed. Simple theoretical models and experimental simulations of planetary convection through the use of the centrifugal force in the laboratory are emphasized. The model of columnar convection in a cylindrical annulus not only serves as a guide to the dynamical properties of convection in rotating sphere; it also is of interest as a basic physical system that exhibits several dynamical properties in their most simple form. The generation of zonal mean flows is discussed in some detail and examples of recent numerical computations are presented. The exploration of the parameter space for the annulus model is not yet complete and the theoretical exploration of convection in rotating spheres is still in the beginning phase. Quantitative comparisons with the observations of the dynamics of planetary atmospheres will have to await the consideration in the models of the effects of magnetic fields and the deviations from the Boussinesq approximation.

  14. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation.

    PubMed

    Balescu, R

    2003-10-01

    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows.

  15. The role of zonal flows in reactive fluid closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, WEILAND

    2018-07-01

    We will give an overview of results obtained by our reactive fluid model. It is characterised as a fluid model where all moments with sources in the experiment are kept. Furthermore, full account is taken for the highest moments appearing in unexpanded denominators also including full toroidicity. It has been demonstrated that the strength of zonal flows is dramatically larger in reactive fluid closures than in those which involve dissipation. This gives a direct connection between the fluid closure and the level of excitation of turbulence. This is because zonal flows are needed to absorb the inverse cascade in quasi 2D turbulence. This also explains the similarity in structure of the transport coefficients in our model with a reactive closure in the energy equation and models which have a reactive closure because of zero ion temperature such as the Hasegawa–Wakatani model. Our exact reactive closure unifies several well-known features of tokamak experiments such as the L–H transition, internal transport barriers and the nonlinear Dimits upshift of the critical gradient for onset of transport. It also gives transport of the same level as that in nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Since these include the kinetic resonance this confirms the validity of the thermodynamic properties of our model. Furthermore, we can show that while a strongly nonlinear model is needed in kinetic theory a quasilinear model is sufficient in the fluid description. Thus our quasilinear fluid model will be adequate for treating all relevant problems in bulk transport. This is finally confirmed by the reproduction by the model of the experimental power scaling of the confinement time τ E ∼ P ‑2/3. This confirms the validity of our reactive fluid model. This also gives credibility to our ITER simulations including the H-mode barrier. A new result is here, that alpha heating strongly reduces the slope of the H-mode barrier. This should significantly reduce the effects of ELM’s.

  16. Intra-seasonal Oscillations (ISO) of Zonal-Mean Meridional Winds and Temperatures as Measured by UARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Reber, Carl A.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an empirical analysis of measurements with the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the UARS spacecraft in the upper mesosphere (95 km), persistent and regular intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) with periods of about 2 to 4 months have recently been reported in the zonal-mean meridional winds. Similar oscillations have also been discussed independently in a modeling study, and they were attributed to wave-mean-flow interactions. The observed and modeled meridional wind ISOs were largely confined to low latitudes. We report here an analysis of concurrent temperature measurements on UARS, which produces oscillations similar to those seen in the meridional winds. Although the temperature oscillations are observed at lower altitudes (55 km), their phase variations with latitude are qualitatively consistent with the inferred properties seen in the meridional winds and thus provide independent evidence for the existence of ISOs in the mesosphere.

  17. The generation of a zonal-wind oscillation by nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lucy

    2003-11-01

    Nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves give rise to numerous large-scale phenomena that are observed in the atmosphere, for example the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). This is an oscillation in zonal wind direction which is observed in the equatorial stratosphere; it is characterized by alternating regimes of easterly and westerly shear that descend with time. In the past few decades, a number of theories have been developed to explain the mechanism by which the QBO is generated. These theories are all based on ``quasi-linear'' representations of wave-mean-flow interactions. In this presentation, a fully nonlinear numerical simulation of the QBO is described. A spectrum of gravity waves over a range of phase speeds is forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagates upwards in a density-stratified shear flow. As a result of the absorption and reflection of the waves at their critical levels, regions of large shear develop in the background flow and propagate downwards with time.

  18. Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residuala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William

    2007-05-01

    Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.

  19. Generation of zonal flows through symmetry breaking of statistical homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2014-03-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows (ZFs) are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from homogeneous turbulence without ZFs to inhomogeneous turbulence with steady ZFs. Starting from the equation for barotropic flow on a β plane, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking zonostrophic instability and show that it is an example of a Type {{\\text{I}}_{s}} instability within the pattern formation literature. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the ZF wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of ZF wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system. We also conclude that the stability of the equilibria near the bifurcation point, which is governed by the Eckhaus instability, is independent of the Rayleigh-Kuo criterion.

  20. On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.

  1. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  2. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  3. Role of zonal flows in trapped electron mode turbulence through nonlinear gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. R.; Lang, J.; Nevins, W. M.; Hoffman, M.; Chen, Y.; Dorland, W.; Parker, S.

    2009-05-01

    Trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of collisional and zonal flow physics. This work explores the parametric variation of zonal flows and underlying mechanisms through a series of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, using both particle-in-cell and continuum methods. A new stability diagram for electron modes is presented, identifying a critical boundary at ηe=1, separating long and short wavelength TEMs. A novel parity test is used to separate TEMs from electron temperature gradient driven modes. A nonlinear scan of ηe reveals fine scale structure for ηe≳1, consistent with linear expectation. For ηe<1, zonal flows are the dominant saturation mechanism, and TEM transport is insensitive to ηe. For ηe>1, zonal flows are weak, and TEM transport falls inversely with a power law in ηe. The role of zonal flows appears to be connected to linear stability properties. Particle and continuum methods are compared in detail over a range of ηe=d ln Te/d ln ne values from zero to five. Linear growth rate spectra, transport fluxes, fluctuation wavelength spectra, zonal flow shearing spectra, and correlation lengths and times are in close agreement. In addition to identifying the critical parameter ηe for TEM zonal flows, this paper takes a challenging step in code verification, directly comparing very different methods of simulating simultaneous kinetic electron and ion dynamics in TEM turbulence.

  4. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-12-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  5. Some studies of zonal and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.

    1985-01-01

    At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both zonal and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.

  6. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  7. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    SciT

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  8. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  9. On the tertiary instability formalism of zonal flows in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Seiferling, F.; Weikl, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the so-called tertiary instabilities driven by the zonal flow in gyro-kinetic tokamak core turbulence. The Kelvin Helmholtz instability is first considered within a 2D fluid model and a threshold in the zonal flow wave vector kZF>kZF,c for instability is found. This critical scale is related to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by flux-surfaces, which is incorporated into the modified adiabatic electron response. The stability of undamped Rosenbluth-Hinton zonal flows is then investigated in gyro-kinetic simulations. Absolute instability, in the sense that the threshold zonal flow amplitude tends towards zero, is found above a zonal flow wave vector kZF,cρi≈1.3 ( ρi is the ion thermal Larmor radius), which is comparable to the 2D fluid results. Large scale zonal flows with kZFflow state at marginal stability by more than an order of magnitude, which therefore lies deeply in the stable parameter region. Furthermore, the impact of zonal temperature perturbations on the tertiary instability is examined. Although temperature perturbations favor instability, the realistic values of gradient-driven gyro-kinetic simulations still lie deeply in the stable parameter regime. Therefore, the relevance of the tertiary instability as a saturation mechanism to the zonal flow amplitude is questioned, as most of the zonal flow intensity is concentrated in modes satisfying kZF≪kZF,c as well as ωE×B≪ωE×B,c .

  10. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  11. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    SciT

    Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  12. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge E r. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge E r well with a wave number k rρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-modemore » transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  13. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    SciT

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger thanmore » or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.« less

  14. Theory of Fine-scale Zonal Flow Generation From Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence

    SciT

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρθ¡ << 1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρθ¡ is the ion poloidal gyrora- dius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρθ¡ ~ 1 [Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN/TH/P2-8 (2006); D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009)]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarizationmore » shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2009)] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit is applied.« less

  15. Why the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind changes trend in the mid -1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, P.

    2016-12-01

    This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis data especially monthly mean of geopotential from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role..

  16. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  17. WIND Flow Solver Released

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    The WIND code is a general-purpose, structured, multizone, compressible flow solver that can be used to analyze steady or unsteady flow for a wide range of geometric configurations and over a wide range of flow conditions. WIND is the latest product of the NPARC Alliance, a formal partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). WIND Version 1.0 was released in February 1998, and Version 2.0 will be released in February 1999. The WIND code represents a merger of the capabilities of three existing computational fluid dynamics codes--NPARC (the original NPARC Alliance flow solver), NXAIR (an Air Force code used primarily for unsteady store separation problems), and NASTD (the primary flow solver at McDonnell Douglas, now part of Boeing).

  18. Thermal zonal winds in the Venus mesosphere from the Venus Express temperature soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Titov, Dmitri; Tellmann, Silvia; Migliorini, Alessandra; Read, Peter; Grassi, Davide; Paetzold, Martin; Haeusler, Bernd; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    The Venus mesosphere (60-100 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by extremely complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate in the troposphere and lower meso-sphere while a solar-antisolar circulation can be observed in the upper mesosphere. The super-rotation extends from the surface up to the cloud top (˜65 km altitude) with wind speeds of only a few meters per second near the surface and reaching a maximum value of ˜100 m s-1 at cloud top, corresponding to a rotation period of ˜4 Earth days (˜60 times faster than Venus itself). The solar-antisolar circulation is driven by the day-night contrast in solar heating, and occurs above 110 km altitude with speeds of 120 m s-1 . The processes responsible for maintain-ing the zonal super-rotation in the lower atmosphere and its transition to the solar-antisolar circulation in the upper atmosphere are still poorly understood (Schubert et al.,2007). Different techniques have been used to obtain direct observations of wind at various altitudes: tracking of clouds in ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) images give information on wind speeds at the cloud top (Moissl et al., 2009; Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) and within the clouds (˜47 km, ˜61 km) (Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) while ground-based measurements of Doppler shifts in the CO2 band at 10 µm (Sornig et al., 2008) and in several CO millimiter lines (Rengel et al., 2008) provide wind speeds above the clouds up to ˜110 km altitude. The deep atmosphere from the surface up to the cloud top has been investigated through the Doppler tracking of descent probes and balloons (Counselman et al., 1980; Kerzhanovich and Limaye, 1985). In the mesosphere, between 45-85 km of altitude, where direct observations of wind are not possible, the zonal wind field can be derived from the vertical temperature structure using a special approximation of the thermal wind equation: based on cyclostrophic balance. Previous studies (Leovy, 1973; Newman et al

  19. Zonal wind indices to reconstruct United States winter precipitation during El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, D. J.; Steinschneider, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The highly discussed 2015/16 El Niño event, which many likened to the similarly strong 1997/98 El Niño event, led to precipitation impacts over the continental United States (CONUS) inconsistent with general expectations given past events and model-based forecasts. This presents a challenge for regional water managers and others who use seasonal precipitation forecasts who previously viewed El Niño events as times of enhanced confidence in seasonal water availability and flood risk forecasts. It is therefore useful to understand the extent to which wintertime CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by seasonal sea surface temperature heating patterns and the extent to which the precipitation is a product of natural variability. In this work, we define two seasonal indices based on the zonal wind field spanning from the eastern Pacific to the western Atlantic over CONUS that can explain El Niño precipitation variation spatially throughout CONUS over 11 historic El Niño events from 1950 to 2016. The indices reconstruct El Niño event wintertime (Jan-Mar) gridded precipitation over CONUS through cross-validated regression much better than the traditional ENSO sea surface temperature indices or other known modes of variability. Lastly, we show strong relationships between sea surface temperature patterns and the phases of the zonal wind indices, which in turn suggests that some of the disparate CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by different heating patterns. The primary contribution of this work is the identification of intermediate variables (in the form of zonal wind indices) that can facilitate further studies into the distinct hydroclimatic response to specific El Niño events.

  20. Deep Zonal Flow and Time Variation of Jupiter’s Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the entire planet. The electrical conductivity increases rapidly yet smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn. Deep zonal flows will advect the non-axisymmetric component of the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity, and create time variations in the magnetic field.The observed time variations of the geomagnetic field has been used to derive surface flows of the Earth’s outer core. The same principle applies to Jupiter, however, the connection between the time variation of the magnetic field (dB/dt) and deep zonal flow (Uphi) at Jupiter is not well understood due to strong radial variation of electrical conductivity. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the connection between dB/dt and Uphi for Jupiter adopting realistic interior electrical conductivity profile, taking the likely presence of alkali metals into account. This provides a tool to translate expected measurement of the time variation of Jupiter’s magnetic field to deep zonal flows. We show that the current upper limit on the dipole drift rate of Jupiter (3 degrees per 20 years) is compatible with 10 m/s zonal flows with < 500 km vertical scale height below 0.972 Rj. We further demonstrate that fast drift of resolved magnetic features (e.g. magnetic spots) at Jupiter is a possibility.

  1. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  2. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciT

    Kaladze, T. D.; I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 2 University Str., 0186 Tbilisi; Shad, M.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift wavesmore » and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less

  3. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the 1990 equatorial disturbance on Saturn - Zonal winds and central meridian albedos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnet, C. D.; Westphal, J. A.; Beebe, R. F.; Huber, L. F.

    1992-12-01

    The present comparison of two sets of HST data from August and November 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 data acquired in 1980 and 1981 gives attention to Saturn's equatorial-region disturbance of September 1990. Longitudinal variations in the equatorial zonal winds are interpreted as evidence for interaction between the storm nucleus that was generated during the disturbance and the local wind field.

  4. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciT

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Howard, N. T.

    2016-06-15

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  5. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Staebler, Gary M.; Candy, John; Howard, Nathan T.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. Finally, the zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ionscale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  6. Geographic distribution of zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level from VMC camera on Venus Express: Influence of Venus topography through stationary gravity waves vertical propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Marcq, Emmanuel; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top collected with VMC camera on board Venus Express allowed to derive a large number of wind measurements at altitude 67±2 km from tracking of cloud features in the period 2006-2012. Both manual (45,600) and digital (391,600) individual wind measurements over 127 orbits were analyzed showing various patterns with latitude and local time. A new longitude-latitude geographic map of the zonal wind shows a conspicuous region of strongly decreased zonal wind, a remarkable feature that was unknown up to now. While the average zonal wind near equator (from 5°S to 15°s) is -100.9 m/s in the longitude range 200-330°, it reaches -83.4 m/s in the range 60-100°, a difference of 17.5 m/s. When compared to the altimetry map of Venus, it is found that the zonal wind pattern is well correlated with the underlying relief in the region of Aphrodite Terra, with a downstream shift of about 30° (˜3,200 km). We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. A similar phenomenon is known to operate on Earth with an influence on mesospheric winds. The LMD-GCM for Venus was run with or without topography, with and without a parameterization of gravity waves and does not display such an observed change of velocity near equator. The cloud albedo map at 365 nm varies also in longitude and latitude. We speculate that it might be the result of increased vertical mixing associated to wave breaking, and decreased abundance of the UV absorber which makes the contrast in images. The impact of these new findings on current super rotation theories remains to be assessed. This work was triggered by the presence of a conspicuous peak at 117 days in a time series of wind measurements. This is the length of the solar day as seen at the

  7. Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence

    SciT

    Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.

    2013-04-15

    Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allowsmore » to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.« less

  8. Nonlinear saturation of the slab ITG instability and zonal flow generation with fully kinetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Sturdevant, Benjamin J.; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E.

    2018-05-01

    Fully kinetic turbulence models are of interest for their potential to validate or replace gyrokinetic models in plasma regimes where the gyrokinetic expansion parameters are marginal. Here, we demonstrate fully kinetic ion capability by simulating the growth and nonlinear saturation of the ion-temperature-gradient instability in shearless slab geometry assuming adiabatic electrons and including zonal flow dynamics. The ion trajectories are integrated using the Lorentz force, and the cyclotron motion is fully resolved. Linear growth and nonlinear saturation characteristics show excellent agreement with analogous gyrokinetic simulations across a wide range of parameters. The fully kinetic simulation accurately reproduces the nonlinearly generated zonal flow. This work demonstrates nonlinear capability, resolution of weak gradient drive, and zonal flow physics, which are critical aspects of modeling plasma turbulence with full ion dynamics.

  9. On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the zonal wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).

  10. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  11. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    SciT

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth's angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are shearedmore » flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.« less

  12. Sensitivity of Gravity Wave Fluxes to Interannual Variations in Tropical Convection and Zonal Wind.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M Joan; Ortland, David A; Grimsdell, Alison W; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2017-09-01

    Using an idealized model framework with high-frequency tropical latent heating variability derived from global satellite observations of precipitation and clouds, the authors examine the properties and effects of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere, contrasting conditions in an El Niño year and a La Niña year. The model generates a broad spectrum of tropical waves including planetary-scale waves through mesoscale gravity waves. The authors compare modeled monthly mean regional variations in wind and temperature with reanalyses and validate the modeled gravity waves using satellite- and balloon-based estimates of gravity wave momentum flux. Some interesting changes in the gravity spectrum of momentum flux are found in the model, which are discussed in terms of the interannual variations in clouds, precipitation, and large-scale winds. While regional variations in clouds, precipitation, and winds are dramatic, the mean gravity wave zonal momentum fluxes entering the stratosphere differ by only 11%. The modeled intermittency in gravity wave momentum flux is shown to be very realistic compared to observations, and the largest-amplitude waves are related to significant gravity wave drag forces in the lowermost stratosphere. This strong intermittency is generally absent or weak in climate models because of deficiencies in parameterizations of gravity wave intermittency. These results suggest a way forward to improve model representations of the lowermost stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation winds and teleconnections.

  13. Are Strong Zonal Winds in Giant Planets Caused by Density-Stratification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, J.; Stellmach, S.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn are the zonal wind patterns observed on their surfaces. The mechanism that drives this differential rotation is still not clearly identified and is currently strongly debated in the astro- and geophysics community. Different mechanisms have been proposed over the last decades. Here, a recently discovered mechanism based on background density stratification (Glatzmaier et al., 2009) is investigated. This mechanism has the potential to overcome known difficulties of previous explanations and its efficiency has been demonstrated in 2-d simulations covering equatorial planes. By performing highly resolved numerical simulations in a local Cartesian geometry, we are able to test the efficiency and functionality of this mechanism in turbulent, rotating convection in three spatial dimensions. The choice of a Cartesian model geometry naturally excludes other known mechanisms capable of producing differential rotation, thus allowing us to investigate the role of density stratification in isolation. Typically, the dynamics can be classified into two main regimes: A regime exhibiting strong zonal winds for weak to moderate thermal driving and a regime where zonal winds are largely absent in the case of a strong thermal forcing. Our results indicate that previous 2-d results must be handled with care and can only explain parts of the full 3-d behavior. We show that the density-stratification mechanism tends to operate in a more narrow parameter range in 3-d as compared to 2-d simulations. The dynamics of the regime transition is shown to differ in both cases, which renders scaling laws derived from two-dimensional studies questionable. Based on our results, we provide estimates for the importance of the density-stratification mechanism for giant planets like Jupiter (strong density stratification), for systems like the Earth's core (weak density stratification) and compare its efficiency with other

  14. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  15. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  16. GRAVOTURBULENT PLANETESIMAL FORMATION: THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF LONG-LIVED ZONAL FLOWS

    SciT

    Dittrich, K.; Klahr, H.; Johansen, A., E-mail: dittrich@mpia.de

    2013-02-15

    Recent numerical simulations have shown long-lived axisymmetric sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of disks unstable to the magnetorotational instability. This paper covers our study of the strength and lifetime of zonal flows and the resulting long-lived gas over- and underdensities as functions of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. We further investigate dust particle concentrations without feedback on the gas and without self-gravity. The strength and lifetime of zonal flows increase with the radial extent of the simulation box, but decrease withmore » the azimuthal box size. Our simulations support earlier results that zonal flows have a natural radial length scale of 5-7 gas pressure scale heights. This is the first study that combines three-dimensional MHD simulations of zonal flows and dust particles feeling the gas pressure. The pressure bumps trap particles with St = 1 very efficiently. We show that St = 0.1 particles (of some centimeters in size if at 5 AU in a minimum mass solar nebula) reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially. This opens the path for particles of St = 0.1 and dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 or for particles of St {>=} 0.5 and dust-to-gas ratio 10{sup -4} to still reach densities that potentially trigger the streaming instability and thus gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals.« less

  17. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciT

    Ghizzo, A., E-mail: alain.ghizzo@univ-lorraine.fr; Palermo, F.

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was foundmore » that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.« less

  18. Jupiter: New estimates of mean zonal flow at the cloud level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reexamine the magnitude differences of the Jovian atmosphere's jets, as determined by Voyager 1 and 2 images, a novel approach is used to ascertain the zonal mean east-west component of motion. This technique is based on digital pattern matching, and is applied on pairs of mapped images to yield a profile of the mean zonal component that reproduces the exact locations of the easterly and westerly jets between + and 60 deg latitude. Results were obtained for all of the Voyager 1 and 2 cylindrical mosaics; the correlation coefficient between Voyagers 1 and 2 in mean zonal flow between + and - 60 deg latitude, determined from violet filter mosaics, is 0.998.

  19. Periodical oscillation of zonal wind velocities at the cloud top of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyama, T.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Satoh, T.; Futaana, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Zonal wind velocity of Venus increases with height and reaches about 100 m s-1 at the cloud top level (~70km). The speed is approximately 60 times faster than the rotation speed of the solid body of Venus (~1.6 m s-1, at the equator) and this phenomenon is called a "super-rotation". From previous observations, it is known that the super-rotation changes on a long timescale. At the cloud top level, it was suggested that the super-rotation has a few years period oscillation based on observations made by Pioneer Venus orbiter of USA from 1979 to 1985 (Del Genio et al.,1990). However, the period, the amplitude, the spatial structure and the mechanism of the long period oscillation have not been understood well. Venus Express (VEX) of European Space Agency has been observing Venus since its orbital insertion in April 2006. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard VEX has an ultra violet (UV) filter (365 nm), and VMC has taken day-side cloud images at the cloud top level with this filter. Such images exhibit various cloud features made by unknown UV absorber in the atmosphere. For investigating the characteristics of long-timescale variations of the super-rotation, we analyzed zonal velocity fields derived from UV cloud images from May 2006 to January 2010 using a cloud tracking method. UV imaging of VMC is done when the spacecraft is in the ascending portion of its elongated polar orbit. Since the orbital plane is nearly fixed in the inertial space, the local time of VMC/UV observation changes with a periodicity of one Venus year. As a result, periods when VMC observation covered day-side areas of Venus, large enough for cloud trackings, are not continuous. For deriving wind velocities we were able to use cloud images taken in 280 orbits during this period. The derived zonal wind velocity from 10°S to 40°S latitude shows a prominent year-to-year variation, and the variation is well fitted by a periodical oscillation with a period of about 260 Earth days, although not all

  20. Longitudinal differences and inter-annual variations of zonal wind in the tropical stratosphere and troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. A.; Raghava Reddi, C.

    1986-12-01

    A quantitative assessment has been made of the longitude-dependent differences and the interannual variations of the zonal wind components in the equatorial stratosphere and troposphere, from the analysis of rocket and balloon data for 1979 and 1980 for three stations near ±8.5° latitude (Ascension Island at 14.4°W, Thumba at 76.9°E and Kwajalein at 67.7°E) and two stations near 21.5° latitude (Barking Sands at 159.6°W and Balasore at 86.9°E). The longitude-dependent differences are found to be about 10-20 m s -1 (amounting to 50-200% in some cases) for the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) and the annual oscillation (AO) amplitudes, depending upon the altitude and latitude. Inter-annual variations of about 10 m s -1 also exist in both oscillations. The phase of the SAO exhibits an almost 180° shift at Kwajalein compared to that at the other two stations near 8.5°, while the phase of the AO is independent of longitude, in the stratosphere. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) are found to be almost independent of longitude in the 18-38 km range, but above 40 km height the QBO amplitude and phase have different values in different longitude sectors for the three stations near ±8.5° latitude. The mean zonal wind shows no change from 1979 to 1980, but in the troposphere at 8.5° latitude strong easterlies prevail in the Indian zone, in contrast to the westerlies at the Atlantic and Pacific stations.

  1. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations before and during Juno exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Iñurrigarro, P.; Mendikoa, I.; Rojas, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a long term campaign between September 2015 and August 2016 of imaging of Jupiter's cloud morphology and zonal winds in the 0.38 - 1.7 μm wavelength spectral range. We use PlanetCam lucky imaging camera at the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and for the optical range, the contribution of a network of observers to the Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory database (PVOL-IOPW at http://pvol.ehu.eus). We have complemented the study with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera images taken in the 0.275 - 0.89 μm wavelength spectral range during the OPAL program on 9 February 2016. The PlanetCam images have been calibrated in radiance using spectrophotometric standard stars providing absolute reflectivity across the disk in a large series of broadband and narrowband filters sensitive to the altitude distribution and size of aerosols above the ammonia cloud level, and to the spectral dependence of the chromophore coloring agents. The cloud morphology evolution has been studied with an horizontal resolution ranging from 150 to 1000 km. Zonal wind profiles have been retrieved along the whole observing period from tracking cloud motions that span the latitude range from -80° to +77º. Combining all these results we characterized the 3D-dynamical state and cloud and haze distribution in Jupiter's atmosphere in the altitude range between 10 mbar and 1.5 bar before and during Juno initial exploration.

  2. The 4-5 day mode oscillation in zonal winds of Indian middle atmosphere during MONEX-79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. S.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Indira, K.; Murty, B. V. R.

    1985-12-01

    In the early studies based on time series of balloon observations, the existence of 4 to 5 day period waves and 10 to 20 day wind fluctuations were found in the tropical lower stratosphere, and they are identified theoretically as the mixed Rossby-gravity wave and the Kelvin wave, respectively. On the basis of these studies, it was established that the vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) in the mean zonal wind through the mechanism of wave-zonal interaction. These studies are mainly concentrated over the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Similar prominent wave disturbances have been observed over the region east of the Indian Ocean during a quasi-biennial oscillation. Zonal winds in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (10 to 20) km of the middle atmosphere over the Indian subcontinent may bear association with the activity of summer monsoon (June-September). Monsoon Experiment (MONEX-79) has provided upper air observations at Balasore (21 deg. 30 min.N; 85 deg. 56 min.E), during the peak of monsoon months July and August. A unique opportunity has, therefore, been provided to study the normal oscillations present in the zonal winds of lower middle atmosphere over India, which may have implication on large scale wave dynamics. This aspect is examined in the present study.

  3. Shape, zonal winds and gravitational field of Jupiter: a fully self-consistent, multi-layered model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke

    2016-10-01

    We construct a three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, multi-layered,non-spheroidal model of Jupiter consisting of an inner core, a metallic electrically conducting dynamo region and an outer molecular electrically insulating envelope. We assume that the Jovian zonal winds are on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis but, due to the effect of magnetic braking, are confined within the outer molecular envelope. Two related calculations are carried out. The first provides an accurate description of the shape and internal density profile of Jupiter; the effect of rotational distortion is not treated as a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. This calculation determines the density, size and shape of the inner core, the irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level, and the internal structure of Jupiter; the full effect of rotational distortion, without the influence of the zonal winds, is accounted for. Our multi-layered model is able to produce the known mass, the known equatorial and polar radii, and the known zonal gravitational coefficient J2 of Jupiter within their error bars; it also yields the coefficients J4 and J6 within about 5% accuracy, and the core equatorial radius 0.09RJ containing 3.73 Earth masses.The second calculation determines the variation of the gravitational field caused solely by the effect of the zonal winds on the rotationally distorted non-spheroidal Jupiter. Four different cases, ranging from a deep wind profile to a very shallow profile, are considered and implications for accurate interpretation of the zonal gravitational coefficients expected from the Juno mission are discussed.

  4. Zonal Flows and Long-lived Axisymmetric Pressure Bumps in Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.

  5. Nonlinear growth of zonal flows by secondary instability in general magnetic geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Plunk, G. G.; Navarro, A. Banon

    2017-02-23

    Here we present a theory of the nonlinear growth of zonal flows in magnetized plasma turbulence, by the mechanism of secondary instability. The theory is derived for general magnetic geometry, and is thus applicable to both tokamaks and stellarators. The predicted growth rate is shown to compare favorably with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, with the error scaling as expected with the small parameter of the theory.

  6. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  7. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by the WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. We also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.

  8. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.

    2005-07-01

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  9. Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.

  10. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations during Juno's first year around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Peralta, J.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Chen-Chen, H.; Mendikoa, I.; Peach, D.; Go, C.; Wesley, A.; Miles, P.; Olivetti, T.

    2017-09-01

    We present an analysis of Jupiter's atmospheric activity over Juno's first year around the planet based on ground-based observations. We present variability of the zonal winds associated to large outbreaks of convective activity at different belts in the planet, a study of short-scale atmospheric waves at low latitudes and examine polar views of the planet that can be compared with JunoCam observations.

  11. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  12. The 10-30-day oscillation of winter zonal wind in the entrance region of the East Asian subtropical jet and its relationship with precipitation in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenyu; Huang, Qian; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    Using ECMWF ERA-Interim 6-h reanalysis data, zonal wind intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs) in the entrance region of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) in winter from 1979/1980 to 2012/2013 are studied. The results first show that there is an area with large ISO strength in the northwest of the EASWJ; in the key region, zonal wind has a dominant period of 10-30 days. The composite analysis reveals that zonal wind at 200 hPa in this key region has 10-30-day oscillation characteristics. On the 10-30-day time scale, the center of zonal wind anomaly moves eastward. The propagation of zonal wind oscillation relates to temperature tendencies at different latitudes. The remarkable increase (or decrease) in zonal wind in the key region is mostly determined by temperature anomalies to the north. The 10-30-day filtered temperature advection to the north of the key region leads to either a decrease or an increase in temperature; on the other hand, temperature variations south of the key region have trends opposite of the northern trends, which changes the temperature gradient. On the 10-30-day time scale, zonal wind anomalies are associated with precipitation in southern China. When there are easterly wind anomalies over the key region, precipitation occurs over the Yangtze River basin and its south. Diabatic heating during precipitation corresponds with warming to the south of the key region, which combines with the temperature advection to weaken the easterly wind and strengths the westerly wind. Then, the intra-seasonal precipitation moves to southwest China with warm advection and the enhanced westerly wind, which brings the positive relative vorticity advection there.

  13. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during quiet and sub-storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandhi, Kishore Kumar; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Williams, Bifford P.; Stober, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    It is speculated that sufficiently large electric fields during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may decouple the meteor trail electron motions from the background neutral winds and leads to erroneous neutral wind estimation. As per our knowledge, the potential errors have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27oN,16.04oE) during intense sub storms in the declining phase of Jan 2005 solar proton event (21-22 Jan 2005). In total 14 hours of continuous measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal winds are averaged in meteor radar time and height bins. High cross correlations (˜0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in the light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the ionization impact on the meteor radar winds. For quiet hours, the observed meteor radar winds are quite consistent with lidar winds. While during the disturbed hours comparatively large differences are noticed at higher most altitudes. This might be due to ionization impact on meteor radar winds. At the present one event is not sufficient to make any consolidate conclusion. However, at least from this study we found some effect on the neutral wind measurements for the meteor radar. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test statistical significance of the result.

  14. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    SciT

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  15. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; ...

    2018-05-29

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less

  16. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore Kumar, G.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Williams, Bifford P.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the possibility that sufficiently large electric fields and/or ionization during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may invalidate the assumptions applied in the retrieval of neutral horizontal winds from meteor and/or lidar measurements. As per our knowledge, the possible errors in the wind estimation have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27°N, 16.04°E) during intense substorms in the declining phase of the January 2005 solar proton event (21-22 January 2005). In total, 14 h of measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal wind measurements are averaged over the same time and altitude as the meteor radar wind measurements. High cross correlations (∼0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the electric field and/or ionization impact on the neutral wind estimation. For the periods of low ionization, the neutral winds estimated with both instruments are quite consistent with each other. During periods of elevated ionization, comparatively large differences are noticed at the highermost altitude, which might be due to the electric field and/or ionization impact on the wind estimation. At present, one event is not sufficient to make any firm conclusion. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test the statistical significance of the result.

  17. Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection

  18. Jupiter cloud morphology and zonal winds from ground-based observations before and during Juno's first perijove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Iñurrigarro, P.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Mendikoa, I.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Go, C.; Peach, D.; Colas, F.; Vedovato, M.

    2017-05-01

    We analyze Jupiter observations between December 2015 and August 2016 in the 0.38-1.7 μm wavelength range from the PlanetCam instrument at the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory and in the optical range by amateur observers contributing to the Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory. Over this time Jupiter was in a quiescent state without notable disturbances. Analysis of ground-based images and Hubble Space Telescope observations in February 2016 allowed the retrieval of mean zonal winds from -74.5° to +73.2°. These winds did not change over 2016 or when compared with winds from previous years with the sole exception of intense zonal winds at the North Temperate Belt. We also present results concerning the major wave systems in the North Equatorial Belt and in the upper polar hazes visible in methane absorption bands, a description of the planet's overall cloud morphology and observations of Jupiter hours before Juno's orbit insertion.

  19. Climatology of mesopause region nocturnal temperature, zonal wind, and sodium density observed by sodium lidar over Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Ban, C.; Fang, X.; Li, J.; Wu, Z.; Xiong, J.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Science and Technology of China narrowband sodium temperature/wind lidar, located in Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E), was installed in November 2011 and have made routine nighttime measurements since January 2012. We obtained 154 nights ( 1400 hours) of vertical profiles of temperature, sodium density, and zonal wind, and 83 nights ( 800 hours) of vertical flux of gravity wave (GW) zonal momentum in the mesopause region (80-105 km) during the period of 2012 to 2016. In temperature, it is likely that the diurnal tide dominates below 100 km in spring, while the semidiurnal tide dominates above 100 km throughout the year. A clear semiannual variation in temperature is revealed near 90 km, likely related to the tropical mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). The variability of sodium density is positively correlated with temperature, suggesting that in addition to dynamics, the chemistry may also play an important role in the formation of sodium atoms. The observed sodium peak density is 1000 cm-3 higher than that simulated by the model. In zonal wind, the diurnal tide dominates in both spring and fall, while semidiurnal tide dominates in winter. The observed semiannual variation in zonal wind near 90 km is out-of-phase with that in temperature, consistent with tropical MSAO. The GW zonal momentum flux is mostly westward in fall and winter, anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind. The annual mean flux averaged over 87-97 km is -0.3 m2/s2 (westward), anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind of 10 m/s. The comparisons of lidar results with those observed by satellite, nearby radar, and simulated by model show generally good agreements.

  20. Direct evidence of stationary zonal flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, Jon

    2015-11-01

    High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary zonal flows. Zonal flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary zonal flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the zonal flows systematically decreases with density. The zonal flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong zonal flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.

  1. Observed correlation of Venus topography with the zonal wind and albedo at cloud top level: the role of stationary gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojtek; Emmanuel, Marcq; Sébastien, Lebonnois; Marina, Patsaeva; Alex, Turin; Anna, Fedorova

    2016-04-01

    Based on the analysis of UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top (altitude 67±2 km) collected with VMC (Venus Monitoring Camera) on board Venus Express (VEX), it is found that the zonal wind speed south of the equator (from 5°S to 15°s) shows a conspicuous variation (from -101 to -83 m/s) with geographic longitude of Venus, correlated with the underlying relief of Aphrodite Terra. We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. Such upward propagation of gravity waves and influence on the wind speed vertical profile was shown to play an important role in the middle atmosphere of the Earth by Lindzen [1981], but is not reproduced in a current GCM of Venus atmosphere. Consistent with present findings, the two VEGA mission balloons experienced a small, but significant, difference of westward velocity, at their 53 km floating altitude. The albedo at 365 nm varies also with longitude and latitude in a pattern strikingly similar in the low latitude regions to a recent map of cloud top H2O [Fedorova et al., 2015], in which a lower UV albedo is correlated with increased H2O. We argue that H2O enhancement is the sign of upwelling, suggesting that the UV absorber is also brought to cloud top by upwelling.

  2. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s-1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11 months of zonal wind measurements over Bern (46°57' N

  3. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved what makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s-1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen what makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the used techniques for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using MonteCarlo simulations. Finally, a first time series of 11 months of zonal wind measurements over Bern (46°57

  4. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-12-01

    Today, the wind data for the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are commonly extrapolated using models or calculated from measurements of the temperature field, but are not measured directly. Still, such measurements would allow direct observations of dynamic processes and thus provide a better understanding of the circulation in this altitude region where the zonal wind speed reaches a maximum. Observations of middle-atmospheric winds are also expected to provide deeper insight in the coupling between the upper and the lower atmosphere, especially in the case of sudden stratospheric warming events. Furthermore, as the local chemical composition of the middle atmosphere can be measured with high accuracy, wind data could be beneficial for the interpretation of the associated transport processes. In future, middle-atmospheric wind measurements could help to improve atmospheric circulation models. Aiming to contribute to the closing of this data gap the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Bern built a new ground-based 142 GHz Doppler-spectro-radiometer with the acronym WIRA (WInd RAdiometer) specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric wind. Currently wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved what makes WIRA the first instrument continuously measuring profiles of horizontal wind in this altitude range. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to ECMWF very good agreement has been found in the long-term statistics, with WIRA = (0.98±0.02) × ECMWF + (0.44±0.91) m/s on average, as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the

  5. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, Rolf; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Murk, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Today, the wind data for the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are commonly extrapolated using models or calculated from measurements of the temperature field, but are not measured directly. Still, such measurements would allow direct observations of dynamic processes and thus provide a better understanding of the circulation in this altitude region where the zonal wind speed reaches a maximum. Observations of middle-atmospheric winds are also expected to provide deeper insight in the coupling between the upper and the lower atmosphere, especially in the case of sudden stratospheric warming events. Furthermore, as the local chemical composition of the middle atmosphere can be measured with high accuracy, wind data could be beneficial for the interpretation of the associated transport processes. In future, middle-atmospheric wind measurements could help to improve atmospheric circulation models. Aiming to contribute to the closing of this data gap the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Bern built a new ground-based 142 GHz Doppler-spectro-radiometer with the acronym WIRA (WInd RAdiometer) specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric wind. Until now wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved what made WIRA the first instrument continuously measuring profiles of horizontal wind in this altitude range. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to ECMWF very good agreement has been found in the long-term statistics, with WIRA = (0.98±0.02) × ECMWF + (0.44±0.91) m/s on average, as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days. WIRA uses a passive heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a

  6. The vertical structure of Jupiter and Saturn zonal winds from nonlinear simulations of major vortices and planetary-scale disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Melendo, E.; Legarreta, J.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2012-12-01

    Direct measurements of the structure of the zonal winds of Jupiter and Saturn below the upper cloud layer are very difficult to retrieve. Except from the vertical profile at a Jupiter hot spot obtained from the Galileo probe in 1995 and measurements from cloud tracking by Cassini instruments just below the upper cloud, no other data are available. We present here our inferences of the vertical structure of Jupiter and Saturn zonal wind across the upper troposphere (deep down to about 10 bar level) obtained from nonlinear simulations using the EPIC code of the stability and interactions of large-scale vortices and planetary-scale disturbances in both planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] García-Melendo E., Sánchez-Lavega A., Dowling T.., Icarus, 176, 272-282 (2005). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez-Lavega A., Hueso R., Icarus, 191, 665-677 (2007). [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 451, 437- 440 (2008). [4] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011).

  7. Comparison of analytical models for zonal flow generation in ion-temperature-gradient mode turbulence

    SciT

    Anderson, J.; Miki, K.; Uzawa, K.

    2006-11-30

    During the past years the understanding of the multi scale interaction problems have increased significantly. However, at present there exists a flora of different analytical models for investigating multi scale interactions and hardly any specific comparisons have been performed among these models. In this work two different models for the generation of zonal flows from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) background turbulence are discussed and compared. The methods used are the coherent mode coupling model and the wave kinetic equation model (WKE). It is shown that the two models give qualitatively the same results even though the assumption on the spectral difference ismore » used in the (WKE) approach.« less

  8. Free Flow Zonal Electrophoresis for Fractionation of Plant Membrane Compartments Prior to Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-01

    Free flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile, reproducible, and potentially high-throughput technique for the separation of plant organelles and membranes by differences in membrane surface charge. It offers considerable benefits over traditional fractionation techniques, such as density gradient centrifugation and two-phase partitioning, as it is relatively fast, sample recovery is high, and the method provides unparalleled sample purity. It has been used to successfully purify chloroplasts and mitochondria from plants but also, to obtain highly pure fractions of plasma membrane, tonoplast, ER, Golgi, and thylakoid membranes. Application of the technique can significantly improve protein coverage in large-scale proteomics studies by decreasing sample complexity. Here, we describe the method for the fractionation of plant cellular membranes from leaves by FFZE.

  9. Tertiary instability of zonal flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The stability of zonal flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Impact of impurities on zonal flow driven by trapped electron mode turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Weixin; Wang, Lu; Zhuang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    The impact of impurities on the generation of zonal flow (ZF) driven by collisonless trapped electron mode turbulence in deuterium (D)-tritium (T) plasmas is investigated. An expression for ZF growth rate with impurities is derived by balancing the ZF potential shielded by polarization effects and the ZF modulated radial turbulent current. Then, it is shown that the maximum normalized ZF growth rate is reduced by the presence of fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively flat density profile, and slightly reduced by highly ionized trace tungsten, while the maximum normalized ZF growth rate can be enhanced by fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively steep density profile. In particular, the effects of high temperature helium from D-T reaction on ZF depend on the temperature ratio between electrons and high temperature helium. The possible relevance of our findings to recent experimental results and future burning plasmas is also discussed.

  11. Influence of Venus topography on the zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level: The role of stationary gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatuntsev, I. V.; Hauchecorne, A.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marcq, E.; Lebonnois, S.; Patsaeva, M.; Turin, A.; Fedorova, A.

    2016-06-01

    Based on the analysis of UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top (altitude 67 ± 2 km) collected with Venus Monitoring Camera on board Venus Express (VEX), it is found that the zonal wind speed south of the equator (from 5°S to 15°S) shows a conspicuous variation (from -101 to -83 m/s) with geographic longitude of Venus, correlated with the underlying relief of Aphrodite Terra. We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the uplift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to the cloud top level, break there, and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. Such upward propagation of gravity waves and influence on the wind speed vertical profile was shown to play an important role in the middle atmosphere of the Earth by Lindzen (1981) but is not reproduced in the current GCM of Venus atmosphere from LMD. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) In the equatorial regions, the UV albedo at 365 nm varies also with longitude. We argue that this variation may be simply explained by the divergence of the horizontal wind field. In the longitude region (from 60° to -10°) where the horizontal wind speed is increasing in magnitude (stretch), it triggers air upwelling which brings the UV absorber at cloud top level and decreases the albedo and vice versa when the wind is decreasing in magnitude (compression). This picture is fully consistent with the classical view of Venus meridional circulation, with upwelling at equator revealed by horizontal air motions away from equator: the longitude effect is only an additional but important modulation of this effect. This interpretation is comforted by a recent map of cloud top H2O, showing that near the equator the lower UV albedo longitude region is correlated with increased H2O. We argue that H2O enhancement is the sign of upwelling, suggesting that the UV absorber is also brought to cloud top by upwelling.

