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Sample records for zonally averaged ocean

  1. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70°N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=106 m3 s-1) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions (i.e., a restoring condition on sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity) are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake Passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  2. Energy transports by ocean and atmosphere based on an entropy extremum principle. I - Zonal averaged transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum entropy production principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separating the satellite-determined required total transports into atmospheric and oceanic components. Instead of using the excessively restrictive equal energy dissipation hypothesis as a deterministic tool for separating transports between the atmosphere and ocean fluids, the satellite-inferred required 2D energy transports are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model, which is then solved as a variational problem using the equal energy dissipation hypothesis only to provide an initial guess field. It is suggested that Southern Ocean transports are weaker than previously reported. It is argued that a maximum entropy production principle can serve as a governing rule on macroscale global climate, and, in conjunction with conventional satellite measurements of the net radiation balance, provides a means to decompose atmosphere and ocean transports from the total transport field.

  3. Nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation. I - Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Ka Kit

    1986-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations (mass conservation, thermodynamics, and zonal momentum) on a sphere. The relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate is studied. Differences between results of nongeostropic theory and the geostrophic formulation concerning the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation and the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit versus the geostrophic limit are discussed. Consideration is given to the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence, the Eliassen-Palm pseudodivergence, the nonacceleration theorem, and the nonlinear nongeostrophic Taylor relationship.

  4. Indian Ocean zonal mode activity in 20th century observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendelbeck, Anja; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Ocean zonal mode (IOZM) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with anomalous cooling in the east, warming in the west and easterly wind anomalies, resulting in a complete reversal of the climatological zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The IOZM has a strong influence on East African climate by causing anomalously strong October - December (OND) precipitation. Using observational data and historical CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) model output, the September - November (SON) dipole mode index (DMI), OND East African precipitation and SON zonal wind index (ZWI) are calculated. We pay particular attention to detrending SSTs for calculating the DMI, which seems to have been neglected in some published research. The ZWI is defined as the area-averaged zonal wind component at 850 hPa over the central Indian Ocean. Regression analysis is used to evaluate the models' capability to represent the IOZM and its impact on east African climate between 1948 and 2005. Simple correlations are calculated between SST, zonal wind and precipitation to show their interdependence. High correlation in models implies a good representation of the influence of IOZM on East African climate variability and our goal is to detect the models with the highest correlation coefficients. In future research, these model data might be used to investigate the impact of IOZM on the East African climate variability in the late 20's century with regard to anthropogenic causes and internal variability.

  5. Parameterization of eddy sensible heat transports in a zonally averaged dynamic model of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genthon, Christophe; Le Treut, Herve; Sadourny, Robert; Jouzel, Jean

    1990-01-01

    A Charney-Branscome based parameterization has been tested as a way of representing the eddy sensible heat transports missing in a zonally averaged dynamic model (ZADM) of the atmosphere. The ZADM used is a zonally averaged version of a general circulation model (GCM). The parameterized transports in the ZADM are gaged against the corresponding fluxes explicitly simulated in the GCM, using the same zonally averaged boundary conditions in both models. The Charney-Branscome approach neglects stationary eddies and transient barotropic disturbances and relies on a set of simplifying assumptions, including the linear appoximation, to describe growing transient baroclinic eddies. Nevertheless, fairly satisfactory results are obtained when the parameterization is performed interactively with the model. Compared with noninteractive tests, a very efficient restoring feedback effect between the modeled zonal-mean climate and the parameterized meridional eddy transport is identified.

  6. Jet and storm track variability and change: adiabatic QG zonal averages and beyond... (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The zonally averaged structures of extratropical jets and stormtracks, their slow variations, and their responses to climate change are all tightly constrained on the one hand by thermal wind balance and the necessary application of eddy torques to produce zonally averaged meridional motion, and, on the other hand, by the necessity that eddies propagate upshear to extract energy from the mean flow. Combining these constraints with the well developed theory of linear Rossby-wave propagation on zonally symmetric basic states has led to a large and growing number of plausible mechanisms to explain observed and modeled jet/storm track variability and responses to climate change and idealized forcing. Hidden within zonal averages is the reality that most baroclinic eddy activity is destroyed at the same latitude at which is generated: from one end to another of the fixed stormtracks in the Northern Hemisphere and baroclinic wave packets in the Southern Hemisphere. Ignored within adiabatic QG theory is the reality that baroclinic eddies gain significant energy from latent heating that involves sub-syntopic scale structures and dynamics. Here we use results from high-resolution regional and global simulations of the Northern Hemisphere storm tracks to explore the importance of non-zonal and diabatic dynamics in influencing jet change and variability and their influences on the much-studied zonal means.

  7. Measuring Zonal Transport Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Using GRACE Ocean Bottom Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, J.; Chambers, D. P.; Bonin, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ocean bottom pressure (OBP) can be used to measure the transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Using OBP data from the JPL ECCO model and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), we examine the zonal transport variability of the ACC integrated between the major fronts between 2003-2010. The JPL ECCO data are used to determine average front positions for the time period studies, as well as where transport is mainly zonal. Statistical analysis will be conducted to determine the uncertainty of the GRACE observations using a simulated data set. We will also begin looking at low frequency changes and how coherent transport variability is from region to region of the ACC. Correlations with bottom pressure south of the ACC and the average basin transports will also be calculated to determine the probability of using bottom pressure south of the ACC as a means for describing the ACC dynamics and transport.

  8. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.

    1985-01-01

    A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic.

  9. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  10. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  11. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  12. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, Christos; Kapsomenakis, John; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Hubert, Daan; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Frith, Stacey; Sofieva, Viktoria; Hassler, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV) satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle) and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD), tropopause height changes (including global warming) and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC). Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC) and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  13. Zonally averaged thermal balance and stability models for nitrogen polar caps on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, John A.; Lunine, J. I.; Porco, C. C.; Mcewen, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager four-color imaging data of Triton are analyzed to calculate the bolometric hemispheric albedo as a function of latitude and longitude. Zonal averages of these data have been incorporated into a thermal balance model involving insolation, reradiation, and latent heat of sublimation of N2 ice for the surface. The current average bolometric albedo of Triton's polar caps is 0.8, implying an effective temperature of 34.2 K and a surface pressure of N2 of 1.6 microbar for unit emissivity. This pressure is an order of magnitude lower than the surface pressure of 18 microbar inferred from Voyager data (Broadfoot et al., 1989; Conrath et al., 1989), a discrepancy that can be reconciled if the emissivity of the N2 on Triton's surface is 0.66. The model predicts that Triton's surface north of 15 deg N latitude is experiencing deposition of N2 frosts, as are the bright portions of the south polar cap near the equator. This result explains why the south cap covers nearly the entire southern hemisphere of Triton.

  14. The zonally averaged transport characteristics of the atmosphere as determined by a general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Two dimensional modeling has become an established technique for the simulation of the global structure of trace constituents. Such models are simpler to formulate and cheaper to operate than three dimensional general circulation models, while avoiding some of the gross simplifications of one dimensional models. Nevertheless, the parameterization of eddy fluxes required in a 2-D model is not a trivial problem. This fact has apparently led some to interpret the shortcomings of existing 2-D models as indicating that the parameterization procedure is wrong in principle. There are grounds to believe that these shortcomings result primarily from incorrect implementations of the predictions of eddy transport theory and that a properly based parameterization may provide a good basis for atmospheric modeling. The existence of these GCM-derived coefficients affords an unprecedented opportunity to test the validity of the flux-gradient parameterization. To this end, a zonally averaged (2-D) model was developed, using these coefficients in the transport parameterization. Results from this model for a number of contrived tracer experiments were compared with the parent GCM. The generally good agreement substantially validates the flus-gradient parameterization, and thus the basic principle of 2-D modeling.

  15. Version 8 SBUV Ozone Profile Trends Compared with Trends from a Zonally Averaged Chemical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Frith, Stacey; Stolarski, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Linear regression trends for the years 1979-2003 were computed using the new Version 8 merged Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) data set of ozone profiles. These trends were compared to trends computed using ozone profiles from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) zonally averaged coupled model. Observed and modeled annual trends between 50 N and 50 S were a maximum in the higher latitudes of the upper stratosphere, with southern hemisphere (SH) trends greater than northern hemisphere (NH) trends. The observed upper stratospheric maximum annual trend is -5.5 +/- 0.9 % per decade (1 sigma) at 47.5 S and -3.8 +/- 0.5 % per decade at 47.5 N, to be compared with the modeled trends of -4.5 +/- 0.3 % per decade in the SH and -4.0 +/- 0.2% per decade in the NH. Both observed and modeled trends are most negative in winter and least negative in summer, although the modeled seasonal difference is less than observed. Model trends are shown to be greatest in winter due to a repartitioning of chlorine species and the increasing abundance of chlorine with time. The model results show that trend differences can occur depending on whether ozone profiles are in mixing ratio or number density coordinates, and on whether they are recorded on pressure or altitude levels.

  16. Titan's rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds

    Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.W.; Kirk, R.L.; Allison, M.D.; Del Marmo, P.P.; Iess, L.; Lunine, J.I.; Ostro, S.J.; Hensley, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cassini radar observations of Saturn's moon Titan over several years show that its rotational period is changing and is different from its orbital period. The present-day rotation period difference from synchronous spin leads to a shift of ???0.36?? per year in apparent longitude and is consistent with seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and Titan's dense superrotating atmosphere, but only if Titan's crust is decoupled from the core by an internal water ocean like that on Europa.

  17. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  18. Solar-QBO Interaction and Its Impact on Stratospheric Ozone in a Zonally Averaged Photochemical Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-28

    Solar- QBO interaction and its impact on stratospheric ozone in a zonally averaged photochemical transport model of the middle atmosphere J. P...investigate the solar cycle modulation of the quasi-biennial oscillation ( QBO ) in stratospheric zonal winds and its impact on stratospheric ozone with an...updated version of the zonally averaged CHEM2D middle atmosphere model. We find that the duration of the westerly QBO phase at solar maximum is 3 months

  19. The accuracy of temperature distributions used to derive the net transport for a zonally averaged model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.; Bhatt, Praful P.