  12. Observed longitude variations of zonal wind, UV albedo and H2O at Venus cloud top level: the role of stationary gravity waves generated by Venus topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Hauchecorne, Alain; khatuntsev, Igor; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Marcq, emmanuel; Lebonnois, Sebastien; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander; Fedorova, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Based on the analysis of UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top (altitude 67±2 km) collected with VMC (Venus Monitoring Camera) on board Venus Express (VEX), it is found that the zonal wind speed south of the equator (from 5°S to 15°S) shows a conspicuous variation (from -101 to -83 m/s) with geographic longitude of Venus, correlated with the underlying relief of Aphrodite Terra. We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to the cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. Such upward propagation of gravity waves and influence on the wind speed vertical profile was shown to play an important role in the middle atmosphere of the Earth but is not reproduced in the current GCM of Venus atmosphere from LMD.In the equatorial regions, the UV albedo of clouds at 365 nm and the H2O mixing ratio at cloud top varies also with longitude, with an anti-correlation: the more H2O, the darker are the clouds. We argue that these variations may be simply explained by the divergence of the horizontal wind field. In the longitude region (from 60° to -10°) where the horizontal wind speed is increasing in magnitude (stretch), it triggers air upwelling which brings both the UV absorber and H2O at cloud top level and decreases the albedo, and vice-versa when the wind is decreasing in magnitude (compression). This picture is fully consistent with the classical view of Venus meridional circulation, with upwelling at equator revealed by horizontal air motions away from equator: the longitude effect is only an additional but important modulation of this effect. We argue that H2O enhancement is the sign of upwelling because the H2O mixing ratio decreases with altitude, comforting the view that the UV absorber is also brought to cloud top by upwelling.

  13. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    SciT

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of themore » temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.« less

  14. Saturn's North Polar Vortex Revealed by Cassini/VIMS: Zonal Wind Structure and Constraints on Cloud Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Momary, T. W.; Fletcher, L. N.; Buratti, B. J.; Roos-Serote, M.; Showman, A. P.; Brown, R. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2008-09-01

    We present the first high-spatial resolution, near-nadir imagery and movies of Saturn's north polar region that reveal the wind structure of a north polar vortex. Obtained by Cassini/VIMS on June 15, 2008 from high over Saturn's polar region (sub-spacecraft latitude of 65 degrees N. lat) at an altitude of 0.42 million km during the long polar night, these 210-per-pixel images of the polar region north of 73 degrees N. latitude show several concentric cloud rings and hundreds of individual cloud features in silhouette against the 5-micron background thermal glow of Saturn's deep atmosphere. In contrast to the clear eye of the south polar vortex, the north polar vortex sports a central cloud feature about 650-km in diameter. Zonal winds reach a maximum of 150 m/s near 88 degrees N. latitude (planetocentric) - comparable to the south polar vortex maximum of 190 m/s near 88 degrees S. latitude - and fall off nearly monotonically to 10 m/s near 80 degrees N. latitude. At slightly greater distance from the pole, inside the north polar hexagon in the 75-77 degree N. latitude region, zonal winds increase dramatically to 130 m/s, as silhouetted clouds are seen speeding aroud the "race track” of the hexagonal feature. VIMS 5-micron thermal observations over a 1.6-year period from October 29, 2006 to June 15, 2008 are consistent with the polar hexagon structure itself remaining fixed in the Voyager-era radio rotation rate (Desch and Kaiser, Geophys. Res. Lett, 8, 253-256, 1981) to within an accuracy of 3 seconds per rotational period. This agrees with the stationary nature of the wave in this rotation system found by Godfrey (Icarus 76, 335-356, 1988), but is inconsistent with rotation rates found during the current Cassini era.

  15. Zonal Winds Between 25 and 120 Km Retrieved from Solar Occultation Spectra. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancleef, Garrett Warren; Shaw, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric winds at heights between 25 and 120 km have been retrieved with precisions of 5/ms from the Doppler shifts of atmospheric absorption lines measured from a satellite-borne instrument. Lines of the upsilon 3 CO2 and upsilon 2 H2O rotation-vibration bands caused by gases in the instrument allowed the instrumental frequency scale to be absolutely calibrated so that accurate relative speeds could be obtained. By comparing the positions of both sets of instrumental lines the calibration of the frequency scale was determined to be stable to a precision of less than 2 x 10(-5) cm during the course of each occultation. It was found that the instrumental resolution of 0.015 cm after apodization, the signal to noise ratio of about 100 and stable calibration allowed relative speeds to be determined to a precision of 5 ms or better by using small numbers of absorption lines between 1600 and 3200 cm. Absolute absorption line positions were simultaneously recovered to precisions of 5 x 10(-5) cm or better. The wind speed profiles determined from four sunset occultations and one sunrise occultation show remarkable similarities in the magnitudes and directions of the zonal wind velocities as functions of height. These wind profiles appear to be manifestations of atmospheric tides.

  16. Saturn meteorology - A diagnostic assessment of thin-layer configurations for the zonal flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Stone, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager imaging, infrared, and radio observations for Saturn have been recently interpreted by Smith et al. (1982) as an indication that the jet streams observed at the cloud tops extend to depths greater than the 10,000-bar level. This analysis assumes a maximum latitudinal temperature contrast of a few percent, a mean atmospheric rotation rate at depth given by Saturn's ratio period, and no variation with latitude of the bottom pressure level for the zonal flow system. These assumptions are not, however, firmly constrained by observation. The diagnostic analysis of plausible alternative configurations for Saturn's atmospheric structure demonstrates that a thin weather layer system (confined at mid to high latitudes to levels above 200 bar) cannot be excluded by any of the available observations. A quantitative estimate of the effects of moisture condensation (including the differentiation of mean molecular weight) suggests that these might provide the buoyancy contrasts necessary to support a thin-layer flow provided that Saturn's outer envelope is enriched approximately 10 times in water abundance relative to a solar composition atmosphere and strongly differentiated with latitude at the condensation level.

  17. On the role of the Kelvin wave in the westerly phase of the semiannual zonal wind oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkerton, T.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the Kelvin wave, discovered by Hirota (1978), in producing the westerly accelerations of the semiannual zonal wind oscillation in the tropical upper stratosphere is examined quantitatively. It is shown that, for reasonable values of the wave parameters, this Kelvin wave could indeed give rise to the observed accelerations. For the thermal damping rates of Dickinson (1973), the most likely range of phase speeds for a wavenumber 1 disturbance is from 45 to 60 m/sec. For 'photochemically accelerated' damping rates (Blake and Lindzen, 1973), a phase speed in excess of 70 m/sec would be required. The possibility of a significant modulation of the semiannual westerlies by the quasi-biennial oscillation is also suggested.

  18. Sensitivity of ocean oxygenation to variations in tropical zonal wind stress magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Nina N.; England, Matthew H.

    2014-09-01

    Ocean oxygenation has been observed to have changed over the past few decades and is projected to change further under global climate change due to an interplay of several mechanisms. In this study we isolate the effect of modified tropical surface wind stress conditions on the evolution of ocean oxygenation in a numerical climate model. We find that ocean oxygenation varies inversely with low-latitude surface wind stress. Approximately one third of this response is driven by sea surface temperature anomalies; the remaining two thirds result from changes in ocean circulation and marine biology. Global mean O2 concentration changes reach maximum values of +4 μM and -3.6 μM in the two most extreme perturbation cases of -30% and +30% wind change, respectively. Localized changes lie between +92 μM under 30% reduced winds and -56 μM for 30% increased winds. Overall, we find that the extent of the global low-oxygen volume varies with the same sign as the wind perturbation; namely, weaker winds reduce the low-oxygen volume on the global scale and vice versa for increased trade winds. We identify two regions, one in the Pacific Ocean off Chile and the other in the Indian Ocean off Somalia, that are of particular importance for the evolution of oxygen minimum zones in the global ocean.

  19. Global characteristics of zonal flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence

    SciT

    Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2009-04-15

    The spectral effect of the zonal flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determinedmore » not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.« less

  20. Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

    2007-11-01

    A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

  1. Enhanced separation of membranes during free flow zonal electrophoresis in plants.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar

    2007-07-15

    Free flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile technique that allows for the separation of cells, organelles, membranes, and proteins based on net surface charge during laminar flow through a thin aqueous layer. We have been optimizing the FFZE technique to enhance separation of plant vacuolar membranes (tonoplast) from other endomembranes to pursue a directed proteomics approach to identify novel tonoplast transporters. Addition of ATP to a mixture of endomembranes selectively enhanced electrophoretic mobility of acidic vesicular compartments during FFZE toward the positive electrode. This has been attributed to activation of the V-ATPase generating a more negative membrane potential outside the vesicles, resulting in enhanced migration of acidic vesicles, including tonoplast, to the anode (Morré, D. J.; Lawrence, J.; Safranski, K.; Hammond, T.; Morré, D. M. J. Chromatogr., A 1994, 668, 201-213). We confirm that ATP does induce a redistribution of membranes during FFZE of microsomal membranes isolated from several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Thellungiella halophila, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, and Ananas comosus. However, we demonstrate, using V-ATPase-specific inhibitors, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs, and ionophores to dissipate membrane potential, that the ATP-dependent migrational shift of membranes under FFZE is not due to activation of the V-ATPase. Addition of EDTA to chelate Mg2+, leading to the production of the tetravalent anionic form of ATP, resulted in a further enhancement of membrane migration toward the anode, and manipulation of cell surface charge by addition of polycations also influenced the ATP-dependent migration of membranes. We propose that ATP enhances the mobility of endomembranes by screening positive surface charges on the membrane surface.

  2. Separated Flow over Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.

  3. A Simulation Model for Drift Resistive Ballooning Turbulence Examining the Influence of Self-consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon

    2015-11-01

    Progress is reported on including self-consistent zonal flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent zonal flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).

  4. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    were so patient with me during this process, sometimes spending hours in the wind tunnel room with me while I performed what seemed like endless runs ...disorderly wind velocities that result from the rotating turbine blades . In 2011, a study conducted by the White House Office of Science and...targets, and scattering target returns” [4]. Furthermore, the shadowing effects from spinning wind turbine blades can adversely impact air-traffic

  5. Role of zonal flow predator-prey oscillations in triggering the transition to H-mode confinement.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Hillesheim, J C; Doyle, E J; Groebner, R J; Peebles, W A; Burrell, K H; Wang, G

    2012-04-13

    Direct evidence of zonal flow (ZF) predator-prey oscillations and the synergistic roles of ZF- and equilibrium E×B flow shear in triggering the low- to high-confinement (L- to H-mode) transition in the DIII-D tokamak is presented. Periodic turbulence suppression is first observed in a narrow layer at and just inside the separatrix when the shearing rate transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate. The final transition to H mode with sustained turbulence and transport reduction is controlled by equilibrium E×B shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient.

  6. Influence of the parallel nonlinearity on zonal flows and heat transport in global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliet, S.; McMillan, B. F.; Vernay, T.; Villard, L.; Hatzky, R.; Bottino, A.; Angelino, P.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of the parallel nonlinearity on zonal flows and heat transport in global particle-in-cell ion-temperature-gradient simulations is studied. Although this term is in theory orders of magnitude smaller than the others, several authors [L. Villard, P. Angelino, A. Bottino et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 46, B51 (2004); L. Villard, S. J. Allfrey, A. Bottino et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 172 (2004); J. C. Kniep, J. N. G. Leboeuf, and V. C. Decyck, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 98 (2004); J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, S. E. Parker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 074501 (2006)] found different results on its role. The study is performed using the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes TORB (theta-pinch) [R. Hatzky, T. M. Tran, A. Könies et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 898 (2002)] and ORB5 (tokamak geometry) [S. Jolliet, A. Bottino, P. Angelino et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 409 (2007)]. In particular, it is demonstrated that the parallel nonlinearity, while important for energy conservation, affects the zonal electric field only if the simulation is noise dominated. When a proper convergence is reached, the influence of parallel nonlinearity on the zonal electric field, if any, is shown to be small for both the cases of decaying and driven turbulence.

  7. Climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density anomaly with zonal wind and large-scale FAC based on CHAMP observations: IMF By and solar cycle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Lühr, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    We present climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density enhancement with the neutral zonal wind velocity, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC), small-scale FAC, and electron temperature using the superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method. The dependence of these variables on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component orientation and solar cycle are of particular interest. In addition, the obtained results of relative density enhancement (ρrel), zonal wind, electron temperature and FAC are subdivided into three local seasons of 130 days each: local winter (1 January ±65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April ±32 days and 1 October ±32 days), and local summer (1 July ±65 days). Our investigation is based on CHAMP satellite observations and NASA/GSFC's OMNI online data set for solar maximum (Mar/2002-2007) and minimum (Mar/2004-2009) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA technique uses the time and location of the thermospheric mass density anomaly peaks as reference parameters. The relative amplitude of cusp-related density enhancement does on average not depend on the IMF By orientation, solar cycle phase, and local season. Also, it is apparent that the IMF By amplitude does not have a big influence on the relative amplitude of the density anomaly. Conversely, there exists a good correlation between ρrel and the negative amplitude of IMF Bz prevailing about half an hour earlier. In the cusp region, both large-scale FAC distribution and thermospheric zonal wind velocity exhibit a clear dependence on the IMF By orientation. In the case of positive (negative) IMF By there is a systematic imbalance between downward (upward) and upward (downward) FACs peaks equatorward and poleward of the reference point, respectively. The zonal wind velocity is directed towards west i.e. towards dawn in a geomagnetic latitude-magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. This is true for all local seasons and solar conditions. The thermospheric density

  8. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  9. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    DOE PAGES

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-10

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in anmore » $$\\boldsymbol{E}\\times \\boldsymbol{B}$$ nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.« less

  10. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  11. The role of zonal flows and predator–prey oscillations in triggering the formation of edge and core transport barriers

    SciT

    Schmitz, Lothar; Zeng, Lei; Rhodes, Terry L.

    2014-04-24

    Here, we present direct evidence of low frequency, radially sheared, turbulence-driven flows (zonal flows (ZFs)) triggering edge transport barrier formation preceding the L- to H-mode transition via periodic turbulence suppression in limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs), consistent with predator–prey dynamics. The final transition to edge-localized mode-free H-mode occurs after the equilibrium E × B flow shear increases due to ion pressure profile evolution. ZFs are also observed to initiate formation of an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) at the q = 2 rational surface via local suppression of electron-scale turbulence. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering (DBS) has revealed the radial structure of the ZF-induced shear layer and the E × B shearing rate, ω E×B, in both barrier types. During edge barrier formation, the shearing rate lags the turbulence envelope during the LCO by 90°, transitioning to anti-correlation (180°) when the equilibrium shear dominates the turbulence-driven flow shear due to the increasing edge pressure gradient. The time-dependent flow shear and the turbulence envelope are anti-correlated (180° out of phase) in the electron ITB. LCOs with time-reversed evolution dynamics (transitioning from an equilibrium-flow dominated to a ZF-dominated state) have also been observed during the H–L back-transition and are potentially of interest for controlled ramp-down of the plasma stored energy and pressure (normalized to the poloidal magnetic field)more » $$\\beta_{\\theta} =2\\mu_{0} n{( {T_{{\\rm e}} +T_{{\\rm i}}})}/{B_{\\theta}^{2}}$$ in ITER.« less

  12. The role of zonal flows and predator-prey oscillations in triggering the formation of edge and core transport barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Tynan, G. R.; Diamond, P. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.; Austin, M. E.; Solomon, W. M.; Wang, G.

    2014-07-01

    We present direct evidence of low frequency, radially sheared, turbulence-driven flows (zonal flows (ZFs)) triggering edge transport barrier formation preceding the L- to H-mode transition via periodic turbulence suppression in limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs), consistent with predator-prey dynamics. The final transition to edge-localized mode-free H-mode occurs after the equilibrium E × B flow shear increases due to ion pressure profile evolution. ZFs are also observed to initiate formation of an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) at the q = 2 rational surface via local suppression of electron-scale turbulence. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering (DBS) has revealed the radial structure of the ZF-induced shear layer and the E × B shearing rate, ωE×B, in both barrier types. During edge barrier formation, the shearing rate lags the turbulence envelope during the LCO by 90°, transitioning to anti-correlation (180°) when the equilibrium shear dominates the turbulence-driven flow shear due to the increasing edge pressure gradient. The time-dependent flow shear and the turbulence envelope are anti-correlated (180° out of phase) in the electron ITB. LCOs with time-reversed evolution dynamics (transitioning from an equilibrium-flow dominated to a ZF-dominated state) have also been observed during the H-L back-transition and are potentially of interest for controlled ramp-down of the plasma stored energy and pressure (normalized to the poloidal magnetic field) \\beta_{\\theta} =2\\mu_{0} n{( {T_{e} +T_{i}})}/{B_{\\theta}^{2}} in ITER.

  13. Zonal Rate Model for Axial and Radial Flow Membrane Chromatography. Part I: Knowledge Transfer Across Operating Conditions and Scales

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Haynes, Charles A; von Lieres, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The zonal rate model (ZRM) has previously been applied for analyzing the performance of axial flow membrane chromatography capsules by independently determining the impacts of flow and binding related non-idealities on measured breakthrough curves. In the present study, the ZRM is extended to radial flow configurations, which are commonly used at larger scales. The axial flow XT5 capsule and the radial flow XT140 capsule from Pall are rigorously analyzed under binding and non-binding conditions with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as test molecule. The binding data of this molecule is much better reproduced by the spreading model, which hypothesizes different binding orientations, than by the well-known Langmuir model. Moreover, a revised cleaning protocol with NaCl instead of NaOH and minimizing the storage time has been identified as most critical for quantitatively reproducing the measured breakthrough curves. The internal geometry of both capsules is visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The flow in the external hold-up volumes of the XT140 capsule was found to be more homogeneous as in the previously studied XT5 capsule. An attempt for model-based scale-up was apparently impeded by irregular pleat structures in the used XT140 capsule, which might lead to local variations in the linear velocity through the membrane stack. However, the presented approach is universal and can be applied to different capsules. The ZRM is shown to potentially help save valuable material and time, as the experiments required for model calibration are much cheaper than the predicted large-scale experiment at binding conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1129–1141. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23097218

  14. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation

  15. A simple inertial model for Neptune's zonal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Lumetta, James T.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of zonal cloud-tracked winds on Neptune revealed a strongly subrotational equatorial jet with a speed approaching 500 m/s and generally decreasing retrograde motion toward the poles. The wind data are interpreted with a speculative but revealingly simple model based on steady gradient flow balance and an assumed global homogenization of potential vorticity for shallow layer motion. The prescribed model flow profile relates the equatorial velocity to the mid-latitude shear, in reasonable agreement with the available data, and implies a global horizontal deformation scale L(D) of about 3000 km.

  16. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  17. Non-isomorphic radial wavenumber dependencies of residual zonal flows in ion and electron Larmor radius scales, and effects of initial parallel flow and electromagnetic potentials in a circular tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu

    2018-04-01

    Radial wavenumber dependencies of the residual zonal potential for E × B flow in a circular, large aspect ratio tokamak is investigated by means of the collisionless gyrokinetic simulations of Rosenbluth-Hinton (RH) test and the semi-analytic approach using an analytic solution of the gyrokinetic equation Rosenbluth and Hinton (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 724). By increasing the radial wavenumber from an ion Larmor radius scale {k}r{ρ }i≲ 1 to an electron Larmor radius scale {k}r{ρ }e≲ 1, the well-known level ˜ O[1/(1+1.6{q}2/\\sqrt{r/{R}0})] is retained, while the level remains O(1) when the wavenumber is decreased from the electron to the ion Larmor radius scale, if physically same adiabatic assumption is presumed for species other than the main species that is treated kinetically. The conclusion is not modified by treating both species kinetically, so that in the intermediate scale between the ion and electron Larmor radius scale it seems difficult to determine the level uniquely. The toroidal momentum conservation property in the RH test is also investigated by including an initial parallel flow in addition to the perpendicular flow. It is shown that by taking a balance between the initial parallel flow and perpendicular flows which include both E × B flow and diamagnetic flow in the initial condition, the mechanical toroidal angular momentum is approximately conserved despite the toroidal symmetry breaking due to the finite radial wavenumber zonal modes. Effect of electromagnetic potentials is also investigated. When the electromagnetic potentials are applied initially, fast oscillations which are faster than the geodesic acoustic modes are introduced in the decay phase of the zonal modes. Although the residual level in the long time limit is not modified, this can make the time required to reach the stationary zonal flows longer and may weaken the effectiveness of the turbulent transport suppression by the zonal flows.

  18. Role of isotope mass and evidence of fluctuating zonal flows during the L–H transition in the TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, U.; Estrada, T.; Liu, B.; van Milligen, B.; Cheng, J.; Silva, C.; Pastor, I.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Hidalgo, C.; TJ-II team1, the

    2018-07-01

    Mean radial electric fields as well as low frequency Zonal Flow-like global oscillations in radial electric field have been identified during the low to high (L–H) transition in Hydrogen and Deuterium dominated plasmas in the stellarator TJ-II. No evidence of isotope effect on the L–H transition dynamics was observed in the investigated TJ-II plasma scenarios. These observations emphasize the critical role of both zero frequency (equilibrium) and low frequency varying large-scale flows for stabilizing turbulence during the triggering of the L–H transition in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas.

  19. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corten, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine blades could be controlled fully, the generation efficiency and thus the energy production would increase by 9%. Power Control To avoid damage to wind turbines, they are cut out above 10 Beaufort (25 m/s) on the wind speed scale. A turbine could be designed in such a way that it converts as much power as possible in all wind speeds, but then it would have to be to heavy. The high costs of such a design would not be compensated by the extra production in high winds, since such winds are rare. Therefore turbines usually reach maximum power at a much lower wind speed: the rated wind speed, which occurs at about 6 Beaufort (12.5 m/s). Above this rated speed, the power intake is kept constant by a control mechanism. Two different mechanisms are commonly used. Active pitch control, where the blades pitch to vane if the turbine maximum is exceeded or, passive stall control, where the power control is an implicit property of the rotor. Stall Control The flow over airfoils is called "attached" when it flows over the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge. However, when the angle of attack of the flow exceeds a certain critical angle, the flow does not reach the trailing edge, but leaves the surface at the separation line. Beyond this line the flow direction is reversed, i.e. it flows from the trailing edge backward to the separation line. A blade section extracts much less energy from the flow when it separates. This property is used for stall control. Stall controlled rotors always operate at a constant rotation speed. The angle of attack of the flow incident to the blades is determined by the blade speed and the wind speed. Since the latter is variable, it determines

  20. Modulation of frontogenetic plankton production along a meandering jet by zonal wind forcing: An application to the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Temel; Mourre, Baptiste; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2017-08-01

    We present a coupled physical-biological modeling study to elucidate the changes in ageostrophic frontal dynamics and the frontogenetic plankton production characteristics of a meandering jet under the impacts of successive westerly/easterly wind events combined with seasonal variations in the upstream transport and buoyancy flux characteristics of the jet, using a case study for the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). Their nonlinear coupling is shown to result in different forms of physical and biological characteristics of the background jet structure that follows a meandering path around two anticyclonic gyres in the western and eastern basins and a cyclonic eddy in between. The westerly, downfront wind events broaden the jet, and result in stronger cross-frontal density contrast and intensify ageostrophic cross-frontal secondary circulation. Thus, they improve the frontogenetic plankton production with respect to the no-wind case. They also support higher production along the northern coast in response to wind-induced coastal upwelling and spreading of resulting nutrient-rich, productive water by mesoscale stirring. These features weaken gradually as the jet transport reduces. In contrast, stronger and longer-lasting easterlies during the reduced jet transport phase weaken the currents and frontal density structure, change the circular Western Alboran Gyre to an elongated form, and shift the main axis of the jet towards the southern basin. Then, frontogenesis fails to contribute to phytoplankton production that becomes limited to the eddy pumping within cyclones. Apart from the frontogenetic production, eddy pumping, mesoscale stirring, and diapycnal mixing of nutrients support intermittent and localized phytoplankton patches over the basin.

  1. Numerical aspects and implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for LES of compressible turbulent flows on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on numerical and practical aspects associated with a parallel implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible wall-bounded turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. A zonal wall model based on the solution of unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a separate near-wall grid is implemented in an unstructured, cell-centered finite-volume LES solver. The main challenge in its implementation is to couple two parallel, unstructured flow solvers for efficient boundary data communication and simultaneous time integrations. A coupling strategy with good load balancing and low processors underutilization is identified. Face mapping and interpolation procedures at the coupling interface are explained in detail. The method of manufactured solution is used for verifying the correct implementation of solver coupling, and parallel performance of the combined wall-modeled LES (WMLES) solver is investigated. The method has successfully been applied to several attached and separated flows, including a transitional flow over a flat plate and a separated flow over an airfoil at an angle of attack.

  2. Production of oscillatory flow in wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Asmi, K.; Castro, I. P.

    1993-06-01

    A method for producing oscillatory flow in open-circuit wind tunnels driven by centrifugal fans is described. Performance characteristics of a new device installed on two such tunnels of greatly differing size are presented. It is shown that sinusoidal variations of the working section flow, having peak-to-peak amplitudes up to at least 30 percent of the mean flow speed and frequencies up to, typically, that corresponding to the acoustic quarter-wave-length frequency determined by the tunnel size, can be obtained with negligible harmonic distortion or acoustic noise difficulties. A brief review of the various methods that have been used previously is included, and the advantages and disadvantages of these different techniques are highlighted. The present technique seems to represent a significant improvement over many of them.

  3. Wind flow in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Dutt, A J

    1991-10-01

    The wind environment at ground leven in built-up areas is influenced by the extremely complex interaction amongst incident wind, mean vertical velocity gradient, turbulence and the shapes, sizes and layouts of building. Random layout of buildings could generate zones of overspeed and vortices in the connecting passage way between buildings, terraces, opensided shelters, courtyards, which could potentially cause unpleasantness, hazard from resuspended particulates, and airborne rain penetration into the buildings. The paper presents the results of two case studies comprising field measurements made within the Kent Ridge Campus, National University of Singapore, using DANTEC 54N10 Multichannel Flow Analyser and Probes. Results are presented in terms of non-dimensional windspeed coefficients. It is concluded that there is significant increase in windspeed due to channel and venturi effects. This information provides useful guidelines for building plans and layouts to the architects and engineers.

  4. Laminar-flow wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Sewall, William G.; Stack, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Although most of the laminar flow airfoils recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center were intended for general aviation applications, low-drag airfoils were designed for transonic speeds and wind tunnel performance tested. The objective was to extend the technology of laminar flow to higher Mach and Reynolds numbers and to swept leading edge wings representative of transport aircraft to achieve lower drag and significantly improved operation costs. This research involves stabilizing the laminar boundary layer through geometric shaping (Natural Laminar Flow, NLF) and active control involving the removal of a portion of the laminar boundary layer (Laminar-Flow Control, LFC), either through discrete slots or perforated surface. Results show that extensive regions of laminar flow with large reductions in skin friction drag can be maintained through the application of passive NLF boundary-layer control technologies to unswept transonic wings. At even greater extent of laminar flow and reduction in the total drag level can be obtained on a swept supercritical airfoil with active boundary layer-control.

  5. Apparatus and method for using radar to evaluate wind flow fields for wind energy applications

    SciT

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind flow field using one or more radars. Data is collected from the one or more radars, and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind flow field. The one or more radars are positioned to have a portion of the wind flow field within a scanning sector of the one or more radars.

  6. Validation of WIND for a Series of Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Abbott, John M.; Cavicchi, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Validation assessments compare WIND CFD simulations to experimental data for a series of inlet flows ranging in Mach number from low subsonic to hypersonic. The validation procedures follow the guidelines of the AIAA. The WIND code performs well in matching the available experimental data. The assessments demonstrate the use of WIND and provide confidence in its use for the analysis of aircraft inlets.

  7. Flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Due to the increasing number and the growing size of wind farms, the distance among them continues to decrease. Thus, it is necessary to understand how these large finite-size wind farms and their wakes could interfere the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and adjacent wind farms. Fully-developed flow inside wind farms has been extensively studied through numerical simulations of infinite wind farms. The transportation of momentum and energy is only vertical and the advection of them is neglected in these infinite wind farms. However, less attention has been paid to examine the length of wind farms required to reach such asymptotic regime and the ABL dynamics in the leading and trailing edges of the large finite-size wind farms. Large eddy simulations are performed in this study to investigate the flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms in conventionally-neutral boundary layer with the effect of Coriolis force and free-atmosphere stratification from 1 to 5 K/km. For the large finite-size wind farms considered in the present work, when the potential temperature lapse rate is 5 K/km, the wind farms exceed the height of the ABL by two orders of magnitude for the incoming flow inside the farms to approach the fully-developed regime. An entrance fetch of approximately 40 times of the ABL height is also required for such flow adjustment. At the fully-developed flow regime of the large finite-size wind farms, the flow characteristics match those of infinite wind farms even though they have different adjustment length scales. The role of advection at the entrance and exit regions of the large finite-size wind farms is also examined. The interaction between the internal boundary layer developed above the large finite-size wind farms and the ABL under different potential temperature lapse rates are compared. It is shown that the potential temperature lapse rate plays a role in whether the flow inside the large finite-size wind farms adjusts to the fully

  8. Measurement Techniques for Flow Diagnostic in ITAM Impulse Wind Tunnels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    time of wind - tunnel operation, so that oscillations caused by initial shock loads could decay and a comparatively long time period with constant flow...Flow Diagnostic in ITAM Impulse Wind Tunnels 7 - 4 RTO-EN-AVT-186 A strain-gauge pressure probe is an elastic element (membrane) in a sealed...Diagnostic in ITAM Impulse Wind Tunnels RTO-EN-AVT-186 7 - 5 probes are individually calibrated. Piezoelectric pressure gauges are based

  9. Jet and storm track variability and change: adiabatic QG zonal averages and beyond... (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The zonally averaged structures of extratropical jets and stormtracks, their slow variations, and their responses to climate change are all tightly constrained on the one hand by thermal wind balance and the necessary application of eddy torques to produce zonally averaged meridional motion, and, on the other hand, by the necessity that eddies propagate upshear to extract energy from the mean flow. Combining these constraints with the well developed theory of linear Rossby-wave propagation on zonally symmetric basic states has led to a large and growing number of plausible mechanisms to explain observed and modeled jet/storm track variability and responses to climate change and idealized forcing. Hidden within zonal averages is the reality that most baroclinic eddy activity is destroyed at the same latitude at which is generated: from one end to another of the fixed stormtracks in the Northern Hemisphere and baroclinic wave packets in the Southern Hemisphere. Ignored within adiabatic QG theory is the reality that baroclinic eddies gain significant energy from latent heating that involves sub-syntopic scale structures and dynamics. Here we use results from high-resolution regional and global simulations of the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to explore the importance of non-zonal and diabatic dynamics in influencing jet change and variability and their influences on the much-studied zonal means.

  10. Transient response of sap flow to wind speed.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia R; Hsieh, Cheng-I; Wu, Shen-Yuang; Phillips, Nathan G

    2009-01-01

    Transient responses of sap flow to step changes in wind speed were experimentally investigated in a wind tunnel. A Granier-type sap flow sensor was calibrated and tested in a cylindrical tube for analysis of its transient time response. Then the sensor was used to measure the transient response of a well-watered Pachira macrocarpa plant to wind speed variations. The transient response of sap flow was described using the resistance-capacitance model. The steady sap flow rate increased as the wind speed increased at low wind speeds. Once the wind speed exceeded 8.0 m s(-1), the steady sap flow rate did not increase further. The transpiration rate, measured gravimetrically, showed a similar trend. The response of nocturnal sap flow to wind speed variation was also measured and compared with the results in the daytime. Under the same wind speed, the steady sap flow rate was smaller than that in the daytime, indicating differences between diurnal and nocturnal hydraulic function, and incomplete stomatal closure at night. In addition, it was found that the temporal response of the Granier sensor is fast enough to resolve the transient behaviour of water flux in plant tissue.

  11. Wind tunnel simulations of wind turbine wake interactions in neutral and stratified wind flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. E.; Pascheke, F.

    2010-09-01

    A second programme of work is about to commence as part of a further four years of funding for the UK-EPSRC SUPERGEN-Wind large-wind-farm consortium. The first part of the initial programme at Surrey was to establish and set up appropriate techniques for both on- and off-shore boundary layers (though with an emphasis on the latter) at a suitable scale, and to build suitable rotating model wind turbines. The EnFlo wind tunnel, a UK-NCAS special facility, is capable of creating scaled neutral, stable and unstable boundary layers in its 20m long working section. The model turbines are 1/300-scale of 5MW-size, speed controlled with phase-lock measurement capability, and the blade design takes into account low Reynolds-number effects. Velocity measurements are primarily made using two-component LDA, combined with a ‘cold-wire' probe in order to measure the local turbulent heat flux. Simulation of off-shore wakes is particularly constrained because i) at wind tunnel scale the inherently low surface roughness can be below that for fully rough conditions, ii) the power required to stratify the flow varies as the square of the flow speed, and could easily be impractically large, iii) low blade Reynolds number. The boundary layer simulations, set up to give near-equilibrium conditions in terms of streamwise development, and the model turbines have been designed against these constraints, but not all constraints can be always met simultaneously in practice. Most measurements so far have been made behind just one or two turbines in neutral off- and on-shore boundary layers, at stations up to 12 disk diameters downstream. These show how, for example, the wake of a turbine affects the development of the wake of a downwind turbine that is laterally off-set by say half or one diameter, and how the unaffected part from the first turbine merges with the affected wake of the second. As expected a lower level of atmospheric turbulence causes the wakes to develop and fill-in more

  12. Turbulent flow and scalar transport in a large wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porte-Agel, F.; Markfort, C. D.; Zhang, W.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of renewable energy world-wide, and it is expected that many more large-scale wind farms will be built and cover a significant portion of land and ocean surfaces. By extracting kinetic energy from the atmospheric boundary layer and converting it to electricity, wind farms may affect the transport of momentum, heat, moisture and trace gases (e.g. CO_2) between the atmosphere and the land surface locally and globally. Understanding wind farm-atmosphere interaction is complicated by the effects of turbine array configuration, wind farm size, land-surface characteristics, and atmospheric thermal stability. A wind farm of finite length may be modeled as an added roughness or as a canopy in large-scale weather and climate models. However, it is not clear which analogy is physically more appropriate. Also, surface scalar flux is affected by wind farms and needs to be properly parameterized in meso-scale and/or high-resolution numerical models. Experiments involving model wind farms, with perfectly aligned and staggered configurations, having the same turbine distribution density, were conducted in a thermally-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel. A neutrally stratified turbulent boundary layer was developed with a surface heat source. Measurements of the turbulent flow and fluxes over and through the wind farm were made using a custom x-wire/cold-wire anemometer; and surface scalar flux was measured with an array of surface-mounted heat flux sensors far within the quasi-developed region of the wind-farm. The turbulence statistics exhibit similar properties to those of canopy-type flows, but retain some characteristics of surface-layer flows in a limited region above the wind farms as well. The flow equilibrates faster and the overall momentum absorption is higher for the staggered compared to the aligned farm, which is consistent with canopy scaling and leads to a larger effective roughness. Although the overall surface

  13. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  14. Numerical investigation of air flow in a supersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, S. M.; Rtishcheva, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of TsAGI’s supersonic wind tunnel modernization program aimed at improving flow quality and extending the range of test regimes it was required to design and numerically validate a new test section and a set of shaped nozzles: two flat nozzles with flow Mach number at nozzle exit M=4 and M=5 and two axisymmetric nozzles with M=5 and M=6. Geometric configuration of the nozzles, the test section (an Eiffel chamber) and the diffuser was chosen according to the results of preliminary calculations of two-dimensional air flow in the wind tunnel circuit. The most important part of the work are three-dimensional flow simulation results obtained using ANSYS Fluent software. The following flow properties were investigated: Mach number, total and static pressure, total and static temperature and turbulent viscosity ratio distribution, heat flux density at wind tunnel walls (for high-temperature flow regimes). It is demonstrated that flow perturbations emerging from the junction of the nozzle with the test section and spreading down the test section behind the boundaries of characteristic rhomb’s reverse wedge are nearly impossible to eliminate. Therefore, in order to perform tests under most uniform flow conditions, the model’s center of rotation and optical window axis should be placed as close to the center of the characteristic rhomb as possible. The obtained results became part of scientific and technical basis of supersonic wind tunnel design process and were applied to a generalized class of similar wind tunnels.

  15. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  16. Observed variability in the upper layers at the Equator, 90°E in the Indian Ocean during 2001-2008, 1: zonal currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.; Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Mizuno, K.

    2017-08-01

    The observed variability of zonal currents (ZC) at the Equator, 90°E shows a strong seasonal cycle in the near-surface 40-350 m water column with periodic east-west reversals most pronounced at semiannual frequency. Superposed on this, a strong intraseasonal variability of 30-90 day periodicity is also prominently seen in the near-surface layer (40-80 m) almost throughout the year with the only exception of February-March. An eastward flowing equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is present in the depth range of 80-160 m during March-April and October-November. The observed intraseasonal variability in the near-surface layer is primarily determined by the equatorial zonal westerly wind bursts (WWBs) through local frictional coupling between the zonal flow in the surface layer and surface zonal winds and shows large interannual variability. The eastward flowing EUC maintained by the ZPG set up by the east-west slope of the thermocline remotely controlled by the zonal wind (ZW) and zonally propagating wave fields also shows significant interannual variability. This observed variability on interannual time scales appears to be controlled by the corresponding variability in the alongshore winds off the Somalia coast during the preceding boreal winter, the ZW field along the equator, and the associated zonally propagating Kelvin and Rossby waves. The salinity induced vertical stratification observed in the near-surface layer through barrier layer thickness (BLT) effects also shows a significant influence on the ZC field on intraseasonal time scale. Interestingly, among all the 8 years (2001-2008), relatively weaker annual cycle is seen in both ZC in the 40-350 m water column and boreal spring sea surface temperature (SST) only during 2001 and 2008 along the equator caused through propagating wave dynamics.

  17. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan

    2018-06-01

    Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall.

  18. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall.

  19. Analyzing wind turbine flow interaction through vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Francesco; D'Elia, Gianluca; Astolfi, Davide; Mucchi, Emiliano; Giorgio, Dalpiaz; Terzi, Ludovico

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbines commonly undergo non-stationary flow and, not rarely, even rather extreme phenomena. In particular, rough terrains represent a challenging testing ground, because of the combination of terrain-driven flow and wakes. It is therefore crucial to assess the impact of dynamic loads on the turbines. In this work, tower and drive-train vibrations are analyzed, from a subcluster of four turbines of a wind farm sited in a very complex terrain. The main outcome of the study is that it is possible to start from the analysis of wind conditions and interpret how wakes manifest in the vibrations of the turbines, both at structural level (tower vibrations) and at the drive-train level. This wind to gear approach therefore allows to build a connection between a flow phenomenon and a mechanical phenomenon (vibrations) and can be precious to assess loads in different working conditions.

  20. Binary stellar winds. [flow and magnetic field geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Heinemann, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Stellar winds from a binary star pair will interact with each other along a contact discontinuity. We discuss qualitatively the geometry of the flow and field resulting from this interaction in the simplest case where the stars and winds are identical. We consider the shape of the critical surface (defined as the surface where the flow speed is equal to the sound speed) as a function of stellar separation and the role of shock waves in the flow field. The effect of stellar spin and magnetic sectors on the field configuration is given. The relative roles of mass loss and magnetic torque in the evolution of orbital parameters is discussed.

  1. Binary stellar winds. [flow and magnetic field interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Heinemann, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Stellar winds from a binary star will interact with each other along a contact discontinuity. We discuss qualitatively the geometry of the flow and field resulting from this interaction in the simplest case where the stars and winds are identical. We consider the shape of the critical surface (defined as the surface where the flow speed is equal to the sound speed) as a function of stellar separation and the role of shock waves in the flow field. The effect of stellar spin and magnetic sectors on the field configuration is given. The relative roles of mass loss and magnetic torque in the evolution of orbital parameters are discussed.

  2. Solar wind flow past Venus - Theory and comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced computational procedures are applied to an improved model of solar wind flow past Venus to calculate the locations of the ionopause and bow wave and the properties of the flowing ionosheath plasma in the intervening region. The theoretical method is based on a single-fluid, steady, dissipationless, magneto-hydrodynamic continuum model and is appropriate for the calculation of axisymmetric supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flow past a nonmagnetic planet possessing a sufficiently dense ionosphere to stand off the flowing plasma above the subsolar point and elsewhere. Determination of time histories of plasma and magnetic field properties along an arbitrary spacecraft trajectory and provision for an arbitrary oncoming direction of the interplanetary solar wind have been incorporated in the model. An outline is provided of the underlying theory and computational procedures, and sample comparisons of the results are presented with observations from the Pioneer Venus orbiter.

  3. Changes in the zonal mean flow, temperature, and planetary waves observed in the Northern Hemisphere mid-winter months during the last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakushina, E. V.; Ermakova, T. S.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.

    2018-06-01

    Four sets of data: the UK Met Office, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data (JRA-55), and ERA-Interim data (ERA) have been used to estimate the climatic variability of the zonal mean flow, temperature, and Stationary Planetary Waves (SPW1, SPW2) from the troposphere up to the lower mesosphere levels. The composites of the meteorological fields during mid-winter month have been averaged over the first (1995-2005) and second (2006-2016) 11 years intervals and have been compared mainly paying attention to interannual and intraseasonal variability. Results show that changes in the mean fields and SPW2 are weaker and statistical significance of these changes is lower in comparison with the changes observed in the intraseasonal variability of these characteristics. All data sets demonstrate a decrease of SPW1 amplitude at the higher-middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere and opposite effect in the upper stratosphere. However, there is an increase of the intraseasonal variability for all meteorological parameters and this rise is statistically significant. The results obtained show that UK Met Office data demonstrate stronger changes and increase of the intraseasonal variability in comparison with other data sets.

  4. Flow Visualization and Laser Velocimetry for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The need for flow visualization and laser velocimetry were discussed. The purpose was threefold: (1) provide a state-of-the-art overview; (2) provide a forum for industry, universities, and government agencies to address problems in developing useful and productive flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques; and (3) provide discussion of recent developments and applications of flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques and instrumentation systems for wind tunnels including the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel.

  5. Calculation of solar wind flows about terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A computational model was developed for the determination of the plasma and magnetic field properties of the global interaction of the solar wind with terrestrial planetary magneto/ionospheres. The theoretical method is based on an established single fluid, steady, dissipationless, magnetohydrodynamic continuum model, and is appropriate for the calculation of supersonic, super Alfvenic solar wind flow past terrestrial planets. A summary is provided of the important research results.

  6. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines & wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emre Yilmaz, Ali; Meyers, Johan

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit.

  7. Improving urban wind flow predictions through data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Jorge; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic is fundamentally important to several aspects in the design of sustainable and resilient urban environments. The prediction of the flow pattern for example can help to determine pedestrian wind comfort, air quality, optimal building ventilation strategies, and wind loading on buildings. However, the significant variability and uncertainty in the boundary conditions poses a challenge when interpreting results as a basis for design decisions. To improve our understanding of the uncertainties in the models and develop better predictive tools, we started a pilot field measurement campaign on Stanford University's campus combined with a detailed numerical prediction of the wind flow. The experimental data is being used to investigate the potential use of data assimilation and inverse techniques to better characterize the uncertainty in the results and improve the confidence in current wind flow predictions. We consider the incoming wind direction and magnitude as unknown parameters and perform a set of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to build a polynomial chaos expansion response surface at each sensor location. We subsequently use an inverse ensemble Kalman filter to retrieve an estimate for the probabilistic density function of the inflow parameters. Once these distributions are obtained, the forward analysis is repeated to obtain predictions for the flow field in the entire urban canopy and the results are compared with the experimental data. We would like to acknowledge high-performance computing support from Yellowstone (ark:/85065/d7wd3xhc) provided by NCAR.

  8. Wind-US Unstructured Flow Solutions for a Transonic Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind-US Computational Fluid Dynamics flow solver computed flow solutions for a transonic diffusing duct. The calculations used an unstructured (hexahedral) grid. The Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was used. Static pressures along the upper and lower wall agreed well with experiment, as did velocity profiles. The effect of the smoothing input parameters on convergence and solution accuracy was investigated. The meaning and proper use of these parameters are discussed for the benefit of Wind-US users. Finally, the unstructured solver is compared to the structured solver in terms of run times and solution accuracy.

  9. WIND- THREE DIMENSIONAL POTENTIAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ABOUT WIND TURBINE ROTOR BLADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    This computer program, WIND, was developed to numerically solve the exact, full-potential equation for three-dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional, boundary-conforming grid and iteratively solves the full-potential equation while fully accounting for both the rotating and Coriolis effects. WIND is capable of numerically analyzing the flow field about a given blade shape of the horizontal-axis type wind turbine. The rotor hub is assumed representable by a doubly infinite circular cylinder. An arbitrary number of blades may be attached to the hub and these blades may have arbitrary spanwise distributions of taper and of the twist, sweep, and dihedral angles. An arbitrary number of different airfoil section shapes may be used along the span as long as the spanwise variation of all the geometeric parameters is reasonably smooth. The numerical techniques employed in WIND involve rotated, type-dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, WIND is cabable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. Along with the three-dimensional results, WIND provides the results of the two-dimensional calculations to aid the user in locating areas of possible improvement in the aerodynamic design of the blade. Output from WIND includes the chordwise distribution of the coefficient of pressure, the Mach number, the density, and the relative velocity components at spanwise stations along the blade. In addition, the results specify local values of the lift coefficient and the tangent and axial aerodynamic force components. These are also given in integrated form expressing the total torque and the total axial

  10. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciT

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  11. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; ...

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  12. Wake flow control using a dynamically controlled wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Ricardo; Wang, Yeqin; Pol, Suhas; Swift, Andy; Hussain, Fazle; Westergaard, Carsten; Texas Tech University Team

    2016-11-01

    A wind tunnel based "Hyper Accelerated Wind Farm Kinematic-Control Simulator" (HAWKS) is being built at Texas Tech University to emulate controlled wind turbine flow physics. The HAWKS model turbine has pitch, yaw and speed control which is operated in real model time, similar to that of an equivalent full scale turbine. Also, similar to that of a full scale wind turbine, the controls are developed in a Matlab Simulink environment. The current diagnostic system consists of power, rotor position, rotor speed measurements and PIV wake characterization with four cameras. The setup allows up to 7D downstream of the rotor to be mapped. The purpose of HAWKS is to simulate control strategies at turnaround times much faster than CFD and full scale testing. The fundamental building blocks of the simulator have been tested, and demonstrate wake steering for both static and dynamic turbine actuation. Parameters which have been studied are yaw, rotor speed and combinations hereof. The measured wake deflections for static yaw cases are in agreement with previously reported research implying general applicability of the HAWKS platform for the purpose of manipulating the wake. In this presentation the general results will be introduced followed by an analysis of the wake turbulence and coherent structures when comparing static and dynamic flow cases. The outcome of such studies could ultimately support effective wind farm wake flow control strategies. Texas Emerging Technology Fund (ETF).

  13. Quantification of wind flow in the European Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Merrison, J. P.; Iversen, J. J.; Nornberg, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present the European Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel facility, a unique prototype facility capable of simulating a wide range of environmental conditions, such as those which can be found at the surface of Earth or Mars. The chamber complements several other large-scale simulation facilities at Aarhus University, Denmark. The facility consists of a 50 m3 environmental chamber capable of operating at low pressure (0.02 - 1000 mbar) and cryogenic temperatures (-130 °C up to +60 °C). This chamber houses a re-circulating wind tunnel capable of generating wind speeds up to 25 m/s and has a dust injection system that can produce suspended particulates (aerosols). It employs a unique LED based optical illumination system (solar simulator) and an advanced network based control system. Laser based optoelectronic instrumentation is used to quantify and monitor wind flow, dust suspension and deposition. This involves a commercial Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) and a Particle Dynamics Analysis receiver (PDA), which are small laser based instruments specifically designed for measuring wind speed and sizes of particles situated in a wind flow. Wind flow calibrations will be performed with the LDA system and presented. Pressure and temperature calibrations will follow in order to enable the facility to be used for the testing, development, calibration and comparison of e.g. meteorological sensors under a wide range of environmental conditions as well as multi-disciplinary scientific studies. The wind tunnel is accessible to international collaborators and space agencies for instrument testing, calibration and qualification. It has been financed by the European Space Agency (ESA) as well as the Aarhus University Science Faculty and the Villum Kann Rasmussen Foundation.

  14. Thermal wind from hot accretion flows at large radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, De-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2018-06-01

    We study slowly rotating accretion flow at parsec and subparsec scales irradiated by low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. We take into account the Compton heating, photoionization heating by the central X-rays. The bremsstrahlung cooling, recombination, and line cooling are also included. We find that due to the Compton heating, wind can be thermally driven. The power of wind is in the range (10-6-10-3) LEdd, with LEdd being the Eddington luminosity. The mass flux of wind is in the range (0.01-1) \\dot{M}_Edd (\\dot{M}_Edd= L_Edd/0.1c^2 is the Eddington accretion rate, c is speed of light). We define the wind generation efficiency as ɛ = P_W/\\dot{M}_BHc^2, with PW being wind power, \\dot{M}_BH being the mass accretion rate on to the black hole. ɛ lies in the range 10-4-1.18. Wind production efficiency decreases with increasing mass accretion rate. The possible role of the thermally driven wind in the active galactic feedback is briefly discussed.

  15. Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel primary air injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brooke Edward

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, and prototype testing of the flex-section and hinge seals for the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel Primary Injector. The supersonic atmospheric primary injector operates between Mach 1.8 and Mach 2.2 with mass-flow rates of 62 to 128 lbm/s providing the necessary pressure reduction to operate the tunnel in the desired Reynolds number (Re) range.

  16. Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains.

    PubMed

    Segalini, Antonio

    2017-04-13

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalini, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  18. Axisymmetric ideal MHD stellar wind flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, M.; Olbert, S.

    1978-01-01

    The ideal MHD equations are reduced to a single equation under the assumption of axisymmetric flow. A variational principle from which the equation is derivable is given. The characteristics of the equation are briefly discussed. The equation is used to rederive the theorem of Gussenhoven and Carovillano.

  19. Fuselage ventilation due to wind flow about a postcrash aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Postcrash aircraft fuselage fire development, dependent on the internal and external fluid dynamics is discussed. The natural ventilation rate, a major factor in the internal flow patterns and fire development is reviewed. The flow about the fuselage as affected by the wind and external fire is studied. An analysis was performend which estimated the rates of ventilation produced by the wind for a limited idealized environmental configuration. The simulation utilizes the empirical pressure coefficient distribution of an infinite circular cylinder near a wall with its boundary later flow to represent the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting maximum ventilation rate for two door size openings, with varying circumferential location in a common 10 mph wind was an order of magnitude greater than the forced ventilation specified in full scale fire testing. The parameter discussed are: (1) fuselage size and shape, (2) fuselage orientation and proximity to the ground, (3) fuselage-openings size and location, (4) wind speed and direction, and (5) induced flow of the external fire plume is recommended. The fire testing should be conducted to a maximum ventilation rate at least an order of magnitude greater than the inflight air conditioning rates.

  20. WIND: Computer program for calculation of three dimensional potential compressible flow about wind turbine rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program is presented which numerically solves an exact, full potential equation (FPE) for three dimensional, steady, inviscid flow through an isolated wind turbine rotor. The program automatically generates a three dimensional, boundary conforming grid and iteratively solves the FPE while fully accounting for both the rotating cascade and Coriolis effects. The numerical techniques incorporated involve rotated, type dependent finite differencing, a finite volume method, artificial viscosity in conservative form, and a successive line overrelaxation combined with the sequential grid refinement procedure to accelerate the iterative convergence rate. Consequently, the WIND program is capable of accurately analyzing incompressible and compressible flows, including those that are locally transonic and terminated by weak shocks. The program can also be used to analyze the flow around isolated aircraft propellers and helicopter rotors in hover as long as the total relative Mach number of the oncoming flow is subsonic.

  1. Wind noise spectra in small Reynolds number turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sipei; Cheng, Eva; Qiu, Xiaojun; Burnett, Ian; Liu, Jacob Chia-Chun

    2017-11-01

    Wind noise spectra caused by wind from fans in indoor environments have been found to be different from those measured in outdoor atmospheric conditions. Although many models have been developed to predict outdoor wind noise spectra under the assumption of large Reynolds number [Zhao, Cheng, Qiu, Burnett, and Liu (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 4178-4182, and the references therein], they cannot be applied directly to the indoor situations because the Reynolds number of wind from fans in indoor environments is usually much smaller than that experienced in atmospheric turbulence. This paper proposes a pressure structure function model that combines the energy-containing and dissipation ranges so that the pressure spectrum for small Reynolds number turbulent flows can be calculated. The proposed pressure structure function model is validated with the experimental results in the literature, and then the obtained pressure spectrum is verified with the numerical simulation and experiment results. It is demonstrated that the pressure spectrum obtained from the proposed pressure structure function model can be utilized to estimate wind noise spectra caused by turbulent flows with small Reynolds numbers.

  2. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  3. Incompressible viscous flow simulations of the NFAC wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champney, Joelle Milene

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of an existing 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, INS3D, are extended and improved to solve turbulent flows through the incorporation of zero- and two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation model equations are solved in their high Reynolds number form and utilize wall functions in the treatment of solid wall boundary conditions. The implicit approximate factorization scheme is modified to improve the stability of the two-equation solver. Applications to the 3-D viscous flow inside the 80 by 120 feet open return wind tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) are discussed and described.

  4. Why do modelled and observed surface wind stress climatologies differ in the trade wind regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I.; Bacmeister, J. T.; Sandu, I.; Rodwell, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) exhibit stronger easterly zonal surface wind stress and near surface winds in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) trade winds than observationally constrained reanalyses or other observational products. A comparison, between models and reanalyses, of the processes that contribute to the zonal mean, vertically integrated balance of momentum, reveals that this wind stress discrepancy cannot be explained by either the resolved dynamics or parameterized tendencies that are common to each. Rather, a substantial residual exists in the momentum balance of the reanalyses, pointing toward a role for the analysis increments. Indeed, they are found to systematically weaken the NH near surface easterlies in winter, thereby reducing the surface wind stress. Similar effects are found in the Southern Hemisphere and further analysis of the spatial structure and seasonality of these increments, demonstrates that they act to weaken the near surface flow over much of the low latitude oceans in both summer and winter. This suggests an erroneous /missing process in GCMs that constitutes a missing drag on the low level zonal flow over oceans. Either this indicates a mis-representation of the drag between the surface and the atmosphere, or a missing internal atmospheric process that amounts to an additional drag on the low level zonal flow. If the former is true, then observation based surface stress products, which rely on similar drag formulations to GCMs, may be underestimating the strength of the easterly surface wind stress.

  5. The Wind-Scoured Lava Flows of Pavonis Mons

    2016-09-21

    Click on the image for larger version This image shows a circular impact crater and an oval volcanic caldera on the southern flank of a large volcano on Mars called Pavonis Mons. The caldera is also the source of numerous finger-like lava flows and at least one sinuous lava channel. Both the caldera and the crater are degraded by aeolian (wind) erosion. The strong prevailing winds have apparently carved deep grooves into the terrain. When looking at the scene for the first time, the image seems motion blurred. However, upon a closer look, the smaller, young craters are pristine, so the image must be sharp and the "blurriness" is due to the processes acting on the terrain. This suggests that the deflation-produced grooves, along with the crater and the caldera, are old features and deflation is not very active today. Alternatively, perhaps these craters are simply too young to show signs of degradation. This deeply wind-scoured terrain type is unique to Mars. Wind-carved stream-lined landforms on Earth are called "yardangs," but they don't form extensive terrains like this one. The basaltic lavas on the flanks of this volcano have been exposed to wind for such a long time that there are no parallels on Earth. Terrestrial landscapes and terrestrial wind patterns change much more rapidly than on Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21064

  6. Flow Sources of The Solar Wind Stream Structieres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotova, N. A.; Obridko, V. N.; Vladimirskii, K. V.

    The large-scale stream structure of the solar wind flow was studied at the main acceler- ation area of 10 to 40 solar radii from the Sun. Three independent sets of experimental data were used: radio astronomy observations of radio wave scattering on near-solar plasmas (large radio telescopes of the P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute were used); mor- phology of the WLC as revealed by the SOHO optical solar corona observations; solar magnetic field strength and configuration computed using the Wilcox Solar Observa- tory data. Experimental data of 1997-1998 years on the position of the transition, tran- sonic region of the solar wind flow were used as a parameter reflecting the intensity of the solar plasmas acceleration process. Correlation studies of these data combined with the magnetic field strength at the solar corona level revealed several types of the solar wind streams differing in the final result, the velocity at large distances from the Sun. Besides of the well-known flows stemming from the polar coronal holes, high-speed streams were observed arising in lateral areas of the streamer structures in contrast to the main body of the streamers, being a known source of the slow solar wind. The slowest streams arise at areas of mixed magnetic field structure compris- ing both open and closed (loop-like) filed lines. In the white-light corona images this shows extensive areas of bright amorphous luminosity.

  7. Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders

    2017-05-01

    The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.

  8. Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.

  9. Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Near-wake Flow Dynamics of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi-Tari, P.; Siddiqui, K.; Refan, M.; Hangan, H.

    2014-06-01

    Experiments conducted in a large wind tunnel set-up investigate the 3D flow dynamics within the near-wake region of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements quantify the mean and turbulent components of the flow field. Measurements are performed in multiple adjacent horizontal planes in order to cover the area behind the rotor in a large radial interval, at several locations downstream of the rotor. The measurements were phase-locked in order to facilitate the re-construction of the threedimensional flow field. The mean velocity and turbulence characteristics clearly correlate with the near-wake vortex dynamics and in particular with the helical structure of the flow, formed immediately behind the turbine rotor. Due to the tip and root vortices, the mean and turbulent characteristics of the flow are highly dependent on the azimuth angle in regions close to the rotor and close to the blade tip and root. Further from the rotor, the characteristics of the flow become phase independent. This can be attributed to the breakdown of the vortical structure of the flow, resulting from the turbulent diffusion. In general, the highest levels of turbulence are observed in shear layer around the tip of the blades, which decrease rapidly downstream. The shear zone grows in the radial direction as the wake moves axially, resulting in velocity recovery toward the centre of the rotor due to momentum transport.

  10. Numerical modeling of the wind flow over a transverse dune

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Transverse dunes, which form under unidirectional winds and have fixed profile in the direction perpendicular to the wind, occur on all celestial objects of our solar system where dunes have been detected. Here we perform a numerical study of the average turbulent wind flow over a transverse dune by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We find that the length of the zone of recirculating flow at the dune lee — the separation bubble — displays a surprisingly strong dependence on the wind shear velocity, u*: it is nearly independent of u* for shear velocities within the range between 0.2 m/s and 0.8 m/s but increases linearly with u* for larger shear velocities. Our calculations show that transport in the direction opposite to dune migration within the separation bubble can be sustained if u* is larger than approximately 0.39 m/s, whereas a larger value of u* (about 0.49 m/s) is required to initiate this reverse transport. PMID:24091456

  11. Vertical axis wind turbine wake in boundary layer flow in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    A vertical axis wind turbine is placed in a boundary layer flow in a wind tunnel, and its wake is investigated. Measurements are performed using an x-wire to measure two components of velocity and turbulence statistics in the wake of the wind turbine. The study is performed at various heights and crosswind positions in order to investigate the full volume of the wake for a range of tip speed ratios. The velocity deficit and levels of turbulence in the wake are related to the performance of the turbine. The asymmetric incoming boundary layer flow causes the rate of recovery in the wake to change as a function of height. Higher shear between the wake and unperturbed flow occurs at the top edge of the wake, inducing stronger turbulence and mixing in this region. The difference in flow relative to the blades causes the velocity deficit and turbulence level to change as a function of crosswind position behind the rotor. The relative difference diminishes with increasing tip speed ratio. Therefore, the wake becomes more homogeneous as tip speed ratio increases.

  12. Flow widening through a Darrieus wind turbine - Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comolet, R.; Harajli, I.; Mercier Des Rochettes, P.; Yeznasni, A.

    1982-11-01

    A two-dimensional multiple stream tube model is developed for the air flow through a Darrieus wind turbine. The model is configured to account for the widening of the flux tubes as they cross the interior of the actuator disk. Note is made of the lateral broadening of the flow as it moves through the area, leaving a turbulent wake. A relation is defined between the variation in the kinetic energy of the flow and the aerodynamic forces acting on the blades. The global efficiency and the power output of the machine are calculated. Experimental results are reported for a machine equipped with two NACA 0015 blades, each 110 cm long and with a 10 cm chord. The Darrieus had a 1 m diam and was tested in a wind tunnel at wind speeds of 0-18 m/sec. Soap bubbles inflated with He were used for visualization. Power output was found to match prediction. The model is recommended for use in calculating the forces acting on the machine and studying vibration and fatigue causative mechanisms.

  13. Influence of upstream solar wind on thermospheric flows at Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, J. N.; Achilleos, N.; Guio, P.

    2012-02-01

    The coupling of Jupiter's magnetosphere and ionosphere plays a vital role in creating its auroral emissions. The strength of these emissions is dependent on the difference in speed of the rotational flows within Jupiter's high-latitude thermosphere and the planet's magnetodisc. Using an azimuthally symmetric global circulation model, we have simulated how upstream solar wind conditions affect the energy and direction of atmospheric flows. In order to simulate the effect of a varying dynamic pressure in the upstream solar wind, we calculated three magnetic field profiles representing compressed, averaged and expanded ‘middle’ magnetospheres. These profiles were then used to solve for the angular velocity of plasma in the magnetosphere. This angular velocity determines the strength of currents flowing between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. We examine the influence of variability in this current system upon the global winds and energy inputs within the Jovian thermosphere. We find that the power dissipated by Joule heating and ion drag increases by ∼190% and ∼185% from our compressed to expanded model respectively. We investigated the effect of exterior boundary conditions on our models and found that by reducing the radial current at the outer edge of the magnetodisc, we also limit the thermosphere's ability to transmit angular momentum to this region.

  14. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  15. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  16. Flow visualization around a rotating body in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, K.; Zaitsu, D.; Yanaga, Y.; Kleine, H.

    2017-02-01

    The rotational behavior of capsule-shaped models is investigated in the transonic wind tunnel of JAXA. A special support is developed to allow the model to rotate around the pitch, yaw and roll axes. This 3-DOF free rotational mounting apparatus achieves the least frictional torque from the support and the instruments. Two types of capsule models are prepared, one is drag type (SPH model) and the other is lift type (HTV-R model). The developed mounting apparatus is used in the wind tunnel tests with these capsule models. In a flow of Mach 0.9, the SPH model exhibits oscillations in pitch and yaw, and it rolls half a turn during the test. Similarly, the HTV-R model exhibits pitch and yaw oscillations in a flow of Mach 0.5. Moreover, it rolls multiple times during the test. In order to investigate the flow field around the capsule, the combined technique of color schlieren and surface tufts is applied. This visualization clearly shows the flow reattachment on the back surface of a capsule, which is suspected to induce the rapid rolling motion.

  17. The Ultimate Flow Controlled Wind Turbine Blade Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Avraham; Dolgopyat, Danny; Friedland, Ori; Shig, Lior

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control is being studied as an enabling technology to enhance and maintain high efficiency of wind turbine blades also with contaminated surface and unsteady winds as well as at off-design operating conditions. The study is focused on a 25% thick airfoil (DU91-W2-250) suitable for the mid blade radius location. Initially a clean airfoil was fabricated and tested, as well as compared to XFoil predictions. From these experiments, the evolution of the separation location was identified. Five locations for installing active flow control actuators are available on this airfoil. It uses both Piezo fluidic (``Synthetic jets'') and the Suction and Oscillatory Blowing (SaOB) actuators. Then we evaluate both actuation concepts overall energy efficiency and efficacy in controlling boundary layer separation. Since efficient actuation is to be found at low amplitudes when placed close to separation location, distributed actuation is used. Following the completion of the baseline studies the study has focused on the airfoil instrumentation and extensive wind tunnel testing over a Reynolds number range of 0.2 to 1.5 Million. Sample results will be presented and outline for continued study will be discussed.

  18. The steady-state flow quality in a model of a non-return wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Eckert, W. T.; Kelly, M. W.

    1972-01-01

    The structural cost of non-return wind tunnels is significantly less than that of the more conventional closed-circuit wind tunnels. However, because of the effects of external winds, the flow quality of non-return wind tunnels is an area of concern at the low test speeds required for V/STOL testing. The flow quality required at these low speeds is discussed and alternatives to the traditional manner of specifying the flow quality requirements in terms of dynamic pressure and angularity are suggested. The development of a non-return wind tunnel configuration which has good flow quality at low as well as at high test speeds is described.

  19. Wind tunnel simulation of a wind turbine wake in neutral, stable and unstable wind flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. E.; Zhang, S.; Pascheke, F.; Hayden, P.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, temperature and heat flux have been made in the wake of a model wind turbine in the EnFlo meteorology wind tunnel, for three atmospheric boundary layer states: the base-line neutral case, stable and unstable. The full-to-model scale is approximately 300:1. Primary instrumentation is two-component LDA combine with cold-wire thermometry to measure heat flux. In terms of surface conditions, the stratified cases are weak, but there is a strong 'imposed' condition in the stable case. The measurements were made between 0.5D and 10D, where D is the turbine disk diameter. In the stable case the velocity deficit decreases more slowly; more quickly in the unstable case. Heights at which quantities are maximum or minimum are greater in the unstable case and smaller in the stable case. In the stable case the wake height is suppressed but the width is increased, while in the unstable case the height is increased and the width (at hub height) reaches a maximum and then decreases. The turbulence in the wake behaves in a complex way. Further work needs to be done, to cover stronger levels of surface condition, requiring more extensive measurements to properly capture the wake development.

  20. Large-scale solar wind flow around Saturn's nonaxisymmetric magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Jia, X.; Achilleos, N.; Sergis, N.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between the solar wind and a magnetosphere is central to the dynamics of a planetary system. Here we address fundamental questions on the large-scale magnetosheath flow around Saturn using a 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. We find Saturn's polar-flattened magnetosphere to channel 20% more flow over the poles than around the flanks at the terminator. Further, we decompose the MHD forces responsible for accelerating the magnetosheath plasma to find the plasma pressure gradient as the dominant driver. This is by virtue of a high-β magnetosheath and, in turn, the high-MA bow shock. Together with long-term magnetosheath data by the Cassini spacecraft, we present evidence of how nonaxisymmetry substantially alters the conditions further downstream at the magnetopause, crucial for understanding solar wind-magnetosphere interactions such as reconnection and shear flow-driven instabilities. We anticipate our results to provide a more accurate insight into the global conditions upstream of Saturn and the outer planets.

  1. Calibration of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    calibration of the flow in the test section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group. The calibration was performed to establish the flow quality and to...of the Flow in the Test Section of the Research Wind Tunnel at DST Group Executive Summary The Defence Science and Technology Group (DST

  2. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  3. WIND measurements of proton and alpha particle flow and number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J. T.; Lazarus, A. J.; Ogilvie, J. T.; Lepping, R.; Byrnes, J.; Chornay, D.; Keller, J.; Torbert, R. B.; Bodet, D.; Needell, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to review measurements of the solar wind proton and alpha particle flow velocities and densities made since launch with the WIND SWE instrument. The SWE Faraday cup ion sensors are designed to be able to determine accurately flow vector directions, and thus can be used to detect proton-alpha particle differential flow. Instances of differential flow, and the solar wind features with which they are associated will be discussed. Additionally, the variability of the percentage of alpha particles as a fraction of the total solar wind ion density will be presented.

  4. Remote sensing of mesospheric winds with the High-Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.; Abreu, V. J.; Burrage, M. D.; Gell, D. A.; Grassi, H. J.; Marshall, A. R.; Morton, Y. T.; Ortland, D. A.; Skinner, W. R.; Wu, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the winds in the upper atmosphere obtained with the High-Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are discussed. This instrument is a very stable high-resolution triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is used to observe the slight Doppler shifts of absorption and emission lines in the O2 Atmospheric bands induced by atmospheric motions. Preliminary observations indicate that the winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are a mixture of migrating and non-migrating tides, and planetary-scale waves. The mean meridional winds are dominated by the 1,1 diurnal tide which is easily extracted from the daily zonal means of the satellite observations. The daily mean zonal winds are a mixture of the diurnal tide and a zonal flow which is consistent with theoretical expectations.

  5. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient concentrations at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Wang, Wencai; Acharya, Kumud

    2017-07-01

    Shallow lakes are highly sensitive to respond internal nutrient loading due to wind-induced flow velocity effects. Wind-induced flow velocity effects on nutrient suspension were investigated at a long narrow bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. Wind-induced reverse/compensation flow and consistent flow field probabilities at vertical column of the water were measured. The probabilities between the wind field and the flow velocities provided a strong correlation at the surface (80.6%) and the bottom (65.1%) layers of water profile. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis provided the evidence of delay response time to wind field at the bottom layer of lake water. Strong wind field generated by the west (W) and west-north-west (WNW) winds produced displaced water movements in opposite directions to the prevailing flow field. An exponential correlation was observed between the current velocities of the surface and the bottom layers while considering wind speed as a control factor. A linear model was developed to correlate the wind field-induced flow velocity impacts on nutrient concentration at the surface and bottom layers. Results showed that dominant wind directions (ENE, E, and ESE) had a maximum nutrient resuspension contribution (nutrient resuspension potential) of 34.7 and 43.6% at the surface and the bottom profile layers, respectively. Total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) average concentrations were 6.38, 1.5, and 0.03 mg/L during our field experiment at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. Overall, wind-induced low-to-moderate hydrodynamic disturbances contributed more in nutrient resuspension at Eastern Bay of Lake Taihu. The present study can be used to understand the linkage between wind-induced flow velocities and nutrient concentrations for shallow lakes (with uniform morphology and deep margins) water quality management and to develop further models.

  6. High resolution urban morphology data for urban wind flow modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, Ronald M.; Ellefsen, Richard

    The application of urban forestry methods and technologies to a number of practical problems can be further enhanced by the use and incorporation of localized, high resolution wind and temperature fields into their analysis methods. The numerical simulation of these micrometeorological fields will represent the interactions and influences of urban structures, vegetation elements, and variable terrain as an integral part of the dynamics of an urban domain. Detailed information of the natural and man-made components that make up the urban area is needed to more realistically model meteorological fields in urban domains. Simulating high resolution wind and temperatures over and through an urban domain utilizing detailed morphology data can also define and quantify local areas where urban forestry applications can contribute to better solutions. Applications such as the benefits of planting trees for shade purposes can be considered, planned, and evaluated for their impact on conserving energy and cooling costs as well as the possible reconfiguration or removal of trees and other barriers for improved airflow ventilation and similar processes. To generate these fields, a wind model must be provided, as a minimum, the location, type, height, structural silhouette, and surface roughness of these components, in order to account for the presence and effects of these land morphology features upon the ambient airflow. The morphology of Sacramento, CA has been characterized and quantified in considerable detail primarily for wind flow modeling, simulation, and analyses, but can also be used for improved meteorological analyses, urban forestry, urban planning, and other urban related activities. Morphology methods previously developed by Ellefsen are applied to the Sacramento scenario with a high resolution grid of 100 m × 100 m. The Urban Morphology Scheme defines Urban Terrain Zones (UTZ) according to how buildings and other urban elements are structured and placed with

  7. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  8. The mean zonal flow response to Rossby wave and gravity wave forcing in the equatorial lower stratosphere: Relationship to the QBO. [QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation)

    SciT

    Takahashi, M.; Holton, J.R.

    1991-09-15

    Observations show that the westerly acceleration of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) can be accounted for by Kelvin waves, but that there is a deficiency in the easterly acceleration due to Rossby-gravity waves. Rossby waves and westward propagating gravity waves have been suggested as alternative sources for the easterly acceleration. We have tested the possible role of these two wave modes in a two-dimensional model of the QBO. When the easterly acceleration is due to Rossby waves, the zonal-mean response is steady; when it is due to gravity waves, an oscillation with some features similar to the QBO occurs, butmore » it is of short period and weak amplitude. A similar result occurs when a standing-wave forcing pattern is imposed. These results suggest that Rossby waves play only a minor role in the QBO, and that while the Rossby-gravity mode is essential, other gravity modes may also be important for the easterly phase. 12 refs., 22 figs.« less

  9. The mean zonal flow response to Rossby wave and gravity wave forcing in the equatorial lower stratosphere - Relationship to the QBO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Holton, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations show that the westerly acceleration of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) can be accounted for by Kelvin waves, but that there is a deficiency in the easterly acceleration due to Rossby-gravity waves. Rossby waves and westward propagating gravity waves have been suggested as alternative sources for the easterly acceleration. The possible role of these two wave modes has been tested in a two-dimensional model of the QBO. When the easterly acceleration is due to Rossby waves, the zonal-mean response is steady; when it is due to gravity waves, an oscillation with some features similar to the QBO occurs, but it is of short period and weak amplitude. A similar result occurs when a standing-wave forcing pattern is imposed. These results suggest that Rossby waves play only a minor role in the QBO, and that while the Rossby-gravity mode is essential, other gravity modes may also be important for the easterly phase.

  10. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  11. Rossby waves and two-dimensional turbulence in a large-scale zonal jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Theodor G.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous barotropic beta-plane turbulence is investigated, taking into account the effects of spatial inhomogeneity in the form of a zonal shear flows. Attention is given to the case of zonal flows that are barotropically stable and of larger scale than the resulting transient eddy field. Numerical simulations reveal that large-scale zonal flows alter the picture of classical beta-plane turbulence. It is found that the disturbance field penetrates to the largest scales of motion, that the larger disturbance scales show a tendency to meridional rather than zonal anisotropy, and that the initial spectral transfer rate away from an isotropic intermediate-scale source is enhanced by the shear-induced transfer associated with straining by the zonal flow.

  12. Wind effect on diurnal thermally driven flow in vegetated nearshore of a lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a highly idealized model is developed to discuss the interplay of diurnal heating/cooling induced buoyancy and wind stress on thermally driven flow over a vegetated slope. Since the model is linear, the horizontal velocity components can be broken into buoyancy-driven and surface wind-driven parts. Due to the presence of rooted emergent vegetation, the circulation strength even under the surface wind condition is still significantly reduced, and the transient (adjustment) stage for the initial conditions is shorter than that without vegetation. The flow in shallows is dominated by a viscosity/buoyancy balance as the case without wind, while the effect of wind stress is limited to the upper layer in deep water. In the lower layer of deep regions, vegetative drag is prevailing except the near bottom regions, where viscosity dominates. Under the unidirectional wind condition, a critical dimensionless shear stress to stop the induced flow can be found and is a function of horizontal location . For the periodic wind condition, if the two forcing mechanisms work in concert, the circulation magnitude can be increased. For the case where buoyancy and wind shear stress act against each other, the circulation strength is reduced and its structure becomes more complex. However, the flow magnitudes near the bottom for and are comparable because surface wind almost has no influence.

  13. Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah

    2015-12-01

    In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.

  14. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global scale structure of atmospheric flow is best documented on time scales longer than a few days. Theoretical and observational studies of ultralong waves have emphasized forcing due to global scale variations of topography and surface heat flux, possibly interacting with baroclinically unstable or vertically refracting basic flows. Analyses of SOP-1 data in terms of global scale spherical harmonics is documented with emphasis upon weekly transitions.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Hot Accretion Flows. III. Revisiting Wind Properties Using the Trajectory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Feng; Gan, Zhaoming; Narayan, Ramesh; Sadowski, Aleksander; Bu, Defu; Bai, Xue-Ning

    2015-05-01

    Previous MHD simulations have shown that wind must exist in black hole hot accretion flows. In this paper, we continue our study by investigating the detailed properties of wind and the mechanism of wind production. For this aim, we make use of a 3D general relativistic MHD simulation of hot accretion flows around a Schwarzschild black hole. To distinguish real wind from turbulent outflows, we track the trajectories of the virtual Lagrangian particles from simulation data. We find two types of real outflows, i.e., a jet and a wind. The mass flux of wind is very significant, and its radial profile can be described by {{\\dot{M}}wind}≈ {{\\dot{M}}BH}≤ft( r/20 {{r}s} \\right), with {{\\dot{M}}BH} being the mass accretion rate at the black hole horizon and rs being the Schwarzschild radius. The poloidal wind speed almost remains constant once they are produced, but the flux-weighted wind speed roughly follows {{v}p,wind}(r)≈ 0.25{{v}k}(r), with vk(r) being the Keplerian speed at radius r. The mass flux of the jet is much lower, but the speed is much higher, {{v}p,jet} ˜ (0.3-0.4)c. Consequently, both the energy and momentum fluxes of the wind are much larger than those of the jet. The wind is produced and accelerated primarily by the combination of centrifugal force and magnetic pressure gradient, while the jet is mainly accelerated by the magnetic pressure gradient. Finally, we find that the wind production efficiency {{ɛ }wind}\\equiv {{\\dot{E}}wind}/{{\\dot{M}}BH}{{c}2}˜ 1/1000 is in good agreement with the value required from large-scale galaxy simulations with active galactic nucleus feedback.

  16. Aerodynamic study of a small wind turbine with emphasis on laminar and transition flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2016-06-01

    The wind energy is huge but unfortunately, wind turbines capture only a little part of this enormous green energy. Furthermore, it is impossible to put multi megawatt wind turbines in the cities because they generate a lot of noise and discomfort. Instead, it is possible to install small Darrieus and horizontal-axis wind turbines with low tip speed ratios in order to mitigate the noise as much as possible. Unfortunately, the flow around this wind turbine is quite complex because the run at low Reynolds numbers. Therefore, this flow is usually a mixture of laminar, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation that is very difficult to simulate from the numerical point of view. Usually, transition and laminar regimes with bubble laminar separation are ignored. For this reason, this paper deals with laminar and transition flows in order to provide some brightness in this field.

  17. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Issues and Preliminary Recommendations

    SciT

    Clifton, Andrew; Boquet, Matthieu; Burin Des Roziers, Edward

    Remote sensing of winds using lidar has become popular and useful in the wind energy industry. Extensive experience has been gained with using lidar for applications including land-based and offshore resource assessment, plant operations, and turbine control. Prepared by members of International Energy Agency Task 32, this report describes the state of the art in the use of Doppler wind lidar for resource assessment in complex flows. The report will be used as input for future recommended practices on this topic.

  18. Development of a computational model for predicting solar wind flows past nonmagnetic terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A computational model for the determination of the detailed plasma and magnetic field properties of the global interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic terrestrial planetary obstacles is described. The theoretical method is based on an established single fluid, steady, dissipationless, magnetohydrodynamic continuum model, and is appropriate for the calculation of supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flow past terrestrial ionospheres.

  19. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  20. Analysis of environmental dispersion in a wetland flow under the effect of wind: Extended solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huilin; Huai, Wenxin

    2018-02-01

    The accurate analysis of the contaminant transport process in wetland flows is essential for environmental assessment. However, dispersivity assessment becomes complicated when the wind strength and direction are taken into consideration. Prior studies illustrating the wind effect on environmental dispersion in wetland flows simply focused on the mean longitudinal concentration distribution. Moreover, the results obtained by these analyses are not accurate when done on a smaller scale, namely, the initial stage of the contaminant transport process. By combining the concentration moments method (the Aris' method) and Gill's expansion theory, the previous researches on environmental dispersion in wetland flows with effect of wind have been extended. By adopting up to 4th-order moments, the wind effect-as illustrated by dimensionless parameters Er (wind force) and ω (wind direction)-on kurtosis and skewness is discussed, the up to 4th-order vertical concentration distribution is obtained, and the two-dimensional concentration distribution is illustrated. This work demonstrates that wind intensity and direction can significantly affect the contaminant dispersion. Moreover, the study presents a more accurate analytical solution of environmental dispersion in wetland flows under various wind conditions.

  1. Surface flow visualization of separated flows on the forebody of an F-18 aircraft and wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Banks, Daniel W.

    1988-01-01

    A method of in-flight surface flow visualization similar to wind-tunnel-model oil flows is described for cases where photo-chase planes or onboard photography are not practical. This method, used on an F-18 aircraft in flight at high angles of attack, clearly showed surface flow streamlines in the fuselage forebody. Vortex separation and reattachment lines were identified with this method and documented using postflight photography. Surface flow angles measured at the 90 and 270 degrees meridians show excellent agreement with the wind tunnel data for a pointed tangent ogive with an aspect ratio of 3.5. The separation and reattachment line locations were qualitatively similar to the F-18 wind-tunnel-model oil flows but neither the laminar separation bubble nor the boundary-layer transition on the wind tunnel model were evident in the flight surface flows. The separation and reattachment line locations were in fair agreement with the wind tunnel data for the 3.5 ogive. The elliptical forebody shape of the F-18 caused the primary separation lines to move toward the leeward meridian. Little effect of angle of attack on the separation locations was noted for the range reported.

  2. Numerical simulation of flow field in umbrella wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daorina, Bao; Xiaoxue, Wang; Wei, Shang; Yadong, Liu; Daorina, Bao; Xiaoxue, Wang; Wei, Shang; Yadong, Liu

    2018-05-01

    Umbrella wind turbine can control the swept area by adjusting the shrinking angle of the rotor so as to ensure that output power is near the rated value. This is very helpful for the utilization of wind energy in sandstorms and typhoon-prone areas of our country. In this paper, Fluent software is used to simulate the velocity field and pressure field of 5kW Umbrella Wind Turbine at 0° 45°and 60°angle of contraction. The results provide a theoretical basis for further improving the power adjustment mechanism of Umbrella Wind Turbines, At the same time, it also provide a reference for our country to perfect the wind energy utilization system about the typhoon environment in the coastal areas.

  3. The Relationship of High-Latitude Thermospheric Wind With Ionospheric Horizontal Current, as Observed by CHAMP Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Lühr, Hermann; Wang, Hui; Xiong, Chao

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between high-latitude ionospheric currents (Hall current and field-aligned current) and thermospheric wind is investigated. The 2-D patterns of horizontal wind and equivalent current in the Northern Hemisphere derived from the CHAMP satellite are considered for the first time simultaneously. The equivalent currents show strong dependences on both interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By and Bz components. However, IMF By orientation is more important in controlling the wind velocity patterns. The duskside wind vortex as well as the antisunward wind in the morning polar cap is more evident for positive By. To better understand their spatial relation in different sectors, a systematic superposed epoch analysis is applied. Our results show that in the dusk sector, the vectors of the zonal wind and equivalent current are anticorrelated, and both of them form a vortical flow pattern for different activity levels. The currents and zonal wind are intensified with the increase of merging electric field. However, on the dawnside, where the relation is less clear, antisunward zonal winds dominate. Plasma drift seems to play a less important role for the wind than neutral forces in this sector. In the noon sector, the best anticorrelation between equivalent current and wind is observed for a positive IMF By component and it is less obvious for negative By. A clear seasonal effect with current intensities increasing from winter to summer is observed in the noon sector. Different from the currents, the zonal wind intensity shows little dependence on seasons. Our results indicate that the plasma drift and the neutral forces are of comparable influence on the zonal wind at CHAMP altitude in the noon sector.

  4. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1. [First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE); Special Observing Period (SOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    By examining the vertical structure of the low order spherical harmonics of the divergence and vorticity fields, the relative contribution of tropical and monsoonal circulations upon the global wind fields was estimated. This indicates that the overall flow over North America and the Pacific between January and February is quite distinct both in the lower and upper troposphere. In these longitudes there is a stronger tropical overturning and subtropical jet stream in January than February. The divergent flow reversed between 850 and 200 mb. Poleward rotational flow at upper levels is associated with an equatorward rotational flow at low levels. This suggests that the monsoon and other tropical circulations project more amplitude upon low order (global scale) representations of the flow than do the typical midlatitude circulations and that their structures show conspicuous changes on a time scale of a week or less.

  5. Real-Gas Flow Properties for NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    A computational algorithm has been developed which can be employed to determine the flow properties of an arbitrary real (virial) gas in a wind tunnel. A multiple-coefficient virial gas equation of state and the assumption of isentropic flow are used to model the gas and to compute flow properties throughout the wind tunnel. This algorithm has been used to calculate flow properties for the wind tunnels of the Aerothermodynamics Facilities Complex at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which air, CF4. He, and N2 are employed as test gases. The algorithm is detailed in this paper and sample results are presented for each of the Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex wind tunnels.

  6. Wind flow characteristics in the wakes of large wind turbines. Volume 1: Analytical model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the wake downwind of a wind turbine was developed. Turbine wake characteristics are useful for determining optimum arrays for wind turbine farms. The analytical model is based on the characteristics of a turbulent coflowing jet with modification for the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The program calculates overall wake characteristics, wind profiles, and power recovery for a wind turbine directly in the wake of another turbine, as functions of distance downwind of the turbine. The calculation procedure is described in detail, and sample results are presented to illustrate the general behavior of the wake and the effects of principal input parameters.