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons of satellite-derived temperatures with correlative temperatures indicate that the LIMS temperatures are accurate and contain more of the needed vertical resolution for calculating a residual mean circulation for transporting tracer-like species. Generally, the LIMS temperatures are accurate to at least 2 K. Other satellite data sets are comprised of temperatures with coarser vertical resolution, leading to biases that occur with an error pattern that is characteristic of their resolution. Their biases exceed 2 K at some altitudes. Retrievals of species using an infrared limb emission technique are sensitive to any temperature bias. Generally, the IMS comparisons with other data sets for ozone and water vapor are good to better than 20 percent; this represents an independent confirmation of the quality of LIMS and temperatures. Zonal mean comparisons between LIMS and SAMS temperatures also indicate agreement to better than 2 K from about 7 to 2hPa. Therefore, we are confident that SAMS N2O and CH4 are relatively free of temperature bias in that region. These factors support the generally good agreement in G90 between model N2O transported using a LIMS-derived RMC and the N2O contours from SAMS.

  20. Trends in the Zonal Winds over the Southern Ocean from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and Scatterometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    The winds over the Southern Ocean for the entire 54-year (1948-2001) period of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis have been decomposed into Principal Components (Empirical Orthogonal Functions). The first EOF describes 83 percent of the variance in the zonal wind. The loading of the EOF shows the predominately westerly surface flow with strongest winds in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The structure of this EOF is similar to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) identified by Thompson, et al 2000. The amplitude of this EOF reveals a large trend of 4.42 cm/s/yr in the strength of the zonal wind corresponding to a nearly 50 percent increase in the wind stress over the Southern Ocean. Such a trend, if real, would be important in the dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Recent studies by Gille, et al. (2001), Olbers and Ivchenko (2001) and Gent et al. (2001) have shown that the transport of the ACC is correlated to the variability in the zonal wind with a monotonic increase in the transport with increasing zonal wind strength. However, errors in the data assimilation scheme for surface pressure observations on the Antarctic continent appears to have caused a spurious trend in the sea level pressure south of 40S of -0.2 hPa/yr (Hines, et al. 2000 and Marshall, 2002). The sea level pressure difference between 40S and 60S has risen by 8 hPa over the same period. This sea level pressure difference is used as a proxy for the strength of the zonal winds. Thus, the trend in the zonal wind EOF amplitude may be an artifact of model errors in the NCEP Reanalysis. To check this trend, we analyzed scatterometer winds over the Southern Ocean from the SEASAT, ERS (1 and 2), NSCAT and QuikScat satellites. The scatterometer data is not used in the NCEP Reanalysis and, thus, is an independent estimate of the winds. The SEASAT Scatterometer (SASS) operated for 90 days in July-September, 1978, while the ERS, NSCAT and QuikScat scatterometers provide a continuous dataset from

  1. An Update on Oceanic Precipitation Rate and its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Stephens, Graeme; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Lebstock, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the estimation of the global mean and zonal distribution of oceanic precipitation rate using complementary information from advanced precipitation measuring sensors and provides an independent reference to assess current precipitation products. Precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) and CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) were merged, as the two complementary sensors yield an unprecedented range of sensitivity to quantify rainfall from drizzle through the most intense rates. At higher latitudes, where TRMM PR does not exist, precipitation estimates from Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) complemented CloudSat CPR to capture intense precipitation rates. The high sensitivity of CPR allows estimation of snow rate, an important type of precipitation at high latitudes, not directly observed in current merged precipitation products. Using the merged precipitation estimate from the CloudSat, TRMM, and Aqua platforms (this estimate is abbreviated to MCTA), the authors' estimate for 3-yr (2007-09) nearglobal (80degS-80degN) oceanic mean precipitation rate is approx. 2.94mm/day. This new estimate of mean global ocean precipitation is about 9% higher than that of the corresponding Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) value (2.68mm/day) and about 4% higher than that of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; 2.82mm/day). Furthermore, MCTA suggests distinct differences in the zonal distribution of precipitation rate from that depicted in GPCPand CMAP, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. SPCZ zonal events and downstream influence on surface ocean conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, Braddock K.; Wu, Henry C.; Rixen, Tim; Charles, Christopher D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Moore, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal surface freshening of the Makassar Strait, the main conduit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), is a key factor controlling the ITF. Here we present a 262 year reconstruction of seasonal sea-surface-salinity variability from 1742 to 2004 Common Era by using coral δ18O records from the central Makassar Strait. Our record reveals persistent seasonal freshening and also years with significant truncations of seasonal freshening that correlate exactly with South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) zonal events >4000 km to the east. During these events, the SPCZ dramatically rotates 15° north to near the equator and stronger westward flowing South Pacific boundary currents force higher-salinity water through the Makassar Strait in February-May halting the normal seasonal freshening in the strait. By these teleconnections, our Makassar coral δ18O series provides the first record of the recurrence interval of these zonal SPCZ events and demonstrates that they have occurred on a semiregular basis since the mid-1700s.

  3. Dissolved low-molecular weight thiol concentrations from the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Ocean zonal transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarr, Gretchen J.; Kading, Tristan; Lamborg, Carl H.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Bowman, Katlin L.

    2016-10-01

    Low-molecular weight thiols, including cysteine and glutathione, are biomolecules involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and act as important antioxidant and metal buffering agents. In this last capacity, they represent a potential mechanism for modulating the bioavailability and biogeochemistry of many trace elements in the ocean, particularly for chalcophilic elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag and Hg). For this reason, and in the context of the international GEOTRACES program that seeks to understand the biogeochemistry of trace elements in the ocean, we measured the concentration of individual dissolved low-molecular weight thiols during the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic Zonal Transect (USGNAZT). Only two thiols were identified, cysteine and glutathione, in contrast to results from the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean, where the dipeptides glycine-cysteine and arginine-cysteine were also present and γ-glutamylcysteine was dominant. Concentrations of cysteine and glutathione in the North Atlantic Ocean were lower than in the Pacific and ranged from below detection ( 0.01 nM) to 0.61 nM of cysteine and up to 1.0 nM of glutathione, with cysteine generally more abundant than glutathione. Vertical profiles of cysteine and glutathione were broadly consistent with their biological production, being more abundant in surface water and usually below detection at depths greater than about 200 m. Subsurface concentration maxima, often co-incident with the deep chlorophyll maximum, were frequently observed but not universal. We conclude that cysteine and glutathione do not make up significant portions of complexation capacity for Cu and Zn in the upper open ocean but could be important for Cd, Hg, and potentially other chalcophiles. Extremely low concentrations of cysteine and glutathione in deep water suggest that higher molecular-weight thiols are a more important ligand class for chalcophiles in that portion of the ocean.

  4. Sensitivity of ocean oxygenation to variations in tropical zonal wind stress magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Nina N.; England, Matthew H.

    2014-09-01

    Ocean oxygenation has been observed to have changed over the past few decades and is projected to change further under global climate change due to an interplay of several mechanisms. In this study we isolate the effect of modified tropical surface wind stress conditions on the evolution of ocean oxygenation in a numerical climate model. We find that ocean oxygenation varies inversely with low-latitude surface wind stress. Approximately one third of this response is driven by sea surface temperature anomalies; the remaining two thirds result from changes in ocean circulation and marine biology. Global mean O2 concentration changes reach maximum values of +4 μM and -3.6 μM in the two most extreme perturbation cases of -30% and +30% wind change, respectively. Localized changes lie between +92 μM under 30% reduced winds and -56 μM for 30% increased winds. Overall, we find that the extent of the global low-oxygen volume varies with the same sign as the wind perturbation; namely, weaker winds reduce the low-oxygen volume on the global scale and vice versa for increased trade winds. We identify two regions, one in the Pacific Ocean off Chile and the other in the Indian Ocean off Somalia, that are of particular importance for the evolution of oxygen minimum zones in the global ocean.

  5. Development of a two-dimensional zonally averaged statistical-dynamical model. III - The parameterization of the eddy fluxes of heat and moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1990-01-01

    A number of perpetual January simulations are carried out with a two-dimensional zonally averaged model employing various parameterizations of the eddy fluxes of heat (potential temperature) and moisture. The parameterizations are evaluated by comparing these results with the eddy fluxes calculated in a parallel simulation using a three-dimensional general circulation model with zonally symmetric forcing. The three-dimensional model's performance in turn is evaluated by comparing its results using realistic (nonsymmetric) boundary conditions with observations. Branscome's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of heat and Leovy's parameterization of the meridional eddy flux of moisture simulate the seasonal and latitudinal variations of these fluxes reasonably well, while somewhat underestimating their magnitudes. New parameterizations of the vertical eddy fluxes are developed that take into account the enhancement of the eddy mixing slope in a growing baroclinic wave due to condensation, and also the effect of eddy fluctuations in relative humidity. The new parameterizations, when tested in the two-dimensional model, simulate the seasonal, latitudinal, and vertical variations of the vertical eddy fluxes quite well, when compared with the three-dimensional model, and only underestimate the magnitude of the fluxes by 10 to 20 percent.

  6. Statistically Assessing Time-Averaged and Paleosecular Variation Field Models Against Paleomagnetic Directional Data Sets. Can Likely non-Zonal Features be Detected in a Robust way ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Khokhlov, A.

    2007-12-01

    We recently introduced a method to rigorously test the statistical compatibility of combined time-averaged (TAF) and paleosecular variation (PSV) field models against any lava flow paleomagnetic database (Khokhlov et al., 2001, 2006). Applying this method to test (TAF+PSV) models against synthetic data produced from those shows that the method is very efficient at discriminating models, and very sensitive, provided those data errors are properly taken into account. This prompted us to test a variety of published combined (TAF+PSV) models against a test Bruhnes stable polarity data set extracted from the Quidelleur et al. (1994) data base. Not surprisingly, ignoring data errors leads all models to be rejected. But taking data errors into account leads to the stimulating conclusion that at least one (TAF+PSV) model appears to be compatible with the selected data set, this model being purely axisymmetric. This result shows that in practice also, and with the data bases currently available, the method can discriminate various candidate models and decide which actually best fits a given data set. But it also shows that likely non-zonal signatures of non-homogeneous boundary conditions imposed by the mantle are difficult to identify as statistically robust from paleomagnetic directional data sets. In the present paper, we will discuss the possibility that such signatures could eventually be identified as robust with the help of more recent data sets (such as the one put together under the collaborative "TAFI" effort, see e.g. Johnson et al. abstract #GP21A-0013, AGU Fall Meeting, 2005) or by taking additional information into account (such as the possible coincidence of non-zonal time-averaged field patterns with analogous patterns in the modern field).

  7. A Zonal Mode in the Indian Ocean over the Past Millennium? Isotopic Evidence from Continental Climate Archives and Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, B.; Russell, J. M.; Vuille, M.; Rodysill, J. R.; Cohen, L. R.; Chuman, A. F.; Huang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We present new evidence for multi-decadal to millennial scale hydro-climatic change in the continental Indian Ocean region over the past two millennia. We assess regional hydrological variability using new records of the δD of terrestrial plant waxes from the sediments of several lakes in tropical East Africa and Indonesia. We compare these new data to previous δ18O and δD records from the region and interpret these results in light of an isotope-enabled climate model simulation of the past 130 years. Long-term trends in our data support a southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)'s mean position over the past millennium, bringing progressively wetter conditions and D-depleted waxes to our southernmost site (~8°S) starting around 950 C.E. while maintaining overall wet conditions at our northernmost site (~0°N) until the end of the 19th century. Superimposed on this long-term trend are a series of pronounced, multi-decadal to centennial scale isotopic excursions that are of the same timing but in opposite directions on the two sides of the Indian Ocean. These zonally asymmetric isotopic fluctuations become progressively more pronounced beginning around 1400 C.E., with the onset of Little Ice Age cool conditions recorded in sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Northern Hemisphere and the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP). Previous work in the IPWP region suggests cooler SST, reduced boreal summer Asian monsoon intensity, and less ENSO-like activity during the Little Ice Age [Oppo et al., 2009, Nature 460:1113, and references therein], although recent paleolimnological reconstructions from Java indicate punctuated droughts during this time [Rodysill et al., 2010, Eos Trans. AGU, 91(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract PP51B-04]. Our records suggest that multi-decadal to centennial precipitation variability was in fact enhanced during this time period in parts of equatorial East Africa and western Indonesia. The direction of isotopic

  8. An assessment of satellite temperature distributions used to derive the net diabatic transport for zonally averaged models of the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.; Bhatt, Praful P.; Miles, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Determinations of the zonally averaged and diabatically derived residual mean circulation (RMC) are particularly sensitive to the assumed zonal mean temperature distribution used as input. Several different middle atmosphere satellite temperature distributions have been employed in models and are compared here: a 4-year (late 1978 to early 1982) National Meteorological Center (NMC) climatology, the Barnett and Corney (or BC) climatology, and the 7 months of Nimbus 7 limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) temperatures. All three climatologies are generally accurate below the 10 hPa level, but there are systematic differences between them of up to +/-5 K in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The NMC/LIMS differences are evaluated using time series of rocketsonde and reconstructed satellite temperatures at station locations. Much of those biases can be explained by the differing vertical resolutions for the satellite-derived temperatures; the time series of reconstructed LIMS profiles have higher resolution and are more accurate. Because the LIMS temperatures are limited to just two full seasons, one cannot obtain monthly RMCs from them for an annual model calculation. Two alternate monthly climatologies are examined briefly: the 4-year Nimbus 7 stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) temperatures and for the mesosphere the distribution from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), both of which are limb viewers of medium vertical resolution. There are also differences of the order of +/-5 K for those data sets. It is concluded that a major source of error in the determination of diabatic RMCs is a persistent pattern of temperature bias whose characteristics vary according to the vertical resolution of each individual climatology.

  9. Influence of coma aberration on aperture averaged scintillations in oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yujuan; Ji, Xiaoling; Yu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The influence of coma aberration on aperture averaged scintillations in oceanic turbulence is studied in detail by using the numerical simulation method. In general, in weak oceanic turbulence, the aperture averaged scintillation can be effectively suppressed by means of the coma aberration, and the aperture averaged scintillation decreases as the coma aberration coefficient increases. However, in moderate and strong oceanic turbulence the influence of coma aberration on aperture averaged scintillations can be ignored. In addition, the aperture averaged scintillation dominated by salinity-induced turbulence is larger than that dominated by temperature-induced turbulence. In particular, it is shown that for coma-aberrated Gaussian beams, the behavior of aperture averaged scintillation index is quite different from the behavior of point scintillation index, and the aperture averaged scintillation index is more suitable for characterizing scintillations in practice.

  10. Zonal flow as pattern formation

    SciT

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2013-10-15

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  11. SPCZ Zonal Events and Downstream Influence on Surface Ocean Conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow Region: Implications for SPCZ Mean Position Effects on the ITF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wu, H. C.; Rixen, T.; Charles, C. D.; Gordon, A. L.; Moore, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal surface freshening of the Makassar Strait, the main conduit of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), is a key factor controlling the temperature and salinity characteristics of ITF transport to the Indian Ocean. Here we present a 262-year reconstruction of seasonal sea-surface-salinity (SSS) variability from 1742-2004 C.E. using coral oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from the central Makassar Strait. Our record reveals persistent seasonal freshening and also years with significant truncations of seasonal freshening that correlate exactly with South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) zonal events >4,000 km to the east. During these newly identified events, the SPCZ dramatically rotates 15° north to near the equator and stronger westward flowing South Pacific boundary currents transport salty water north across the equator and force higher salinity water through the Makassar Strait in February-May halting the normal seasonal freshening in the strait. By these teleconnections, our Makassar coral δ18O series provides the first record of the recurrence interval of these zonal SPCZ events and demonstrates that they have occurred on a semi-regular basis since the mid-1700s. The deeper time implications of these results suggest that long-term changes in the position of the SPCZ and ITCZ in the central equatorial Pacific would affect Pacific western boundary currents and the transport of South Pacific water north across the equator and into the ITF. Preliminary results and plans underway to evaluate this hypothesis over the last 2.5 Ma will also be presented.

  12. Zonal and meridional patterns of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, between 110°W and 140°W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, W. M.; Poulton, A. J.; Drapeau, D. T.; Bowler, B. C.; Windecker, L. A.; Booth, E. S.

    2011-03-01

    Primary production (P prim) and calcification (C calc) were measured in the eastern and central Equatorial Pacific during December 2004 and September 2005, between 110°W and 140°W. The design of the field sampling allowed partitioning of P prim and total chlorophyll a (B) between large (>3 μm) and small (0.45-3 μm) phytoplankton cells. The station locations allowed discrimination of meridional and zonal patterns. The cruises coincided with a warm El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and ENSO-neutral phase, respectively, which proved to be the major factors relating to the patterns of productivity. Production and biomass of large phytoplankton generally covaried with that of small cells; large cells typically accounted for 20-30% of B and 20% of P prim. Elevated biomass and primary production of all size fractions were highest along the equator as well as at the convergence zone between the North Equatorial Counter Current and the South Equatorial Current. C calc by >0.4 μm cells was 2-3% of P prim by the same size fraction, for both cruises. Biomass-normalized P prim values were, on average, slightly higher during the warm-phase ENSO period, inconsistent with a "bottom-up" control mechanism (such as nutrient supply). Another source of variability along the equator was Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs). Zonal variance in integrated phytoplankton biomass (along the equator, between 110° and 140°) was almost the same as the meridional variance across it (between 4° N and 4° S). However, the zonal variance in integrated P prim was half the variance observed meridionally. The variance in integrated C calc along the equator was half that seen meridionally during the warm ENSO phase cruise whereas during the ENSO-neutral period, it was identical. No relation could be observed between the patterns of integrated carbon fixation (P prim or C calc) and integrated nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, silicate or dissolved iron). This suggests that the factors

  13. Representativeness of single lidar stations and SBUV overpasses in zonally averaged ozone layered means, their trends and the role of proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Zerefos, C. S.; Kapsomenakis, J. N.; Eleftheratos, K.; Tourpali, K.; Hubert, D.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Steinbrecht, W.; Frith, S. M.; Sofieva, V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations and SBUV overpasses in searching for trends in the vertical ozone profiles. It was found that from the lower to the upper stratosphere single or grouped stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from SBUV overpasses in a global perspective. The best representativeness in vertical ozone profiles is found within 5 degrees of latitude north or south of any LIDAR station or SBUV overpasses at which the latitude range is expanded as we move to the upper stratospheric layers. The paper includes a detailed analysis on a ranking of proxy footprints in the vertical ozone profiles. Major proxies studied are of different kinds: those outside of the earth system (solar cycle), those who represent dynamic processes (the QBO, the AO, AAO, ENSO), the volcanic aerosol component (AOD) and the manmade contribution to chemistry (EESC). The trends have been studied after removal of proxies from the total available SBUV records during the period 1980-2015. As seen in the detailed contributions of the proxies major contributions come from chemistry, the solar cycle and AOD. It appears that at some particular years the synergistic contribution of proxies which although contribute smaller amplitudes to ozone individually, when composited can result to anomalies that may influence the long term change or trend in the ozone profiles. Notable periods for the synergistic negative anomalies can be seen in 1983, 1985, 1988, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011, 2013. During all these years ozone at about 24 km dropped below -6% of the mean. The so-called "inflection point" between 1997 and 1999 marks the large reduction of the significant negative ozone trends, followed by the recent period of positive ozone change 1998-2015 which is observed above 15 hPa whose significance remains to be proven due to its smaller period in comparison to the total period of 36 years of ozone profiles (1980-2015).