  7. Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.

  8. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-06-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

  9. Wind-Induced Air-Flow Patterns in an Urban Setting: Observations and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Elhakeem, Mohamed; Gerges, Bishoy N.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Gultepe, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    City planning can have a significant effect on wind flow velocity patterns and thus natural ventilation. Buildings with different heights are roughness elements that can affect the near- and far-field wind flow velocity. This paper aims at investigating the impact of an increase in building height on the nearby velocity fields. A prototype urban setting of buildings with two different heights (25 and 62.5 cm) is built up and placed in a wind tunnel. Wind flow velocity around the buildings is mapped at different heights. Wind tunnel measurements are used to validate a 3D-numerical Reynolds averaged Naviers-Stokes model. The validated model is further used to calculate the wind flow velocity patterns for cases with different building heights. It was found that increasing the height of some buildings in an urban setting can lead to the formation of large horseshoe vortices and eddies around building corners. A separation area is formed at the leeward side of the building, and the recirculation of air behind the building leads to the formation of slow rotation vortices. The opposite effect is observed in the wake (cavity) region of the buildings, where both the cavity length and width are significantly reduced, and this resulted in a pronounced increase in the wind flow velocity. A significant increase in the wind flow velocity in the wake region of tall buildings with a value of up to 30% is observed. The spatially averaged velocities around short buildings also increased by 25% compared to those around buildings with different heights. The increase in the height of some buildings is found to have a positive effect on the wind ventilation at the pedestrian level.

  10. Ockham's Razorblade Shaving Wind-Induced Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial physical oceanography is fortunate because of the existence of the continents that divide the low-latitude oceans into basins. At first glance, the previous statement appears to be not obvious because an ocean-planet should be much simpler to describe. Simple-case explanation is the central aspect of Ockham's Razorblade: If a theory fails to describe the most-simple case properly, the theory is, at least, ‘not good'. Also Descartes' methodical rules take the most-simple case as starting point. The analysis of wind-induced circulation on an ocean-planet will support the initial statement. Earth's south hemisphere is dominated by the oceans. The continents' influence on the zonal-average zonal-wind climate is relatively small. Therefore, South Hemisphere's zonal wind pattern is a relatively good proxy for that of an ocean planet. Application of this wind-stress pattern to an ocean planet yields reasonable meridional mass-flow results from the polar-regions down to the high-pressure belts: Down-welling and up-welling of water-mass are approximately balanced. However, the entire tropical circulation can in principle not be closed because there is only down-welling - even if the extreme down-welling in the equatorial belt (± 8°, with a singularity at the equator) is disregarded. The only input to the calculations is the observed terrestrial south-hemisphere zonal wind-stress pattern. Meridional stress is irrelevant because it produces a closed zonal Ekman-transport around the ocean planet (sic!). Vertical mass-transport is calculated from the divergence of the wind-induced meridional Ekman-mass-transport, which in its turn is a necessary consequence of angular-momentum conservation. No assumptions are made on how the return-flows at depth are forced because the wind-force equations cannot contribute hereto. This circumstance expresses a fundamental difference to atmospheric circulation, where mechanical forcing is caused by the pressure-fields that

  11. Numerical analysis of ion wind flow using space charge for optimal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Han Seo; Shin, Dong Ho; Baek, Soo Hong

    2014-11-01

    Ion wind flow has been widly studied for its advantages of a micro fluidic device. However, it is very difficult to predict the performance of the ion wind flow for various conditions because of its complicated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. Thus, a reliable numerical modeling is required to design an otimal ion wind generator and calculate velocity of the ion wind for the proper performance. In this study, the numerical modeling of the ion wind has been modified and newly defined to calculate the veloctiy of the ion wind flow by combining three basic models such as electrostatics, electrodynamics and fluid dynamics. The model has included presence of initial space charges to calculate transfer energy between space charges and air gas molecules using a developed space charge correlation. The simulation has been performed for a geometry of a pin to parallel plate electrode. Finally, the results of the simulation have been compared with the experimental data for the ion wind velocity to confirm the accuracy of the modified numerical modeling and to obtain the optimal design of the ion wind generator. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  12. Spatial structure of kinetic energy spectra in LES simulations of flow in an offshore wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruh, Wolf-Gerrit; Creech, Angus

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of wind turbine and wind farm wakes was investigated numerically for the case of Lillgrund wind farm consisting of a tightly packed array of 48 turbines. The simulations for a number of wind directions at a free wind speed of just under the rated wind speed in a neutrally stable atmosphere were carried out using Large-Eddy Simulations with the adaptive Finite-Element CFD solver Fluidity. The results were interpolated from the irregularly spaced mesh nodes onto a regular grid with comparable spatial resolution at horizontal slices at various heights. To investigate the development of the wake as the flow evolves through the array, spectra of the kinetic energy in sections perpendicular to the wind directions within the wake and to the sides of the array were calculated. This paper will present the key features and spectral slopes of the flow as a function of downstream distance from the front turbine through and beyond the array. The main focus will be on the modification of the spectra as the flow crosses a row of turbines followed by its decay in the run-up to the next row, but we will also present to wake decay of the wind farm wake downstream of the array.

  13. Observations of the effect of wind on the cooling of active lava flows

    Keszthelyi, L.; Harris, A.J.L.; Dehn, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first direct observations of the cooling of active lava flows by the wind. We confirm that atmospheric convective cooling processes (i.e., the wind) dominate heat loss over the lifetime of a typical pahochoe lava flow. In fact, the heat extracted by convection is greater than predicted, especially at wind speeds less than 5 m/s and surface temperatures less than 400??C. We currently estimate that the atmospheric heat transfer coefficient is about 45-50 W m-2 K-1 for a 10 m/s wind and a surface temperature ???500??C. Further field experiments and theoretical studies should expand these results to a broader range of surface temperatures and wind speeds.

  14. Development of flow separation control system to reduce the vibration of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung

    2017-04-01

    The size of wind turbine blade has been continuously increased. Large-scale wind turbine blades induce loud noise, vibration; and maintenance difficulty is also increased. It causes the eventual increases of the cost of energy. The vibration of wind turbine blade is caused by several reasons such as a blade rotation, tower shadow, wind shear, and flow separation of a wind turbine blade. This wind speed variation changes in local angle of attack of the blades and create the vibration. The variation of local angle of attack influences the lift coefficient and causes the large change of the lift. In this study, we focus on the lift coefficient control using a flow control device to reduce the vibration. DU35-A15 airfoil was employed as baseline model. A plasma actuator was installed to generate the upwind jet in order to control the lift coefficient. Wind tunnel experiment was performed to demonstrate of the performance of the plasma actuator. The results show the plasma actuator can induce the flow separation compared with the baseline model. In addition, the actuator can delay the flow separation depending on the input AC frequency with the same actuator configuration.

  15. Wind Effects on Flow Patterns and Net Fluxes in Density-Driven High-Latitude Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, Helga S.; Ryan, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    A semianalytic two-dimensional model is used to analyze the interplay between the different forces acting on density-driven flow in high-latitude channels. In particular, the balance between wind stress, viscous forces, baroclinicity, and sea surface slope adjustments under specified flux conditions is examined. Weak winds are found not to change flow patterns appreciably, with minimal (<7%) adjustments to horizontal velocity maxima. In low-viscosity regimes, strong winds change the flow significantly, especially at the surface, by either strengthening the dual-jet pattern, established without wind, by a factor of 2-3 or initiating return flow at the surface. A nonzero flux does not result in the addition of a uniform velocity throughout the channel cross section, but modifies both along-channel and cross-channel velocities to become more symmetric, dominated by a down-channel jet centered in the domain and counter-clockwise lateral flow. We also consider formulations of the model that allow adjustments of the net flux in response to the wind. Flow patterns change, beyond uniform intensification or weakening, only for strong winds and high Ekman number. Comparisons of the model results to observational data collected in Nares Strait in the Canadian Archipelago in the summer of 2007 show rough agreement, but the model misses the upstream surface jet on the east side of the strait and propagates bathymetric effects too strongly in the vertical for this moderately high eddy viscosity. Nonetheless, the broad strokes of the observed high-latitude flow are reproduced.

  16. High-Latitude Observations of a Localized Wind Wall and Its Coupling to the Lower Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Gordon G.; Shepherd, Marianna G.

    2018-05-01

    Reversals in the thermospheric zonal winds at altitudes of 140 to 250 km from eastward to westward have been found at southern geographic latitudes between 60° and 70°. These are confined to a narrow region between 100° and 200° in longitude with zonal velocities regularly of -400 m/s, sometimes reaching -600 m/s, so sharply defined that the authors describe it as a "wind wall." The observations were made by the Wind Imaging Interferometer on National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, and they occur as the field of view crosses the high polar cap wind field. The wind reversals at the wall boundaries create a convergence on the west side of the wall and a divergence on the east side that potentially generate vertical flows, consistent with observed perturbations in the O(1S) emission rate. They are present about one half of the time in local summer and autumn.

  17. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  18. Leptokurtic pollen-flow, non-leptokurtic gene-flow in a wind-pollinated herb, Plantago lanceolata L.

    PubMed

    Tonsor, Stephen J

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously measure pollen dispersal distance and actual pollen-mediated gene-flow distance in a wind-pollinated herb, Plantago lanceolata. The pollen dispersal distribution, measured as pollen deposition in a wind tunnel, is leptokurtic, as expected from previous studies of wind-pollinated plants. Gene-flow, measured as seeds produced on rows of male-sterile inflorescences in the wind tunnel, is non-leptokurtic, peaking at an intermediate distance. The difference between the two distributions results from the tendency of the pollen grains to cluster. These pollen clusters are the units of gene dispersal, with clusters of intermediate and large size contributing disproportionately to gene-flow. Since many wind-pollinated species show pollen clustering (see text), the common assumption for wind-pollinated plants that gene-flow is leptokurtic requires re-examination. Gene-flow was also measured in an artifical outdoor population of male-steriles, containing a single pollen source plant in the center of the array. The gene flow distribution is significantly platykurtic, and has the same general properties outdoors, where wind speed and turbulence are uncontrolled, as it does in the wind tunnel. I estimated genetic neighborhood size based on my measure of gene-flow in the outdoor population. The estimate shows that populations of Plantago lanceolata will vary in effective number from a few tens of plants to more than five hundred plants, depending on the density of the population in question. Thus, the measured pollen-mediated gene-flow distribution and population density will interact to produce effective population sizes ranging from those in which there is no random genetic drift to those in which random genetic drift plays an important role in determining gene frequencies within and among populations. Despite the platykurtosis in the distribution, pollen-mediated gene dispersal distances are still quite limited, and considerable

  19. The dispersion analysis of drift velocity in the study of solar wind flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyak, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    In this work I consider a method for the study of the solar wind flows at distances from the Sun more than 1 AU. The method is based on the analysis of drift velocity dispersion that was obtained from the simultaneous scintillation observations in two antennas. I considered dispersion dependences for different models of the solar wind, and I defined its specificity for each model. I have determined that the presence of several solar wind flows significantly affects the shape and the slope of the dispersion curve. The maximum slope angle is during the passage of the fast solar wind flow near the Earth. If a slow flow passes near the Earth, the slope of the dispersion curve decreases. This allows a more precise definition of the velocity and flow width compared to the traditional scintillation method. Using the comparison of experimental and theoretical dispersion curves, I calculated the velocity and width of solar wind flows and revealed the presence of significant velocity fluctuations which accounted for about 60% of the average velocity.

  20. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.

  1. Power Flow Simulations of a More Renewable California Grid Utilizing Wind and Solar Insolation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, E. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dvorak, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Time series power flow analyses of the California electricity grid are performed with extensive addition of intermittent renewable power. The study focuses on the effects of replacing non-renewable and imported (out-of-state) electricity with wind and solar power on the reliability of the transmission grid. Simulations are performed for specific days chosen throughout the year to capture seasonal fluctuations in load, wind, and insolation. Wind farm expansions and new wind farms are proposed based on regional wind resources and time-dependent wind power output is calculated using a meteorological model and the power curves of specific wind turbines. Solar power is incorporated both as centralized and distributed generation. Concentrating solar thermal plants are modeled using local insolation data and the efficiencies of pre-existing plants. Distributed generation from rooftop PV systems is included using regional insolation data, efficiencies of common PV systems, and census data. The additional power output of these technologies offsets power from large natural gas plants and is balanced for the purposes of load matching largely with hydroelectric power and by curtailment when necessary. A quantitative analysis of the effects of this significant shift in the electricity portfolio of the state of California on power availability and transmission line congestion, using a transmission load-flow model, is presented. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the effects of forecasting errors in wind and insolation on load-matching and transmission line congestion.

  2. Steady hydromagnetic flows in open magnetic fields. I - A class of analytic solutions. [for stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.; Tsinganos, K.

    1986-01-01

    In the case of an establishment of theoretical models of the hydromagnetic solar wind, the inclusion of the effects of the magnetic field in the solar wind makes it extremely dificult to solve the mathematical problem. This paper has the objective to present a set of particular analytic solutions. The general formulation of Tsinganos (1982) is used to identify a class of analytic solutions to the equations of steady hydromagnetic flows in spherical coordinates. Flow in an open magnetic field are studied, taking into account the problem in dimensionless form, the special case of radial flows with alpha = 0, general radial flows, illustrative examples for flows in which alpha is not equal to 0, a parametric study of nonradial flows in which alpha is not equal to zero, variations in the parameter nu, and variations in the initial speed eta.

  3. Simulation of Turbulent Flow Inside and Above Wind Farms: Model Validation and Layout Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    A recently-developed large-eddy simulation framework is validated and used to investigate turbulent flow within and above wind farms under neutral conditions. Two different layouts are considered, consisting of thirty wind turbines occupying the same total area and arranged in aligned and staggered configurations, respectively. The subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulent stress is parametrized using a tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic SGS model. The turbine-induced forces are modelled using two types of actuator-disk models: (a) the `standard' actuator-disk model (ADM-NR), which calculates only the thrust force based on one-dimensional momentum theory and distributes it uniformly over the rotor area; and (b) the actuator-disk model with rotation (ADM-R), which uses blade-element momentum theory to calculate the lift and drag forces (that produce both thrust and rotation), and distributes them over the rotor disk based on the local blade and flow characteristics. Validation is performed by comparing simulation results with turbulence measurements collected with hot-wire anemometry inside and above an aligned model wind farm placed in a boundary-layer wind tunnel. In general, the ADM-R model yields improved predictions compared with the ADM-NR in the wakes of all the wind turbines, where including turbine-induced flow rotation and accounting for the non-uniformity of the turbine-induced forces in the ADM-R appear to be important. Another advantage of the ADM-R model is that, unlike the ADM-NR, it does not require a priori specification of the thrust coefficient (which varies within a wind farm). Finally, comparison of simulations of flow through both aligned and staggered wind farms shows important effects of farm layout on the flow structure and wind-turbine performance. For the limited-size wind farms considered in this study, the lateral interaction between cumulated wakes is stronger in the staggered case, which results in a farm wake that is more homogeneous

  4. Reattachment Zone Characterisation Under Offshore Winds With Flow Separation On The Lee Side Of Coastal Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Lynch, K.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Airflow separation, lee-side eddies and secondary flows play an essential role on the formation and maintenance of sand dunes. Downstream from dune crests the flow surface layer detaches from the ground and generates an area characterised by turbulent eddies in the dune lee slope (the wake). At some distance downstream from the dune crest, flow separates into a reversed component directed toward the dune toe and an offshore “re-attached” component. This reattachment zone (RZ) has been documented in fluvial and desert environments, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations, but not yet characterised in coastal dunes. This study examines the extent and temporal evolution of the RZ and its implications for beach-dune interaction at Magilligan, Northern Ireland. Wind parameters were measured over a profile extending from an 11 m height dune crest towards the beach, covering a total distance of 65 m cross-shore. Data was collected using an array of nine ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) deployed in April-May 2010, as part of a larger experiment to capture airflow data under a range of incident wind velocities and offshore directions. UAs were located along the profile (5 m tower spacing) over the beach, which allowed a detailed examination of the RZ with empirical data. Numerical modelling using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software was also conducted with input data from anemometer field measurements, running over a surface mesh generated from LiDAR and DGPS surveys. Results demonstrate that there is a wind threshold of approximately 5-6 ms-1 under which no flow separation exists with offshore winds. As wind speed increases over the threshold, a flow reversal area is quickly formed, with the maximum extent of the RZ at approximately 3.5 dune heights (h). The maximum extent of the RZ increases up to 4.5h with stronger wind speeds of 8-10 ms-1 and remains relatively constant as wind speed further increases. This suggests that the spatial extent of the RZ is

  5. Analysis of counter flow of corona wind for heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Baek, Soo Hong; Ko, Han Seo

    2018-03-01

    A heat sink for cooling devices using the counter flow of a corona wind was developed in this study. Detailed information about the numerical investigations of forced convection using the corona wind was presented. The fins of the heat sink using the counter flow of a corona wind were also investigated. The corona wind generator with a wire-to-plate electrode arrangement was used for generating the counter flow to the fin. The compact and simple geometric characteristics of the corona wind generator facilitate the application of the heat sink using the counter flow, demonstrating the heat sink is effective for cooling electronic devices. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the counter flow on the fins. Also, the velocity and temperature were measured experimentally for the test mock-up of the heat sink with the corona wind generator to verify the numerical results. From a numerical study, the type of fin and its optimal height, length, and pitch were suggested for various heat fluxes. In addition, the correlations to calculate the mass of the developed heat sink and its cooling performance in terms of the heat transfer coefficient were derived. Finally, the cooling efficiencies corresponding to the mass, applied power, total size, and noise of the devices were compared with the existing commercial central processing unit (CPU) cooling devices with rotor fans. As a result, it was confirmed that the heat sink using the counter flow of the corona wind showed appropriate efficiencies for cooling electronic devices, and is a suitable replacement for the existing cooling device for high power electronics.

  6. A review of wind turbine-oriented active flow control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrun, Sandrine; Leroy, Annie; Devinant, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    To reduce the levelized cost of energy, the energy production, robustness and lifespan of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) have to be improved to ensure optimal energy production and operational availability during periods longer than 15-20 years. HAWTs are subject to unsteady wind loads that generate combinations of unsteady mechanical loads with characteristic time scales from seconds to minutes. This can be reduced by controlling the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine rotors in real time to compensate the overloads. Mitigating load fluctuations and optimizing the aerodynamic performance at higher time scales need the development of fast-response active flow control (AFC) strategies located as close as possible to the torque generation, i.e., directly on the blades. The most conventional actuators currently used in HAWTs are mechanical flaps/tabs (similar to aeronautical accessories), but some more innovative concepts based on fluidic and plasma actuators are very promising since they are devoid of mechanical parts, have a fast response and can be driven in unsteady modes to influence natural instabilities of the flow. In this context, the present paper aims at giving a state-of-the-art review of current research in wind turbine-oriented flow control strategies applied at the blade scale. It provides an overview of research conducted in the last decade dealing with the actuators and devices devoted to developing AFC on rotor blades, focusing on the flow phenomena that they cause and that can lead to aerodynamic load increase or decrease. After providing some general background on wind turbine blade aerodynamics and on the atmospheric flows in which HAWTs operate, the review focuses on flow separation control and circulation control mainly through experimental investigations. It is followed by a discussion about the overall limitations of current studies in the wind energy context, with a focus on a few studies that attempt to provide a global

  7. Theoretical and experimental study of flow-control devices for inlets of indraft wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.

    1989-01-01

    The design of closed circuit wind tunnels has historically been performed using rule of thumb which have evolved over the years into a body of useful guidelines. The development of indraft wind tunnels, however, has not been as well documented. The design of indraft wind tunnels is therefore generally performed using a more intuitive approach, often resulting in a facility with disappointing flow quality. The primary problem is a lack of understanding of the flow in the inlet as it passes through the required antiturbulence treatment. For wind tunnels which employ large contraction ratio inlets, this lack of understanding is not serious since the relatively low velocity of the flow through the inlet treatment reduces the sensitivity to improper inlet design. When designing a small contraction ratio inlet, much more careful design is needed in order to reduce the flow distortions generated by the inlet treatment. As part of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex Modification Project, 2-D computational methods were developed which account for the effect of both inlet screens and guide vanes on the test section velocity distribution. Comparisons with experimental data are presented which indicate that the methods accurately compute the flow distortions generated by a screen in a nonuniform velocity field. The use of inlet guide vanes to eliminate the screen induced distortion is also demonstrated both computationally and experimentally. Extensions of the results to 3-D is demonstrated and a successful wind tunnel design is presented.

  8. Flow Simulation of Modified Duct System Wind Turbines Installed on Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosly, N.; Mohd, S.; Zulkafli, M. F.; Ghafir, M. F. Abdul; Shamsudin, S. S.; Muhammad, W. N. A. Wan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of airflow with a flow guide installed and output power generated by wind turbine system being installed on a pickup truck. The wind turbine models were modelled by using SolidWorks 2015 software. In order to investigate the characteristic of air flow inside the wind turbine system, a computer simulation (by using ANSYS Fluent software) is used. There were few models being designed and simulated, one without the rotor installed and another two with rotor installed in the wind turbine system. Three velocities being used for the simulation which are 16.7 m/s (60 km/h), 25 m/s (90 km/h) and 33.33 m/s (120 km/h). The study proved that the flow guide did give an impact to the output power produced by the wind turbine system. The predicted result from this study is the velocity of the air inside the ducting system of the present model is better that reference model. Besides, the flow guide implemented in the ducting system gives a big impact on the characteristics of the air flow.

  9. The variety of MHD shock waves interactions in the solar wind flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grib, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Different types of nonlinear shock wave interactions in some regions of the solar wind flow are considered. It is shown, that the solar flare or nonflare CME fast shock wave may disappear as the result of the collision with the rotational discontinuity. By the way the appearance of the slow shock waves as the consequence of the collision with other directional discontinuity namely tangential is indicated. Thus the nonlinear oblique and normal MHD shock waves interactions with different solar wind discontinuities (tangential, rotational, contact, shock and plasmoidal) both in the free flow and close to the gradient regions like the terrestrial magnetopause and the heliopause are described. The change of the plasma pressure across the solar wind fast shock waves is also evaluated. The sketch of the classification of the MHD discontinuities interactions, connected with the solar wind evolution is given.

  10. On the wind production from hot accretion flows with different accretion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, De-Fu; Gan, Zhao-Ming

    2018-02-01

    We perform two-dimensional simulations to study how the wind strength changes with accretion rate. We take into account bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation and the Comptonization. We find that when the accretion rate is low, radiative cooling is not important, and the accretion flow is hot. For the hot accretion flow, wind is very strong. The mass flux of wind can be ˜ 50 per cent of the mass inflow rate. When the accretion rate increases to a value at which radiative cooling rate is roughly equal to or slightly larger than viscous heating rate, cold clumps can form around the equatorial plane. In this case, the gas pressure gradient force is small and wind is very weak. Our results may be useful for the sub-grid model of active galactic nuclear feedback study.

  11. A Numerical Model Study of Nocturnal Drainage Flows with Strong Wind and Temperature Gradients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Bunker, S.

    1989-07-01

    A second-moment turbulence-closure model described in Yamada and Bunker is used to simulate nocturnal drainage flows observed during the 1984 ASCOT field expedition in Brush Creek, Colorado. In order to simulate the observed strong wind directional shear and temperature gradients, two modifications are added to the model. The strong wind directional shear was maintained by introducing a `nudging' term in the equation of motion to guide the modeled winds in the layers above the ridge top toward the observed wind direction. The second modification was accomplished by reformulating the conservation equation for the potential temperature in such a way that only the deviation from the horizontally averaged value was prognostically computed.The vegetation distribution used in this study is undoubtedly crude. Nevertheless, the present simulation suggests that tall tree canopy can play an important role in producing inhomogeneous wind distribution, particularly in the levels below the canopy top.

  12. Numerical evaluation of the scale problem on the wind flow of a windbreak

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Benli; Qu, Jianjun; Zhang, Weimin; Tan, Lihai; Gao, Yanhong

    2014-01-01

    The airflow field around wind fences with different porosities, which are important in determining the efficiency of fences as a windbreak, is typically studied via scaled wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. However, the scale problem in wind tunnels or numerical models is rarely researched. In this study, we perform a numerical comparison between a scaled wind-fence experimental model and an actual-sized fence via computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results show that although the general field pattern can be captured in a reduced-scale wind tunnel or numerical model, several flow characteristics near obstacles are not proportional to the size of the model and thus cannot be extrapolated directly. For example, the small vortex behind a low-porosity fence with a scale of 1:50 is approximately 4 times larger than that behind a full-scale fence. PMID:25311174

  13. Frequency-dependent behavior of the barotropic and baroclinic modes of zonal jet variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Stratosphere-troposphere interactions are frequently described in terms of the leading modes of variability, i.e. the annular modes. An idealized dynamical core model is used to explore the differences between the low- and high- frequency (periods greater and less than 30 days) behavior of the first two principal components of zonal mean zonal wind and eddy kinetic energy, i.e., the barotropic/baroclinic annular modes of variability of the extratropical circulation. The modes show similar spatial characteristics in the different frequency ranges considered, however the ranking of the modes switches in some cases from one range to the other. There is some cancelation in the signatures of eddy heat flux and eddy kinetic energy in the leading low-pass and high-pass filtered zonal wind mode, partly explaining their small signature in the total. At low frequencies, the first zonal wind mode describes latitudinal shifts of both the midlatitude jet and its associated storm tracks, and the persistence of zonal wind anomalies appears to be sustained primarily by a baroclinic, rather than a barotropic, feedback. On shorter time scales, the behavior is more complicated and transient.

  14. Indian Ocean zonal mode activity in 20th century observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendelbeck, Anja; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Ocean zonal mode (IOZM) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with anomalous cooling in the east, warming in the west and easterly wind anomalies, resulting in a complete reversal of the climatological zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The IOZM has a strong influence on East African climate by causing anomalously strong October - December (OND) precipitation. Using observational data and historical CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) model output, the September - November (SON) dipole mode index (DMI), OND East African precipitation and SON zonal wind index (ZWI) are calculated. We pay particular attention to detrending SSTs for calculating the DMI, which seems to have been neglected in some published research. The ZWI is defined as the area-averaged zonal wind component at 850 hPa over the central Indian Ocean. Regression analysis is used to evaluate the models' capability to represent the IOZM and its impact on east African climate between 1948 and 2005. Simple correlations are calculated between SST, zonal wind and precipitation to show their interdependence. High correlation in models implies a good representation of the influence of IOZM on East African climate variability and our goal is to detect the models with the highest correlation coefficients. In future research, these model data might be used to investigate the impact of IOZM on the East African climate variability in the late 20's century with regard to anthropogenic causes and internal variability.

  15. Effects of anisotropic thermal conduction on wind properties in hot accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, De-Fu; Wu, Mao-Chun; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Previous works have clearly shown the existence of winds from black hole hot accretion flow and investigated their detailed properties. In extremely low accretion rate systems, the collisional mean-free path of electrons is large compared with the length-scale of the system, thus thermal conduction is dynamically important. When the magnetic field is present, the thermal conduction is anisotropic and energy transport is along magnetic field lines. In this paper, we study the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction on the wind production in hot accretion flows by performing two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We find that thermal conduction has only moderate effects on the mass flux of wind. But the energy flux of wind can be increased by a factor of ˜10 due to the increase of wind velocity when thermal conduction is included. The increase of wind velocity is because of the increase of driving forces (e.g. gas pressure gradient force and centrifugal force) when thermal conduction is included. This result demonstrates that thermal conduction plays an important role in determining the properties of wind.

  16. Wind flow modulation due to variations of the water surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shomina, Olga; Ermakov, Stanislav; Kapustin, Ivan; Lazareva, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Air-ocean interaction is a classical problem in atmosphere and ocean physics, which has important geophysical applications related to calculation of vertical and horizontal humidity, aerosol and gas fluxes, development of global climate models and weather forecasts. The structure of wind flow over fixed underlying surfaces, such as forestry, buildings, mountains, is well described, while the interaction between a rough water surface and turbulent wind is far more complicated because of the presence of wind waves with different wavelength and amplitudes and propagating with different velocities and directions. The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally the variability of the wind profile structure due to variations of wave characteristics. The surface roughness variations were produced using a) surfactant films (oleic acid) spread on the water surface and b) mechanically generated waves superimposed on wind waves. The first case is related to oil slicks on sea surface, the second one - to the sea swell, which propagates into zones with lower wind velocities and interacts with wind flow. Laboratory experiments were conducted in the Oval Wind Wave Tank (OWWT) at the Institute of Applied Physics, cross-section of the wind channel is 30 cm x30 cm. Wave amplitude and the spectrum of surface waves were measured by a wire wave gauge, the wind speed was measured using a hot-wire anemometer DISA and a Pitot tube. In the experiments with surfactants, two frequencies of dripping of the oleic acid were studied, so that low concentration films with the elasticity parameters of about 19 mN/m and the high concentration ("thick") films with the elasticity of 34 mN/m were formed. In the experiments with mechanically generated waves (MGW) different regimes were studied with MGW amplitude of 3.4 mm and of 4.4 mm, and with MGW frequencies of 3.3 Hz and 3.7 Hz. It was shown, that: a) the mean velocity of the wind flow in the presence of surfactant and MGW can be described

  17. Investigation of air flow in open-throat wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N

    1930-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the 6-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to form a part of a research on open-throat wind tunnels. The primary object of this part of the research was to study a type of air pulsation which has been encountered in open-throat tunnels, and to find the most satisfactory means of eliminating such pulsations. In order to do this it was necessary to study the effects of different variable on all of the important characteristics of the tunnel. This paper gives not only the results of the study of air pulsations and methods of eliminating them, but also the effects of changing the exit-cone diameter and flare and the effects of air leakage from the return passage. It was found that the air pulsations in the 6-inch wind tunnel could be practically eliminated by using a moderately large flare on the exit cone in conjunction with leakage introduced by cutting holes in the exit cone somewhat aft of its minimum diameter.

  18. Simulation of air-droplet mixed phase flow in icing wind-tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengyao, Leng; Shinan, Chang; Menglong, Wu; Yunhang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Icing wind-tunnel is the main ground facility for the research of aircraft icing, which is different from normal wind-tunnel for its refrigeration system and spraying system. In stable section of icing wind-tunnel, the original parameters of droplets and air are different, for example, to keep the nozzles from freezing, the droplets are heated while the temperature of air is low. It means that complex mass and heat transfer as well as dynamic interactive force would happen between droplets and air, and the parameters of droplet will acutely change along the passageway. Therefore, the prediction of droplet-air mixed phase flow is necessary in the evaluation of icing researching wind-tunnel. In this paper, a simplified droplet-air mixed phase flow model based on Lagrangian method was built. The variation of temperature, diameter and velocity of droplet, as well as the air flow field, during the flow process were obtained under different condition. With calculating three-dimensional air flow field by FLUENT, the droplet could be traced and the droplet distribution could also be achieved. Furthermore, the patterns about how initial parameters affect the parameters in test section were achieved. The numerical simulation solving the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics in the mixing process is valuable for the optimization of experimental parameters design and equipment adjustment.

  19. Computational techniques for solar wind flows past terrestrial planets: Theory and computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Chaussee, D. S.; Trudinger, B. C.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with terrestrial planets can be predicted using a computer program based on a single fluid, steady, dissipationless, magnetohydrodynamic model to calculate the axisymmetric, supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flow past both magnetic and nonmagnetic planets. The actual calculations are implemented by an assemblage of computer codes organized into one program. These include finite difference codes which determine the gas-dynamic solution, together with a variety of special purpose output codes for determining and automatically plotting both flow field and magnetic field results. Comparisons are made with previous results, and results are presented for a number of solar wind flows. The computational programs developed are documented and are presented in a general user's manual which is included.

  20. Evaluation of flow quality in two large NASA wind tunnels at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Owen, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing of low drag airfoils and basic transition studies at transonic speeds are designed to provide high quality aerodynamic data at high Reynolds numbers. This requires that the flow quality in facilities used for such research be excellent. To obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of facility disturbances and identification of their sources for possible facility modification, detailed flow quality measurements were made in two prospective NASA wind tunnels. Experimental results are presented of an extensive and systematic flow quality study of the settling chamber, test section, and diffuser in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Ames 12 foot pressure wind tunnel. Results indicate that the free stream velocity and pressure fluctuation levels in both facilities are low at subsonic speeds and are so high as to make it difficult to conduct meaningful boundary layer control and transition studies at transonic speeds.

  1. Operational flow visualization techniques in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corlett, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary plan wind tunnel (UPWT) uses in daily operation are shown. New ideas for improving the quality of established flow visualization methods are developed and programs on promising new flow visualization techniques are pursued. The unitary plan wind tunnel is a supersonic facility, referred to as a production facility, although the majority of tests are inhouse basic research investigations. The facility has two 4 ft. by 4 ft. test sections which span a Mach range from 1.5 to 4.6. The cost of operation is about $10 per minute. Problems are the time required for a flow visualization test setup and investigation costs and the ability to obtain consistently repeatable results. Examples of sublimation, vapor screen, oil flow, minitufts, schlieren, and shadowgraphs taken in UPWT are presented. All tests in UPWT employ one or more of the flow visualization techniques.

  2. Unsteady Flow in Different Atmospheric Boundary Layer Regimes and Its Impact on Wind-Turbine Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohari, Iman; Korobenko, Artem; Yan, Jinhui; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sarkar, Sutanu

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a renewable energy resource that offers several advantages including low pollutant emission and inexpensive construction. Wind turbines operate in conditions dictated by the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and that motivates the study of coupling ABL simulations with wind turbine dynamics. The ABL simulations can be used for realistic modeling of the environment which, with the use of fluid-structure interaction, can give realistic predictions of extracted power, rotor loading, and blade structural response. The ABL simulations provide inflow boundary conditions to the wind-turbine simulator which uses arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian variational multiscale formulation. In the present work, ABL simulations are performed to examine two different scenarios: (i) A neutral ABL with zero heat-flux and inversion layer at 350m, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean shear; (2) A shallow ABL with the surface cooling-rate of -1 K/hr, in which the wind turbine experiences maximum mean velocity at the low-level-jet nose height. We will discuss differences in the unsteady flow between the two different ABL conditions and their impact on the performance of the wind turbine cluster in the coupled ABL-wind turbine simulations.

  3. Wind Tunnel Visualization of the Flow Over a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Crowder, James P.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This investigation used both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, leading edge extensions (LEXs), and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20deg to 45deg and over a sideslip range from -10deg to 10deg. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings. Additionally, the vortical flow is clearly visible over the leading-edge extensions, canopy, and wings.

  4. Solar-QBO Interaction and Its Impact on Stratospheric Ozone in a Zonally Averaged Photochemical Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-28

    Solar- QBO interaction and its impact on stratospheric ozone in a zonally averaged photochemical transport model of the middle atmosphere J. P...investigate the solar cycle modulation of the quasi-biennial oscillation ( QBO ) in stratospheric zonal winds and its impact on stratospheric ozone with an...updated version of the zonally averaged CHEM2D middle atmosphere model. We find that the duration of the westerly QBO phase at solar maximum is 3 months

  5. Numerical simulation of transitional flow on a wind turbine airfoil with RANS-based transition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Sun, Zhengzhong; van Zuijlen, Alexander; van Bussel, Gerard

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of transitional flow on the wind turbine airfoil DU91-W2-250 with chord-based Reynolds number Rec = 1.0 × 106. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes based transition model using laminar kinetic energy concept, namely the k - kL - ω model, is employed to resolve the boundary layer transition. Some ambiguities for this model are discussed and it is further implemented into OpenFOAM-2.1.1. The k - kL - ω model is first validated through the chosen wind turbine airfoil at the angle of attack (AoA) of 6.24° against wind tunnel measurement, where lift and drag coefficients, surface pressure distribution and transition location are compared. In order to reveal the transitional flow on the airfoil, the mean boundary layer profiles in three zones, namely the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regimes, are investigated. Observation of flow at the transition location identifies the laminar separation bubble. The AoA effect on boundary layer transition over wind turbine airfoil is also studied. Increasing the AoA from -3° to 10°, the laminar separation bubble moves upstream and reduces in size, which is in close agreement with wind tunnel measurement.

  6. Probabilistic power flow using improved Monte Carlo simulation method with correlated wind sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Pei; Zhang, Buhan; Li, Hang; Deng, Weisi; Wu, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Power Flow (PPF) is a very useful tool for power system steady-state analysis. However, the correlation among different random injection power (like wind power) brings great difficulties to calculate PPF. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and analytical methods are two commonly used methods to solve PPF. MCS has high accuracy but is very time consuming. Analytical method like cumulants method (CM) has high computing efficiency but the cumulants calculating is not convenient when wind power output does not obey any typical distribution, especially when correlated wind sources are considered. In this paper, an Improved Monte Carlo simulation method (IMCS) is proposed. The joint empirical distribution is applied to model different wind power output. This method combines the advantages of both MCS and analytical method. It not only has high computing efficiency, but also can provide solutions with enough accuracy, which is very suitable for on-line analysis.

  7. Numerical simulation of flows around deformed aircraft model in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenkov, A. V.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Kuzmina, S. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Matyash, S. V.; Ishmuratov, F. Z.

    2016-10-01

    To obtain accurate data of calculation method error requires detailed simulation of the experiment in wind tunnel with keeping all features of the model, installation and gas flow. Two examples of such detailed data comparison are described in this paper. The experimental characteristics of NASA CRM model obtained in the ETW wind tunnel (Cologne, Germany), and CFD characteristics of this model obtained with the use of EWT-TsAGI application package are compared. Following comparison is carried out for an airplane model in the T-128 wind tunnel (TsAGI, Russia). It is seen that deformation influence on integral characteristics grows with increasing Re number and, accordingly, the dynamic pressure. CFD methods application for problems of experimental research in the wind tunnel allows to separate viscosity and elasticity effects.

  8. Flow interference in a variable porosity trisonic wind tunnel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. W.; Graham, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Pressure data from a 20-degree cone-cylinder in a variable porosity wind tunnel for the Mach range 0.2 to 5.0 are compared to an interference free standard in order to determine wall interference effects. Four 20-degree cone-cylinder models representing an approximate range of percent blockage from one to six were compared to curve-fits of the interference free standard at each Mach number and errors determined at each pressure tap location. The average of the absolute values of the percent error over the length of the model was determined and used as the criterion for evaluating model blockage interference effects. The results are presented in the form of the percent error as a function of model blockage and Mach number.

  9. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  10. A method of calibrating wind velocity sensors with a modified gas flow calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure was described for calibrating air velocity sensors in the exhaust flow of a gas flow calibrator. The average velocity in the test section located at the calibrator exhaust was verified from the mass flow rate accurately measured by the calibrator's precision sonic nozzles. Air at elevated pressures flowed through a series of screens, diameter changes, and flow straighteners, resulting in a smooth flow through the open test section. The modified system generated air velocities of 2 to 90 meters per second with an uncertainty of about two percent for speeds below 15 meters per second and four percent for the higher speeds. Wind tunnel data correlated well with that taken in the flow calibrator.

  11. Increasing power generation in horizontal axis wind turbines using optimized flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, John A., Jr.

    In order to effectively realize future goals for wind energy, the efficiency of wind turbines must increase beyond existing technology. One direct method for achieving increased efficiency is by improving the individual power generation characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines. The potential for additional improvement by traditional approaches is diminishing rapidly however. As a result, a research program was undertaken to assess the potential of using distributed flow control to increase power generation. The overall objective was the development of validated aerodynamic simulations and flow control approaches to improve wind turbine power generation characteristics. BEM analysis was conducted for a general set of wind turbine models encompassing last, current, and next generation designs. This analysis indicated that rotor lift control applied in Region II of the turbine power curve would produce a notable increase in annual power generated. This was achieved by optimizing induction factors along the rotor blade for maximum power generation. In order to demonstrate this approach and other advanced concepts, the University of Notre Dame established the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design (eWiND). This initiative includes a fully instrumented meteorological tower and two pitch-controlled wind turbines. The wind turbines are representative in their design and operation to larger multi-megawatt turbines, but of a scale that allows rotors to be easily instrumented and replaced to explore new design concepts. Baseline data detailing typical site conditions and turbine operation is presented. To realize optimized performance, lift control systems were designed and evaluated in CFD simulations coupled with shape optimization tools. These were integrated into a systematic design methodology involving BEM simulations, CFD simulations and shape optimization, and selected experimental validation. To refine and illustrate the proposed design methodology, a

  12. Study on blade surface flow around wind turbine by using LDV measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phengpom, Tinnapob; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Murata, Junsuke; Nishimura, Shogo; Matsuno, Tasuku

    2015-04-01

    This paper has attempted to study a mechanism of three-dimensional flow around a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) rotor blade. An experimental study of the flow phenomenon in the vicinity of the wind turbine blade is a challenging endeavor. In this research, the HAWT model with 2.4 m diameter was tested in the large wind tunnel. The flow around the rotating blade surface was measured simultaneously for three velocity components, and two probes were used for the synchronized measurement of three-dimensional flow components. The local velocity was detected for the single seeding particle measured in the point where three pairs of laser beams intersected. Blade sections of interest in this study are composed of radial positions r/R = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. Optimum and low tip speed ratio flow characteristics were also compared. The velocity flow vector, skin friction coefficient and bound circulation were calculated from LDV measurements, and the experimental research showed reasonably and clearly the experimental results.

  13. MEAN FLOW AND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AROUND A 2-D ARRAY OF BUILDINGS IN A WIND TUNNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to predict the dispersion of harmful materials released in or near an urban environment, it is important to first understand the complex flow patterns which result from the interaction of the wind with buildings and, more commonly, clusters of buildings. Recent advanc...

  14. KRISSY: user's guide to modeling three-dimensional wind flow in complex terrain

    Michael A. Fosberg; Michael L. Sestak

    1986-01-01

    KRISSY is a computer model for generating three-dimensional wind flows in complex terrain from data that were not or perhaps cannot be collected. The model is written in FORTRAN IV This guide describes data requirements, modeling, and output from an applications viewpoint rather than that of programming or theoretical modeling. KRISSY is designed to minimize...

  15. Compliant flow designs for optimum lift control of wind turbine rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Theodore J. H.

    An optimization approach was formulated to determine geometric designs that are most compliant to flow control devices. Single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators are used in the flow control design optimization as they are able to be incorporated into CFD simulations. An adjoint formulation was derived in order to have a numerically efficient way of calculating the shape derivatives on the surface of the geometric design. The design of a wind turbine blade retrofit for the JIMP 25kW wind turbine at Notre Dame is used to motivate analyses that utilize the optimization approach. The CFD simulations of the existing wind turbine blade were validated against wind tunnel testing. A one-parameter optimization was performed in order to design a trailing edge addition for the current wind turbine blade. The trailing edge addition was designed to meet a desired lift target while maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio. This analysis was performed at seven radial locations on the wind turbine blade. The new trailing edge retrofits were able to achieve the lift target for the outboard radial locations. The designed geometry has been fabricated and is currently being validated on a full-scale turbine and it is predicted to have an increase in annual energy production of 4.30%. The design of a trailing edge retrofit that includes the use of a SDBD plasma actuator was performed using a two-parameter optimization. The objective of this analysis was to meet the lift target and maximize the controllability of the design. The controllability is defined as the difference in lift between plasma on and plasma off cases. A trailing edge retrofit with the plasma actuator located on the pressure side was able to achieve the target passive lift increase while using plasma flow control to reduce the lift to below the original design. This design resulted in a highly compliant flow.

  16. Influence of omni-directional guide vane on the performance of cross-flow rotor for urban wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Hadi, Syamsul

    2018-02-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine like cross-flow rotor have some advantage there are, high self-starting torque, low noise, and high stability; so, it can be installed in the urban area to produce electricity. But, the urban area has poor wind condition, so the cross-flow rotor needs a guide vane to increase its performance. The aim of this study is to determine experimentally the effect of Omni-Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) on the performance of a cross-flow wind turbine. Wind tunnel experiment has been carried out for various configurations. The ODGV was placed around the cross-flow rotor in order to increase ambient wind environment of the wind turbine. The maximum power coefficient is obtained as Cpmax = 0.125 at 60° wind direction. It was 21.46% higher compared to cross-flow wind turbine without ODGV. This result showed that the ODGV able to increase the performance of the cross-flow wind turbine.

  17. Scaling Laws in Canopy Flows: A Wind-Tunnel Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalini, Antonio; Fransson, Jens H. M.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    2013-08-01

    An analysis of velocity statistics and spectra measured above a wind-tunnel forest model is reported. Several measurement stations downstream of the forest edge have been investigated and it is observed that, while the mean velocity profile adjusts quickly to the new canopy boundary condition, the turbulence lags behind and shows a continuous penetration towards the free stream along the canopy model. The statistical profiles illustrate this growth and do not collapse when plotted as a function of the vertical coordinate. However, when the statistics are plotted as function of the local mean velocity (normalized with a characteristic velocity scale), they do collapse, independently of the streamwise position and freestream velocity. A new scaling for the spectra of all three velocity components is proposed based on the velocity variance and integral time scale. This normalization improves the collapse of the spectra compared to existing scalings adopted in atmospheric measurements, and allows the determination of a universal function that provides the velocity spectrum. Furthermore, a comparison of the proposed scaling laws for two different canopy densities is shown, demonstrating that the vertical velocity variance is the most sensible statistical quantity to the characteristics of the canopy roughness.

  18. Recent Advancements in the Infrared Flow Visualization System for the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbeff, Theodore J., II; Baerny, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    The following details recent efforts undertaken at the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels to design and deploy an advanced, production-level infrared (IR) flow visualization data system. Highly sensitive IR cameras, coupled with in-line image processing, have enabled the visualization of wind tunnel model surface flow features as they develop in real-time. Boundary layer transition, shock impingement, junction flow, vortex dynamics, and buffet are routinely observed in both transonic and supersonic flow regimes all without the need of dedicated ramps in test section total temperature. Successful measurements have been performed on wing-body sting mounted test articles, semi-span floor mounted aircraft models, and sting mounted launch vehicle configurations. The unique requirements of imaging in production wind tunnel testing has led to advancements in the deployment of advanced IR cameras in a harsh test environment, robust data acquisition storage and workflow, real-time image processing algorithms, and evaluation of optimal surface treatments. The addition of a multi-camera IR flow visualization data system to the Ames UPWT has demonstrated itself to be a valuable analyses tool in the study of new and old aircraft/launch vehicle aerodynamics and has provided new insight for the evaluation of computational techniques.

  19. Computational Design and Analysis of a Transonic Natural Laminar Flow Wing for a Wind Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynde, Michelle N.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    A natural laminar flow (NLF) wind tunnel model has been designed and analyzed for a wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The NLF design method is built into the CDISC design module and uses a Navier-Stokes flow solver, a boundary layer profile solver, and stability analysis and transition prediction software. The NLF design method alters the pressure distribution to support laminar flow on the upper surface of wings with high sweep and flight Reynolds numbers. The method addresses transition due to attachment line contamination/transition, Gortler vortices, and crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting modal instabilities. The design method is applied to the wing of the Common Research Model (CRM) at transonic flight conditions. Computational analysis predicts significant extents of laminar flow on the wing upper surface, which results in drag savings. A 5.2 percent scale semispan model of the CRM NLF wing will be built and tested in the NTF. This test will aim to validate the NLF design method, as well as characterize the laminar flow testing capabilities in the wind tunnel facility.

  20. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  1. A control-oriented dynamic wind farm flow model: “WFSim”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, S.; Gebraad, P. M. O.; Vali, M.; Doekemeijer, B. M.; van Wingerden, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present and extend the dynamic medium fidelity control-oriented Wind Farm Simulator (WFSim) model. WFSim resolves flow fields in wind farms in a horizontal, two dimensional plane. It is based on the spatially and temporally discretised two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation and solves for a predefined grid and wind farm topology. The force on the flow field generated by turbines is modelled using actuator disk theory. Sparsity in system matrices is exploited in WFSim, which enables a relatively fast flow field computation. The extensions to WFSim we present in this paper are the inclusion of a wake redirection model, a turbulence model and a linearisation of the nonlinear WFSim model equations. The first is important because it allows us to carry out wake redirection control and simulate situations with an inflow that is misaligned with the rotor plane. The wake redirection model is validated against a theoretical wake centreline known from literature. The second extension makes WFSim more realistic because it accounts for wake recovery. The amount of recovery is validated using a high fidelity simulation model Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) for a two turbine test case. Finally, a linearisation is important since it allows the application of more standard analysis, observer and control techniques.

  2. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Jospeh A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Stremel, Paul M.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75% scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14'x22' and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40'x80' low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  3. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Stremel, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75 scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14x22 and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40x80 low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  4. An iodine hypersonic wind tunnel for the study of nonequilibrium reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham-Van-diep, G. C.; Muntz, E. P.; Weaver, D. P.; Dewitt, T. G.; Bradley, M. K.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot scale hypersonic wind tunnel operating on pure iodine vapor has been designed and tested. The wind tunnel operates intermittently with a run phase lasting approximately 20 minutes. Successful recirculation of the iodine used during the run phase has been achieved but can be improved. Relevant issues regarding the full scale facility's design and operation, and the use of iodine as a working gas are discussed. Continuous wave laser induced fluorescence was used to monitor number densities within the plume flowfield, while pulsed laser induced fluorescence was used in an initial attempt to measure vibrational energy state population distributions. Preliminary nozzle flow calculations based on finite rate chemistry are presented.

  5. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  6. New insights on the interaction between atmospheric flow and a full-scale 2.5 MW wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, L. P.; Lee, S.; Olsen, D.; Milliren, C.; Marr, J.; Arndt, R.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2012-12-01

    Power fluctuations and fatigue loads are among the most significant problems that wind turbines face throughout their lifetime. Atmospheric turbulence is the common driving mechanism that triggers instabilities on these quantities. Reducing the effects of the fluctuating flow on wind turbines is quite challenging due to the wide variety of length scales present in the boundary layer flow. Each group of these scales, which range from the order of a millimeter to kilometer and larger, plays a characteristic and distinctive role on the performance and structural reliability of wind turbines. This study seeks to contribute toward the understanding on the complex scale-to-scale interaction between wind turbine and flow turbulence. Novel insights into the physical mechanisms that govern the flow/turbine interaction will be discussed. To tackle the problem, we investigate the unsteady behavior of a full-scale 2.5 MW wind turbine under nearly neutral thermal stratification. The study is performed in the Eolos Wind Energy Research Field Station of the University of Minnesota. An instrumented 130 meter meteorological tower located upstream of a Clipper Liberty C96 wind turbine is used to characterize the turbulent flow and atmospheric conditions right upstream of the wind turbine. High resolution and synchronous measurements of the approach wind velocity at several heights, turbine power and strain at the tower foundation are used to determine the scale-to-scale interaction between flow and the wind turbine performance and its physical structure. The spectral distribution of the fluctuating turbine power and instantaneous stresses will be discussed in detail. Characteristic length scales playing a key role on the dynamics of the wind turbine as well as the distinctive effects of flow coherent motions and strong intermittent gusts will also be addressed. Funding was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-EE0002980) and Xcel Energy through the Renewable Development Fund

  7. Wind-Flow Patterns in the Grand Canyon as Revealed by Doppler Lidar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Kaufmann, Pirmin; Levinson, David H.; Zhu, Cui-Juan

    1999-08-01

    Many interesting flow patterns were found in the Grand Canyon by a scanning Doppler lidar deployed to the south rim during the 1990 Wintertime Visibility Study. Three are analyzed in this study: 1) flow reversal in the canyon, where the flow in the canyon was in the opposite direction from the flow above the canyon rim; 2) under strong, gusty flow from the southwest, the flow inside and above the canyon was from a similar direction and coupled; and 3) under light large-scale ambient flow, the lidar found evidence of local, thermally forced up- and down-canyon winds in the bottom of the canyon.On the days with flow reversal in the canyon, the strongest in-canyon flow response was found for days with northwesterly flow and a strong inversion at the canyon rim. The aerosol backscatter profiles were well mixed within the canyon but poorly mixed across the rim because of the inversion. The gusty southwest flow days showed strong evidence of vertical mixing across the rim both in the momentum and in the aerosol backscatter profiles, as one would expect in turbulent flow. The days with light ambient flow showed poor vertical mixing even inside the canyon, where the jet of down-canyon flow in the bottom of the canyon at night was often either cleaner or dirtier than the air in the upper portions of the canyon. In a case study presented, the light ambient flow regime ended with an intrusion of polluted, gusty, southwesterly flow. The polluted, high-backscatter air took several hours to mix into the upper parts of the canyon. An example is also given of high-backscatter air in the upper portions of the canyon being mixed rapidly down into a jet of cleaner air in the bottom of the canyon in just a few minutes.

  8. Flume experiments on wind induced flow in static water bodies in the presence of protruding vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory

  9. Simulating flow around scaled model of a hypersonic vehicle in wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, T. V.; Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Savitsky, D. V.; Gavrilov, A. D.; Son, E. E.; Prokhorov, A. N.

    2016-11-01

    A prospective hypersonic HEXAFLY aircraft is considered in the given paper. In order to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of a new construction design of the aircraft, experiments with a scaled model have been carried out in a wind tunnel under different conditions. The runs have been performed at different angles of attack with and without hydrogen combustion in the scaled propulsion engine. However, the measured physical quantities do not provide all the information about the flowfield. Numerical simulation can complete the experimental data as well as to reduce the number of wind tunnel experiments. Besides that, reliable CFD software can be used for calculations of the aerodynamic characteristics for any possible design of the full-scale aircraft under different operation conditions. The reliability of the numerical predictions must be confirmed in verification study of the software. The given work is aimed at numerical investigation of the flowfield around and inside the scaled model of the HEXAFLY-CIAM module under wind tunnel conditions. A cold run (without combustion) was selected for this study. The calculations are performed in the FlowVision CFD software. The flow characteristics are compared against the available experimental data. The carried out verification study confirms the capability of the FlowVision CFD software to calculate the flows discussed.

  10. Assessment of a flow-through balance for hypersonic wind tunnel models with scramjet exhaust flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Kniskern, Marc W.; Monta, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation were twofold: first, to determine whether accurate force and moment data could be obtained during hypersonic wind tunnel tests of a model with a scramjet exhaust flow simulation that uses a representative nonwatercooled, flow-through balance; second, to analyze temperature time histories on various parts of the balance to address thermal effects on force and moment data. The tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Wind Tunnel at free-stream Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 7.4 x 10(exp 6)/ft and nominal angles of attack of -3.5 deg, 0 deg, and 5 deg. The simulant exhaust gases were cold air, hot air, and a mixture of 50 percent Argon and 50 percent Freon by volume, which reached stagnation temperatures within the balance of 111, 214, and 283 F, respectively. All force and moment values were unaffected by the balance thermal response from exhaust gas simulation and external aerodynamic heating except for axial-force measurements, which were significantly affected by balance heating. This investigation showed that for this model at the conditions tested, a nonwatercooled, flow-through balance is not suitable for axial-force measurements during scramjet exhaust flow simulation tests at hypersonic speeds. In general, heated exhaust gas may produce unacceptable force and moment uncertainties when used with thermally sensitive balances.

  11. Experimental Study on the Wake Meandering Within a Scale Model Wind Farm Subject to a Wind-Tunnel Flow Simulating an Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudou, Nicolas; Buckingham, Sophia; Bricteux, Laurent; van Beeck, Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of meandering of the wind-turbine wake comprises the motion of the wake as a whole in both horizontal and vertical directions as it is advected downstream. The oscillatory motion of the wake is a crucial factor in wind farms, because it increases the fatigue loads, and, in particular, the yaw loads on downstream turbines. To address this phenomenon, experimental investigations are carried out in a wind-tunnel flow simulating an atmospheric boundary layer with the Coriolis effect neglected. A 3 × 3 scaled wind farm composed of three-bladed rotating wind-turbine models is subject to a neutral boundary layer over a slightly-rough surface, i.e. corresponding to offshore conditions. Particle-image-velocimetry measurements are performed in a horizontal plane at hub height in the wakes of the three wind turbines occupying the wind-farm centreline. These measurements allow determination of the wake centrelines, with spectral analysis indicating the characteristic wavelength of the wake-meandering phenomenon. In addition, measurements with hot-wire anemometry are performed along a vertical line in the wakes of the same wind turbines, with both techniques revealing the presence of wake meandering behind all three turbines. The spectral analysis performed with the spatial and temporal signals obtained from these two measurement techniques indicates a Strouhal number of ≈ 0.20 - 0.22 based on the characteristic wake-meandering frequency, the rotor diameter and the flow speed at hub height.

  12. Experimental Study on the Wake Meandering Within a Scale Model Wind Farm Subject to a Wind-Tunnel Flow Simulating an Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudou, Nicolas; Buckingham, Sophia; Bricteux, Laurent; van Beeck, Jeroen

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of meandering of the wind-turbine wake comprises the motion of the wake as a whole in both horizontal and vertical directions as it is advected downstream. The oscillatory motion of the wake is a crucial factor in wind farms, because it increases the fatigue loads, and, in particular, the yaw loads on downstream turbines. To address this phenomenon, experimental investigations are carried out in a wind-tunnel flow simulating an atmospheric boundary layer with the Coriolis effect neglected. A 3 × 3 scaled wind farm composed of three-bladed rotating wind-turbine models is subject to a neutral boundary layer over a slightly-rough surface, i.e. corresponding to offshore conditions. Particle-image-velocimetry measurements are performed in a horizontal plane at hub height in the wakes of the three wind turbines occupying the wind-farm centreline. These measurements allow determination of the wake centrelines, with spectral analysis indicating the characteristic wavelength of the wake-meandering phenomenon. In addition, measurements with hot-wire anemometry are performed along a vertical line in the wakes of the same wind turbines, with both techniques revealing the presence of wake meandering behind all three turbines. The spectral analysis performed with the spatial and temporal signals obtained from these two measurement techniques indicates a Strouhal number of ≈ 0.20 - 0.22 based on the characteristic wake-meandering frequency, the rotor diameter and the flow speed at hub height.

  13. The Role of Reversed Equatorial Zonal Transport in Terminating an ENSO Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Hu, Z. Z.; Huang, B.; Sui, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a sudden reversal of anomalous equatorial zonal current at the peaking ENSO phase triggers the rapid termination of an ENSO event. Throughout an ENSO cycle, the anomalous equatorial zonal current is strongly controlled by the concavity of the anomalous thermocline meridional structure near the equator. During the ENSO developing phase, the anomalous zonal current in the central and eastern Pacific generally enhances the ENSO growth through its zonal SST advection. In the mature phase of ENSO, however, the equatorial thermocline depth anomalies are reflected in the eastern Pacific and slowly propagate westward off the equator in both hemispheres. As a result, the concavity of the thermocline anomalies near the equator is reversed, i.e., the off-equatorial thermocline depth anomalies become higher than that on the equator for El Niño events and lower for La Niño events. This meridional change of thermocline structure reverses zonal transport rapidly in the central-to-eastern equatorial Pacific, which weakens the ENSO SST anomalies by reversed advection. More importantly, the reversed zonal mass transport weakens the existing zonal tilting of equatorial thermocline and suppresses the thermocline feedback. Both processes are concentrated in the eastern equatorial Pacific and can be effective on subseasonal time scales. These current reversal effects are built-in to the ENSO peak phase and independent of the zonal wind effect on thermocline slope. It functions as an oceanic control on ENSO evolution during both El Niño and La Niña events.

  14. Robust optimization-based DC optimal power flow for managing wind generation uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit; Tomsovic, Kevin; Li, Fangxing; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2012-11-01

    Integrating wind generation into the wider grid causes a number of challenges to traditional power system operation. Given the relatively large wind forecast errors, congestion management tools based on optimal power flow (OPF) need to be improved. In this paper, a robust optimization (RO)-based DCOPF is proposed to determine the optimal generation dispatch and locational marginal prices (LMPs) for a day-ahead competitive electricity market considering the risk of dispatch cost variation. The basic concept is to use the dispatch to hedge against the possibility of reduced or increased wind generation. The proposed RO-based DCOPF is compared with a stochastic non-linear programming (SNP) approach on a modified PJM 5-bus system. Primary test results show that the proposed DCOPF model can provide lower dispatch cost than the SNP approach.

  15. Physical Model Study of the Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer in the UNH Flow Physics Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Results from an experimental study of an array of up to 100 model wind turbines with 0.25 m diameter are reported. The study was conducted in the UNH Flow Physics Facility (FPF), which has test section dimensions of 6.0 m wide, 2.7 m high and 72.0 m long. For a given configuration (spacing, initial conditions, etc.), the model wind farm reaches a ``fully developed'' condition, in which turbulence statistics remain the same from one row to the next within and above the wind turbine array. Of interest is the transport of kinetic energy within the wind turbine array boundary layer (WTABL). Model wind farms of up to 20 rows are possible in the FPF at the wind turbine scale used. The present studies in the FPF are able to achieve the fully developed WTABL condition, which can provide valuable insight to the optimization of wind farm energy production. The FPF can achieve a boundary layer height on the order of 1 m at the beginning of the wind turbine array. The wind turbine array was constructed of porous disks, which where drag (thrust) matched to wind turbines at typical operating conditions and therefore act as momentum sinks similar to wind turbines. The flow in the WTABL was measured with constant temperature anemometry using an X-wire.

  16. An experimental investigation of wind flow over tall towers in staggered form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Proma; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this research work an experiment is conducted to see the effect of wind loading on square, pentagonal and Hexagonal shape cylinders in staggered form. The experiment is done in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4.23×104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction. The flow velocity has been kept uniform throughout the experiment at 14.3 m/s. The test has been conducted for single cylinders first and then in staggered form. Angle of attack is chosen at a definite interval. The static pressure at different locations of the cylinder is measured by inclined multi-manometer. From the surface static pressure readings pressure coefficients are calculated first, then drag and lift coefficients are calculated using numerical Integration Method. These results will surely help engineers to design buildings with such shapes more efficiently. All the results are expressed in non-dimensional form, so they can be applied for prototype buildings and determine the wind loading at any wind speed on structures of similar external shapes.

  17. Trajectories of thermospheric air parcels flowing over Alaska, reconstructed from ground-based wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadly, Manbharat; Conde, Mark

    2017-06-01

    It is widely presumed that the convective stability and enormous kinematic viscosity of Earth's upper thermosphere hinders development of both horizontal and vertical wind shears and other gradients. Any strong local structure (over scale sizes of several hundreds of kilometers) that might somehow form would be expected to dissipate rapidly. Air flow in such an atmosphere should be relatively simple, and transport effects only slowly disperse and mix air masses. However, our observations show that wind fields in Earth's thermosphere have much more local-scale structure than usually predicated by current modeling techniques, at least at auroral latitudes; they complicate air parcel trajectories enormously, relative to typical expectations. For tracing air parcels, we used wind measurements of an all-sky Scanning Doppler Fabry-Perot interferometer and reconstructed time-resolved two-dimensional maps of the horizontal vector wind field to infer forward and backward air parcel trajectories over time. This is the first comprehensive study to visualize the complex motions of thermospheric air parcels carried through the actual observed local-scale structures in the high-latitude winds. Results show that thermospheric air parcel transport is a very difficult observational problem, because the trajectories followed are very sensitive to the detailed features of the driving wind field. To reconstruct the actual motion of a given air parcel requires wind measurements everywhere along the trajectory followed, with spatial resolutions of 100 km or less, and temporal resolutions of a few minutes or better. Understanding such transport is important, for example, in predicting the global-scale impacts of aurorally generated composition perturbations.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Laminar Air-Water Flow of a Non-linear Progressive Wave at Low Wind Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X.; Mobbs, S.

    2014-03-01

    A numerical simulation for two-dimensional laminar air-water flow of a non-linear progressive water wave with large steepness is performed when the background wind speed varies from zero to the wave phase speed. It is revealed that in the water the difference between the analytical solution of potential flow and numerical solution of viscous flow is very small, indicating that both solutions of the potential flow and viscous flow describe the water wave very accurately. In the air the solutions of potential and viscous flows are very different due to the effects of viscosity. The velocity distribution in the airflow is strongly influenced by the background wind speed and it is found that three wind speeds, , (the maximum orbital velocity of a water wave), and (the wave phase speed), are important in distinguishing different features of the flow patterns.

  19. Effect of Wind Flow on Convective Heat Losses from Scheffler Solar Concentrator Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nene, Anita Arvind; Ramachandran, S.; Suyambazhahan, S.

    2018-05-01

    Receiver is an important element of solar concentrator system. In a Scheffler concentrator, solar rays get concentrated at focus of parabolic dish. While radiation losses are more predictable and calculable since strongly related to receiver temperature, convective looses are difficult to estimate in view of additional factors such as wind flow direction, speed, receiver geometry, prior to current work. Experimental investigation was carried out on two geometries of receiver namely cylindrical and conical with 2.7 m2 Scheffler to find optimum condition of tilt to provide best efficiency. Experimental results showed that as compared to cylindrical receiver, conical receiver gave maximum efficiency at 45° tilt angle. However effect of additional factors like wind speed, wind direction on especially convective losses could not be separately seen. The current work was undertaken to investigate further the same two geometries using computation fluid dynamics using FLUENT to compute convective losses considering all variables such at tilt angle of receiver, wind velocity and wind direction. For cylindrical receiver, directional heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is remarkably high to tilt condition meaning this geometry is critical to tilt leading to higher convective heat losses. For conical receiver, directional average HTC is remarkably less to tilt condition leading to lower convective heat loss.

  20. Navier-Stokes, flight, and wind tunnel flow analysis for the F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1994-01-01

    Computational analysis of flow over the F/A-18 aircraft is presented along with complementary data from both flight and wind tunnel experiments. The computational results are based on the three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes formulation and are obtained from an accurate surface representation of the fuselage, leading-edge extension (LEX), and the wing geometry. However, the constraints imposed by either the flow solver and/or the complexity associated with the flow-field grid generation required certain geometrical approximations to be implemented in the present numerical model. In particular, such constraints inspired the removal of the empennage and the blocking (fairing) of the inlet face. The results are computed for three different free-stream flow conditions and compared with flight test data of surface pressure coefficients, surface tuft flow, and off-surface vortical flow characteristics that included breakdown phenomena. Excellent surface pressure coefficient correlations, both in terms of magnitude and overall trend, are obtained on the forebody throughout the range of flow conditions. Reasonable pressure agreement was obtained over the LEX; the general correlation tends to improve at higher angles of attack. The surface tuft flow and the off-surface vortex flow structures compared qualitatively well with the flight test results. To evaluate the computational results, a wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of existing configurational differences between the flight vehicle and the numerical model on aerodynamic characteristics. In most cases, the geometrical approximations made to the numerical model had very little effect on overall aerodynamic characteristics.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Through a Wind Farm Sited on Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsoddin, Sina; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) has recently been well validated and applied in the context of wind turbines over flat terrain; however, to date its accuracy has not been tested systematically in the case of turbine-wake flows over topography. Here, we investigate the wake flow in a wind farm situated on hilly terrain using LES for a case where wind-tunnel experimental data are available. To this end, first boundary-layer flow is simulated over a two-dimensional hill in order to characterize the spatial distribution of the mean velocity and the turbulence statistics. A flow simulation is then performed through a wind farm consisting of five horizontal-axis wind turbines sited over the same hill in an aligned layout. The resulting flow characteristics are compared with the former case, i.e., without wind turbines. To assess the validity of the simulations, the results are compared with the wind-tunnel measurements. It is found that LES can reproduce the flow field effectively, and, specifically, the speed-up over the hilltop and the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity enhancement induced by the turbines are well captured by the simulations. Besides, the vertical profiles of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity at different streamwise positions match well those for the experiment. In addition, another numerical experiment is carried out to show how higher (and more realistic) thrust coefficients of the turbines lead to stronger wakes and, at the same time, higher turbulence intensities.

  2. Aircraft Carrier Turbulence Study for Predicting Air Flow Dynamics with Increasing Wind-Over-Deck Velocities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-03-28

    AD-A020 223 AIRCRAFT CARRIER TURBULENCE STUDY FOR PREDICTING AIR FLOW DYNAMICS WITH INCREASING WIND-OVER-DECK VELOCITIES S. Frost Naval Air...Copy NAVAL AIR ENGINEERING CENTERElPILAOUPHBA, PENNSYLVANIA 19112 Q Had-NG7~ CODE IDEN NO. *OOM 28 MARCH 4fe AIRCRAFT CARRIER TUJRBULENCE STUDY FOR...carrier dynamics. Ike- comirendations for future experimental and theoretical studies are give,. DD 1473 EDITIOIN 0F I NOV SS IS O@SOLETE S - ’i02

  3. Distinct wind convergence patterns in the Mexico City basin due to the interaction of the gap winds with the synoptic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Clappier, A.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    Mexico City lies in a high altitude basin where air quality and pollutant fate is strongly influenced by local winds. The combination of high terrain with weak synoptic forcing leads to weak and variable winds with complex circulation patterns. A gap wind entering the basin in the afternoon leads to very different wind convergence lines over the city depending on the meteorological conditions. Surface and upper-air meteorological observations are analysed during the MCMA-2003 field campaign to establish the meteorological conditions and obtain an index of the strength and timing of the gap wind. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) is used in combination with high-resolution satellite data for the land surface parameters and soil moisture maps derived from diurnal ground temperature range. A simple method to map the lines of wind convergence both in the basin and on the regional scale is used to show the different convergence patterns according to episode types. The gap wind is found to occur on most days of the campaign and is the result of a temperature gradient across the southern basin rim which is very similar from day to day. Momentum mixing from winds aloft into the surface layer is much more variable and can determine both the strength of the flow and the pattern of the convergence zones. Northerly flows aloft lead to a weak jet with an east-west convergence line that progresses northwards in the late afternoon and early evening. Westerlies aloft lead to both stronger gap flows due to channelling and winds over the southern and western basin rim. This results in a north-south convergence line through the middle of the basin starting in the early afternoon. Improved understanding of basin meteorology will lead to better air quality forecasts for the city and better understanding of the chemical regimes in the urban atmosphere.

  4. The role of Coulomb collisions in limiting differential flow and temperature differences in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained by OGO 5 are used to confirm IMP 6 observations of an inverse dependence of the helium-to-hydrogen temperature ratio in the solar wind on the ratio of solar-wind expansion time to the Coulomb-collision equipartition time. The analysis is then extended to determine the relation of the difference between the hydrogen and helium bulk velocities (the differential flow vector) with the ratio between the solar-wind expansion time and the time required for Coulomb collisions to slow down a beam of ions passing through a plasma. It is found that the magnitude of the differential flow vector varies inversely with the time ratio when the latter is small and approaches zero when it is large. These results are shown to suggest a model of continuous preferential heating and acceleration of helium (or cooling and deceleration of hydrogen), which is cancelled or limited by Coulomb collisions by the time the plasma has reached 1 AU. Since the average dependence of the differential flow vector on the time ratio cannot explain all the systematic variations of the vector observed in corotating high-velocity streams, it is concluded that additional helium acceleration probably occurs on the leading edge of such streams.

  5. A surface flow visualisation technique for use in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kell, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    A method of surface flow visualization for use in cryogenic wind tunnels is described which requires injection of a cryogenic liquid onto the model while the tunnel is running. This necessitates the use of a substance that remains liquid over a large range of cryogenic wind tunnel operating temperatures. It is found that propane (C3H8) is a suitable substance. Experiments are conducted in a subsonic cryogenic wind tunnel to assess the practical application of liquid propane flow visualization. The propane is stored in a chamber cooled by liquid nitrogen and when required is pumped through pipes to a gallery inside the model and then out onto the surface through small holes. To color the liquid a suspension of pigment particles is used. Propane is supplied to the cooled chamber in gaseous form from a standard liquefied gas cylinder. The sequence of events is illustrated on a propane temperature-entropy diagram. The use of liquefied propane for flow visualization in a cryogenic tunnel operating at pressures up to 40 atm appears to be feasible. Illustrative examples are provided.

  6. Optical Flow for Flight and Wind Tunnel Background Oriented Schlieren Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nathanial T.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.

    2017-01-01

    Background oriented Schlieren images have historically been generated by calculating the observed pixel displacement between a wind-on and wind-o image pair using normalized cross-correlation. This work uses optical flow to solve the displacement fields which generate the Schlieren images. A well established method used in the computer vision community, optical flow is the apparent motion in an image sequence due to brightness changes. The regularization method of Horn and Schunck is used to create Schlieren images using two data sets: a supersonic jet plume shock interaction from the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and a transonic flight test of a T-38 aircraft using a naturally occurring background, performed in conjunction with NASA Ames and Armstrong Research Centers. Results are presented and contrasted with those using normalized cross-correlation. The optical flow Schlieren images are found to provided significantly more detail. We apply the method to historical data sets to demonstrate the broad applicability and limitations of the technique.

  7. Development of a Test to Evaluate Aerothermal Response of Materials to Hypersonic Flow Using a Scramjet Wind Tunnel (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    SCRAMJET WIND TUNNEL (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-D-5226-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S...prototype scramjet engine as a wind tunnel . A sample holder was designed using combustion fluid dynamics results as inputs into structural models. The...Z39-18 Development of a Test to Evaluate Aerothermal Response of Materials to Hypersonic Flow Using a Scramjet Wind Tunnel Triplicane A

  8. Development of Dynamic Flow Field Pressure Probes Suitable for Use in Large Scale Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2000-01-01

    A series of dynamic flow field pressure probes were developed for use in large-scale supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Glenn Research Center. These flow field probes include pitot, static, and five-hole conical pressure probes that are capable of capturing fast acting flow field pressure transients that occur on a millisecond time scale. The pitot and static probes can be used to determine local Mach number time histories during a transient event. The five-hole conical pressure probes are used primarily to determine local flow angularity, but can also determine local Mach number. These probes were designed, developed, and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. They were also used in a NASA Glenn 10-by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) test program where they successfully acquired flow field pressure data in the vicinity of a propulsion system during an engine compressor staff and inlet unstart transient event. Details of the design, development, and subsequent use of these probes are discussed in this report.

  9. Multi-Nozzle Base Flow Model in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    1964-02-21

    Researchers check the setup of a multi-nozzle base flow model in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. NASA researchers were struggling to understand the complex flow phenomena resulting from the use of multiple rocket engines. Robert Wasko and Theodore Cover of the Advanced Development and Evaluation Division’s analysis and operations sections conducted a set of tests in the 10- by 10 tunnel to further understand the flow issues. The Lewis researchers studied four and five-nozzle configurations in the 10- by 10 at simulated altitudes from 60,000 to 200,000 feet. The nozzles were gimbaled during some of the test runs to simulate steering. The flow field for the four-nozzle clusters was surveyed in the center and the lateral areas between the nozzles, whereas the five-nozzle cluster was surveyed in the lateral area only.

  10. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  11. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    SciT

    Murray, Nathan E.

    2012-03-12

    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressuremore » fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other

  12. Can a Wind Model Mimic a Convection-Dominated Accretion Flow Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows(ADAFs) in case that outflows carry away infalling matter with its angular momentum and energy. Positive Bernoulli numbers in ADAFs allow a fraction of the gas to be ex-pelled in a form of outflows. The ADAFs are also unstable to convection. We present self-similar solutions for advection-dominated accretion flows in the presence of out-flows from the accretion flows (ADIOS). The axisymmetric flow is treated in variables integrated over polar sections and the effects of outflows on the accretion rlow are parameterized for possible configurations compatible with the one dimensional self-similar ADAF solution. We explicitly derive self-similar solutions of ADAFs in the presence of outflows and show that the strong outflows in the accretion flows result in a flatter density profile, which is similar to that of the convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAFs) in which convection transports the a! ngular momentum inward and the energy outward. These two different versions of the ADAF model should show similar behaviors in X-ray spectrum to some extent. Even though the two models may show similar behaviors, they should be distinguishable due to different physical properties. We suggest that for a central object of which mass is known these two different accretion flows should have different X-ray flux value due to deficient matter in the wind model.

  13. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  14. The turbulence structure of katabatic flows below and above wind-speed maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, Andrey; Leo, Laura; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra; Pardyjak, Eric; Fairall, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of atmospheric small-scale turbulence made over the complex-terrain at the US Army Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program are used to describe the turbulence structure of katabatic flows. Turbulent and mean meteorological data were continuously measured at multiple levels (up to seven) on four towers deployed along East lower slope (2-4 degrees) of Granite Mountain. The multi-level, multi-tower observations obtained during a 30-day long MATERHORN-Fall field campaign in September-October 2102 allow studying temporal and spatial structure of nocturnal slope flows in detail. In this study, we focus on the various statistics (fluxes, variances, spectra, cospectra, etc.) of the small-scale turbulence of katabatic winds. Observed vertical profiles of velocity, turbulent fluxes, and other quantities show steep gradients near the surface but in the layer above the slope jet these variables vary with height more slowly than near the surface. It is found that vertical momentum flux and horizontal heat (buoyancy) flux in a slope-following coordinate system change their sign below and above the wind maximum of a katabatic flow. The vertical momentum flux is directed downward (upward) whereas the horizontal heat flux is downslope (upslope) below (above) the wind maximum. Our study, therefore, suggests that a position of the jet speed maximum can be derived from linear interpolation between positive and negative values of the momentum flux (or the horizontal heat flux) and determination of a height where a flux becomes zero. It is shown that the standard deviations of all wind speed components (and therefore the turbulent kinetic energy) and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy have a local minimum, whereas the standard deviation of air temperature has an absolute maximum at the height of wind speed maximum. We report several cases when the destructive effect of vertical heat

  15. Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Inner Accretion Flow of Sagittarius A* Fueled By Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressler, S. M.; Quataert, E.; Stone, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present Athena++ grid-based, hydrodynamic simulations of accretion onto Sagittarius A* via the stellar winds of the ˜30 Wolf-Rayet stars within the central parsec of the galactic center. These simulations span ˜ 4 orders of magnitude in radius, reaching all the way down to 300 gravitational radii of the black hole, ˜32 times further in than in previous work. We reproduce reasonably well the diffuse thermal X-ray emission observed by Chandra in the central parsec. The resulting accretion flow at small radii is a superposition of two components: 1) a moderately unbound, sub-Keplerian, thick, pressure-supported disc that is at most (but not all) times aligned with the clockwise stellar disc, and 2) a bound, low-angular momentum inflow that proceeds primarily along the southern pole of the disc. We interpret this structure as a natural consequence of a few of the innermost stellar winds dominating accretion, which produces a flow with a broad distribution of angular momentum. Including the star S2 in the simulation has a negligible effect on the flow structure. Extrapolating our results from simulations with different inner radii, we find an accretion rate of ˜ a few × 10-8M⊙/yr at the horizon scale, consistent with constraints based on modeling the observed emission of Sgr A*. The flow structure found here can be used as more realistic initial conditions for horizon scale simulations of Sgr A*.

  16. Cross-shore variation of wind-driven flows on the inner shelf in Long Bay, South Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul A.

    2006-03-01

    The cross-shore structure of subtidal flows on the inner shelf (7 to 12 m water depth) of Long Bay, South Carolina, a concave-shaped bay, is examined through the analysis of nearly 80 days of near-bed (1.7-2.2 m above bottom) current observations acquired during the spring and fall of 2001. In the spring and under northeastward winds (upwelling favorable) a two-layered flow was observed at depths greater than 10 m, while closer to the shore the currents were aligned with the wind. The two-layered flow is attributed to the presence of stratification, which has been observed under similar conditions in the South Atlantic Bight. When the wind stress was southwestward (downwelling favorable) and exceeded 0.1 N/m2, vertical mixing occurred, the two-layered flow pattern disappeared, and currents were directed alongshore with the wind at all sites and throughout the water column. In the fall, near-bed flows close to the shore (water depth <7 m) were often reduced compared to or opposed those measured farther offshore under southwestward winds. A simplified analysis of the depth-averaged, alongshore momentum balance illustrates that the alongshore pressure gradient approached or exceeded the magnitude of the alongshore wind stress at the same time that the nearshore alongshore current opposed the wind stress and alongshore currents farther offshore. In addition, the analysis suggests that the wind stress is reduced closer to shore so that the alongshore pressure gradient is large enough to drive the flow against the wind.

  17. Measurement of winds in Venus' upper mesosphere based on Doppler shifts of the 2.6-mm (C-12)O line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Kathryn P.; Muhleman, Duane O.; Berge, Glenn L.

    1991-01-01

    Venus observations conducted in 1988 at the first rotational transition of (C-12)O finely sampled this absorption line by means of a 32-channel filter bank; with this spatial and spectral resolution, it proved possible to measure Doppler shifts of the absorption line across the planet due to strong winds in Venus' upper mesosphere. The Doppler shifts change in a way that is indicative of westward horizontal winds. The radial wind speeds from the Doppler shifts were smoothed to reduce noise and then fitted in least-squares fashion to canonical forms of the lower atmosphere's westward zonal flow. The two flows exhibit a high correlation in orientation.

  18. Droplet collisions and interaction with the turbulent flow within a two-phase wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordás, Róbert; Hagemeier, Thomas; Wunderlich, Bernd; Thévenin, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Experiments in wind tunnels concerning meteorological issues are not very frequent in the literature. However, such experiments might be essential, for instance for a careful investigation of droplet-droplet interactions in turbulent flows. This issue is crucial for many configurations, in particular to understand warm rain initiation. It is clearly impossible to completely reproduce cloud turbulence within a wind tunnel due to the enormous length scales involved. Nevertheless, it is not necessary to recover the whole spectrum in order to quantify droplet interactions. It is sufficient for this purpose to account correctly for the relevant properties only. In the present paper, these properties and a methodology for setting those in a two-phase wind tunnel are first described. In particular, droplet size and number density, velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, k, and its dissipation rate, ɛ, are suitably reproduced, as demonstrated by non-intrusive measurement techniques. A complete experimental characterization of the air and droplet properties is freely available in a database accessible at http://www.ovgu.de/isut/lss/metstroem. Finally, quantifications of droplet collision rates and comparisons with theoretical predictions are presented, showing that measured collision rates are higher, typically by a factor of 2 to 5. These results demonstrate that model modifications are needed to estimate correctly droplet collision probabilities in turbulent flows

  19. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  20. Dynamics of zonal shear collapse with hydrodynamic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theory for the collapse of the edge zonal shear layer, as observed at the density limit at low β. This paper investigates the scaling of the transport and mean profiles with the adiabaticity parameter α, with special emphasizes on fluxes relevant to zonal flow (ZF) generation. We show that the adiabaticity parameter characterizes the strength of production of zonal flows and so determines the state of turbulence. A 1D reduced model that self-consistently describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the mean density n ¯ , the azimuthal flow v¯ y , and the turbulent potential enstrophy ɛ=⟨(n˜ -∇2ϕ˜ ) 2/2 ⟩ —related to fluctuation intensity—is presented. Quasi-linear analysis determines how the particle flux Γn and vorticity flux Π=-χy∇2vy+Πre s scale with α, in both hydrodynamic and adiabatic regimes. As the plasma response passes from adiabatic (α > 1) to hydrodynamic (α < 1), the particle flux Γn is enhanced and the turbulent viscosity χy increases. However, the residual flux Πres—which drives the flow—drops with α. As a result, the mean vorticity gradient ∇2v¯ y=Πre s/χy —representative of the strength of the shear—also drops. The shear layer then collapses and turbulence is enhanced. The collapse is due to a decrease in ZF production, not an increase in damping. A physical picture for the onset of collapse is presented. The findings of this paper are used to motivate an explanation of the phenomenology of low β density limit evolution. A change from adiabatic ( α=kz2vth 2/(|ω|νei)>1 ) to hydrodynamic (α < 1) electron dynamics is associated with the density limit.

  1. Flow Visualization of Density in a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Planar Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; Shirinzadeh, Behrooz

    2002-01-01

    Using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and a gated, intensified charge-coupled device, planar Rayleigh and Raman scattering techniques have been used to visualize the unseeded Mach 0.2 flow density in a 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Detection limits are determined for density measurements by using both unseeded Rayleigh and Raman (N2 vibrational) methods. Seeding with CO2 improved the Rayleigh flow visualization at temperatures below 150 K. The seeded Rayleigh version was used to demonstrate the observation of transient flow features in a separated boundary layer region, which was excited with an oscillatory jet. Finally, a significant degradation of the laser light sheet, in this cryogenic facility, is discussed.

  2. Vapor-screen technique for flow visualization in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, O. A.; Corlett, W. A.; Wassum, D. L.; Babb, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor-screen technique for flow visualization, as developed for the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, is described with evaluations of light sources and photographic equipment. Test parameters including dew point, pressure, and temperature were varied to determine optimum conditions for obtaining high-quality vapor-screen photographs. The investigation was conducted in the supersonic speed range for Mach numbers from 1.47 to 4.63 at model angles of attack up to 35 deg. Vapor-screen photographs illustrating various flow patterns are presented for several missile and aircraft configurations. Examples of vapor-screen results that have contributed to the understanding of complex flow fields and provided a basis for the development of theoretical codes are presented with reference to other research.

  3. Near-Surface Wind Predictions in Complex Terrain with a CFD Approach Optimized for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, N. S.; Forthofer, J.; Butler, B.; Shannon, K.