  14. Amplification of warming due to intensification of zonal circulation in the mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Genrikh; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kharlanenkova, Natalia; Kuzmina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new index to evaluate the impact of atmospheric zonal transport oscillations on inter-annual variability and trends of average air temperature in mid-latitudes, Northern Hemisphere and globe. A simple model of mid-latitude channel "ocean-land-atmosphere" was used to produce the analytic relationship between the zonal circulation and the land-ocean temperature contrast which was used as a basis for index. An inverse relationship was found between indexes and average mid-latitude, hemisphere and global temperatures during the cold half of year and opposite one in summer. These relationships keep under 400 mb height. In winter relationship describes up to 70, 50 and 40 % of surface air temperature inter-annual variability of these averages, respectively. The contribution of zonal circulation to the increase in the average surface air temperature during warming period 1969-2008 reaches 75% in the mid-latitudes and 40% in the Northern Hemisphere. Proposed mid-latitude index correlates negatively with surface air temperature in the Arctic except summer. ECHAM4 projections with the A1B scenario show that increase of zonal circulation defines more than 74% of the warming in the Northern Hemisphere for 2001-2100. Our analysis confirms that the proposed index is an effective indicator of the climate change caused by variations of the zonal circulation that arise due to anthropogenic and/or natural global forcing mechanisms.

  15. Stable carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon for a zonal transect across the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Matthew P.; Greatrix, Florence M.; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P.; Griffiths, Alex M.; Fry, Claudia H.; Garley, Rebecca; McDonald, Alison; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2016-06-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in seawater was measured in samples collected during June-July 2014 in the subpolar North Atlantic. Sample collection was carried out on the RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR302, part of the "Radiatively Active Gases from the North Atlantic Region and Climate Change" (RAGNARoCC) research programme. The observed δ13CDIC values for cruise JR302 fall in a range from -0.07 to +1.95 ‰, relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite standard. From duplicate samples collected during the cruise, the 1σ precision for the 341 results is 0.08 ‰, which is similar to our previous work and other studies of this kind. We also performed a cross-over analysis using nearby historical δ13CDIC data, which indicated that there were no significant systematic offsets between our measurements and previously published results. We also included seawater reference material (RM) produced by A. G. Dickson (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA) in every batch of analysis, enabling us to improve upon the calibration and quality-control procedures from a previous study. The δ13CDIC is consistent within each RM batch, although its value is not certified. We report δ13CDIC values of 1.15 ± 0.03 ‰ and 1.27 ± 0.05 ‰ for batches 141 and 144 respectively. Our JR302 δ13CDIC data can be used - along with measurements of other biogeochemical variables - to constrain the processes that control DIC in the interior ocean, in particular the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and the biological carbon pump. Our δ13CDIC results are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre - doi:10.5285/22235f1a-b7f3-687f-e053-6c86abc0c8a6.

  16. Aperture averaging and BER for Gaussian beam in underwater oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    In an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) link, power fluctuations over finite-sized collecting lens are investigated for a horizontally propagating Gaussian beam wave. The power scintillation index, also known as the irradiance flux variance, for the received irradiance is evaluated in weak oceanic turbulence by using the Rytov method. This lets us further quantify the associated performance indicators, namely, the aperture averaging factor and the average bit-error rate (). The effects on the UWOC link performance of the oceanic turbulence parameters, i.e., the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, Kolmogorov microscale, the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum as well as system parameters, i.e., the receiver aperture diameter, Gaussian source size, laser wavelength and the link distance are investigated.

  17. Average intensity and beam quality of optical coherence lattices in oceanic turbulence with anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianwei; Deng, Zhixiang; Shi, Xiaohui; Bai, Yanfeng; Fu, Xiquan

    2018-02-19

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, we have derived the analytical expression of the average intensity of optical coherence lattices (OCLs) in oceanic turbulence with anisotropy, and then the beam quality parameters including the Strehl ratio (SR) and the power-in-the-bucket (PIB) are obtained. One can find that the OCLs will eventually evolve into Gaussian shape with the periodicity reciprocity gradually breaking down when propagating through the anisotropic ocean water, and that the trend of evolving into Gaussian can be accelerated for increasing the ratio of temperature and salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum ω, the lattice constant a and the rate of dissipation of mean square temperature χT or decreasing the anisotropic factor ξ and the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid ε. Further, the SR and PIB in the target plane under the effects of oceanic parameters are discussed in detail, and the SR and PIB can be increased for the larger ξ and ε or the smaller χT and ω, namely, the beam quality becomes better. Our results can find potential application in the future optical communication system in an oceanic environment.

  18. Observed variability in the upper layers at the Equator, 90°E in the Indian Ocean during 2001-2008, 1: zonal currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. R.; Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Mizuno, K.

    2017-08-01

    The observed variability of zonal currents (ZC) at the Equator, 90°E shows a strong seasonal cycle in the near-surface 40-350 m water column with periodic east-west reversals most pronounced at semiannual frequency. Superposed on this, a strong intraseasonal variability of 30-90 day periodicity is also prominently seen in the near-surface layer (40-80 m) almost throughout the year with the only exception of February-March. An eastward flowing equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is present in the depth range of 80-160 m during March-April and October-November. The observed intraseasonal variability in the near-surface layer is primarily determined by the equatorial zonal westerly wind bursts (WWBs) through local frictional coupling between the zonal flow in the surface layer and surface zonal winds and shows large interannual variability. The eastward flowing EUC maintained by the ZPG set up by the east-west slope of the thermocline remotely controlled by the zonal wind (ZW) and zonally propagating wave fields also shows significant interannual variability. This observed variability on interannual time scales appears to be controlled by the corresponding variability in the alongshore winds off the Somalia coast during the preceding boreal winter, the ZW field along the equator, and the associated zonally propagating Kelvin and Rossby waves. The salinity induced vertical stratification observed in the near-surface layer through barrier layer thickness (BLT) effects also shows a significant influence on the ZC field on intraseasonal time scale. Interestingly, among all the 8 years (2001-2008), relatively weaker annual cycle is seen in both ZC in the 40-350 m water column and boreal spring sea surface temperature (SST) only during 2001 and 2008 along the equator caused through propagating wave dynamics.

  19. Average intensity and coherence properties of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam propagating through oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dajun; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan

    2018-01-01

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel integral and the relationship of Lorentz distribution and Hermite-Gauss function, the average intensity and coherence properties of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam propagating through oceanic turbulence have been investigated by using numerical examples. The influences of beam parameters and oceanic turbulence on the propagation properties are also discussed in details. It is shown that the partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam with smaller coherence length will spread faster in oceanic turbulence, and the stronger oceanic turbulence will accelerate the spreading of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam in oceanic turbulence.

  20. Statistical averaging of marine magnetic anomalies and the aging of oceanic crust.

    Blakely, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visual comparison of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magnetic anomalies in the North Pacific suggests that older anomalies contain less short-wavelength information than younger anomalies in this area. To test this observation, magnetic profiles from the North Pacific are examined from crust of three ages: 0-2.1, 29.3-33.1, and 64.9-70.3Ma. For each time period, at least nine profiles were analyzed by 1) calculating the power density spectrum of each profile, 2) averaging the spectra together, and 3) computing a 'recording filter' for each time period by assuming a hypothetical seafloor model. The model assumes that the top of the source is acoustic basement, the source thickness is 0.5km, and the time scale of geomagnetic reversals is according to Ness et al. (1980). The calculated power density spectra of the three recording filters are complex in shape but show an increase of attenuation of short-wavelength information as the crust ages. These results are interpreted using a multilayer model for marine magnetic anomalies in which the upper layer, corresponding to pillow basalt of seismic layer 2A, acts as a source of noise to the magnetic anomalies. As the ocean crust ages, this noisy contribution by the pillow basalts becomes less significant to the anomalies. Consequently, magnetic sources below layer 2A must be faithful recorders of geomagnetic reversals.-AuthorPacific power density spectrum

  1. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    PubMed

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  2. Infuence of Averaging Method on the Evaluation of a Coastal Ocean Color Event on the U.S. Northeast Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Uz, Stephanie Schollaert; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    Application of appropriate spatial averaging techniques is crucial to correct evaluation of ocean color radiometric data, due to the common log-normal or mixed log-normal distribution of these data. Averaging method is particularly crucial for data acquired in coastal regions. The effect of averaging method was markedly demonstrated for a precipitation-driven event on the U.S. Northeast coast in October-November 2005, which resulted in export of high concentrations of riverine colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) to New York and New Jersey coastal waters over a period of several days. Use of the arithmetic mean averaging method created an inaccurate representation of the magnitude of this event in SeaWiFS global mapped chl a data, causing it to be visualized as a very large chl a anomaly. The apparent chl a anomaly was enhanced by the known incomplete discrimination of CDOM and phytoplankton chlorophyll in SeaWiFS data; other data sources enable an improved characterization. Analysis using the geometric mean averaging method did not indicate this event to be statistically anomalous. Our results predicate the necessity of providing the geometric mean averaging method for ocean color radiometric data in the Goddard Earth Sciences DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni).