    2014-12-01

    Near-surface wind predictions are important for a number of applications, including transport and dispersion, wind energy forecasting, and wildfire behavior. Researchers and forecasters would benefit from a wind model that could be readily applied to complex terrain for use in these various disciplines. Unfortunately, near-surface winds in complex terrain are not handled well by traditional modeling approaches. Numerical weather prediction models employ coarse horizontal resolutions which do not adequately resolve sub-grid terrain features important to the surface flow. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are increasingly being applied to simulate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows, especially in wind energy applications; however, the standard functionality provided in commercial CFD models is not suitable for ABL flows. Appropriate CFD modeling in the ABL requires modification of empirically-derived wall function parameters and boundary conditions to avoid erroneous streamwise gradients due to inconsistences between inlet profiles and specified boundary conditions. This work presents a new version of a near-surface wind model for complex terrain called WindNinja. The new version of WindNinja offers two options for flow simulations: 1) the native, fast-running mass-consistent method available in previous model versions and 2) a CFD approach based on the OpenFOAM modeling framework and optimized for ABL flows. The model is described and evaluations of predictions with surface wind data collected from two recent field campaigns in complex terrain are presented. A comparison of predictions from the native mass-consistent method and the new CFD method is also provided.

  4. Magnetosheath for almost-aligned solar wind magnetic field and flow vectors: Wind observations across the dawnside magnetosheath at X = -12 Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Erkaev, N. V.; Torbert, R. B.; Biernat, H. K.; Gratton, F. T.; Szabo, A.; Kucharek, H.; Matsui, H.; Lin, R. P.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Smith, C. W.

    2010-08-01

    While there are many approximations describing the flow of the solar wind past the magnetosphere in the magnetosheath, the case of perfectly aligned (parallel or anti-parallel) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind flow vectors can be treated exactly in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. In this work we examine a case of nearly-opposed (to within 15°) interplanetary field and flow vectors, which occurred on October 24-25, 2001 during passage of the last interplanetary coronal mass ejection in an ejecta merger. Interplanetary data are from the ACE spacecraft. Simultaneously Wind was crossing the near-Earth (X ˜ -13 Re) geomagnetic tail and subsequently made an approximately 5-hour-long magnetosheath crossing close to the ecliptic plane (Z = -0.7 Re). Geomagnetic activity was returning steadily to quiet, “ground” conditions. We first compare the predictions of the Spreiter and Rizzi theory with the Wind magnetosheath observations and find fair agreement, in particular as regards the proportionality of the magnetic field strength and the product of the plasma density and bulk speed. We then carry out a small-perturbation analysis of the Spreiter and Rizzi solution to account for the small IMF components perpendicular to the flow vector. The resulting expression is compared to the time series of the observations and satisfactory agreement is obtained. We also present and discuss observations in the dawnside boundary layer of pulsed, high-speed (v ˜ 600 km/s) flows exceeding the solar wind flow speeds. We examine various generating mechanisms and suggest that the most likely cause is a wave of frequency 3.2 mHz excited at the inner edge of the boundary layer by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  5. Flow Quality Measurements in the NASA Ames Upgraded 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amaya, Max A.; Murthy, Sreedhara V.; George, M. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the many upgrades designed and implemented in the NASA Ames 11-by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel over the past few years, several directly affect flow quality in the test section: a turbulence reduction system with a honeycomb and two screens, a flow smoothing system in the back leg diffusers, an improved drive motor control system, and a full replacement set of composite blades for the compressor. Prior to the shut-down of the tunnel for construction activities, an 8-foot span rake populated with flow instrumentation was traversed in the test section to fully document the flow quality and establish a baseline against which the upgrades could be characterized. A similar set of measurements was performed during the recent integrated system test trials, but the scope was somewhat limited in accordance with the primary objective of such tests, namely to return the tunnel to a fully operational status. These measurements clearly revealed substantial improvements in flow angularity and significant reductions in turbulence level for both full-span and semi-span testing configurations, thus making the flow quality of the tunnel one of the best among existing transonic facilities.

  6. Wind Farm Flow Modeling using an Input-Output Reduced-Order Model

    SciT

    Annoni, Jennifer; Gebraad, Pieter; Seiler, Peter

    Wind turbines in a wind farm operate individually to maximize their own power regardless of the impact of aerodynamic interactions on neighboring turbines. There is the potential to increase power and reduce overall structural loads by properly coordinating turbines. To perform control design and analysis, a model needs to be of low computational cost, but retains the necessary dynamics seen in high-fidelity models. The objective of this work is to obtain a reduced-order model that represents the full-order flow computed using a high-fidelity model. A variety of methods, including proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, can be used tomore » extract the dominant flow structures and obtain a reduced-order model. In this paper, we combine proper orthogonal decomposition with a system identification technique to produce an input-output reduced-order model. This technique is used to construct a reduced-order model of the flow within a two-turbine array computed using a large-eddy simulation.« less

  7. Testing the Interstellar Wind Helium Flow Direction with Galileo Euvs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, W. R.; Simmons, K. E.; Ajello, J. M.; Tobiska, W. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Frisch, P. C.; Bzowski, M.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    Forty years of measurements of the flow of interstellar helium through the heliosphere suggest that variations of the flow direction with time are possible. We will model Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) data to determine the best-fitting flow direction and compare it to values obtained by other spacecraft. The Galileo EUVS (Hord et al., 1992) was mounted on the spinning part of the spacecraft and obtained interstellar wind hydrogen Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm and helium 58.4 nm data on great circles passing near the ecliptic poles during the interplanetary cruise phase of the mission and also during the Jupiter orbital phase of the mission. The Galileo hydrogen cruise data have been previously published (Hord et al., 1991, Pryor et al., 1992; 1996; 2001), but the helium data have not. Our model was previously used by Ajello et al., 1978, 1979 to model Mariner 10 interstellar wind helium data, and by Stern et al., 2012 and Feldman et al., 2012 to model the interplanetary helium background near the moon in Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman-alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) data. The model has been updated to include recent determinations of daily helium 58.4 nm solar flux variations and helium losses due to EUV photoionization and electron impact ionization.

  8. Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.

  9. Gap Flows through Idealized Topography. Part I: Forcing by Large-Scale Winds in the Nonrotating Limit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabersek, Sasa.; Durran, Dale R.

    2004-12-01

    Gap winds produced by a uniform airstream flowing over an isolated flat-top ridge cut by a straight narrow gap are investigated by numerical simulation. On the scale of the entire barrier, the proportion of the oncoming flow that passes through the gap is relatively independent of the nondimensional mountain height , even over that range of for which there is the previously documented transition from a “flow over the ridge” regime to a “flow around” regime.The kinematics and dynamics of the gap flow itself were investigated by examining mass and momentum budgets for control volumes at the entrance, central, and exit regions of the gap. These analyses suggest three basic behaviors: the linear regime (small ) in which there is essentially no enhancement of the gap flow; the mountain wave regime ( 1.5) in which vertical mass and momentum fluxes play a crucial role in creating very strong winds near the exit of the gap; and the upstream-blocking regime ( 5) in which lateral convergence generates the strongest winds near the entrance of the gap.Trajectory analysis of the flow in the strongest events, the mountain wave events, confirms the importance of net subsidence in creating high wind speeds. Neglect of vertical motion in applications of Bernoulli's equation to gap flows is shown to lead to unreasonable wind speed predictions whenever the temperature at the gap exit exceeds that at the gap entrance. The distribution of the Bernoulli function on an isentropic surface shows a correspondence between regions of high Bernoulli function and high wind speeds in the gap-exit jet similar to that previously documented for shallow-water flow.


  10. Equinoctial asymmetry in the zonal distribution of scintillation as observed by GPS receivers in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Husin, A.; Liu, Huixin; Saito, S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the azimuthal distribution of amplitude scintillation observed by Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at Pontianak (0.0°S, 109.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.8°S) and Bandung (6.9°S, 107.6°E; magnetic latitude: 16.7°S) in Indonesia in March and September from 2011 to 2015. The scintillation is found to occur more to the west than to the east in March at both stations, whereas no such zonal difference is found in September. We also analyze the zonal scintillation drift as estimated using three closely spaced single-frequency GPS receivers at Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.9°S) in Indonesia during 2003-2015 and the zonal thermospheric neutral wind as measured by the CHAMP satellite at longitudes of 90°-120°E during 2001-2008. We find that the velocities of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind decrease with increasing latitudes. Interestingly, the latitudinal gradients of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind are steeper in March than in September. These steeper March gradients may be responsible for the increased westward altitudinal and latitudinal tilting of plasma bubbles in March. This equinoctial asymmetry could be responsible for the observed westward bias in scintillation in March, because the scintillation is more likely to occur when radio waves pass through longer lengths of plasma irregularities in the plasma bubbles.

  11. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  12. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-02-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  13. An evaluation and assessment of flow quality in selected NASA wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Owen, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in a number of NASA wind tunnels to measure disturbance levels and spectra in their respective settling chambers, test sections, and diffusers to determine the sources of their disturbances. The present data supplements previous results in other NASA tunnels and adds to the ongoing acquisition of a disturbance level data base. The present results also serve to explain flow related sources which cause relatively large disturbance amplitudes at discrete frequencies. The installation of honeycomb, screens, and acoustic baffles in or upstream of the settling chamber can significantly reduce the disturbance levels.

  14. Wind tunnel investigation of a high lift system with pneumatic flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Next generation passenger aircrafts require more efficient high lift systems under size and mass constraints, to achieve more fuel efficiency. This can be obtained in various ways: to improve/maintain aerodynamic performance while simplifying the mechanical design of the high lift system going to a single slotted flap, to maintain complexity and improve the aerodynamics even more, etc. Laminar wings have less efficient leading edge high lift systems if any, requiring more performance from the trailing edge flap. Pulsed blowing active flow control (AFC) in the gap of single element flap is investigated for a relatively large model. A wind tunnel model, test campaign and results and conclusion are presented.

  15. Cloud level winds from UV and IR images obtained by VMC onboard Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, Igor; Patsaeva, Marina; Titov, Dmitri; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Turin, Alexander; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    During eight years Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) [1] onboard the Venus Express orbiter has observed the upper cloud layer of Venus. The largest set of images was obtained in the UV (365 nm), visible (513 nm) and two infrared channels - 965 nm and 1010 nm. The UV dayside images were used to study the atmospheric circulation at the Venus cloud tops [2], [3]. Mean zonal and meridional profiles of winds and their variability were derived from cloud tracking of UV images. In low latitudes the mean retrograde zonal wind at the cloud top (67±2 km) is about 95 m/s with a maximum of about 102 m/s at 40-50°S. Poleward from 50°S the zonal wind quickly fades out with latitude. The mean poleward meridional wind slowly increases from zero value at the equator to about 10 m/s at 50°S. Poleward from this latitude, the absolute value of the meridional component monotonically decreases to zero at the pole. The VMC observations suggest clear diurnal signature in the wind field. They also indicate a long term trend for the zonal wind speed at low latitudes to increase from 85 m/s in the beginning of the mission to 110 m/s by the middle of 2012. The trend was explained by influence of the surface topography on the zonal flow [4]. Cloud features tracking in the IR images provided information about winds in the middle cloud deck (55±4 km). In the low and middle latitudes (5-65°S) the IR mean retrograde zonal velocity is about 68-70 m/s. In contrast to poleward flow at the cloud tops, equatorward motions dominate in the middle cloud with maximum speed of 5.8±1.2 m/s at latitude 15°S. The meridional speed slowly decreases to 0 at 65-70°S. At low latitudes the zonal and meridional speed demonstrate long term variations. Following [4] we explain the observed long term trend of zonal and meridional components by the influence of surface topography of highland region Aphrodite Terra on dynamic processes in the middle cloud deck through gravity waves. Acknowledgements: I.V. Khatuntsev

  16. Computational study: The influence of omni-directional guide vane on the flow pattern characteristic around Savonius wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Yoga Arob; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Standart Savonius wind turbine have a low performance such as low coefficient of power and low coefficient of torque compared with another type of wind turbine. This phenomenon occurs because the wind stream can cause the negative pressure at the returning rotor. To solve this problem, standard Savonius combined with Omni Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) proposed. The aim of this research is to study the influence of ODGV on the flow pattern characteristic around of Savonius wind turbine. The numerical model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with the standard k-ɛ turbulent model. This equation solved by a finite volume discretization method. This case was analyzed by commercial computational fluid dynamics solver such as SolidWorks Flow Simulations. Simulations were performed at the different wind directions; there are 0°, 30°,60° at 4 m/s wind speed. The numerical method validated with the past experimental data. The result indicated that the ODGV able to augment air flow to advancing rotor and decrease the negative pressure in the upstream of returning rotor compared to the bare Savonius wind turbine.

  17. A numerical simulation of the NFAC (National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex) open-return wind tunnel inlet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, U. K.; Ross, J. C.; Jacocks, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The flow into an open return wind tunnel inlet was simulated using Euler equations. An explicit predictor-corrector method was employed to solve the system. The calculation is time-accurate and was performed to achieve a steady-state solution. The predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Wall pressures are accurately predicted except in a region of recirculating flow. Flow-field surveys agree qualitatively with laser velocimeter measurements. The method can be used in the design process for open return wind tunnels.

  18. Wind-US Flow Calculations for the M2129 S-Duct Using Structured and Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow solutions for the M2129 diffusing S-duct with and without vane effectors were computed by the Wind-US flow solver. Both structured and unstructured 3-D grids were used. Without vane effectors, the duct exhibited massive flow separation in both experiment and CFD. With vane effectors installed, the flow remained attached and aerodynamic losses were reduced. Total pressure recovery and distortion near the duct outlet were computed from the solutions and compared favorably to experimental values. These calculations are part of a validation effort for the Wind-US code. They also provide an example case to aid engineers in learning to use the Wind-US software.

  19. Development of quiet-flow supersonic wind tunnels for laminar-turbulent transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1994-01-01

    This grant supported research into quiet-flow supersonic wind-tunnels, between May 1990 and December 1994. Quiet-flow nozzles operate with laminar nozzle-wall boundary layers, in order to provide low-disturbance flow for studies of laminar-turbulent transition under conditions comparable to flight. Major accomplishments include: (1) the design, fabrication, and performance-evaluation of a new kind of quiet tunnel, a quiet-flow Ludweig tube; (2) the integration of preexisting codes for nozzle design, 2D boundary-layer computation, and transition-estimation into a single user-friendly package for quiet-nozzle design; and (3) the design and preliminary evaluation of supersonic nozzles with square cross-section, as an alternative to conventional quiet-flow nozzles. After a brief summary of (1), a description of (2) is presented. Published work describing (3) is then summarized. The report concludes with a description of recent results for the Tollmien-Schlichting and Gortler instability in one of the square nozzles previously analyzed.

  20. Investigation of transonic flow over segmented slotted wind tunnel wall with mass transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, M. K.; Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The flowfield on a segmented multi-slotted wind tunnel wall was studied at transonic speeds by measurements in and near the wall layer using five port cone probes. The slotted wall flowfield was observed to be three-dimensional in nature for a relatively significant distance above the slot. The boundary layer characteristics measured on the single slotted wall were found to be very sensitive to the applied suction through the slot. The perturbation in the velocity components generated due to the flow through the slot decay rapidly in the transverse direction. A vortex-like flow existed on the single slotted wall for natural ventilation but diminished with increased suction flow rate. For flow on a segmented multi-slotted wall, the normal velocity component changes were found to be maximum for measurement points located between the segmented slots atop the active chamber. The lateral influence due to applied suction and blowing, through a compartment, exceeded only slightly that in the downstream direction. Limited upstream influence was observed. Influence coefficients were determined from the data in the least-square sense for blowing and suction applied through one and two compartments. This was found to be an adequate determination of the influence coefficients for the range of mass flows considered.

  1. Flow quality experiment in a tandem nozzle wind tunnel at Mach 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Zamre, Pradip; Radespiel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the disturbance characterization and flow quality improvement of a newly designed Tandem Nozzle Mach 3 Wind Tunnel are presented. Firstly, a combined modal analysis is conducted to characterize the freestream disturbances with initial set-up of the settling chamber by using a Pitot probe and a hot-wire anemometry. Then, disturbance reduction in the supersonic wind tunnel is investigated by inserting various damping materials into the settling chamber, while a Pitot probe instrumented with Kulite sensor is employed to monitor the variation of the Pitot pressure fluctuation in the test section. Eventually, an optimized configuration of the settling chamber is determined by a combination of certain damping materials. Afterward, the freestream disturbances are re-characterized with the optimized set-up of the settling chamber, and the disturbance level is found to be significantly reduced. Through this study, valuable experience has been acquired for the disturbance reduction in tandem nozzle type supersonic wind tunnel for the first time, which enhances the feasibility of extending the operation range of conventional hypersonic Ludwieg tubes.

  2. Flows, Fields, and Forces in the Mars-Solar Wind Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Luhmann, J. G.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Ruhunusiri, S.; Harada, Y.; Fowler, C. M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Mazelle, C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-11-01

    We utilize suprathermal ion and magnetic field measurements from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, organized by the upstream magnetic field, to investigate the morphology and variability of flows, fields, and forces in the Mars-solar wind interaction. We employ a combination of case studies and statistical investigations to characterize the interaction in both quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular regions and under high and low solar wind Mach number conditions. For the first time, we include a detailed investigation of suprathermal ion temperature and anisotropy. We find that the observed magnetic fields and suprathermal ion moments in the magnetosheath, bow shock, and upstream regions have observable asymmetries controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field, with particularly large asymmetries found in the ion parallel temperature and anisotropy. The greatest temperature anisotropies occur in quasi-perpendicular regions of the magnetosheath and under low Mach number conditions. These results have implications for the growth and evolution of wave-particle instabilities and their role in energy transport and dissipation. We utilize the measured parameters to estimate the average ion pressure gradient, J × B, and v × B macroscopic force terms. The pressure gradient force maintains nearly cylindrical symmetry, while the J × B force has larger asymmetries and varies in magnitude in comparison to the pressure gradient force. The v × B force felt by newly produced planetary ions exceeds the other forces in magnitude in the magnetosheath and upstream regions for all solar wind conditions.

  3. Simulations of Solar Wind Plasma Flow Around a Simple Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a number of solar sail missions of various designs and sizes have been proposed (e.g., Geostorm). Of importance to these missions is the interaction between the ambient solar wind plasma environment and the sail. Assuming a typical 1 AU solar wind environment of 400 km/s velocity, 3.5 cu cm density, ion temperature of approx.10 eV, electron temperature of 40 eV, and an ambient magnetic field strength of 10(exp -4) G, a first order estimate of the plasma interaction with square solar sails on the order of the sizes being considered for a Geostorm mission (50 m x 50 m and 75 m x 75 m corresponding to approx.2 and approx.3 times the Debye length in the plasma) is carried out. First, a crude current balance for the sail surface immersed in the plasma environment and in sunlight was used to estimate the surface potential of the model sails. This gave surface potentials of approx.10 V positive relative to the solar wind plasma. A 3-D, Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code was then used to simulate the solar wind flowing around the solar sail. It is assumed in the code that the solar wind protons can be treated as particles while the electrons follow a Boltzmann distribution. Next, the electric field and particle trajectories are solved self-consistently to give the proton flow field, the electrostatic field around the sail, and the plasma density in 3-D. The model sail was found to be surrounded by a plasma sheath within which the potential is positive compared to the ambient plasma and followed by a separate plasma wake which is negative relative to the plasma. This structure departs dramatically from a negatively charged plate such as might be found in the Earth s ionosphere on the night side where both the plate and its negative wake are contiguous. The implications of these findings are discussed as they apply to the proposed Geostorm solar sail mission.

  4. Eddy formation behind a coastal cape in a flow generated by transient longshore wind (Numerical experiments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbas, V. M.; Kuzmina, N. P.; Lyzhkov, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    It is shown that the process of eddy formation behind a coastal cape essentially depends on the method by which longshore flow is generated. Numerical simulations of the flow around a cape generated by transient longshore wind have revealed different modes of eddy formation in a rotating stratified environment depending on such dimensionless parameters as the Burger and Kibel-Rossby numbers, Bu and Ro, respectively. At Ro < 0.6, depending on the magnitude of Bu, either a trapped anticyclonic or cyclonic eddy (at Bu < 0.2) or periodic eddy shedding (at Bu < 0.2) forms. The eddies are weakened and stretched along the coastline at 0.4-0.6 < Ro < 1.4 and ultimately disappear at Ro < 1.4.

  5. Instantaneous flow measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel using spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.; Reeder, Mark F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a feasibility study to apply laser Rayleigh scattering to non-intrusively measure flow properties in a small supersonic wind tunnel are presented. The technique uses an injection seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser tuned to an absorption band of iodine. The molecular Rayleigh scattered light is filtered with an iodine cell to block light at the laser frequency. The Doppler-shifted Rayleigh scattered light that passes through the iodine cell is analyzed with a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static imaging mode. An intensified CCD camera is used to record the images. The images are analyzed at several subregions, where the flow velocity is determined. Each image is obtained with a single laser pulse, giving instantaneous measurements.

  6. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  7. A wind tunnel study of flows over idealised urban surfaces with roughness sublayer corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Dynamics in the roughness (RSLs) and inertial (ISLs) sublayers in the turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over idealised urban surfaces are investigated analytically and experimentally. In this paper, we derive an analytical solution to the mean velocity profile, which is a continuous function applicable to both RSL and ISL, over rough surfaces in isothermal conditions. Afterwards, a modified mixing-length model for RSL/ISL transport is developed that elucidates how surface roughness affects the turbulence motions. A series of wind tunnel experiments are conducted to measure the vertical profiles of mean and fluctuating velocities, together with momentum flux over various configurations of surface-mounted ribs in cross flows using hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The analytical solution agrees well with the wind tunnel result that improves the estimate to mean velocity profile over urban surfaces and TBL dynamics as well. The thicknesses of RSL and ISL are calculated by monitoring the convergence/divergence between the temporally averaged and spatio-temporally averaged profiles of momentum flux. It is found that the height of RSL/ISL interface is a function of surface roughness. Examining the direct, physical influence of roughness elements on near-surface RSL flows reveals that the TBL flows over rough surfaces exhibit turbulence motions of two different length scales which are functions of the RSL and ISL structure. Conclusively, given a TBL, the rougher the surface, the higher is the RSL intruding upward that would thinner the ISL up to 50 %. Therefore, the conventional ISL log-law approximation to TBL flows over urban surfaces should be applied with caution.

  8. Computational investigation of flow control by means of tubercles on Darrieus wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevinç, K.; Özdamar, G.; Şentürk, U.; Özdamar, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents the current status of the computational study of the boundary layer control of a vertical axis wind turbine blade by modifying the blade geometry for use in wind energy conversion. The control method is a passive method which comprises the implementation of the tubercle geometry of a humpback whale flipper onto the leading edge of the blades. The baseline design is an H-type, three-bladed Darrieus turbine with a NACA 0015 cross-section. Finite-volume based software ANSYS Fluent was used in the simulations. Using the optimum control parameters for a NACA 634-021 profile given by Johari et al. (2006), turbine blades were modified. Three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent simulations for the blade were conducted to look for a possible improvement on the performance. The flow structure on the blades was investigated and flow phenomena such as separation and stall were examined to understand their impact on the overall performance. For a tip speed ratio of 2.12, good agreement was obtained in the validation of the baseline model with a relative error in time- averaged power coefficient of 1.05%. Modified turbine simulations with a less expensive but less accurate turbulence model yielded a decrease in power coefficient. Results are shown comparatively.

  9. New results on equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures from Ethiopia, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesema, Fasil; Mesquita, Rafael; Meriwether, John; Damtie, Baylie; Nigussie, Melessew; Makela, Jonathan; Fisher, Daniel; Harding, Brian; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Sanders, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of equatorial thermospheric winds, temperatures, and 630 nm relative intensities were obtained using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), which was recently deployed at Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia (11.6° N, 37.4° E, 3.7° N magnetic). The results obtained in this study cover 6 months (53 nights of useable data) between November 2015 and April 2016. The monthly-averaged values, which include local winter and equinox seasons, show the magnitude of the maximum monthly-averaged zonal wind is typically within the range of 70 to 90 ms-1 and is eastward between 19:00 and 21:00 LT. Compared to prior studies of the equatorial thermospheric wind for this local time period, the magnitude is considerably weaker as compared to the maximum zonal wind speed observed in the Peruvian sector but comparable to Brazilian FPI results. During the early evening, the meridional wind speeds are 30 to 50 ms-1 poleward during the winter months and 10 to 25 ms-1 equatorward in the equinox months. The direction of the poleward wind during the winter months is believed to be mainly caused by the existence of the interhemispheric wind flow from the summer to winter hemispheres. An equatorial wind surge is observed later in the evening and is shifted to later local times during the winter months and to earlier local times during the equinox months. Significant night-to-night variations are also observed in the maximum speed of both zonal and meridional winds. The temperature observations show the midnight temperature maximum (MTM) to be generally present between 00:30 and 02:00 LT. The amplitude of the MTM was ˜ 110 K in January 2016 with values smaller than this in the other months. The local time difference between the appearance of the MTM and a pre-midnight equatorial wind was generally 60 to 180 min. A meridional wind reversal was also observed after the appearance of the MTM (after 02:00 LT). Climatological models, HWM14 and MSIS-00, were compared to the

  10. Large eddy simulation study of the kinetic energy entrainment by energetic turbulent flow structures in large wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VerHulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of how kinetic energy is entrained into large wind turbine arrays and, in particular, how large-scale flow structures contribute to such entrainment. Previous research has shown this entrainment to be an important limiting factor in the performance of very large arrays where the flow becomes fully developed and there is a balance between the forcing of the atmospheric boundary layer and the resistance of the wind turbines. Given the high Reynolds numbers and domain sizes on the order of kilometers, we rely on wall-modeled large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate turbulent flow within the wind farm. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis is then used to identify the most energetic flow structures present in the LES data. We quantify the contribution of each POD mode to the kinetic energy entrainment and its dependence on the layout of the wind turbine array. The primary large-scale structures are found to be streamwise, counter-rotating vortices located above the height of the wind turbines. While the flow is periodic, the geometry is not invariant to all horizontal translations due to the presence of the wind turbines and thus POD modes need not be Fourier modes. Differences of the obtained modes with Fourier modes are documented. Some of the modes are responsible for a large fraction of the kinetic energy flux to the wind turbine region. Surprisingly, more flow structures (POD modes) are needed to capture at least 40% of the turbulent kinetic energy, for which the POD analysis is optimal, than are needed to capture at least 40% of the kinetic energy flux to the turbines. For comparison, we consider the cases of aligned and staggered wind turbine arrays in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer as well as a reference case without wind turbines. While the general characteristics of the flow structures are robust, the net kinetic energy entrainment to the turbines depends on the presence and relative

  11. Evaluation of a CFD-based Wind Model Optimized for ABL Flows: Comparisons with Observations from a Tall Isolated Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, N. S.; Forthofer, J.; Butler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface wind predictions are important for a number of applications, including transport and dispersion, wind energy forecasting, and wildfire behavior. Researchers and forecasters would benefit from a wind model that could be readily applied to complex terrain for use in these disciplines. Unfortunately, near-surface winds in complex terrain are not handled well by traditional modeling approaches. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are increasingly being applied to simulate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows, especially in wind energy applications; however, the standard functionality provided in commercial CFD models is not suitable for ABL flows. Appropriate CFD modeling in the ABL requires modification of empirically-derived wall function parameters and boundary conditions to avoid erroneous streamwise gradients due to inconsistences between inlet profiles and specified boundary conditions. This work presents a new version of a wind model, WindNinja, developed for wildfire applications in complex terrain. The new version offers two options for flow simulations: 1) the native, fast-running mass-consistent method available in previous versions and 2) a CFD approach based on the OpenFOAM toolbox and optimized for ABL flows. The model is described and evaluations of predictions with surface wind data collected from a recent field campaign at a tall isolated mountain are presented. CFD models have typically been evaluated with data collected from relatively simple terrain (e.g., low-elevation hills such as Askervein and Bolund) compared to the highly rugged terrain found in many regions, such as the western U.S. Here we provide one of the first evaluations of a CFD model over real terrain with ruggedness approaching that of landscapes characteristic of the western U.S. and other regions prone to wildfire. A comparison of predictions from the native mass-consistent method and the new CFD method is provided.

  12. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2017-07-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF ( 35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM ( 15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  13. Near-Earth Solar Wind Flows and Related Geomagnetic Activity During more than Four Solar Cycles (1963-2011)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Ian G.; Cane, Hilary V.

    2012-01-01

    In past studies, we classified the near-Earth solar wind into three basic flow types based on inspection of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters in the OMNI database and additional data (e.g., geomagnetic indices, energetic particle, and cosmic ray observations). These flow types are: (1) High-speed streams associated with coronal holes at the Sun, (2) Slow, interstream solar wind, and (3) Transient flows originating with coronal mass ejections at the Sun, including interplanetary coronal mass ejections and the associated upstream shocks and post-shock regions. The solar wind classification in these previous studies commenced with observations in 1972. In the present study, as well as updating this classification to the end of 2011, we have extended the classification back to 1963, the beginning of near-Earth solar wind observations, thereby encompassing the complete solar cycles 20 to 23 and the ascending phase of cycle 24. We discuss the cycle-to-cycle variations in near-Earth solar wind structures and l1e related geomagnetic activity over more than four solar cycles, updating some of the results of our earlier studies.

  14. Natural snowfall reveals large-scale flow structures in the wake of a 2.5-MW wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Chamorro, Leonardo P; Guala, Michele; Howard, Kevin; Riley, Sean; Tucker, James; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-06-24

    To improve power production and structural reliability of wind turbines, there is a pressing need to understand how turbines interact with the atmospheric boundary layer. However, experimental techniques capable of quantifying or even qualitatively visualizing the large-scale turbulent flow structures around full-scale turbines do not exist today. Here we use snowflakes from a winter snowstorm as flow tracers to obtain velocity fields downwind of a 2.5-MW wind turbine in a sampling area of ~36 × 36 m(2). The spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurements are sufficiently high to quantify the evolution of blade-generated coherent motions, such as the tip and trailing sheet vortices, identify their instability mechanisms and correlate them with turbine operation, control and performance. Our experiment provides an unprecedented in situ characterization of flow structures around utility-scale turbines, and yields significant insights into the Reynolds number similarity issues presented in wind energy applications.

  15. Analysis of unsteady flow over Offshore Wind Turbine in combination with different types of foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesbe, Israa; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Aljabair, Sattar

    2017-06-01

    Environmental effects have an important influence on Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) power generation efficiency and the structural stability of such turbines. In this study, we use an in-house Boundary Element (BEM)— panMARE code—to simulate the unsteady flow behavior of a full OWT with various combinations of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads in the time domain. This code is implemented to simulate potential flows for different applications and is based on a three-dimensional first-order panel method. Three different OWT configurations consisting of a generic 5 MW NREL rotor with three different types of foundations (Monopile, Tripod, and Jacket) are investigated. These three configurations are analyzed using the RANSE solver which is carried out using ANSYS CFX for validating the corresponding results. The simulations are performed under the same environmental atmospheric wind shear and rotor angular velocity, and the wave properties are wave height of 4 m and wave period of 7.16 s. In the present work, wave environmental effects were investigated firstly for the two solvers, and good agreement is achieved. Moreover, pressure distribution in each OWT case is presented, including detailed information about local flow fields. The time history of the forces at inflow direction and its moments around the mudline at each OWT part are presented in a dimensionless form with respect to the mean value of the last three loads and the moment amplitudes obtained from the BEM code, where the contribution of rotor force is lower in the tripod case and higher in the jacket case and the calculated hydrodynamic load that effect on jacket foundation type is lower than other two cases.

  16. Wind-Tunnel Modeling of Flow Diffusion over an Urban Complex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    URBAN AREAS, *ATMOSPHERIC MOTION, *AIR POLLUTION, ATMOSPHERIC MOTION, WIND TUNNEL MODELS, HEAT, DIFFUSION , TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER, WIND, SKIN FRICTION, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, URBAN PLANNING, INDIANA.

  17. Unusual behavior of quiet-time zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities over Jicamarca during the recent extended solar minimum of 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ângela M.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, José H. A.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the recent deep and prolonged solar minimum on the daytime zonal and vertical plasma drift velocities during quiet time is investigated in this work. Analyzing the data obtained from incoherent scatter radar from Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W) we observe an anomalous behavior of the zonal plasma drift during June 2008 characterized by lower than usual daytime westward drift and its early afternoon reversal to eastward. As a case study the zonal drift observed on 24 June 2008 is modeled using a realistic low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE (SUPIM-INPE). The results show that an anomalously low zonal wind was mainly responsible for the observed anomalous behavior in the zonal drift. A comparative study of the vertical plasma drifts obtained from magnetometer data for some periods of maximum (2000-2002) and minimum solar activity (1998, 2008, 2010) phases reveal a considerable decrease on the E-region conductivity and the dynamo electric field during 2008. However, we believe that the contribution of these characteristics to the unusual behavior of the zonal plasma drift is significantly smaller than that arising from the anomalously low zonal wind. The SUPIM-INPE result of the critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) over Jicamarca suggested a lower radiation flux than that predicted by solar irradiance model (SOLAR2000) for June 2008.

  18. Observing Equatorial Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures with a New Mapping Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, M. W.; Meriwether, J. W.; Sherwood, P.; Veliz, O.

    2005-12-01

    Application of the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at Arequipa, Peru (16.4S, 71.4 W) to measure the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadenings in the equatorial O(1D) 630-nm nightglow has resulted in numerous detections of a large-scale thermospheric phenomenon called the Midnight Temperature Maximum (MTM). A recent detector upgrade with a CCD camera has improved the accuracy of these measurements by a factor of 5. Temperature increases of 50 to 150K have been measured during nights in April and July, 2005, with error bars less than 10K after averaging in all directions. Moreover, the meridional wind measurements show evidence for a flow reversal from equatorward to poleward near local midnight for such events. A new observing strategy based upon the pioneering work of Burnside et al.[1981] maps the equatorial wind and temperature fields by observing in eight equally-spaced azimuth directions, each with a zenith angle of 60 degrees. Analysis of the data obtained with this technique gives the mean wind velocities in the meridional and zonal directions as well as the horizontal gradients of the wind field for these directions. Significant horizontal wind gradients are found for the meridional direction but not for the zonal direction. The zonal wind blows eastward throughout the night with a maximum speed of ~150 m/s near the middle of the night and then decreases towards zero just before dawn. In general, the fastest poleward meridional wind is observed near mid-evening. By the end of the night, the meridional flow tends to be more equatorward at speeds of about 50 m/s. Using the assumption that local time and longitude are equivalent over a period of 30 minutes, a map of the horizontal wind field vector field is constructed over a range of 12 degrees latitude centered at 16.5 S. Comparison between MTM nights and quiet nights (no MTM) revealed significant differences in the horizontal wind fields. Using the method of Fourier decomposition of the line-of-sight winds

  19. Modeling dynamic stall on wind turbine blades under rotationally augmented flow fields

    SciT

    Guntur, S.; Schreck, S.; Sorensen, N. N.

    It is well known that airfoils under unsteady flow conditions with a periodically varying angle of attack exhibit aerodynamic characteristics different from those under steady flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as dynamic stall. It is also well known that the steady aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in the inboard region of a rotating blade differ from those under steady two-dimensional (2D) flow conditions, a phenomenon commonly known as rotational augmentation. This paper presents an investigation of these two phenomena together in the inboard parts of wind turbine blades. This analysis is carried out using data from three sources: (1) themore » National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI experimental data, including constant as well as continuously pitching blade conditions during axial operation, (2) data from unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) carried out using the Technical University of Denmark’s in-house flow solver Ellipsys3D, and (3) data from a simplified model based on the blade element momentum method with a dynamic stall subroutine that uses rotationally augmented steady-state polars obtained from steady Phase VI experimental sequences, instead of the traditional 2D nonrotating data. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the blade loads estimated by the DDES simulations are compared to three select cases of the N sequence experimental data, which serves as a validation of the DDES method. Results show reasonable agreement between the two data in two out of three cases studied. Second, the dynamic time series of the lift and the moment polars obtained from the experiments are compared to those from the dynamic stall subroutine that uses the rotationally augmented steady polars. This allowed the differences between the stall phenomenon on the inboard parts of harmonically pitching blades on a rotating wind turbine and the classic dynamic stall representation in 2D flow to be

  20. Numerical study on the impact of ground heating and ambient wind speed on flow fields in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Jie; Jiang, Yin

    2012-11-01

    The impact of ground heating on flow fields in street canyons under different ambient wind speed conditions was studied based on numerical methods. A series of numerical tests were performed, and three factors including height-to-width (H/W) ratio, ambient wind speed and ground heating intensity were taken into account. Three types of street canyon with H/W ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively, were used in the simulation and seven speed values ranging from 0.0 to 3.0 m s-1 were set for the ambient wind speed. The ground heating intensity, which was defined as the difference between the ground temperature and air temperature, ranged from 10 to 40 K with an increase of 10 K in the tests. The results showed that under calm conditions, ground heating could induce circulation with a wind speed of around 1.0 m s-1, which is enough to disperse pollutants in a street canyon. It was also found that an ambient wind speed threshold may exist for street canyons with a fixed H/W ratio. When ambient wind speed was lower than the threshold identified in this study, the impact of the thermal effect on the flow field was obvious, and there existed a multi-vortex flow pattern in the street canyon. When the ambient wind speed was higher than the threshold, the circulation pattern was basically determined by dynamic effects. The tests on the impact of heating intensity showed that a higher ground heating intensity could strengthen the vortical flow within the street canyon, which would help improve pollutant diffusion capability in street canyons.

  1. Titan's rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds

    Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.W.; Kirk, R.L.; Allison, M.D.; Del Marmo, P.P.; Iess, L.; Lunine, J.I.; Ostro, S.J.; Hensley, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cassini radar observations of Saturn's moon Titan over several years show that its rotational period is changing and is different from its orbital period. The present-day rotation period difference from synchronous spin leads to a shift of ???0.36?? per year in apparent longitude and is consistent with seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and Titan's dense superrotating atmosphere, but only if Titan's crust is decoupled from the core by an internal water ocean like that on Europa.

  2. Control of Wind Tunnel Operations Using Neural Net Interpretation of Flow Visualization Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, Alvin E.; Decker, Arthur J.

    1994-01-01

    Neural net control of operations in a small subsonic/transonic/supersonic wind tunnel at Lewis Research Center is discussed. The tunnel and the layout for neural net control or control by other parallel processing techniques are described. The tunnel is an affordable, multiuser platform for testing instrumentation and components, as well as parallel processing and control strategies. Neural nets have already been tested on archival schlieren and holographic visualizations from this tunnel as well as recent supersonic and transonic shadowgraph. This paper discusses the performance of neural nets for interpreting shadowgraph images in connection with a recent exercise for tuning the tunnel in a subsonic/transonic cascade mode of operation. That mode was operated for performing wake surveys in connection with NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) noise reduction program. The shadowgraph was presented to the neural nets as 60 by 60 pixel arrays. The outputs were tunnel parameters such as valve settings or tunnel state identifiers for selected tunnel operating points, conditions, or states. The neural nets were very sensitive, perhaps too sensitive, to shadowgraph pattern detail. However, the nets exhibited good immunity to variations in brightness, to noise, and to changes in contrast. The nets are fast enough so that ten or more can be combined per control operation to interpret flow visualization data, point sensor data, and model calculations. The pattern sensitivity of the nets will be utilized and tested to control wind tunnel operations at Mach 2.0 based on shock wave patterns.

  3. Wake effect on a uniform flow behind wind-turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okulov, V. L.; Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2015-06-01

    LDA experiments were carried out to study the development of mean velocity profiles of the very far wake behind a wind turbine model in a water flume. The model of the rotor is placed in a middle of the flume. The initial flume flow is subjected to a very low turbulence level, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent wake instability. The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5 with a constant of the lift coefficient along the span, CL= 0.8. The wake development has been studied in the range of tip speed ratios from 3 to 9, and at different cross-sections from 10 to 100 rotor radii downstream from the rotor. By using regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to obtain accurate velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation. The data are compared with different analytical models for wind turbine wakes.

  4. Zonal wavefront sensing with enhanced spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array. This eventually leads to a wavefront estimation with an enhanced spatial resolution without much sacrifice on the sensor frame rate, thus making the scheme suitable for high spatial resolution measurement of transient wavefronts. We present experimental and numerical simulation results to demonstrate the importance of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  5. Waves in the Magnetic Field and Solar Wind Flow Outside the Bow Shock at Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, A. D.; Glassmeier, K.H.; Acuna, M.; Borg, H.; Byrant, D.; Coates, A.J.; Formisano, V.; Health, J.W.; Mariani, S.; Musmann, G.; Neubauer, F.M.; Thomsen, M.; Wilken, B.; Winningham, J.

    1986-12-01

    An investigation of the low frequency waves, upstream from the bow shock, has been carried out using data from the JPA and MAG instruments on Giotto. The former obtains a snapshot of the solar wind distribution every two spins of the spacecraft, i.e. 8 s. From this data the components of the flow velocity, density and temperature of both protons and alpha particles can be obtained. To compare with these data the magnetic field components, obtained at a rate of 28 values-per-second, have been averaged over the same period of 8 secs. The two data sets can be used to study frequencies up to 60 milliherz, well above the H2O+ gyrofrequency at 6 milliherz, but below the proton gyrofrequency of 100 milliherz.

  6. Numerical simulation to determine the effects of incident wind shear and turbulence level on the flow around a building

    SciT

    Zhang, Y.Q.; Huber, A.H.; Arya, S.P.S.

    The effects of incident shear and turbulence on flow around a cubical building are being investigated by a turbulent kinetic energy/dissipation model (TEMPEST). The numerical simulations demonstrate significant effects due to the differences in the incident flow. The addition of upstream turbulence and shear results in a reduced size of the cavity directly behind the building. The accuracy of numerical simulations is verified by comparing the predicted mean flow fields with the available wind-tunnel measurements of Castro and Robins (1977). Comparing the authors' results with experimental data, the authors show that the TEMPEST model can reasonably simulate the mean flow.

  7. A fast wind-farm boundary-layer model to investigate gravity wave effects and upstream flow deceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    Wind farm design and control often relies on fast analytical wake models to predict turbine wake interactions and associated power losses. Essential input to these models are the inflow velocity and turbulent intensity at hub height, which come from prior measurement campaigns or wind-atlas data. Recent LES studies showed that in some situations large wind farms excite atmospheric gravity waves, which in turn affect the upstream wind conditions. In the current study, we develop a fast boundary-layer model that computes the excitation of gravity waves and the perturbation of the boundary-layer flow in response to an applied force. The core of the model is constituted by height-averaged, linearised Navier-Stokes equations for the inner and outer layer, and the effect of atmospheric gravity waves (excited by the boundary-layer displacement) is included via the pressure gradient. Coupling with analytical wake models allows us to study wind-farm wakes and upstream flow deceleration in various atmospheric conditions. Comparison with wind-farm LES results shows excellent agreement in terms of pressure and boundary-layer displacement levels. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).

  8. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  9. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental tests of the effect of rotor diameter ratio and blade number to the cross-flow wind turbine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, Sandi; Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Santoso, Budi

    2018-02-01

    Cross-flow wind turbine is one of the alternative energy harvester for low wind speeds area. Several factors that influence the power coefficient of cross-flow wind turbine are the diameter ratio of blades and the number of blades. The aim of this study is to find out the influence of the number of blades and the diameter ratio on the performance of cross-flow wind turbine and to find out the best configuration between number of blades and diameter ratio of the turbine. The experimental test were conducted under several variation including diameter ratio between outer and inner diameter of the turbine and number of blades. The variation of turbine diameter ratio between inner and outer diameter consisted of 0.58, 0.63, 0.68 and 0.73 while the variations of the number of blades used was 16, 20 and 24. The experimental test were conducted under certain wind speed which are 3m/s until 4 m/s. The result showed that the configurations between 0.68 diameter ratio and 20 blade numbers is the best configurations that has power coefficient of 0.049 and moment coefficient of 0.185.

  11. Effect of Wind Angle Direction on Carbon Monoxide (CO) Concentration Dispersion on Traffic Flow in Padang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, V. S.; Purnawan, P.; Afrianita, R.; Dahlia, N.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the relationship between CO concentration and wind direction. Wind direction in this context is the wind angle to the road on the traffic flow in Padang City. Sampling of CO concentration was conducted for 9 days at 3 monitoring points (each 3-day point) representing the wind angle to the road (a) i.e. at Jend. A. Yani road (0 degrees), Andalas road (30 degrees) and Prof. Dr. Hamka road (60 degrees), using impinger and analyzed by spectrophotometer. The results of the research in the three monitoring sites showed that the concentration of CO ranged between 137.217 and 600.525 μg/Nm3. The highest and lowest concentrations respectively on Prof. Dr. Hamka road and Jend. A. Yani road. The sampling showed that CO concentrations will be decreased if wind direction is changed from perpendicular wind direction (a 90°) to a 60°, 30°, and 0° respectively by 64.62%, 37.77% and 27.09%. It can be concluded that the wind angle direction to the road affects the CO concentrations in the roadside.

  12. Equatorial superrotation in a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    Near the equator where the Coriolis force vanishes, the momentum balance for the axially symmetric circulation is established between horizontal and vertical diffusion, which, a priori, does not impose constraints on the direction or magnitude of the zonal winds. Solar radiation absorbed at low latitudes is a major force in driving large scale motions with air rising near the equator and falling at higher latitudes. In the upper leg of the meridional cell, angular momentum is redistributed so that the atmosphere tends to subrotate (or corotate) at low latitudes and superrotate at high latitudes. In the lower leg, however, the process is reversed and produces a tendency for the equatorial region to superrotate. The outcome depends on the energy budget which is closely coupled to the momentum budget through the thermal wind equation; a pressure (temperature) maximum is required to sustain equatorial superrotation. Such a condition arises in regions which are convectively unstable and the temperature lapse rate is superadiabatic. It should arise in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; planetary energy from the interior is carried to higher altitudes where radiation to space becomes important. Upward equatorial motions in the direct and indirect circulations (Ferrel-Thomson type) imposed by insolation can then trap dynamic energy for equatorial heating which can sustain the superrotation of the equatorial region.

  13. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    a r-re complete set of equations is used, but their effect is imposed by means of a right hand side forcing function, not by means of a zonal boundary...modifications of flow-simulation algorithms The explicit finite-difference code of Magnus and are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions...used to simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse achieve computational efficiency. More recently, effect on flow-field algorithms and

  14. SIMULATION OF WIND FIELDS OVER POINT ARGUELLO, CALIFORNIA, BY WIND-TUNNEL FLOW OVER A TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    decay rates for diffusing tracers. The data revealed that a laminar laboratory flow may be used to simulate a turbulent field flow under conditions of...stable thermal stratification and complex terrain. In such flow conditions, diffusion is dominated by convective dispersion. (Author)

  15. Investigation of flow characteristics of a single and two-adjacent natural draft dry cooling towers under cross wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekanik, Abolghasem; Soleimani, Mohsen

    2007-11-01

    Wind effect on natural draught cooling towers has a very complex physics. The fluid flow and temperature distribution around and in a single and two adjacent (tandem and side by side) dry-cooling towers under cross wind are studied numerically in the present work. Cross-wind can significantly reduce cooling efficiency of natural-draft dry-cooling towers, and the adjacent towers can affect the cooling efficiency of both. In this paper we will present a complex computational model involving more than 750,000 finite volume cells under precisely defined boundary condition. Since the flow is turbulent, the standard k-ɛ turbulence model is used. The numerical results are used to estimate the heat transfer between radiators of the tower and air surrounding it. The numerical simulation explained the main reason for decline of the thermo-dynamical performance of dry-cooling tower under cross wind. In this paper, the incompressible fluid flow is simulated, and the flow is assumed steady and three-dimensional.

  16. Advanced Undergraduate and Early Graduate Physics Students' Misconception about Solar Wind Flow: Evidence of Students' Difficulties in Distinguishing Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Nicholas A.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that advanced undergraduate students confuse the spiral structure of the interplanetary magnetic field with the flow of the solar wind. Though it is a small study, this paper documents this misconception and begins to investigate the underlying issues behind it. We present evidence that the traditional presentation…

  17. Boundary Condition Study for the Juncture Flow Experiment in the NASA Langley 14x22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Carlson, J.-R.; Hannon, J. A.; Jenkins, L. N.; Bartram, S. M.; Pulliam, T. H.; Lee, H. C.

    2017-01-01

    Because future wind tunnel tests associated with the NASA Juncture Flow project are being designed for the purpose of CFD validation, considerable effort is going into the characterization of the wind tunnel boundary conditions, particularly at inflow. This is important not only because wind tunnel flowfield nonuniformities can play a role in integrated testing uncertainties, but also because the better the boundary conditions are known, the better CFD can accurately represent the experiment. This paper describes recent investigative wind tunnel tests involving two methods to measure and characterize the oncoming flow in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The features of each method, as well as some of their pros and cons, are highlighted. Boundary conditions and modeling tactics currently used by CFD for empty-tunnel simulations are also described, and some results using three different CFD codes are shown. Preliminary CFD parametric studies associated with the Juncture Flow model are summarized, to determine sensitivities of the flow near the wing-body juncture region of the model to a variety of modeling decisions.

  18. 77 FR 485 - Wind Plant Performance-Public Meeting on Modeling and Testing Needs for Complex Air Flow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... modeling needs and experimental validation techniques for complex flow phenomena in and around off- shore... experimental validation. Ultimately, research in this area may lead to significant improvements in wind plant... meeting will consist of an initial plenary session in which invited speakers will survey available...

  19. Turbulent Reynolds stress and quadrant event activity in wind flow over a coastal foredune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Connie A.; Walker, Ian J.; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin G. D.

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on quasi-instantaneous turbulent kinematic Reynolds stresses (RS, - u'w') and decomposed quadrant event activity (e.g., ejections and sweeps) over dunes in fluvial settings and in wind tunnels has shown that turbulent stresses at the toe of a dune often exceed time-averaged, streamwise shear stress (ρ u * 2) estimates. It is believed that semi-coherent turbulent structures are conveyed toward the bed along concave streamlines in this region and that impact of these structures cause fluctuations in local surface stresses that assist in grain entrainment. This has been hypothesized to explain how sand is supplied to the windward slope through a region of flow stagnation. Toward the crest, surface stress increases and becomes dominated by streamwise accelerations resulting from streamline compression and convexity that suppress vertical motions. High-frequency (32 Hz) measurements of turbulent wind flow from 3-D ultrasonic anemometers are analyzed for oblique onshore flow over a vegetated coastal foredune in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Reynolds stress and quadrant activity distributions varied with height (0.60 m and 1.66 m) and location over the dune. In general, quadrant 2 ejection (u' < 0, w' > 0) and quadrant 4 sweep activity (u' > 0, w' < 0) dominated momentum transfer and RS generation over quadrant 1 outward interaction (u' > 0, w' > 0) and quadrant 3 inward interaction (u' < 0, w' < 0) activity. On the lower stoss slope, significant ejection and sweep event activity was most frequent (85 to 92%, ejections plus sweeps), whereas, at the upper crest, significant ejection and sweep activity became less frequent while significant outward and inward interactions increased in frequency (25 to 36%). An 'exuberance effect' (i.e., changing shape of quadrant frequency distribution skewed toward ejection and sweep activity) is observed whereby streamline compression and convexity effects inhibit vertical fluctuations in flow and, thus, reduce the

  20. Curved-flow, rolling-flow, and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel test methods for determination of dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic stability derivatives are evaluated on the basis of rolling-flow, curved-flow and snaking tests. Attention is given to the hardware associated with curved-flow, rolling-flow and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel tests. It is found that the snaking technique, when combined with linear- and forced-oscillation methods, yields an important method for evaluating beta derivatives for current configurations at high angles of attack. Since the rolling flow model is fixed during testing, forced oscillations may be imparted to the model, permitting the measurement of damping and cross-derivatives. These results, when coupled with basic rolling-flow or rotary-balance data, yield a highly accurate mathematical model for studies of incipient spin and spin entry.

  1. Flow Visualization Techniques in Wind Tunnel Tests of a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Bennett, Mark; Crowder, James P.; Cooper, Don; Olson, Lawrence (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of the flow-visualization experiments was to document the forebody and leading edge extension (LEX) vortex interaction along with the wing flow patterns at high angles of attack and low speed high Reynolds number conditions. This investigation used surface pressures in addition to both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, LEXS, and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system for three-dimension vortex tracking. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20 deg to 45 deg and over a sideslip range from -10 deg to 10 deg. The various visualization techniques as well as the pressure distributions were used to understand the flow field structure. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings as well as the vortical flow over the leading-edge extensions. This paper will also present flow visualization comparisons with the F-18 HARV flight vehicle and small-scale oil flows on the F-18.

  2. Modeling Solar Wind Flow with the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite

    DOE PAGES

    Pogorelov, N.V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Bedford, M. C.; ...

    2013-04-01

    Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) is a package of numerical codes capable of performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations of complex plasma flows in the presence of discontinuities and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms. The flow of the ionized component is described with the ideal MHD equations, while the transport of atoms is governed either by the Boltzmann equation or multiple Euler gas dynamics equations. We have enhanced the code with additional physical treatments for the transport of turbulence and acceleration of pickup ions in the interplanetary space and at the termination shock. In this article, we present themore » results of our numerical simulation of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) in different time-dependent and stationary formulations. Numerical results are compared with the Ulysses, Voyager, and OMNI observations. Finally, the SW boundary conditions are derived from in-situ spacecraft measurements and remote observations.« less

  3. Computer analysis of flow perturbations generated by placement of choke bumps in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.

  4. Wind Tunnel Study on Flows over Various Two-dimensional Idealized Urban-liked Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Extensive human activities (e.g. increased traffic emissions) emit a wide range of pollutants resulting in poor urban area air quality. Unlike open, flat and homogenous rural terrain, urban surface is complicated by the presence of buildings, obstacles and narrow streets. The irregular urban surfaces thus form a random roughness that further modifies the near-surface flows and pollutant dispersion. In this study, a physical modelling approach is employed to commence a series of wind tunnel experiments to study the urban-area air pollution problems. The flow characteristics over different hypothetical urban roughness surfaces were studied in a wind tunnel in isothermal conditions. Preliminary experiments were conducted based on six types of idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyon models with various building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios (ARs) 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/12. The main instrumentation is an in-house 90o X-hotwire anemometry. In each set of configuration, a sampling street canyon was selected near the end of the streamwise domain. Its roof level, i.e. the transverse between the mid points of the upstream and downstream buildings, was divided into eight segments. The measurements were then recorded on the mid-plane of the spannwise domain along the vertical profile (from building roof level to the ceiling of wind tunnel) of the eight segments. All the data acquisition processes were handled by the NI data acquisition modules, NI 9239 and CompactDAQ-9188 hardware. Velocity calculation was carried out in the post-processing stage on a digital computer. The two-component flow velocities and velocity fluctuations were calculated at each sampling points, therefore, for each model, a streamwise average of eight vertical profiles of mean velocity and velocity fluctuations was presented. A plot of air-exchange rate (ACH) against ARs was also presented in order to examine the ventilation performance of different tested models. Preliminary results

  5. A Zonal Approach for Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    A zonal approach for direct computation of sound generation and propagation from a supersonic jet is investigated. The present work splits the computational domain into a nonlinear, acoustic-source regime and a linear acoustic wave propagation regime. In the nonlinear regime, the unsteady flow is governed by the large-scale equations, which are the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the linear acoustic regime, the sound wave propagation is described by the linearized Euler equations. Computational results are presented for a supersonic jet at M = 2. 1. It is demonstrated that no spurious modes are generated in the matching region and the computational expense is reduced substantially as opposed to fully large-scale simulation.

  6. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow.

    PubMed

    Hu, L H; Huo, R; Yang, D

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons--a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  7. Theoretical and experimental zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift velocity observations and their comparison with model calculations. The bubble zonal velocities were measured using airglow OI630 nm all-sky digital images and the model calculations were performed taking into account flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and conductivity weighted neutral zonal winds. The digital images were obtained from an all-sky imaging system operated over the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (Geogr. 22.5S, 45W, dip angle 31.5S) during the period from October 1998 to August 2000. Out of the 138 nights of imager observation, 29 nights with the presence of plasma bubbles are used in this study. These 29 nights correspond to geomagnetically rather quiet days (∑K P < 24+) and were grouped according to season. During the early night hours, the calculated zonal drift velocities were found to be larger than the experimental values. The best matching between the calculated and observed zonal velocities were seen to be for a few hours around midnight. The model calculation showed two humps around 20 LT and 24 LT that were not present in the data. Average decelerations obtained from linear regression between 20 LT and 24 LT were found to be: (a) Spring 1998, -8.61 ms -1 h -1; (b) Summer 1999, -0.59 ms -1 h -1; (c) Spring 1999, -11.72 ms -1 h -1; and (d) Summer 2000, -8.59 ms -1 h -1. Notice that Summer and Winter here correspond to southern hemisphere Summer and Winter, not northern hemisphere.

  8. Self-similarity and flow characteristics of vertical-axis wind turbine wakes: an LES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Dabiri, John O.

    2017-04-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is coupled with a turbine model to study the structure of the wake behind a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). In the simulations, a tuning-free anisotropic minimum dissipation model is used to parameterise the subfilter stress tensor, while the turbine-induced forces are modelled with an actuator line technique. The LES framework is first validated in the simulation of the wake behind a model straight-bladed VAWT placed in the water channel and then used to study the wake structure downwind of a full-scale VAWT sited in the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, the self-similarity of the wake is examined, and it is found that the wake velocity deficit can be well characterised by a two-dimensional multivariate Gaussian distribution. By assuming a self-similar Gaussian distribution of the velocity deficit, and applying mass and momentum conservation, an analytical model is developed and tested to predict the maximum velocity deficit downwind of the turbine. Also, a simple parameterisation of VAWTs for LES with very coarse grid resolutions is proposed, in which the turbine is modelled as a rectangular porous plate with the same thrust coefficient. The simulation results show that, after some downwind distance (x/D ≈ 6), both actuator line and rectangular porous plate models have similar predictions for the mean velocity deficit. These results are of particular importance in simulations of large wind farms where, due to the coarse spatial resolution, the flow around individual VAWTs is not resolved.

  9. Teflon probing for the flow characterization of arc-heated wind tunnel facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulli, Stefano; Ground, Cody; Crisanti, Matthew; Maddalena, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The experimental flow characterization of the arc-heated wind tunnel of the University of Texas at Arlington is investigated in this work using ablative Teflon probes in combination with total pressure measurements. A parallel analytical work, focused on the dimensional analysis of the ablation process, has been conducted with the purpose of improving existing semi-empirical correlations for the heat blockage due to the mass injection inside the boundary layer. A control volume analysis at the receding surface of the specimens is used to calculate the wall heat transfer for a non-ablating probe by including the blockage effect. The new correlations, obtained for the convective blockage, show an improvement of the correlation coefficient of 110 % with respect to those available in literature, once a new blowing parameter containing the stagnation pressure is introduced. A correlation developed by NASA during the Round-Robin program, which relates the Teflon mass loss rate to the total pressure and cold-wall heat flux measured experimentally, is also used to predict the wall heat transfer referred to the ablation temperature of Teflon. For both approaches, a simplified stagnation point convective heat transfer equation allows the average stagnation enthalpy to be calculated. Several locations downstream of the nozzle exit have been surveyed, and selected points of the facility's performance map have been used for the experimental campaign. The results show that both approaches provide similar results in terms of stagnation heat flux and enthalpy prediction with uncertainties comparable to those provided by standard intrusive heat flux probes ( δ q max < 25 %). The analysis of the Teflon's ablated surface does not reveal significant flow non-uniformities, and a 1.14 heat flux enhancement factor due to the shock-shock interaction is detectable at x = 3.5 in. from the nozzle exit plane. The results show the use of ablative probes for the flow characterization of arc

  10. Application of ``POLIS'' PIV system for measurement of velocity fields in a supersonic flow of the wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetbekov, Y. K.; Bilsky, A. V.; Markovich, D. M.; Maslov, A. A.; Polivanov, P. A.; Tsyryul'Nikov, I. S.; Yaroslavtsev, M. I.

    2009-09-01

    Measurement results on the mean velocity fields and fields of velocity pulsations in the supersonic flows obtained by means of the PIV measurement set “POLIS” are presented. Experiments were carried out in the supersonic blow-down and stationary wind tunnels at the Mach numbers of 4.85 and 6. The method of flow velocity estimate in the test section of the blow-down wind tunnel was grounded by direct measurements of stagnation pressure in the setup settling chamber. The size of tracer particles introduced into the supersonic flow by a mist generator was determined; data on the structure of pulsating velocity in a track of an oblique-cut gas-dynamic whistle were obtained under the conditions of self-oscillations.

  11. Velocity-intermittency structure for wake flow of the pitched single wind turbine under different inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crist, Ryan; Cal, Raul Bayoan; Ali, Naseem; Rockel, Stanislav; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The velocity-intermittency quadrant method is used to characterize the flow structure of the wake flow in the boundary layer of a wind turbine array. Multifractal framework presents the intermittency as a pointwise Hölder exponent. A 3×3 wind turbine array tested experimentally provided a velocity signal at a 21×9 downstream location, measured via hot-wire anemometry. The results show a negative correlation between the velocity and the intermittency at the hub height and bottom tip, whereas the top tip regions show a positive correlation. Sweep and ejection based on the velocity and intermittency are dominant downstream from the rotor. The pointwise results reflect large-scale organization of the flow and velocity-intermittency events corresponding to a foreshortened recirculation region near the hub height and the bottom tip.

  12. A laser-sheet flow visualization technique for the large wind tunnels of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, M. S.; Ross, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A flow visualization technique for the large wind tunnels of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is described. The technique uses a laser sheet generated by the NFAC Long Range Laser Velocimeter (LRLV) to illuminate a smoke-like tracer in the flow. The LRLV optical system is modified slightly, and a scanned mirror is added to generate the sheet. These modifications are described, in addition to the results of an initial performance test conducted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. During this test, flow visualization was performed in the wake region behind a truck as part of a vehicle drag reduction study. The problems encountered during the test are discussed, in addition to the recommended improvements needed to enhance the performance of the technique for future applications.

  13. Turbine endwall two-cylinder program. [wind tunnel and water tunnel investigation of three dimensional separation of fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in an effort to study the three dimensional separation of fluid flow around two isolated cylinders mounted on an endwall. The design and performance of a hydrogen bubble generator for water tunnel tests to determine bulk flow properties and to measure main stream velocity and boundary layer thickness are described. Although the water tunnel tests are behind schedule because of inlet distortion problems, tests are far enough along to indicate cylinder spacing, wall effects and low Reynolds number behavior, all of which impacted wind tunnel model design. The construction, assembly, and operation of the wind tunnel and the check out of its characteristics are described. An off-body potential flow program was adapted to calculate normal streams streamwise pressure gradients at the saddle point locations.

  14. Wind-mediated horseweed (Conyza canadensis) gene flow: pollen emission, dispersion, and deposition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyan; Ye, Rongjian; Qi, Meilan; Li, Xiangzhen; Miller, David R; Stewart, Charles Neal; DuBois, David W; Wang, Junming

    2015-07-01

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is a problem weed in crop production because of its evolved resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides. Although horseweed is mainly self-pollinating, glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed can pollinate glyphosate-susceptible (GS) horseweed. To the best of our knowledge, however, there are no available data on horseweed pollen production, dispersion, and deposition relative to gene flow and the evolution of resistance. To help fill this knowledge gap, a 43-day field study was performed in Champaign, Illinois, USA in 2013 to characterize horseweed atmospheric pollen emission, dispersion, and deposition. Pollen concentration and deposition, coupled with atmospheric data, were measured in a source field (180 m by 46 m) and its surrounding areas up to 1 km downwind horizontally and up to 100 m vertically. The source strength (emission rate) ranged from 0 to 140 pollen grains per plant per second (1170 to 2.1×10(6) per plant per day). For the life of the study, the estimated number of pollen grains generated from this source field was 10.5×10(10) (2.3×10(6) per plant). The release of horseweed pollen was not strongly correlated to meteorological data and may be mainly determined by horseweed physiology. Horseweed pollen reached heights of 80 to100 m, making long-distance transport possible. Normalized (by source data) pollen deposition with distance followed a negative-power exponential curve. Normalized pollen deposition was 2.5% even at 480 m downwind from the source edge. Correlation analysis showed that close to or inside the source field at lower heights (≤3 m) vertical transport was related to vertical wind speed, while horizontal pollen transport was related to horizontal wind speed. High relative humidity prevented pollen transport at greater heights (3-100 m) and longer distances (0-1000 m) from the source. This study can contribute to the understanding of how herbicide-resistance weeds or invasive plants affect ecology

  15. Static and Wind Tunnel Aero-Performance Tests of NASA AST Separate Flow Nozzle Noise Reduction Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikkelsen, Kevin L.; McDonald, Timothy J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of cold flow model tests to determine the static and wind tunnel performance of several NASA AST separate flow nozzle noise reduction configurations. The tests were conducted by Aero Systems Engineering, Inc., for NASA Glenn Research Center. The tests were performed in the Channels 14 and 6 static thrust stands and the Channel 10 transonic wind tunnel at the FluiDyne Aerodynamics Laboratory in Plymouth, Minnesota. Facility checkout tests were made using standard ASME long-radius metering nozzles. These tests demonstrated facility data accuracy at flow conditions similar to the model tests. Channel 14 static tests reported here consisted of 21 ASME nozzle facility checkout tests and 57 static model performance tests (including 22 at no charge). Fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.4 to 2.0, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Channel 10 wind tunnel tests consisted of 15 tests at Mach number 0.28 and 31 tests at Mach 0.8. The sting was checked out statically in Channel 6 before the wind tunnel tests. In the Channel 6 facility, 12 ASME nozzle data points were taken and 7 model data points were taken. In the wind tunnel, fan nozzle pressure ratio varied from 1.73 to 2.8, and fan to core total pressure ratio varied from 1.0 to 1.19. Core to fan total temperature ratio was 1.0. Test results include thrust coefficients, thrust vector angle, core and fan nozzle discharge coefficients, total pressure and temperature charging station profiles, and boat-tail static pressure distributions in the wind tunnel.

  16. Raindrop and flow interactions for interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    Wind-driven rain (WDR) experiments were conducted to evaluate interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model with two-dimensional experimental set-up in wind tunnel. Synchronized wind and rain simulations were applied to soil surfaces on windward and leeward slopes of 7, 15...

  17. Galactic cosmic-ray mediation of a spherical solar wind flow. 1: The steady state cold gas hydrodynamical approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Ptuskin, V. S.

    1995-01-01

    Realistic models of the outer heliosphere should consider that the interstellar cosmic-ray pressure becomes comparable to pressures in the solar wind at distances more than 100 AU from the Sun. The cosmic-ray pressure dynamically affects solar wind flow through deceleration. This effect, which occurs over a scale length of the order of the effective diffusion length at large radial distances, has important implications for cosmic-ray modulation and acceleration. As a first step toward solution of this nonlinear problem, a steady state numerical model was developed for a relatively cold spherical solar wind flow which encounters the confining isotropic pressure of the surrounding Galactic medium. This pressure is assumed to be dominated by energetic particles (Galactic cosmic rays). The system of equations, which are solved self-consistently, includes the relevant hydrodynamical equations for the solar wind flow and the spherical cosmic-ray transport equation. To avoid the closure parameter problem of the two-fluid model, the latter equation is solved for the energy-dependent cosmic-ray distribution function.

  18. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  19. Results of a zonally truncated three-dimensional model of the Venus middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equatorial rotational speed of the solid surface of Venus is only 4 m s(exp-1), the atmospheric rotational speed reaches a maximum of approximately 100 m s(exp-1) near the equatorial cloud top level (65 to 70 km). This phenomenon, known as superrotation, is the central dynamical problem of the Venus atmosphere. We report here the results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the mechanism for maintaining the equatorial cloud top rotation. Maintenance of an equatorial rotational speed maximum above the surface requires waves or eddies that systematically transport angular momentum against its zonal mean gradient. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is driven thermally and acts to reduce the rotational speed at the equatorial cloud top level; thus wave or eddy transport must counter this tendency as well as friction. Planetary waves arising from horizontal shear instability of the zonal flow (barotropic instability) could maintain the equatorial rotation by transporting angular momentum horizontally from midlatitudes toward the equator. Alternatively, vertically propagating waves could provide the required momentum source. The relative motion between the rotating atmosphere and the pattern of solar heating, which as a maximum where solar radiation is absorbed near the cloud tops, drives diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that propagate vertically away from the cloud top level. The effect of this wave propagation is to transport momentum toward the cloud top level at low latitudes and accelerate the mean zonal flow there. We employ a semispectral primitive equation model with a zonal mean flow and zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. These waves correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, but they can also be excited by barotropic or baroclinic instability. Waves of higher wavenumbers and interactions between the waves are neglected. Symmetry about the equator is assumed, so the model applies to one hemisphere and covers the altitude range 30 to

  20. Miniaturized compact water-cooled pitot-pressure probe for flow-field surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the design of pitot probes for flowfield surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels is reported. The results show that a pitot-pressure probe can be miniaturized for minimum interference effects by locating the transducer in the probe support body and water-cooling it so that the pressure-settling time and transducer temperature are compatible with hypersonic tunnel operation and flow conditions. Flowfield surveys around a two-to-one elliptical cone model in a 20-inch Mach 6 wind tunnel using such a probe show that probe interference effects are essentially eliminated.

  1. Final Report for ALCC Allocation: Predictive Simulation of Complex Flow in Wind Farms

    SciT

    Barone, Matthew F.; Ananthan, Shreyas; Churchfield, Matt

    This report documents work performed using ALCC computing resources granted under a proposal submitted in February 2016, with the resource allocation period spanning the period July 2016 through June 2017. The award allocation was 10.7 million processor-hours at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. The simulations performed were in support of two projects: the Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) project, supported by the DOE EERE office; and the Exascale Computing Project (ECP), supported by the DOE Office of Science. The project team for both efforts consists of staff scientists and postdocs from Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energymore » Laboratory. At the heart of these projects is the open-source computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code, Nalu. Nalu solves the low-Mach-number Navier-Stokes equations using an unstructured- grid discretization. Nalu leverages the open-source Trilinos solver library and the Sierra Toolkit (STK) for parallelization and I/O. This report documents baseline computational performance of the Nalu code on problems of direct relevance to the wind plant physics application - namely, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow and wall-modeled LES of a flow past a static wind turbine rotor blade. Parallel performance of Nalu and its constituent solver routines residing in the Trilinos library has been assessed previously under various campaigns. However, both Nalu and Trilinos have been, and remain, in active development and resources have not been available previously to rigorously track code performance over time. With the initiation of the ECP, it is important to establish and document baseline code performance on the problems of interest. This will allow the project team to identify and target any deficiencies in performance, as well as highlight any performance bottlenecks as we exercise the code on a greater variety of platforms and at larger scales. The current

  2. Wind tunnel investigation of vortex flows on F/A-18 configuration at subsonic through transonic speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the David Taylor Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Transonic Tunnel of the wing leading-edge extension (LEX) and forebody vortex flows at subsonic and transonic speeds about a 0.06-scale model of the F/A-18. The primary goal was to improve the understanding and control of the vortical flows, including the phenomena of vortex breakdown and vortex interactions with the vertical tails. Laser vapor screen flow visualizations, LEX, and forebody surface static pressures, and six-component forces and moments were obtained at angles of attack of 10 to 50 degrees, free-stream Mach numbers of 0.20 to 0.90, and Reynolds numbers based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord of 0.96 x 10(exp 6) to 1.75 x 10(exp 6). The wind tunnel results were correlated with in-flight flow visualizations and handling qualities trends obtained by NASA using an F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) and by the Navy and McDonnell Douglas on F-18 aircraft with LEX fences added to improve the vertical tail buffet environment. Key issues that were addressed include the sensitivity of the vortical flows to the Reynolds number and Mach number; the reduced vertical tail excitation, and the corresponding flow mechanism, in the presence of the LEX fence; the repeatability of data obtained during high angle-of-attack wind tunnel testing of F-18 models; the effects of particle seeding for flow visualization on the quantitative model measurements; and the interpretation of off-body flow visualizations obtained using different illumination and particle seeding techniques.

  3. Zonal-Mean Temperature Variations Inferred from SABER Measurements on TIMED Compared with UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Reber, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, Mayr et al., 2003), small-scale gravity waves propagating in the north/south direction can generate zonal mean (m = 0) meridional wind oscillations with periods between 2 and 4 months. These oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and have been interpreted to be the meridional counterpart of the wave-driven Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the zonal circulation. Wave driven meridional winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. We have analyzed SABER temperature measurements in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to investigate the existence such variations. Because there are also strong tidal signatures (up to approximately 20 K) in the data, our algorithm estimates both mean values and tides together from the data. Based on SABER temperature data, the intra-annual variations with periods between 2 and 4 months can have amplitudes up to 5 K or more, depending on the altitude. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with those inferred Erom UARS data (from different years). The SABER temperature variations also reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, which are qualitatively consistent with wave driven meridional wind oscillations across the equator. Oscillations with similar periods have been seen in the meridional winds based on UARS data (Huang and Reber, 2003).

  4. Wind-induced interannual variability of sea level slope, along-shelf flow, and surface salinity on the Northwest Atlantic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Ji, Rubao; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Chen, Changsheng; Hare, Jonathan A.; Davis, Cabell S.; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we examine the importance of regional wind forcing in modulating advective processes and hydrographic properties along the Northwest Atlantic shelf, with a focus on the Nova Scotian Shelf (NSS)-Gulf of Maine (GoM) region. Long-term observational data of alongshore wind stress, sea level slope, and along-shelf flow are analyzed to quantify the relationship between wind forcing and hydrodynamic responses on interannual time scales. Additionally, a simplified momentum balance model is used to examine the underlying mechanisms. Our results show significant correlation among the observed interannual variability of sea level slope, along-shelf flow, and alongshore wind stress in the NSS-GoM region. A mechanism is suggested to elucidate the role of wind in modulating the sea level slope and along-shelf flow: stronger southwesterly (northeastward) winds tend to weaken the prevailing southwestward flow over the shelf, building sea level in the upstream Newfoundland Shelf region, whereas weaker southwesterly winds allow stronger southwestward flow to develop, raising sea level in the GoM region. The wind-induced flow variability can influence the transport of low-salinity water from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the GoM, explaining interannual variations in surface salinity distributions within the region. Hence, our results offer a viable mechanism, besides the freshening of remote upstream sources, to explain interannual patterns of freshening in the GoM.

  5. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the OpenFOAM-based Flow Solver of the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA): Preprint

    SciT

    Churchfield, M. J.; Sang, L.; Moriarty, P. J.

    This paper describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver such that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with somepreliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simply set of hills.

  6. Low-latitude thermospheric neutral winds determined from AE-E measurements of the 6300-A nightglow at solar maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrage, M. D.; Abreu, V. J.; Fesen, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) measurements of the O(1D) 6300-A emission in the nighttime equatorial thermosphere are used to infer the height of the F2 layer peak as a function of latitude and local time. The investigation is conducted both for northern hemisphere winter solstice and for spring equinox, under solar maximum conditions. The layer heights are used to derive magnetic meridional components of the transequatorial neutral wind, in conjunction with the MSIS-86 model and previous Jicamarca incoherent scatter measurements of the zonal electric field. The AE-E wind estimates indicate a predominant summer to winter flow for the winter solstice case. Comparisons are made with the empirical horizontal wind model HWM87 and with winds generated by the thermospheric general circulation model. The model predictions and experimental results are generally in good agreement, confirming the applicability of visible airglow data to studies of the global neutral wind pattern.

  7. Experiments on tropical stratospheric mean-wind variations in a spectral general circulation model

    SciT

    Hamilton, K.; Yuan, L.

    1992-12-15

    A 30-level version of the rhomboidal-15 GFDL spectral climate model was constructed with roughly 2-km vertical resolution. This model fails to produce a realistic quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropical stratosphere. Several simulations were conducted in which the zonal-mean winds and temperatures in the equatorial lower and middle stratosphere were instantaneously perturbed and the model was integrated while the mean state relaxed toward its equilibrium. The time scale for the mean wind relaxation varied from over one month at 40 km to a few months in the lower stratosphere. The wind relaxations in the model also displayed the downward phasemore » propagation characteristic of QBO wind reversals, and mean wind anomalies of opposite sign to the imposed perturbation appear at higher levels. In the GCM the downward propagation is clear only above about 20 mb. Detailed investigations were made of the zonal-mean zonal momentum budget in the equatorial stratosphere. The mean flow relaxations above 20 mb were mostly driven by the vertical Eliassen-Palm flux convergence. The anomalies in the horizontal Eliassen-Palm fluxes from extratropical planetary waves were found to be the dominant effect forcing the mean flow to its equilibrium at altitudes below 20 mb. The vertical eddy momentum fluxes near the equator in the model were decomposed using space-time Fourier analysis. While total fluxes associated with easterly and westerly waves are comparable to those used in simple mechanistic models of the QBO, the GCM has its flux spread over a broad range of wavenumbers and phase speeds. The effects of vertical resolution were studied by repeating part of the control integration with a 69-level version of the model with greatly enhance vertical resolution in the lower and middle stratosphere. The results showed that there is almost no sensitivity of the simulation in the tropical stratosphere to the increased vertical resolution. 34 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  8. Mean winds and momemtum fluxes over Jicamarca, Peru, during June and August 1987

    SciT

    Hitchman, M.H.; Bywaters, K.W.; Fritts, D.C.

    1992-12-15

    Data from the mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar at Jicamarca, Peru, together with other available data, are used to diagnose the mean structure of winds and gravity-wave momentum fluxes from the surface to 90 km during two ten-day campaigns in June and August of 1987. In the stratosphere a layer of maximum eastward flow associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) was seen to strengthen and descend rapidly from June to August, overlying persitent westward flow. A layer of enhanced signal return, suggestive of a turbulent layer, was observed just above the descending QBO eastward maximum. Notable zonal asymmetries were present during thismore » transition and the local meridional circulation departed form zonal-mean QBO theory. A substantial northeastward momentum flux was found below 25 km, which may be related to topographic gravity waves excited by southeastward flow across the Andes. In the lower mesosphere a relatively weak second mesopause semiannual oxcillation is confirmed. Gravity-wave zonal and meridional momentum fluxes usually opposed the flow, yielding body forces of [approximately]10-100 ms[sup [minus]1] day [sup [minus]1]. In both the lower stratosphere and mesosphere, body forces were comparable in magnitude to inferred Coriolis torques. 52 refs., 9 figs.« less

  9. Segmented wind energy harvester based on contact-electrification and as a self-powered flow rate sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanjie; Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Fabiao; Xie, Tao; Zhang, Qiuping; Zhang, Hulin; Du, Hongfei; Du, Xiaosong; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-06-01

    A single-electrode-based segmented triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) was developed. By utilizing the wind-induced vibration of a fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film between two copper electrodes, the S-TENG delivers an open-circuit voltage up to 36 V and a short-circuit current of 11.8 μA, which can simultaneously light up 20 LEDs and charge capacitors. Moreover, the S-TENG holds linearity between output current and flow rate, revealing its feasibility as a self-powered wind speed sensor. This work demonstrates potential applications of S-TENG in wind energy harvester, self-powered gas sensor, high altitude air navigation.

  10. Coupled simulations and comparison with multi-lidar measurements of the wind flow over a double-ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga Rodrigues, C.; Palma, JMLM; Vasiljević, N.; Courtney, M.; Mann, J.

    2016-09-01

    The wind flow over a double-ridge site has been numerically simulated with a nested model- chain coupling, down to horizontal resolutions of 40 m. The results were compared with field measurements attained using a triple-lidar instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, which allowed measurements up to 500 m height and the mapping of the wind speed onto a two-dimensional transect crossing the valley. The site, known as Serra do Perdigão, is located in central Portugal and consists of two parallel ridges 1.4 km apart with height differences of 200 m in between, being characterized by rough terrain and forested areas. The analysis was restricted to June 10th 2015, for which measurements and simulations both predicted gravity wave activity, the later showing formation of rotors in the lee of both ridges and some events of wave breaking above the ridge top.

  11. High Lift Common Research Model for Wind Tunnel Testing: An Active Flow Control Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John C.; Melton, Latunia P.; Viken, Sally A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Koklu, Mehti; Hannon, Judith A.; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project to achieve the required high-lift performance using active flow control (AFC) on simple hinged flaps while reducing the cruise drag associated with the external mechanisms on slotted flaps of a generic modern transport aircraft. The removal of the external fairings for the Fowler flap mechanism could help to reduce drag by 3.3 counts. The main challenge is to develop an AFC system that can provide the necessary lift recovery on a simple hinged flap high-lift system while using the limited pneumatic power available on the aircraft. Innovative low-power AFC concepts will be investigated in the flap shoulder region. The AFC concepts being explored include steady blowing and unsteady blowing operating in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Both conventional and AFC-enabled high-lift configurations were designed for the current effort. The high-lift configurations share the cruise geometry that is based on the NASA Common Research Model, and therefore, are also open geometries. A 10%-scale High Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) is being designed for testing at the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel during fiscal year 2018. The overall project plan, status, HL-CRM configurations, and AFC objectives for the wind tunnel test are described.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Synthetic-jet based Flow Control on Vertical-axis Wind Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Ashwin; Tran, Steven; Sahni, Onkar

    2013-11-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines encounter large unsteady aerodynamic loads in a sustained fashion due to the continuously varying angle of attack that is experienced by turbine blades during each revolution. Moreover, the detachment of the leading edge vortex at high angles of attack leads to sudden change in aerodynamic loads that result in structural vibrations and fatigue, and possibly failure. This numerical study focuses on using synthetic-jet based fluidic actuation to reduce the unsteady loading on VAWT blades. In the simulations, the jets are placed at the dominant separation location that is observed in the baseline case. We consider different tip-speed ratios, O(2-5), and we also study the effect of blowing ratio (to be in O(0.5-1.5)) and reduced frequency, i.e., ratio of jet frequency to flow frequency (to be in O(5-15)). For all cases, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are carried out by using the Spallart-Allamaras turbulence model, where stabilized finite element method is employed for spatial discretization along with an implicit time-integration scheme.

  13. Numerical modeling of the solar wind flow with observational boundary conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Burlaga, L. F.; ...

    2012-11-20

    In this paper we describe our group efforts to develop a self-consistent, data-driven model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium. The motion of plasma in this model is described with the MHD approach, while the transport of neutral atoms is addressed by either kinetic or multi-fluid equations. The model and its implementation in the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) are continuously tested and validated by comparing our results with other models and spacecraft measurements. In particular, it was successfully applied to explain an unusual SW behavior discovered by the Voyager 1 spacecraft, i.e., the developmentmore » of a substantial negative radial velocity component, flow turning in the transverse direction, while the latitudinal velocity component goes to very small values. We explain recent SW velocity measurements at Voyager 1 in the context of our 3-D, MHD modeling. We also present a comparison of different turbulence models in their ability to reproduce the SW temperature profile from Voyager 2 measurements. Lastly, the boundary conditions obtained at 50 solar radii from data-driven numerical simulations are used to model a CME event throughout the heliosphere.« less

  14. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  15. Transonic Navier-Stokes wing solutions using a zonal approach. Part 2: High angle-of-attack simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code is under development whereby the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are to be applied to realistic fighter-aircraft configurations. This transonic Navier-Stokes code (TNS) utilizes a zonal approach in order to treat complex geometries and satisfy in-core computer memory constraints. The zonal approach has been applied to isolated wing geometries in order to facilitate code development. Part 1 of this paper addresses the TNS finite-difference algorithm, zonal methodology, and code validation with experimental data. Part 2 of this paper addresses some numerical issues such as code robustness, efficiency, and accuracy at high angles of attack. Special free-stream-preserving metrics proved an effective way to treat H-mesh singularities over a large range of severe flow conditions, including strong leading-edge flow gradients, massive shock-induced separation, and stall. Furthermore, lift and drag coefficients have been computed for a wing up through CLmax. Numerical oil flow patterns and particle trajectories are presented both for subcritical and transonic flow. These flow simulations are rich with complex separated flow physics and demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the zonal approach.

  16. Curved-flow, rolling-flow, and oscillatory pure-yawing wind-tunnel test methods for determination of dynamic stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. R.; Grafton, S. B.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    The test capabilities of the Stability Wind Tunnel of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University are described, and calibrations for curved and rolling flow techniques are given. Oscillatory snaking tests to determine pure yawing derivatives are considered. Representative aerodynamic data obtained for a current fighter configuration using the curved and rolling flow techniques are presented. The application of dynamic derivatives obtained in such tests to the analysis of airplane motions in general, and to high angle of attack flight conditions in particular, is discussed.

  17. Comparison of wind tunnel test results at free stream Mach 0.7 with results from the Boeing TEA-230 subsonic flow method. [wing flow method tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohn, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the Boeing TEA-230 Subsonic Flow Analysis method as a primary design tool in the development of cruise overwing nacelle configurations is presented. Surface pressure characteristics at 0.7 Mach number were determined by the TEA-230 method for a selected overwing flow-through nacelle configuration. Results of this analysis show excellent overall agreement with corresponding wind tunnel data. Effects of the presence of the nacelle on the wing pressure field were predicted accurately by the theoretical method. Evidence is provided that differences between theoretical and experimental pressure distributions in the present study would not result in significant discrepancies in the nacelle lines or nacelle drag estimates.