  3. Spatial averaging of oceanic rainfall variability using underwater sound: Ionian Sea rainfall experiment 2004.

    PubMed

    Nystuen, Jeffrey A; Amitai, Eyal; Anagnostou, Emmanuel N; Anagnostou, Marios N

    2008-04-01

    An experiment to evaluate the inherent spatial averaging of the underwater acoustic signal from rainfall was conducted in the winter of 2004 in the Ionian Sea southwest of Greece. A mooring with four passive aquatic listeners (PALs) at 60, 200, 1000, and 2000 m was deployed at 36.85 degrees N, 21.52 degrees E, 17 km west of a dual-polarization X-band coastal radar at Methoni, Greece. The acoustic signal is classified into wind, rain, shipping, and whale categories. It is similar at all depths and rainfall is detected at all depths. A signal that is consistent with the clicking of deep-diving beaked whales is present 2% of the time, although there was no visual confirmation of whale presence. Co-detection of rainfall with the radar verifies that the acoustic detection of rainfall is excellent. Once detection is made, the correlation between acoustic and radar rainfall rates is high. Spatial averaging of the radar rainfall rates in concentric circles over the mooring verifies the larger inherent spatial averaging of the rainfall signal with recording depth. For the PAL at 2000 m, the maximum correlation was at 3-4 km, suggesting a listening area for the acoustic rainfall measurement of roughly 30-50 km(2).

  4. Transport in zonal flows in analogous geophysical and plasma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    1999-11-01

    Zonal flows occur naturally in the oceans and the atmosphere of planets. Important examples include the zonal flows in Jupiter, the stratospheric polar jet in Antarctica, and oceanic jets like the Gulf Stream. These zonal flows create transport barriers that have a crucial influence on mixing and confinement (e.g. the ozone depletion in Antarctica). Zonal flows also give rise to long-lasting vortices (e.g. the Jupiter red spot) by shear instability. Because of this, the formation and stability of zonal flows and their role on transport have been problems of great interest in geophysical fluid dynamics. On the other hand, zonal flows have also been observed in fusion plasmas and their impact on the reduction of transport has been widely recognized. Based on the well-known analogy between Rossby waves in quasigeostrophic flows and drift waves in magnetically confined plasmas, I will discuss the relevance to fusion plasmas of models and experiments recently developed in geophysical fluid dynamics. Also, the potential application of plasma physics ideas to geophysical flows will be discussed. The role of shear in the suppression of transport and the effect of zonal flows on the statistics of transport will be studied using simplified models. It will be shown how zonal flows induce large particle displacements that can be characterized as Lévy flights, and that the trapping effect of vortices combined with the zonal flows gives rise to anomalous diffusion and Lévy (non-Gaussian) statistics. The models will be compared with laboratory experiments and with atmospheric and oceanographic qualitative observations.

  5. Estimation of the average exchanges in momentum and latent heat between the atmosphere and the oceans with Seasat observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    Ocean-surface momentum flux and latent heat flux are determined from Seasat-A data from 1978 and compared with ship observations. Momentum flux was measured using the Seasat-A scatterometer system (SASS) heat flux, with the scanning multichannel MW radiometer (SMMR). Ship measurements were quality selected and averaged to increase their reliability. The fluxes were computed using a bulk parameterization technique. It is found that although SASS effectively measures momentum flux, variations in atmospheric stability and sea-surface temperature cause deviations which are not accounted for by the present data-processing algorithm. The SMMR-latent-heat-flux algorithm, while needing refinement, is shown to given estimations to within 35 W/sq m in its present form, which removes systematic error and uses an empirically determined transfer coefficient.

  6. Latitudinal and Longitudinal Basin-scale Surface Salinity Contrasts and Freshwater Transport by Ocean Thermohaline Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidov, D.; Haupt, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) contrasts in maintaining vigorous global ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) is revisited. Relative importance of different generalizations of sea surface conditions in climate studies is explored. In numerical experiments using an ocean general circulation model, we have aggregated the observed sea surface temperature (SST) and SSS in several different ways: we used observed unchanged SST with SSS taken as constant (34.25 psu) everywhere; SST unchanged, and SSS zonally averaged globally, i.e., in the whole World Ocean; SST averaged globally, and SSS unchanged; SST zonally averaged globally and SSS zonally averaged basin-wide in individual basins, i.e., in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans separately; and, finally, both SST and SSS zonally averaged in individual basins. Global zonal averaging removes all longitudinal differences in sea surface climatology among ocean basins. However, latitudinal profiles of zonally averaged parameters preserve the main character of large-scale equator-to-pole sea surface variability. Basin-wide zonal averaging does an even better job of preserving latitudinal distributions within each basin. The results of the experiments could hardly be anticipated a priory. Surprisingly, SST could be used as a 2-D field, or as a zonally-averaged field without much difference in the THC dynamics. Moreover, SST could be averaged either globally, or basin-wide, and it also did not change the overall character of THC. At the same time, THC responded vigorously to how the SSS has been changed. It appeared that the THC structure with the globally averaged SST and basin-wide averaged SSS was very close to the one obtained in the control run (control run operates with 2-D observed SST and SSS). Our main conclusion is that ocean-wide inter-basin sea surface salinity contrasts serve as the major controlling element in global thermohaline circulation. Thermal inter-basin contrasts, as well as

  7. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  8. Subsurface Zonal and Meridional Flows from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We study the solar-cycle variation of the zonal and meridional flows in the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone from the surface to a depth of about 16 Mm. The flows are determined from SDO/HMI Dopplergrams using the HMI ring-diagram pipeline. The zonal and meridional flows vary with the solar cycle. Bands of faster-than-average zonal flows together with more-poleward-than-average meridional flows move from mid-latitudes toward the equator during the solar cycle and are mainly located on the equatorward side of the mean latitude of solar magnetic activity. Similarly, bands of slower-than-average zonal flows together with less-poleward-than-average meridional flows are located on the poleward side of the mean latitude of activity. Here, we will focus on the variation of these flows at high latitudes (poleward of 50 degree) that are now accessible using HMI data. We will present the latest results.

  9. Zonal Flows and Turbulence in Fluids and Plasmas

    SciT

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking `zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetricmore » coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type Is instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the

  10. Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear

  11. A thickness-weighted average perspective of force balance in an idealized circumpolar current

    DOE PAGES

    Ringler, Todd Darwin; Saenz, Juan Antonio; Wolfram, Jr., Phillip Justin; ...

    2016-11-22

    The exact, three-dimensional thickness-weighted averaged (TWA) Boussinesq equations are used to diagnose eddy-mean flow interaction in an idealized circumpolar current (ICC). The force exerted by mesoscale eddies on the TWA velocity is expressed as the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm flux tensor. Consistent with previous findings, the analysis indicates that the dynamically relevant definition of the ocean surface layer is comprised of the set of buoyancy coordinates that ever reside at the ocean surface at a given horizontal position. The surface layer is found to be a physically distinct object with a diabatic- and force-balance that is largely isolated from themore » underlying adiabatic region in the interior. Within the ICC surface layer, the TWA meridional velocity is southward/northward in the top/bottom half, and has a value near zero at the bottom. In the top half of the surface layer, the zonal forces due to wind stress and meridional advection of potential vorticity act to accelerate the TWA zonal velocity; equilibrium is obtained by eddies decelerating the zonal flow via a downward flux of eastward momentum that increases with depth. In the bottom half of the surface layer, the accelerating force of the wind stress is balanced by the eddy force and meridional advection of potential vorticity. The bottom of the surface layer coincides with the location where the zonal eddy force, meridional advection of potential vorticity and zonal wind stress force are all zero. The net meridional transport, S f, within the surface layer is a small residual of its southward and northward TWA meridional flows. Furthermore, the mean meridional gradient of surface-layer buoyancy is advected by S f to balance the surface buoyancy fluxs.« less

  12. A thickness-weighted average perspective of force balance in an idealized circumpolar current

    SciT

    Ringler, Todd Darwin; Saenz, Juan Antonio; Wolfram, Jr., Phillip Justin

    The exact, three-dimensional thickness-weighted averaged (TWA) Boussinesq equations are used to diagnose eddy-mean flow interaction in an idealized circumpolar current (ICC). The force exerted by mesoscale eddies on the TWA velocity is expressed as the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm flux tensor. Consistent with previous findings, the analysis indicates that the dynamically relevant definition of the ocean surface layer is comprised of the set of buoyancy coordinates that ever reside at the ocean surface at a given horizontal position. The surface layer is found to be a physically distinct object with a diabatic- and force-balance that is largely isolated from themore » underlying adiabatic region in the interior. Within the ICC surface layer, the TWA meridional velocity is southward/northward in the top/bottom half, and has a value near zero at the bottom. In the top half of the surface layer, the zonal forces due to wind stress and meridional advection of potential vorticity act to accelerate the TWA zonal velocity; equilibrium is obtained by eddies decelerating the zonal flow via a downward flux of eastward momentum that increases with depth. In the bottom half of the surface layer, the accelerating force of the wind stress is balanced by the eddy force and meridional advection of potential vorticity. The bottom of the surface layer coincides with the location where the zonal eddy force, meridional advection of potential vorticity and zonal wind stress force are all zero. The net meridional transport, S f, within the surface layer is a small residual of its southward and northward TWA meridional flows. Furthermore, the mean meridional gradient of surface-layer buoyancy is advected by S f to balance the surface buoyancy fluxs.« less

  13. The Role of Reversed Equatorial Zonal Transport in Terminating an ENSO Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. C.; Hu, Z. Z.; Huang, B.; Sui, C. H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a sudden reversal of anomalous equatorial zonal current at the peaking ENSO phase triggers the rapid termination of an ENSO event. Throughout an ENSO cycle, the anomalous equatorial zonal current is strongly controlled by the concavity of the anomalous thermocline meridional structure near the equator. During the ENSO developing phase, the anomalous zonal current in the central and eastern Pacific generally enhances the ENSO growth through its zonal SST advection. In the mature phase of ENSO, however, the equatorial thermocline depth anomalies are reflected in the eastern Pacific and slowly propagate westward off the equator in both hemispheres. As a result, the concavity of the thermocline anomalies near the equator is reversed, i.e., the off-equatorial thermocline depth anomalies become higher than that on the equator for El Niño events and lower for La Niño events. This meridional change of thermocline structure reverses zonal transport rapidly in the central-to-eastern equatorial Pacific, which weakens the ENSO SST anomalies by reversed advection. More importantly, the reversed zonal mass transport weakens the existing zonal tilting of equatorial thermocline and suppresses the thermocline feedback. Both processes are concentrated in the eastern equatorial Pacific and can be effective on subseasonal time scales. These current reversal effects are built-in to the ENSO peak phase and independent of the zonal wind effect on thermocline slope. It functions as an oceanic control on ENSO evolution during both El Niño and La Niña events.

  14. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  15. Processed Movie of Zonal Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie is a manipulated sequence showing motions in Jupiter's atmosphere over the course of five days beginning Oct. 1, 2000, as seen by a camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, using a blue filter.

    Beginning with seven images taken at uneven time intervals, this sequence was made by using information on wind speeds derived from actual Jupiter images to create evenly spaced time steps throughout. The final result is a smooth movie sequence consisting of both real and false frames.

    The view is of the opposite side of the planet from Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The region shown reaches from 50 degrees north to 50 degrees south of Jupiter's equator, and extends 100 degrees east-to-west, about one-quarter of Jupiter's circumference. The smallest features are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Towards the end of the sequence, a shadow appears from one of Jupiter's moons, Europa.

    The movie shows the remains of a historic merger that began several years ago, when three white oval storms that had existed for 60 years merged into two, then one. The resulting oval is visible in the lower left portion of the movie.

    The movie also shows zonal jets that circle the planet on constant latitudes. Winds seen moving toward the left (westward) correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than Jupiter's magnetic field, and winds moving the opposite direction correspond to features that are rotating a little faster than the magnetic field. Since Jupiter has no solid surface, the rotation of the magnetic field is the point of reference for the rotation of the planet.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  16. Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Drouilhet, S. James, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01 and 0.08 C per 2.5 deg latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1 C. The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15 deg N and 15 deg S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70 deg N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1 (39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

  17. Insights Into the Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron, Nitrate, and Phosphate Across a 5,300 km South Pacific Zonal Section (153°E-150°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Michael J.; Bowie, Andrew R.; Baker, Alex; Gault-Ringold, Melanie; Hassler, Christel; Law, Cliff S.; Maher, William A.; Marriner, Andrew; Nodder, Scott; Sander, Sylvia; Stevens, Craig; Townsend, Ashley; van der Merwe, Pier; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Wuttig, Kathrin; Boyd, Philip W.

    2018-02-01

    Iron, phosphate, and nitrate are essential nutrients for phytoplankton growth, and hence, their supply into the surface ocean controls oceanic primary production. Here we present a GEOTRACES zonal section (GP13; 30-33°S, 153°E-150°W) extending eastward from Australia to the oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean gyre outlining the concentrations of these key nutrients. Surface dissolved iron concentrations are elevated at >0.4 nmol L-1 near continental Australia (west of 165°E) and decreased eastward to ≤0.2 nmol L-1 (170°W-150°W). The supply of dissolved iron into the upper ocean (<100 m) from the atmosphere and vertical diffusivity averaged 11 ± 10 nmol m-2 d-1. In the remote South Pacific Ocean (170°W-150°W), atmospherically sourced iron is a significant contributor to the surface dissolved iron pool with average supply contribution of 23 ± 17% (range 3% to 55%). Surface water nitrate concentrations averaged 5 ± 4 nmol L-1 between 170°W and 150°W, while surface water phosphate concentrations averaged 58 ± 30 nmol L-1. The supply of nitrogen into the upper ocean is primarily from deeper waters (24-1647 μmol m-2 d-1) with atmospheric deposition and nitrogen fixation contributing <1% to the overall flux along the eastern part of the transect. The deep water N:P ratio averaged 14.5 ± 0.5 but declined to <1 above the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) indicating a high N:P assimilation ratio by phytoplankton leading to almost quantitative removal of nitrate. The supply stoichiometry for iron and nitrogen relative to phosphate at and above the DCM declines eastward leading to two biogeographical provinces: one with diazotroph production and the other without diazotroph production.

  18. Global Ocean Vertical Velocity From a Dynamically Consistent Ocean State Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xinfeng; Spall, Michael; Wunsch, Carl

    2017-10-01

    Estimates of the global ocean vertical velocities (Eulerian, eddy-induced, and residual) from a dynamically consistent and data-constrained ocean state estimate are presented and analyzed. Conventional patterns of vertical velocity, Ekman pumping, appear in the upper ocean, with topographic dominance at depth. Intense and vertically coherent upwelling and downwelling occur in the Southern Ocean, which are likely due to the interaction of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and large-scale topographic features and are generally canceled out in the conventional zonally averaged results. These "elevators" at high latitudes connect the upper to the deep and abyssal oceans and working together with isopycnal mixing are likely a mechanism, in addition to the formation of deep and abyssal waters, for fast responses of the deep and abyssal oceans to the changing climate. Also, Eulerian and parameterized eddy-induced components are of opposite signs in numerous regions around the global ocean, particularly in the ocean interior away from surface and bottom. Nevertheless, residual vertical velocity is primarily determined by the Eulerian component, and related to winds and large-scale topographic features. The current estimates of vertical velocities can serve as a useful reference for investigating the vertical exchange of ocean properties and tracers, and its complex spatial structure ultimately permits regional tests of basic oceanographic concepts such as Sverdrup balance and coastal upwelling/downwelling.

  19. Southern Ocean air-sea heat flux, SST spatial anomalies, and implications for multi-decadal upper ocean heat content trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamsitt, V. M.; Talley, L. D.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean displays a zonal dipole (wavenumber one) pattern in sea surface temperature (SST), with a cool zonal anomaly in the Atlantic and Indian sectors and a warm zonal anomaly in the Pacific sector, associated with the large northward excursion of the Malvinas and southeastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). To the north of the cool Indian sector is the warm, narrow Agulhas Return Current (ARC). Air-sea heat flux is largely the inverse of this SST pattern, with ocean heat gain in the Atlantic/Indian, cooling in the southeastward-flowing ARC, and cooling in the Pacific, based on adjusted fluxes from the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE), a ⅙° eddy permitting model constrained to all available in situ data. This heat flux pattern is dominated by turbulent heat loss from the ocean (latent and sensible), proportional to perturbations in the difference between SST and surface air temperature, which are maintained by ocean advection. Locally in the Indian sector, intense heat loss along the ARC is contrasted by ocean heat gain of 0.11 PW south of the ARC. The IPCC AR5 50 year depth-averaged 0-700 m temperature trend shows surprising similarities in its spatial pattern, with upper ocean warming in the ARC contrasted by cooling to the south. Using diagnosed heat budget terms from the most recent (June 2014) 6-year run of the SOSE we find that surface cooling in the ARC is balanced by heating from south-eastward advection by the current whereas heat gain in the ACC is balanced by cooling due to northward Ekman transport driven by strong westerly winds. These results suggest that spatial patterns in multi-decadal upper ocean temperature trends depend on regional variations in upper ocean dynamics.

  20. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  1. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-02-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  2. Zonal subdivision of marine sequences: achievements and discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    It was 150 years ago when a notion of zone was introduced into stratigraphy. By the present time zonal units with a duration of 0.3-3.0 M.y. in average have been established virtually for all systems and stages of the Phanerozoic. Their quantity reached 300. It is not a chance that zonal stratigraphy is considered to be one of the most significant achievement of the modern geology. There are different interpretations of essence and goals of zonal stratigraphy, techniques of separation of zones, and evaluation of zones as stratigraphic units. Particularly it is reflected in International Stratigraphic Guide (Murphy, Salvador, 1999), Russian Stratigraphic Code (Zhamoida, 2006), and a number of stratigraphic reports of the last years. It concerns different approaches to: (a) establishment of different types of zones (biostratigraphic zones and chronozones, oppel-zones and biohorizons, etc.); (b) assessment of spatial distribution of zones (global or provincial) and a role of sedimentological factor; (c) definition of zones as stratigraphic units (relationships with geostratigraphic units of the standard and regional scales). The latest publications show that because of the different interpretations of zones, authors should explain usage of certain type of zone (for example, when they use the terms "interval-zone" or "assemblage-zone", what limitations stem from application of datum-levels, and others). It is common opinion, that biostratigraphic zones used widely by paleontologists and stratigraphers cannot be a final goal of stratigraphy although they provide a base for solution of many important problems (definition of certain stratigraphic levels, correlation of different biofacies, and others). At the same time, the most important stratigraphic units are chronozones, which correspond to stages or phases of geological evolutio of basins and are marked by distinct fossil assemblages and other properties (magnetic and other characteristics) in the type sections

  3. Convectively driven decadal zonal accelerations in Earth's fluid core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Colin; Dumberry, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis have been inferred to exist in Earth's fluid core on the basis of magnetic field observations and changes in the length-of-day. These accelerations have a typical timescale of decades. However, the physical mechanism causing the accelerations is not well understood. Scaling arguments suggest that the leading order torque averaged over cylindrical surfaces should arise from the Lorentz force. Decadal fluctuations in the magnetic field inside the core, driven by convective flows, could then force decadal changes in the Lorentz torque and generate zonal accelerations. We test this hypothesis by constructing a quasi-geostrophic model of magnetoconvection, with thermally driven flows perturbing a steady, imposed background magnetic field. We show that when the Alfvén number in our model is similar to that in Earth's fluid core, temporal fluctuations in the torque balance are dominated by the Lorentz torque, with the latter generating mean zonal accelerations. Our model reproduces both fast, free Alfvén waves and slow, forced accelerations, with ratios of relative strength and relative timescale similar to those inferred for the Earth's core. The temporal changes in the magnetic field which drive the time-varying Lorentz torque are produced by the underlying convective flows, shearing and advecting the magnetic field on a timescale associated with convective eddies. Our results support the hypothesis that temporal changes in the magnetic field deep inside Earth's fluid core drive the observed decadal zonal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces through the Lorentz torque.