  18. Wind tunnel study of the wind turbine interaction with a boundary-layer flow: Upwind region, turbine performance, and wake region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastankhah, M.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive wind tunnel experiments were carried out to study the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a wind turbine operating under different tip-speed ratios and yaw angles. Force and power measurements were performed to characterize the variation of thrust force (both magnitude and direction) and generated power of the wind turbine under different operating conditions. Moreover, flow measurements, collected using high-resolution particle-image velocimetry as well as hot-wire anemometry, were employed to systematically study the flow in the upwind, near-wake, and far-wake regions. These measurements provide new insights into the effect of turbine operating conditions on flow characteristics in these regions. For the upwind region, the results show a strong lateral asymmetry under yawed conditions. For the near-wake region, the evolution of tip and root vortices was studied with the use of both instantaneous and phase-averaged vorticity fields. The results suggest that the vortex breakdown position cannot be determined based on phase-averaged statistics, particularly for tip vortices under turbulent inflow conditions. Moreover, the measurements in the near-wake region indicate a complex velocity distribution with a speed-up region in the wake center, especially for higher tip-speed ratios. In order to elucidate the meandering tendency of far wakes, particular focus was placed on studying the characteristics of large turbulent structures in the boundary layer and their interaction with wind turbines. Although these structures are elongated in the streamwise direction, their cross sections are found to have a size comparable to the rotor area, so that they can be affected by the presence of the turbine. In addition, the study of spatial coherence in turbine wakes reveals that any statistics based on streamwise velocity fluctuations cannot provide reliable information about the size of large turbulent structures in turbine wakes due to the effect of wake

  19. Flow quality of NAL two-dimensional transonic wind tunnel. Part 1: Mach number distributions, flow angularities and preliminary study of side wall boundary layer suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakakibara, Seizo; Takashima, Kazuaki; Miwa, Hitoshi; Oguni, Yasuo; Sato, Mamoru; Kanda, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on the flow quality of the National Aerospace Laboratory two-dimensional transonic wind tunnel are presented. Mach number distributions on the test section axis show good uniformity which is characterized by the two sigma (standard deviation) values of 0.0003 to 0.001 for a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.0. Flow angularities, which were measured by using a wing model with a symmetrical cross section, remained within 0.04 deg for Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.8. Side wall boundary layer suction was applied through a pair of porous plates. The variation of aerodynamic properties of the model due to the suction mass flow rate change is presented with a brief discussion. Two dimensionality of the flow over the wing span is expected to be improved by applying the appropriate suction rate, which depends on the Mach number, Reynolds number, and lift coefficient.

  20. ALMA discovery of a rotating SO/SO2 flow in HH212. A possible MHD disk wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabone, B.; Cabrit, S.; Bianchi, E.; Ferreira, J.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Codella, C.; Gusdorf, A.; Gueth, F.; Podio, L.; Chapillon, E.

    2017-11-01

    We wish to constrain the possible contribution of a magnetohydrodynamic disk wind (DW) to the HH212 molecular jet. We mapped the flow base with ALMA Cycle 4 at 0.̋13 60 au resolution and compared these observations with synthetic DW predictions. We identified, in SO/SO2, a rotating flow that is wider and slower than the axial SiO jet. The broad outflow cavity seen in C34S is not carved by a fast wide-angle wind but by this slower agent. Rotation signatures may be fitted by a DW of a moderate lever arm launched out to 40 au with SiO tracing dust-free streamlines from 0.05-0.3 au. Such a DW could limit the core-to-star efficiency to ≤50%.

  1. Aerodynamic parameters of across-wind self-limiting vibration for square sections after lock-in in smooth flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jong-Cheng; Chang, Feng-Jung

    2011-08-01

    The paper aims to identify the across-wind aerodynamic parameters of two-dimensional square section structures after the lock-in stage from the response measurements of wind tunnel tests under smooth wind flow conditions. Firstly, a conceivable self-limiting model was selected from the existent literature and the revisit of the analytical solution shows that the aerodynamic parameters (linear and nonlinear aerodynamic dampings Y1 and ɛ, and aerodynamic stiffness Y2) are not only functions of the section shape and reduced wind velocity but also dependent on both the mass ratio ( mr) and structural damping ratio ( ξ) independently, rather than on the Scruton number as a whole. Secondly, the growth-to-resonance (GTR) method was adopted for identifying the aerodynamic parameters of four different square section models (DN1, DN2, DN3 and DN4) by varying the density ranging from 226 to 409 kg/m 3. To improve the accuracy of the results, numerical optimization of the curve-fitting for experimental and analytical response in time domain was performed to finalize the results. The experimental results of the across-wind self-limiting steady-state amplitudes after lock-in stage versus the reduced wind velocity show that, except the tail part of the DN1 case slightly decreases indicating a pure vortex-induced lock-in persists, the DN2, DN3 and DN4 cases have a trend of monotonically increasing with the reduced wind velocity, which shows an asymptotic combination with the galloping behavior. Due to such a combination effect, all three aerodynamic parameters decrease as the reduced wind velocity increases and asymptotically approaches to a constant at the high branch. In the DN1 case, the parameters Y1 and Y2 decrease as the reduced wind velocity increases while the parameter ɛ slightly reverses in the tail part. The 3-dimensional surface plot of the Y1, ɛ and Y2 curves further show that, excluding the DN1 case, the parameters in the DN2, DN3 and DN4 cases almost follow a

  2. System and method for evaluating wind flow fields using remote sensing devices

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, John; Hirth, Brian; Guynes, Jerry

    2016-12-13

    The present invention provides a system and method for obtaining data to determine one or more characteristics of a wind field using a first remote sensing device and a second remote sensing device. Coordinated data is collected from the first and second remote sensing devices and analyzed to determine the one or more characteristics of the wind field. The first remote sensing device is positioned to have a portion of the wind field within a first scanning sector of the first remote sensing device. The second remote sensing device is positioned to have the portion of the wind field disposed within a second scanning sector of the second remote sensing device.

  3. Qualification of the T2 wind tunnel in cryogenic operation. B: Flow fluctuations, particle detection and qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dor, J. B.; Mignosi, A.; Plazanet, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents part of the tests for verification of the T2 transonic induction wind tunnel in cryogenic operation. The first part of the results presented concerns fluctuations in pressure and temperature at ambient temperature and in cryogenic regulation. The second part presents the condensation phenomena which could be observed in the cryogenic flow by means of an optical particle detection system in the test section.

  4. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  5. Test-bed and Full-Scale Demonstration of Plasma Flow Control for Wind Turbines. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-15

    the actuators was prohibitive. This led to the decision to mount the step-up transformers on the hub of the turbine , reducing the slip ring voltage...facility as it is manufactured as one piece and must be installed during assembly of the turbine . Figure 73 shows the slip ring after installation on...the turbine . The anti- rotation pin can be seen extending up past the brake disc at the top of the ring . Navatek, Ltd. Plasma Flow Control for Wind

  6. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpal S.; Serrano, Leona W.; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K.; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. Objective To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. Design, Setting, and Participants A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). Results The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Conclusions and Relevance Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

  7. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  8. A kinetic study of solar wind electrons in the transition region from collision dominated to collisionless flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lie-Svendsen, O.; Leer, E.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of the velocity distribution function of a test population of electrons in the solar corona and inner solar wind region, using a recently developed kinetic model. The model solves the time dependent, linear transport equation, with a Fokker-Planck collision operator to describe Coulomb collisions between the 'test population' and a thermal background of charged particles, using a finite differencing scheme. The model provides information on how non-Maxwellian features develop in the distribution function in the transition region from collision dominated to collisionless flow. By taking moments of the distribution the evolution of higher order moments, such as the heat flow, can be studied.

  9. Numerical simulation of a flow past a triangular sail-type blade of a wind generator using the ANSYS FLUENT software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaiynov, K.; Tanasheva, N. K.; Min'kov, L. L.; Nusupbekov, B. R.; Stepanova, Yu. O.; Rozhkova, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    An air flow past a single triangular sail-type blade of a wind turbine is analyzed by numerical simulation for low velocities of the incoming flow. The results of numerical simulation indicate a monotonic increase in the drag force and the lift force as functions of the incoming flow; empirical dependences of these quantities are obtained.

  10. Pressure Probe Designs for Dynamic Pressure Measurements in a Supersonic Flow Field. [conducted in the Glenn Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert

    2001-01-01

    A series of dynamic flow field pressure probes were developed for use in large-scale supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Glenn Research Center. These flow field probes include pitot, static, and five-hole conical pressure probes that are capable of capturing fast acting flow field pressure transients that occur on a millisecond time scale. The pitot and static probes can be used to determine local Mach number time histories during a transient event. The five-hole conical pressure probes are used primarily to determine local flow angularity, but can also determine local Mach number. These probes were designed, developed, and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. They were also used in a NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) test program where they successfully acquired flow field pressure data in the vicinity of a propulsion system during an engine compressor stall and inlet unstart transient event. Details of the design, development, and subsequent use of these probes are discussed in this report.

  11. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  12. Modeling spatial and temporal dynamics of wind flow and potential fire behavior following a mountain pine beetle outbreak in a lodgepole pine forest

    Chad M. Hoffman; Rodman Linn; Russell Parsons; Carolyn Sieg; Judith Winterkamp

    2015-01-01

    Patches of live, dead, and dying trees resulting from bark beetle-caused mortality alter spatial and temporal variability in the canopy and surface fuel complex through changes in the foliar moisture content of attacked trees and through the redistribution of canopy fuels. The resulting heterogeneous fuels complexes alter within-canopy wind flow, wind fluctuations, and...

  13. Comparison between reference atmosphere winds and radar winds from selected locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Vincent, R. A.; Craig, R. L.; Phillips, A.; Fraser, G. J.; Smith, M. J.; Fellous, J. L.; Massebeuf, M.; Chandra, S.

    1990-01-01

    Zonal and meridional 60-110-km wind profiles obtained by radar measurements at Saskatoon, Adelaide, Christchurch, Puerto Rico, and Mawson are presented graphically and compared with those from the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) for 1986. Good general agreement is found below about 80 km, but above 80 km the CIRA 1986 models show discrepancies, including: (1) no spring tongue of weak westward flow at latitudes 20-70 deg; (2) too strong an eastward flow at 20-52 deg in summer; (3) too great reversal heights at 35-43 deg N in summer; and (4) too strong (by a factor of 2) summer and winter jets at 65-70 deg N.

  14. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  15. Preliminary experiments on surface flow visualization in the cryogenic wind tunnel by use of condensing or freezing gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic wind tunnel users must have available surface flow visualization techniques to satisfy a variety of needs. While the ideal from an aerodynamic stand would be non-intrusive, until an economical technique is developed there will be occasions when the user will be prepared to resort to an intrusive method. One such method is proposed, followed by preliminary evaluation experiments carried out in environments representative of the cryogenic nitrogen tunnel. The technique uses substances which are gases at normal temperature and pressure but liquid or solid at cryogenic temperatures. These are deposited on the model in localized regions, the patterns of the deposits and their subsequent melting or evaporation revealing details of the surface flow. The gases were chosen because of the likelihood that they will not permanently contaminate the model or tunnel. Twenty-four gases were identified as possibly suitable and four of these were tested from which it was concluded that surface flow direction can be shown by the method. Other flow details might also be detectable. The cryogenic wind tunnel used was insulated on the outside and did not show signs of contamination.

  16. Effect of real-time boundary wind conditions on the air flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon—Large eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gu, Zhao-Lin; Cheng, Yan; Lee, Shun-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in an urban street canyon are studied under the real-time boundary conditions. A new scheme for realizing real-time boundary conditions in simulations is proposed, to keep the upper boundary wind conditions consistent with the measured time series of wind data. The air flow structure and its evolution under real-time boundary wind conditions are simulated by using this new scheme. The induced effect of time series of ambient wind conditions on the flow structures inside and above the street canyon is investigated. The flow shows an obvious intermittent feature in the street canyon and the flapping of the shear layer forms near the roof layer under real-time wind conditions, resulting in the expansion or compression of the air mass in the canyon. The simulations of pollutant dispersion show that the pollutants inside and above the street canyon are transported by different dispersion mechanisms, relying on the time series of air flow structures. Large scale air movements in the processes of the air mass expansion or compression in the canyon exhibit obvious effects on pollutant dispersion. The simulations of pollutant dispersion also show that the transport of pollutants from the canyon to the upper air flow is dominated by the shear layer turbulence near the roof level and the expansion or compression of the air mass in street canyon under real-time boundary wind conditions. Especially, the expansion of the air mass, which features the large scale air movement of the air mass, makes more contribution to the pollutant dispersion in this study. Comparisons of simulated results under different boundary wind conditions indicate that real-time boundary wind conditions produces better condition for pollutant dispersion than the artificially-designed steady boundary wind conditions.

  17. Performance tests for the NASA Ames Research Center 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Giddings, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of initial tests conducted to assess the performance of the NASA Ames 20 cm x 40 cm oscillating flow wind tunnel. The features of the tunnel are described and two aspects of tunnel operation are discussed. The first is an assessment of the steady mainstream and boundary layer flows and the second deals with oscillating mainstream and boundary layer flows. Experimental results indicate that in steady flow the test section mainstream velocity is uniform in the flow direction and in cross section. The freestream turbulence intensity is about 0.2 percent. With minor exceptions the steady turbulent boundary layer generated on the top wall of the test section exhibits the characteristics of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer generated on a flat plate. The tunnel was designed to generate sinusoidal oscillating mainstream flows. Experiments confirm that the tunnel produces sinusoidal mainstream velocity variations for the range of frequencies (up to 15 Hz). The results of this study demonstrate that the tunnel essentially produces the flows that it was designed to produce.

  18. Polar Winds

    2018-04-05

    This VIS image shows 'streamers' of clouds created by katabatic winds at the north polar cap. Katabatic winds are created by cold air sinking at the pole and then speeding along the ice surface towards the edge of the polar cap. When the winds enter troughs the wind regime changes from laminar flow to choatic and clouds of ice particles and/or dust are visible. This wind activity peaks at the start of northern hemisphere summer. Orbit Number: 53942 Latitude: 86.8433 Longitude: 99.3149 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2014-02-10 10:50 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22362

  19. Study of turbine and guide vanes integration to enhance the performance of cross flow vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Andreas; Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Santoso, Budi; Situmorang, Marcelinus Risky Clinton

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the best configuration between guide vanes and cross flow vertical axis wind turbine with variation of several parameters including guide vanes tilt angle and the number of turbine and guide vane blades. The experimental test were conducted under various wind speed and directions for testing cross flow wind turbine, consisted of 8, 12 and 16 blades. Two types of guide vane were developed in this study, employing 20° and 60° tilt angle. Both of the two types of guide vane had three variations of blade numbers which had same blade numbers variations as the turbines. The result showed that the configurations between 60° guide vane with 16 blade numbers and turbine with 16 blade numbers had the best configurations. The result also showed that for certain configuration, guide vane was able to increase the power generated by the turbine significantly by 271.39% compared to the baseline configuration without using of guide vane.

  20. The vertical profile of winds on Titan.

    PubMed

    Bird, M K; Allison, M; Asmar, S W; Atkinson, D H; Avruch, I M; Dutta-Roy, R; Dzierma, Y; Edenhofer, P; Folkner, W M; Gurvits, L I; Johnston, D V; Plettemeier, D; Pogrebenko, S V; Preston, R A; Tyler, G L

    2005-12-08

    One of Titan's most intriguing attributes is its copious but featureless atmosphere. The Voyager 1 fly-by and occultation in 1980 provided the first radial survey of Titan's atmospheric pressure and temperature and evidence for the presence of strong zonal winds. It was realized that the motion of an atmospheric probe could be used to study the winds, which led to the inclusion of the Doppler Wind Experiment on the Huygens probe. Here we report a high resolution vertical profile of Titan's winds, with an estimated accuracy of better than 1 m s(-1). The zonal winds were prograde during most of the atmospheric descent, providing in situ confirmation of superrotation on Titan. A layer with surprisingly slow wind, where the velocity decreased to near zero, was detected at altitudes between 60 and 100 km. Generally weak winds (approximately 1 m s(-1)) were seen in the lowest 5 km of descent.

  1. Vegetation in drylands: Effects on wind flow and aeolian sediment transport

    Drylands are characterised by patchy vegetation, erodible surfaces and erosive aeolian processes. Empirical and modelling studies have shown that vegetation elements provide drag on the overlying airflow, thus affecting wind velocity profiles and altering erosive dynamics on desert surfaces. However...

  2. Large Eddy Simulation of a Wind Turbine Airfoil at High Freestream-Flow Angle

    None

    2018-02-07

    A simulation of the airflow over a section of a wind turbine blade, run on the supercomputer Mira at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. Simulations like these help identify ways to make turbine blades more efficient.

  3. Aerodynamic flow deflector to increase large scale wind turbine power generation by 10%.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-11-01

    The innovation proposed in this paper has the potential to address both the efficiency demands of wind farm owners as well as to provide a disruptive design innovation to turbine manufacturers. The aerodynamic deflector technology was created to impr...

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of a Wind Turbine Airfoil at High Freestream-Flow Angle

    SciT

    None

    2015-04-13

    A simulation of the airflow over a section of a wind turbine blade, run on the supercomputer Mira at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. Simulations like these help identify ways to make turbine blades more efficient.

  5. Mapping potential vorticity dynamics on saturn: Zonal mean circulation from Cassini and Voyager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Gierasch, P. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Zuchowski, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    Maps of Ertel potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces (IPV) and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) are well established in dynamical meteorology as powerful sources of insight into dynamical processes involving 'balanced' flow (i.e. geostrophic or similar). Here we derive maps of zonal mean IPV and QGPV in Saturn's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by making use of a combination of velocity measurements, derived from the combined tracking of cloud features in images from the Voyager and Cassini missions, and thermal measurements from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument. IPV and QGPV are mapped and compared for the entire globe between latitudes 89∘S-82∘N. As on Jupiter, profiles of zonally averaged PV show evidence for a step-like "stair-case" pattern suggestive of local PV homogenisation, separated by strong PV gradients in association with eastward jets. The northward gradient of PV (IPV or QGPV) is found to change sign in several places in each hemisphere, however, even when baroclinic contributions are taken into account. The stability criterion with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem may be violated near the peaks of westward jets. Visible, near-IR and thermal-IR Cassini observations have shown that these regions exhibit many prominent, large-scale eddies and waves, e.g. including 'storm alley'. This suggests the possibility that at least some of these features originate from instabilities of the background zonal flow.

  6. Vortex Particle-Mesh simulations of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows: from the blade aerodynamics to the very far wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Caprace, D.-G.; Marichal, Y.; Winckelmans, G.

    2016-09-01

    A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features.

  7. Multiple zonal jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.

    2017-10-01

    We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.

  8. An efficient supersonic wind tunnel drive system for Mach 2.5 flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.; King, Lyndell S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel efficient drive system has been developed which provides for the continuous operation of a pitot Mach 2.5 wind tunnel at compression ratios down to 0.625:1. The drive system does not require an overpressure to start, and no hysteresis has been observed. The general design of the proof-of-concept wind tunnel using the new drive system and its modifications are described.

  9. Zonal wavefront reconstruction in quadrilateral geometry for phase measuring deflectometry

    SciT

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo

    2017-06-14

    There are wide applications for zonal reconstruction methods in slope-based metrology due to its good capability of reconstructing the local details on surface profile. It was noticed in the literature that large reconstruction errors occur when using zonal reconstruction methods designed for rectangular geometry to process slopes in a quadrilateral geometry, which is a more general geometry with phase measuring deflectometry. In this paper, we present a new idea for the zonal methods for quadrilateral geometry. Instead of employing the intermediate slopes to set up height-slope equations, we consider the height increment as a more general connector to establish themore » height-slope relations for least-squares regression. The classical zonal methods and interpolation-assisted zonal methods are compared with our proposal. Results of both simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed idea. In implementation, the modification on the classical zonal methods is addressed. Finally, the new methods preserve many good aspects of the classical ones, such as the ability to handle a large incomplete slope dataset in an arbitrary aperture, and the low computational complexity comparable with the classical zonal method. Of course, the accuracy of the new methods is much higher when integrating the slopes in quadrilateral geometry.« less

  10. Adjoint Method and Predictive Control for 1-D Flow in NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ardema, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling method and a new optimal control approach to investigate a Mach number control problem for the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. The flow in the wind tunnel is modeled by the 1-D unsteady Euler equations whose boundary conditions prescribe a controlling action by a compressor. The boundary control inputs to the compressor are in turn controlled by a drive motor system and an inlet guide vane system whose dynamics are modeled by ordinary differential equations. The resulting Euler equations are thus coupled to the ordinary differential equations via the boundary conditions. Optimality conditions are established by an adjoint method and are used to develop a model predictive linear-quadratic optimal control for regulating the Mach number due to a test model disturbance during a continuous pitch

  11. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    SciT

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth.more » Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.« less

  12. The role of wind field induced flow velocities in destratification and hypoxia reduction at Meiling Bay of large shallow Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Abdul; Li, Yiping; Du, Wei; Wang, Wencai; Wang, Jianwei; Gao, Xiaomeng; Khan, Hafiz Osama Sarwar; Pan, Baozhu; Acharya, Kumud

    2018-01-01

    Wind induced flow velocity patterns and associated thermal destratification can drive to hypoxia reduction in large shallow lakes. The effects of wind induced hydrodynamic changes on destratification and hypoxia reduction were investigated at the Meiling bay (N 31° 22' 56.4″, E 120° 9' 38.3″) of Lake Taihu, China. Vertical flow velocity profile analysis showed surface flow velocities consistency with the wind field and lower flow velocity profiles were also consistent (but with delay response time) when the wind speed was higher than 6.2 m/s. Wind field and temperature found the control parameters for hypoxia reduction and for water quality conditions at the surface and bottom profiles of lake. The critical temperature for hypoxia reduction at the surface and the bottom profile was ≤24.1C° (below which hypoxic conditions were found reduced). Strong prevailing wind field (onshore wind directions ESE, SE, SSE and E, wind speed ranges of 2.4-9.1 m/s) reduced the temperature (22C° to 24.1C°) caused reduction of hypoxia at the near surface with a rise in water levels whereas, low to medium prevailing wind field did not supported destratification which increased temperature resulting in increased hypoxia. Non-prevailing wind directions (offshore) were not found supportive for the reduction of hypoxia in study area due to less variable wind field. Daytime wind field found more variable (as compared to night time) which increased the thermal destratification during daytime and found supportive for destratification and hypoxia reduction. The second order exponential correlation found between surface temperature and Chlorophyll-a (R 2 : 0.2858, Adjusted R-square: 0.2144 RMSE: 4.395), Dissolved Oxygen (R 2 : 0.596, Adjusted R-square: 0.5942, RMSE: 0.3042) concentrations. The findings of the present study reveal the driving mechanism of wind induced thermal destratification and hypoxic conditions, which may further help to evaluate the wind role in eutrophication

  13. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  14. Laboratory modeling of multiple zonal jets on the polar beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Zonal jets observed in the oceans and atmospheres of planets are studied in a laboratory rotating tank. The fluid layer in the rotating tank has parabolic free surface and dynamically simulates the polar beta-plane where the Coriolis parameter varies quadratically with distance from the pole. Velocity and surface elevation fields are measured with an optical altimetry method (Afanasyev et al., Exps Fluids 2009). The flows are induced by a localized buoyancy source along radial direction. The baroclinic flow consisting of a field of eddies propagates away from the source due West and forms zonal jets (Fig. 1). Barotropic jets ahead of the baroclinic flow are formed by radiation of beta plumes. Inside the baroclinic flow the jets flow between the chains of eddies. Experimental evidence of so-called noodles (baroclinic instability mode with motions in the radial, North-South direction) theoretically predicted by Berloff et al. (JFM, JPO 2009) was found in our experiments. Beta plume radiation mechanism and the mechanism associated with the instability of noodles are likely to contribute to formation of jets in the baroclinic flow.

  15. Absolute wind measurements in the lower thermosphere of Venus using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey J.

    1990-01-01

    The first absolute wind velocities above the Venusian cloud-tops were obtained using NASA/Goddard infrared heterodyne spectrometers at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and the McMath Solar Telescope. Beam-integrated Doppler displacements in the non-thermal emission core of (12)C(16)O2 10.33 micron R(8) sampled the line of sight projection of the lower thermospheric wind field (100 to 120 km). A field-usable Lamb-dip laser stabilization system, developed for spectrometer absolute frequency calibration to less than + or - 0.1 MHz, allowed S/N-limited line of sight velocity resolution at the 1 m/s level. The spectrometer's diffraction-limited beam (1.7 arc-second HPBW at McMath, 0.9 arc-second HPBW at IRTF), and 1 to 2 arc-second seeing, provided the spatial resolution necessary for circulation model discrimination. Qualitative analysis of beam-integrated winds provided definitive evidence of a dominant subsolar-antisolar circulation in the lower thermosphere. Beam-integrated winds were modelled with a 100x100 grid over the beam, incorporating beam spatial rolloff and across-the-beam gradients in non-thermal emission intensity, line of sight projection geometry, and horizontal wind velocity. Horizontal wind velocity was derived from a 2-parameter model wind field comprised of subsolar-antisolar and zonal components. Best-fit models indicated a dominant subsolar-antisolar flow with 120 m/s cross-terminator winds and a retrograde zonal component with a 25 m/s equatorial velocity. A review of all dynamical indicators above the cloud-tops allowed development of an integrated and self-consistent picture of circulation in the 70 to 200 km range.

  16. Three-dimensional vapor intrusion modeling approach that combines wind and stack effects on indoor, atmospheric, and subsurface domains.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Elham; Pennell, Kelly G

    2017-12-13

    Vapor intrusion (IV) exposure risks are difficult to characterize due to the role of atmospheric, building and subsurface processes. This study presents a three-dimensional VI model that extends the common subsurface fate and transport equations to incorporate wind and stack effects on indoor air pressure, building air exchange rate (AER) and indoor contaminant concentration to improve VI exposure risk estimates. The model incorporates three modeling programs: (1) COMSOL Multiphysics to model subsurface fate and transport processes, (2) CFD0 to model atmospheric air flow around the building, and (3) CONTAM to model indoor air quality. The combined VI model predicts AER values, zonal indoor air pressures and zonal indoor air contaminant concentrations as a function of wind speed, wind direction and outdoor and indoor temperature. Steady state modeling results for a single-story building with a basement demonstrate that wind speed, wind direction and opening locations in a building play important roles in changing the AER, indoor air pressure, and indoor air contaminant concentration. Calculated indoor air pressures ranged from approximately -10 Pa to +4 Pa depending on weather conditions and building characteristics. AER values, mass entry rates and indoor air concentrations vary depending on weather conditions and building characteristics. The presented modeling approach can be used to investigate the relationship between building features, AER, building pressures, soil gas concentrations, indoor air concentrations and VI exposure risks.

  17. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. 1; Radiation-Hydrodynamics Solution for the Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan. G. S.; Kallman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scale by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the 2D radiation transfer problem in a flux limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary 1D models for the wind, and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for AGN luminosities greater than 0.1 L(sub edd) external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 < tau(sub T) < 0.6), is comparable to or greater than the escape velocity. In Compton thick models the maximum value of the vertical component of the velocity is lower than the escape velocity, suggesting that a significant part of our torus is in the form of failed wind. The results demonstrate that obscuration via normal or failed infrared-driven winds is a viable option for the AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.

  18. Air Flow Modeling in the Wind Tunnel of the FHWA Aerodynamics Laboratory at Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center

    SciT

    Sitek, M. A.; Lottes, S. A.; Bojanowski, C.

    detailed CAD geometry and CFD model of the wind tunnel laboratory at TFHRC was built and tested. Results were compared against experimental wind velocity measurements at a large number of locations around the room. This testing included an assessment of the air flow uniformity provided by the tunnel to the test zone and assessment of room geometry effects, such as influence of the proximity the room walls, the non-symmetrical position of the tunnel in the room, and the influence of the room setup on the air flow in the room. This information is useful both for simplifying the computational model and in deciding whether or not moving, or removing, some of the furniture or other movable objects in the room will change the flow in the test zone.« less

  19. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  20. Unsteady Airfoil Flow Solutions on Moving Zonal Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-17

    for the angle-of-attack of 15.5’, the comparisons diverge. This happens because of the different turbulence models used . At this angle- of attack, the...downstream in the wake . This vortex shedding phenomenon alters the chordwise pressure distribution on the upper surface of the airfoil resulting in higher...in- terest, turbulence modeling is used . Turbulence models are implemented with the time-averaged forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Two widely

  1. Zonal flow evolution and overstability in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a linear analytical calculation on the stability and evolution of a compressible, viscous self-gravitating (SG) Keplerian disc with both horizontal thermal diffusion and a constant cooling time-scale when an axisymmetric structure is present and freely evolving. The calculation makes use of the shearing sheet model and is carried out for a range of cooling times. Although the solutions to the inviscid problem with no cooling or diffusion are well known, it is non-trivial to predict the effect caused by the introduction of cooling and of small diffusivities; this work focuses on perturbations of intermediate wavelengths, therefore representing an extension to the classical stability analysis on thermal and viscous instabilities. For density wave modes, the analysis can be simplified by means of a regular perturbation analysis; considering both shear and thermal diffusivities, the system is found to be overstable for intermediate and long wavelengths for values of the Toomre parameter Q ≲ 2; a non-SG instability is also detected for wavelengths ≳18H, where H is the disc scale-height, as long as γ ≲ 1.305. The regular perturbation analysis does not, however, hold for the entropy and potential vorticity slow modes as their ideal growth rates are degenerate. To understand their evolution, equations for the axisymmetric structure's amplitudes in these two quantities are analytically derived and their instability regions obtained. The instability appears boosted by increasing the value of the adiabatic index and of the Prandtl number, while it is quenched by efficient cooling.

  2. Simulation of ideal-gas flow by nitrogen and other selected gases at cryogenic temperatures. [transonic flow in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.

  3. Experimental studies of transonic flow field near a longitudinally slotted wind tunnel wall. Ph.D. Thesis - George Washington Univ., 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1994-01-01

    The results of detailed parametric experiments are presented for the near-wall flow field of a longitudinally slotted transonic wind tunnel. Existing data are reevaluated and new data obtained in the Langley 6- by 19-inch Transonic Wind Tunnel are presented and analyzed. In the experiments, researchers systematically investigate many pertinent wall-geometry variables such as the wall openness and the number of slots along with the free stream Mach number and model angle of attack. Flow field surveys on the plane passing through the centerline of the slot were conducted and are presented. The effects of viscosity on the slot flow are considered in the analysis. The present experiments, combined with those of previous investigations, give a more complete physical characterization of the flow near and through the slotted wall of a transonic wind tunnel.

  4. Zonally Asymmetric Ozone and the Morphology of the Planetary Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    sections for the 271 troposphere , J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2600-2616. 272 Eyring, V., et al. (2007), Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone ...GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, JULY 15, 2011 Zonally asymmetric ozone and the morphology of the 1 planetary waveguide...that zonally asymmetric 6 ozone (ZAO) profoundly changes the morphology of the Northern Hemisphere planetary 7 waveguide (PWG). ZAO causes the PWG to

  5. Interactions Between Raindrop Impact and Shallow Interrill Flow Under Wind-Driven Rain

    Raindrops impacting shallow interrill flow create hydraulic friction in overland flow, and the roughness caused by raindrops against the shallow flow is generally explained by the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient, which is calculated as a function of rainfall intensity along with bed roughness. H...

  6. Interactions between raindrop impact and shallow interrill flow under wind-driven rain (WDR)

    Raindrops impacting shallow interrill flow create hydraulic friction in overland flow, and the roughness caused by raindrops against the shallow flow is generally explained by the Darcy-Weisbach friction coefficient, which is calculated as a function of rainfall intensity along with bed roughness. H...

  7. Numerical and experimental studies of particle flow in a high-pressure boundary-layer wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The approach was to simulate the surface environment of Venus as closely as practicable and to conduct experiments to determine threshold wind speeds, particle flux, particle velocities, and the characteristics of various aeolian bedforms. The Venus Wind Tunnel (VWT) is described and the experimental procedures that were developed to make the high-pressure wind tunnel measurements are presented. In terrestrial simulations of aeolian activity, it is possible to conduct experiments under pressures and temperatures found in natural environments. Because of the high pressures and temperatures, Venusian simulations are difficult to achieve in this regard. Consequently, extrapolation of results to Venue potentially involves unknown factors. The experimental rationale was developed in the following way: The VWT enables the density of the Venusian atmosphere to be reproduced. Density is the principal atmospheric property for governing saltation threshold, particle flux, and the ballistics of airborne particles (equivalent density maintains dynamic similarity of gas flow). When operated at or near Earth's ambient temperature, VWT achieves Venusian atmospheric density at pressures of about 30 bar, or about one third less than those on Venus, although still maintaining dynamic similarity to Venus.

  8. Wind tunnel results for a high-speed, natural laminar-flow airfoil designed for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sewall, William G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Waggoner, Edgar G.; Walker, Betty S.; Millard, Betty F.

    1985-01-01

    Two dimensional wind tunnel tests were conducted on a high speed natural laminar flow airfoil in both the Langley 6 x 28 inch Transonic Tunnel and the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The test conditions consisted of Mach numbers ranging from 0.10 to 0.77 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 3 x 1 million to 11 x 1 million. The airfoil was designed for a lift coefficient of 0.20 at a Mach number of 0.70 and Reynolds number of 11 x 1 million. At these conditions, laminar flow would extend back to 50 percent chord of the upper surface and 70 percent chord of the lower surface. Low speed results were also obtained with a 0.20 chord trailing edge split flap deflected 60 deg.

  9. Numerical study of the influence of flow blockage on the aerodynamic coefficients of models in low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, V. T.; Kalugin, V. T.; Lapygin, V. I.; Khlupnov, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    With the use of ANSYS Fluent software and ANSYS ICEM CFD calculation grid generator, the flows past a wing airfoil, an infinite cylinder, and 3D blunted bodies located in the open and closed test sections of low-speed wind tunnels were calculated. The mathematical model of the flows included the Reynolds equations and the SST model of turbulence. It was found that the ratios between the aerodynamic coefficients in the test section and in the free (unbounded) stream could be fairly well approximated with a piecewise-linear function of the blockage factor, whose value weakly depended on the angle of attack. The calculated data and data gained in the analysis of previously reported experimental studies proved to be in a good agreement. The impact of the extension of the closed test section on the airfoil lift force is analyzed.

  10. Flow properties of the solar wind obtained from white light data, Ulysses observations and a two-fluid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Using the empirical constraints provided by observations in the inner corona and in interplanetary space. we derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two fluid model. Density and scale height temperatures are derived from White Light coronagraph observations on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa, from 1.16 to 5.5 R, in the two polar coronal holes on 11-12 Apr. 1993. Interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux are taken from the Ulysses south polar passage. By comparing the results of the model computations that fit the empirical constraints in the two coronal hole regions, we show how the effects of the line of sight influence the empirical inferences and subsequently the corresponding numerical results.

  11. Pressure data for four analytically defined arrow wings in supersonic flow. [Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to provide experimental data for comparison with newly developed finite difference methods for computing supersonic flows over aircraft configurations, wind tunnel tests were conducted on four arrow wing models. The models were machined under numeric control to precisely duplicate analytically defined shapes. They were heavily instrumented with pressure orifices at several cross sections ahead of and in the region where there is a gap between the body and the wing trailing edge. The test Mach numbers were 2.36, 2.96, and 4.63. Tabulated pressure data for the complete test series are presented along with selected oil flow photographs. Comparisons of some preliminary numerical results at zero angle of attack show good to excellent agreement with the experimental pressure distributions.

  12. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  13. Flow direction measurement criteria and techniques planned for the 40- by 80-/80- x 120-foot wind tunnel integrated systems tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, P. T.; Hoffmann, J.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was performed in order to develop the criteria for the selection of flow direction indicators for use in the Integrated Systems Tests (ISTs) of the 40 by 80/80 by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel System. The problems, requirements, and limitations of flow direction measurement in the wind tunnel were investigated. The locations and types of flow direction measurements planned in the facility were discussed. A review of current methods of flow direction measurement was made and the most suitable technique for each location was chosen. A flow direction vane for each location was chosen. A flow direction vane that employs a Hall Effect Transducer was then developed and evaluated for application during the ISTs.

  14. A Generalized Electron Heat Flow Relation and its Connection to the Thermal Force and the Solar Wind Parallel Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Enroute to a new formulation of the heat law for the solar wind plasma the role of the invariably neglected, but omnipresent, thermal force for the multi-fluid physics of the corona and solar wind expansion will be discussed. This force (a) controls the size of the collisional ion electron energy exchange, favoring the thermal vs supra thermal electrons; (b) occurs whenever heat flux occurs; (c) remains after the electron and ion fluids come to a no slip, zero parallel current, equilibrium; (d) enhances the equilibrium parallel electric field; but (e) has a size that is theoretically independent of the electron collision frequency - allowing its importance to persist far up into the corona where collisions are invariably ignored in first approximation. The constituent parts of the thermal force allow the derivation of a new generalized electron heat flow relation that will be presented. It depends on the separate field aligned divergences of electron and ion pressures and the gradients of the ion gravitational potential and parallel flow energies and is based upon a multi-component electron distribution function. The new terms in this heat law explicitly incorporate the astrophysical context of gradients, acceleration and external forces that make demands on the parallel electric field and quasi-neutrality; essentially all of these effects are missing in traditional formulations.

  15. Groundwater flow, quality (2007-10), and mixing in the Wind Cave National Park area, South Dakota

    Long, Andrew J.; Ohms, Marc J.; McKaskey, Jonathan D.R.G.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater flow, quality, and mixing in relation to Wind Cave National Park in western South Dakota was conducted during 2007-11 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service because of water-quality concerns and to determine possible sources of groundwater contamination in the Wind Cave National Park area. A large area surrounding Wind Cave National Park was included in this study because to understand groundwater in the park, a general understanding of groundwater in the surrounding southern Black Hills is necessary. Three aquifers are of particular importance for this purpose: the Minnelusa, Madison, and Precambrian aquifers. Multivariate methods applied to hydrochemical data, consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and an end-member mixing model, were applied to characterize groundwater flow and mixing. This provided a way to assess characteristics important for groundwater quality, including the differentiation of hydrogeologic domains within the study area, sources of groundwater to these domains, and groundwater mixing within these domains. Groundwater and surface-water samples collected for this study were analyzed for common ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, silica, and sulfate), arsenic, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, specific conductance, and pH. These 12 variables were used in all multivariate methods. A total of 100 samples were collected from 60 sites from 2007 to 2010 and included stream sinks, cave drip, cave water bodies, springs, and wells. In previous approaches that combined PCA with end-member mixing, extreme-value samples identified by PCA typically were assumed to represent end members. In this study, end members were not assumed to have been sampled but rather were estimated and constrained by prior hydrologic knowledge. Also, the end-member mixing model was quantified in relation to hydrogeologic domains, which focuses model results on

  16. A dynamical model for gas flows, star formation and nuclear winds in galactic centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crocker, Roland M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a dynamical model for gas transport, star formation and winds in the nuclear regions of galaxies, focusing on the Milky Way's Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). In our model angular momentum and mass are transported by a combination of gravitational and bar-driven acoustic instabilities. In gravitationally unstable regions the gas can form stars, and the resulting feedback drives both turbulence and a wind that ejects mass from the CMZ. We show that the CMZ is in a quasi-steady state where mass deposited at large radii by the bar is transported inwards to a star-forming, ring-shaped region at ˜100 pc from the Galactic Centre, where the shear reaches a minimum. This ring undergoes episodic starbursts, with bursts lasting ˜5-10 Myr occurring at ˜20-40 Myr intervals. During quiescence the gas in the ring is not fully cleared, but is driven out of a self-gravitating state by the momentum injected by expanding supernova remnants. Starbursts also drive a wind off the star-forming ring, with a time-averaged mass flux comparable to the star formation rate. We show that our model agrees well with the observed properties of the CMZ, and places it near a star formation minimum within the evolutionary cycle. We argue that such cycles of bursty star formation and winds should be ubiquitous in the nuclei of barred spiral galaxies, and show that the resulting distribution of galactic nuclei on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation is in good agreement with that observed in nearby galaxies.

  17. Solar Wind Plasma Flows and Space Weather Aspects Recent Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Sonia; Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Solar transients are responsible for initiating short - term and long - term variations in earth's magnetosphere. These variations are termed as geomagnetic disturbances, and driven by the interaction of solar wind features with the geo-magnetosphere. The strength of this modulation process depends upon the magnitude and orientation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and solar wind parameters. These interplanetary transients are large scale structures containing plasma and magnetic field expelled from the transient active regions of solar atmosphere. As they come to interplanetary medium the interplanetary magnetic field drape around them. This field line draping was thought as possible cause of the characteristic eastward deflection and giving rise to geomagnetic activities as well as a prime factor in producing the modulation effects in the near Earth environment. The Solar cycle 23 has exhibited the unique extended minima and peculiar effects in the geomagnetosphere. Selecting such transients, occurred during this interval, an attempt has been made to determine quantitative relationships of these transients with solar/ interplanetary and Geophysical Parameters. In this work we used hourly values of IMF data obtained from the NSSD Center. The analysis mainly based on looking into the effects of these transients on earth's magnetic field. The high-resolution data IMF Bz and solar wind data obtained from WDC-A, through its omniweb, available during the selected period. Dst and Ap obtained from WDC-Kyoto are taken as indicator of geomagnetic activities. It is found that Dst index, solar wind velocity, proton temperature and the Bz component of magnetic field have higher values and increase just before the occurrence of these events. Larger and varying magnetic field mainly responsible for producing the short-term changes in geomagnetic intensity are observed during these events associated with coronal holes.

  18. Winds in the Middle Cloud Deck From the Near-IR Imaging by the Venus Monitoring Camera Onboard Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatuntsev, I. V.; Patsaeva, M. V.; Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Turin, A. V.; Fedorova, A. A.; Markiewicz, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    For more than 8 years the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Venus Express orbiter performed continuous imaging of the Venus cloud layer in UV, visible and near-IR filters. We applied the correlation approach to sequences of the near-IR images at 965 nm to track cloud features and determine the wind field in the middle and lower cloud (49-57 km). From the VMC images that spanned from December of 2006 through August of 2013 we derived zonal and meridional components of the wind field. In low-to-middle latitudes (5-65°S) the velocity of the retrograde zonal wind was found to be 68-70 m/s. The meridional wind velocity slowly decreases from peak value of +5.8 ± 1.2 m/s at 15°S to 0 at 65-70°S. The mean meridional speed has a positive sign at 5-65°S suggesting equatorward flow. This result, together with the earlier measurements of the poleward flow at the cloud tops, indicates the presence of a closed Hadley cell in the altitude range 55-65 km. Long-term variations of zonal and meridional velocity components were found during 1,200 Earth days of observation. At 20° ± 5°S the zonal wind speed increases from -67.18