  4. Using ocean bottom pressure from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) to estimate transport variability in the southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Jessica K.; Chambers, Don P.; Bonin, Jennifer A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ocean bottom pressure (OBP) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to measure the depth-averaged, or barotropic, transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Here, we use GRACE OBP observations to calculate transport variability in a region of the southern Indian Ocean encompassing the major fronts of the ACC. We use a statistical analysis of a simulated GRACE-like data set to determine the uncertainty of the estimated transport for the 2003.0-2013.0 time period. We find that when the transport is averaged over 60° of longitude, the uncertainty (one standard error) is close to 1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) for low-pass filtered transport, which is significantly smaller than the signal and lower than previous studies have found. The interannual variability is correlated with the Southern Annual mode (SAM) (0.61), but more highly correlated with circumpolar zonally averaged winds between 45°S and 65°S (0.88). GRACE transport reflects significant changes in transport between 2007 and 2009 that is observed in the zonal wind variations but not in the SAM index. We also find a statistically significant trend in transport (-1.0 ± 0.4 Sv yr-1, 90% confidence) that is correlated with a local deceleration in zonal winds related to an asymmetry in the SAM on multidecadal periods.

  5. GEWEX-RFA Land-Ocean Mask

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-05-25

    ... for the Radiative Flux Assessment. It can be used as a filter for creating global, regional, or zonal time series for land or ocean. ... where coastal pixels have at least 10% of both land and water. Download file . ...

  6. The Role of Monsoon-Like Zonally Asymmetric Heating in Interhemispheric Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gang; Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn

    2017-01-01

    While the importance of the seasonal migration of the zonally averaged Hadley circulation on interhemispheric transport of trace gases has been recognized, few studies have examined the role of the zonally asymmetric monsoonal circulation. This study investigates the role of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating on interhemispheric transport using a dry atmospheric model that is forced by idealized Newtonian relaxation to a prescribed radiative equilibrium temperature. When only the seasonal cycle of zonally symmetric heating is considered, the mean age of air in the Southern Hemisphere since last contact with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude boundary layer, is much larger than the observations. The introduction of monsoon-like zonally asymmetric heating not only reduces the mean age of tropospheric air to more realistic values, but also produces an upper-tropospheric cross-equatorial transport pathway in boreal summer that resembles the transport pathway simulated in the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Chemistry Transport Model driven with MERRA meteorological fields. These results highlight the monsoon-induced eddy circulation plays an important role in the interhemispheric transport of long-lived chemical constituents.

  7. Longitudinal variability in Jupiter's zonal winds derived from multi-wavelength HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perianne E.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Simon, Amy; Gaulme, Patrick; Wong, Michael H.; Cosentino, Richard G.

    2018-06-01

    Multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of Jupiter from the Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) and Wide Field Coverage for Juno (WFCJ) programs in 2015, 2016, and 2017 are used to derive wind profiles as a function of latitude and longitude. Wind profiles are typically zonally averaged to reduce measurement uncertainties. However, doing this destroys any variations of the zonal-component of winds in the longitudinal direction. Here, we present the results derived from using a "sliding-window" correlation method. This method adds longitudinal specificity, and allows for the detection of spatial variations in the zonal winds. Spatial variations are identified in two jets: 1 at 17 ° N, the location of a prominent westward jet, and the other at 7 ° S, the location of the chevrons. Temporal and spatial variations at the 24°N jet and the 5-μm hot spots are also examined.

  8. The Effects of Interactive Stratospheric Chemistry on Antarctic and Southern Ocean Climate Change in an AOGCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Newman, Paul; Pawson, Steven; Waugh, Darryn

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has played a dominant role in driving Antarctic climate change in the last decades. In order to capture the stratospheric ozone forcing, many coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) prescribe the Antarctic ozone hole using monthly and zonally averaged ozone field. However, the prescribed ozone hole has a high ozone bias and lacks zonal asymmetry. The impacts of these biases on model simulations, particularly on Southern Ocean and the Antarctic sea ice, are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of using interactive stratospheric chemistry instead of prescribed ozone on Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate change in an AOGCM. We compare two sets of ensemble simulations for the 1960-2010 period using different versions of the Goddard Earth Observing System 5 - AOGCM: one with interactive stratospheric chemistry, and the other with prescribed monthly and zonally averaged ozone and 6 other stratospheric radiative species calculated from the interactive chemistry simulations. Consistent with previous studies using prescribed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations, the interactive chemistry runs simulate a deeper Antarctic ozone hole and consistently larger changes in surface pressure and winds than the prescribed ozone runs. The use of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model in this study enables us to determine the impact of these surface changes on Southern Ocean circulation and Antarctic sea ice. The larger surface wind trends in the interactive chemistry case lead to larger Southern Ocean circulation trends with stronger changes in northerly and westerly surface flow near the Antarctica continent and stronger upwelling near 60S. Using interactive chemistry also simulates a larger decrease of sea ice concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of using interactive chemistry in order to correctly capture the influences of stratospheric ozone depletion on climate

  9. Zonal wavefront sensing with enhanced spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array. This eventually leads to a wavefront estimation with an enhanced spatial resolution without much sacrifice on the sensor frame rate, thus making the scheme suitable for high spatial resolution measurement of transient wavefronts. We present experimental and numerical simulation results to demonstrate the importance of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  10. Zonal structure and variability of the Western Pacific dynamic warm pool edge in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jaclyn N.; Langlais, Clothilde; Maes, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The equatorial edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool is operationally identified by one isotherm ranging between 28° and 29 °C, chosen to align with the interannual variability of strong zonal salinity gradients and the convergence of zonal ocean currents. The simulation of this edge is examined in 19 models from the World Climate Research Program Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), over the historical period from 1950 to 2000. The dynamic warm pool edge (DWPE), where the zonal currents converge, is difficult to determine from limited observations and biased models. A new analysis technique is introduced where a proxy for DWPE is determined by the isotherm that most closely correlates with the movements of the strong salinity gradient. It can therefore be a different isotherm in each model. The DWPE is simulated much closer to observations than if a direct temperature-only comparison is made. Aspects of the DWPE remain difficult for coupled models to simulate including the mean longitude, the interannual excursions, and the zonal convergence of ocean currents. Some models have only very weak salinity gradients trapped to the western side of the basin making it difficult to even identify a DWPE. The model's DWPE are generally 1-2 °C cooler than observed. In line with theory, the magnitude of the zonal migrations of the DWPE are strongly related to the amplitudes of the Nino3.4 SST index. Nevertheless, a better simulation of the mean location of the DWPE does not necessarily improve the amplitude of a model's ENSO. It is also found that in a few models (CSIROMk3.6, inmcm and inmcm4-esm) the warm pool displacements result from a net heating or cooling rather than a zonal advection of warm water. The simulation of the DWPE has implications for ENSO dynamics when considering ENSO paradigms such as the delayed action oscillator mechanism, the Advective-Reflective oscillator, and the zonal-advective feedback. These are also discussed in the context

  11. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  12. The Relationship Between the Zonal Mean ITCZ and Regional Precipitation during the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda, K.; Noone, D.; Konecky, B.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of the zonal mean Tropical Rain Belt (TRB, i.e. the ITCZ + the land-based monsoons) are often inferred from individual proxy records of precipitation or other hydroclimatic variables. However, these inferences can be misleading. Here, an isotope-enabled climate model simulation is used to evaluate metrics of the zonal mean ITCZ vs. regional hydrological characteristics during the mid-Holocene (MH, 6 kya). The MH provides a unique perspective on the relationship between the ITCZ and regional hydrology because of large, orbitally-driven shifts in tropical precipitation as well as a critical mass of proxy records. By using a climate model with simulated water isotopes, characteristics of atmospheric circulation and water transport processes can be inferred, and comparison with isotope proxies can be made more directly. We find that estimations of the zonal-mean ITCZ are insufficient for evaluating regional responses of hydrological cycles to forcing changes. For example, one approximation of a 1.5-degree northward shift in the zonal-mean ITCZ position during the MH corresponded well with northward shifts in maximum rainfall in tropical Africa, but did not match southward shifts in the tropical Pacific or longitudinal shifts in the Indian monsoon region. In many regions, the spatial distribution of water vapor isotopes suggests that changes in moisture source and atmospheric circulation were a greater influence on precipitation distribution, intensity, and isotope ratio than the average northward shift in ITCZ latitude. These findings reinforce the idea that using tropical hydrological proxy records to infer zonal-mean characteristics of the ITCZ may be misleading. Rather, tropical proxy records of precipitation, particularly those that record precipitation isotopes, serve as a guideline for regional hydrological changes while model simulations can put them in the context of zonal mean tropical convergence.

  13. Residual zonal flows in tokamaks and stellarators at arbitrary wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Pedro; Calvo, Iván; Sánchez, Edilberto; Parra, Félix I.; Bustos, Andrés; Könies, Axel; Kleiber, Ralf; Görler, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In the linear collisionless limit, a zonal potential perturbation in a toroidal plasma relaxes, in general, to a non-zero residual value. Expressions for the residual value in tokamak and stellarator geometries, and for arbitrary wavelengths, are derived. These expressions involve averages over the lowest order particle trajectories, that typically cannot be evaluated analytically. In this work, an efficient numerical method for the evaluation of such expressions is reported. It is shown that this method is faster than direct gyrokinetic simulations performed with the Gene and EUTERPE codes. Calculations of the residual value in stellarators are provided for much shorter wavelengths than previously available in the literature. Electrons must be treated kinetically in stellarators because, unlike in tokamaks, kinetic electrons modify the residual value even at long wavelengths. This effect, that had already been predicted theoretically, is confirmed by gyrokinetic simulations.

  14. On radiating baroclinic instability of zonally varying flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Catherine A.; Nathan, Terrence R.

    1993-01-01

    A quasi-geostrophic, two-layer, beta-plane model is used to study the baroclinic instability characteristics of a zonally inhomogeneous flow. It is assumed that the disturbance varied slowly in the cross-stream direction, and the stability problem was formulated as a 1D initial value problem. Emphasis is placed on determining how the vertically averaged wind, local maximum in vertical wind shear, and length of the locally supercritical region combine to yield local instabilities. Analysis of the local disturbance energetics reveals that, for slowly varying basic states, the baroclinic energy conversion predominates within the locally unstable region. Using calculations of the basic state tendencies, it is shown that the net effect of the local instabilities is to redistribute energy from the baroclinic to the barotropic component of the basic state flow.

  15. Drift-wave turbulence and zonal flow generation.

    PubMed

    Balescu, R

    2003-10-01

    Drift-wave turbulence in a plasma is analyzed on the basis of the wave Liouville equation, describing the evolution of the distribution function of wave packets (quasiparticles) characterized by position x and wave vector k. A closed kinetic equation is derived for the ensemble-averaged part of this function by the methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It has the form of a non-Markovian advection-diffusion equation describing coupled diffusion processes in x and k spaces. General forms of the diffusion coefficients are obtained in terms of Lagrangian velocity correlations. The latter are calculated in the decorrelation trajectory approximation, a method recently developed for an accurate measure of the important trapping phenomena of particles in the rugged electrostatic potential. The analysis of individual decorrelation trajectories provides an illustration of the fragmentation of drift-wave structures in the radial direction and the generation of long-wavelength structures in the poloidal direction that are identified as zonal flows.

  16. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  17. Impacts of river segmentation strategies on reach-averaged product uncertainties for the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasson, R. P. M.; Wei, R.; Minear, J. T.; Tuozzolo, S.; Domeneghetti, A.; Durand, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Averaging is a powerful method to reduce measurement noise associated with remote sensing observation of water surfaces. However, when dealing with river measurements, the choice of which points are averaged may affect the quality of the products. We examine the effectiveness of three fully automated reach definition strategies: In the first, we break up reaches at regular intervals measured along the rivers' centerlines. The second strategy consists of identifying hydraulic controls by searching for inflection points on water surface profiles. The third strategy takes into consideration river planform features, breaking up reaches according to channel sinuosity. We employed the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) SWOT hydrology simulator to generate 9 synthetic SWOT observations of the Sacramento River in California, USA and 14 overpasses of the Po River in northern Italy. In order to create the synthetic SWOT data, the simulator requires the true water digital elevation model (DEM), which we constructed from hydraulic models of both rivers, and the terrain DEM, which we built from LiDAR data of both basins. We processed the simulated pixel clouds using the JPL's RiverObs package, which traces the river centerline and estimates water surface height and river width on equally spaced nodes located along the centerline. Subsequently, we applied the three reach definition methodologies to the nodes and to the hydraulic models' outputs to generate simulated reach-averaged observations and the reach-averaged truth respectively. Our results generally indicate that height, width, slope, and discharge errors decrease with increasing reach length, with most of the accuracy gains occurring when reach length increases to up to 15 km for both the narrow (Sacramento) and the wide (Po) rivers. The "smart" methods led to smaller slope, width, and discharge errors for the Sacramento River when compared to arbitrary reaches of similar length whereas, for the for the Po River all

  18. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpal S.; Serrano, Leona W.; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K.; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. Objective To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. Design, Setting, and Participants A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). Results The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Conclusions and Relevance Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

  19. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  20. The 4-5 day mode oscillation in zonal winds of Indian middle atmosphere during MONEX-79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, R. S.; Mukherjee, B. K.; Indira, K.; Murty, B. V. R.

    1985-12-01

    In the early studies based on time series of balloon observations, the existence of 4 to 5 day period waves and 10 to 20 day wind fluctuations were found in the tropical lower stratosphere, and they are identified theoretically as the mixed Rossby-gravity wave and the Kelvin wave, respectively. On the basis of these studies, it was established that the vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) in the mean zonal wind through the mechanism of wave-zonal interaction. These studies are mainly concentrated over the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Similar prominent wave disturbances have been observed over the region east of the Indian Ocean during a quasi-biennial oscillation. Zonal winds in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (10 to 20) km of the middle atmosphere over the Indian subcontinent may bear association with the activity of summer monsoon (June-September). Monsoon Experiment (MONEX-79) has provided upper air observations at Balasore (21 deg. 30 min.N; 85 deg. 56 min.E), during the peak of monsoon months July and August. A unique opportunity has, therefore, been provided to study the normal oscillations present in the zonal winds of lower middle atmosphere over India, which may have implication on large scale wave dynamics. This aspect is examined in the present study.

  1. Theoretical and experimental zonal drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniela C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, Vivian M.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble zonal drift velocity observations and their comparison with model calculations. The bubble zonal velocities were measured using airglow OI630 nm all-sky digital images and the model calculations were performed taking into account flux-tube integrated Pedersen conductivity and conductivity weighted neutral zonal winds. The digital images were obtained from an all-sky imaging system operated over the low-latitude station Cachoeira Paulista (Geogr. 22.5S, 45W, dip angle 31.5S) during the period from October 1998 to August 2000. Out of the 138 nights of imager observation, 29 nights with the presence of plasma bubbles are used in this study. These 29 nights correspond to geomagnetically rather quiet days (∑K P < 24+) and were grouped according to season. During the early night hours, the calculated zonal drift velocities were found to be larger than the experimental values. The best matching between the calculated and observed zonal velocities were seen to be for a few hours around midnight. The model calculation showed two humps around 20 LT and 24 LT that were not present in the data. Average decelerations obtained from linear regression between 20 LT and 24 LT were found to be: (a) Spring 1998, -8.61 ms -1 h -1; (b) Summer 1999, -0.59 ms -1 h -1; (c) Spring 1999, -11.72 ms -1 h -1; and (d) Summer 2000, -8.59 ms -1 h -1. Notice that Summer and Winter here correspond to southern hemisphere Summer and Winter, not northern hemisphere.

  2. Madden-Julian Oscillation: Western Pacific and Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Z.; Raymond, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The MJO has been and still remains a "holy grail" of today's atmospheric science research. Why does the MJO propagate eastward? What makes it unstable? What is the scaling for the MJO, i.e. why does it prefer long wavelengths or planetary wavenumbers 1-3? The MJO has the strongest signal in the Indian ocean and in the West Pacific, but the average vertical structure is very different in each of those basins. We look at the reanalysis/analysis FNL, ERAI vertical structure of temperature and moisture as well as the surface zonal winds for two ocean basins. We also look at data from DYNAMO and TOGA_COARE in great detail (saturation fraction, temperature, entropy, surface zonal winds, gross moist stability, etc). The findings from observations and field projects for the two ocean basins are then compared to a linear WISHE model on an equatorial beta plane. Though linear WISHE has long been discounted as a plausible model for the MJO, the version we have developed explains many of the observed features of this phenomenon, in particular, the preference for large zonal scale, the eastward propagation, the westward group velocity, and the thermodynamic structure. There is no need to postulate large-scale negative gross moist stability, as destabilization occurs via WISHE at long wavelengths only. This differs from early WISHE models because we take a moisture adjustment time scale of order one day in comparison to the much shorter time scales assumed in earlier models. Linear modeling cannot capture all of the features of the MJO, so we are in the process of adding nonlinearity.

  3. On the Variation of Zonal Gravity Coefficients of a Giant Planet Caused by Its Deep Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J 2n , n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients \\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, \\Delta {J}_{2n}={J}_{2n}-\\bar{J}_{2n}, n=1,2,3, \\dots, caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J 2 coefficient and 0.7% of J 4. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., \\Delta {J}_{2n} \\,{\\ge}\\, \\bar{J}_{2n} for n >= 5.

  4. Zonal wavefront reconstruction in quadrilateral geometry for phase measuring deflectometry

    SciT

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Gao, Bo

    2017-06-14

    There are wide applications for zonal reconstruction methods in slope-based metrology due to its good capability of reconstructing the local details on surface profile. It was noticed in the literature that large reconstruction errors occur when using zonal reconstruction methods designed for rectangular geometry to process slopes in a quadrilateral geometry, which is a more general geometry with phase measuring deflectometry. In this paper, we present a new idea for the zonal methods for quadrilateral geometry. Instead of employing the intermediate slopes to set up height-slope equations, we consider the height increment as a more general connector to establish themore » height-slope relations for least-squares regression. The classical zonal methods and interpolation-assisted zonal methods are compared with our proposal. Results of both simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed idea. In implementation, the modification on the classical zonal methods is addressed. Finally, the new methods preserve many good aspects of the classical ones, such as the ability to handle a large incomplete slope dataset in an arbitrary aperture, and the low computational complexity comparable with the classical zonal method. Of course, the accuracy of the new methods is much higher when integrating the slopes in quadrilateral geometry.« less

  5. Zonally Averaged Carbon Dioxide Concentration from Earth Mid-Troposphere at Different Latitudes, 2002 to 2013

    2013-05-22

    This plot shows the concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth mid-troposphere at various latitudes as measured by NASA Aqua satellite. The colored lines represent different latitude bands that circle Earth, called zones.

  6. The Mass and Angular Momentum Balance of the Zonally-Averaged Global Circulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    2 2SFSf F SO~ ABSTRACT (0m-l n oerse~e side Ht moeoeei md fdeutly’ by Week now"*ee Li ATTACHED hO u 47 EDI TIo OP 1 NOV6 Ies OBSOLETE UNCLASS 82 09 28...eddies, and transient circulat.@ns, respec tively. rigeree 12 and 13 displa the vertical sad meridional distribution of relat’.ve angular momentum trass...the transient component is the dominant mode of angular momentum transport in January. It is poleward at virtually all latitudes in each hemisphere

  7. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  8. Generation of zonal flows through symmetry breaking of statistical homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A.

    2014-03-01

    In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows (ZFs) are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from homogeneous turbulence without ZFs to inhomogeneous turbulence with steady ZFs. Starting from the equation for barotropic flow on a β plane, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking zonostrophic instability and show that it is an example of a Type {{\\text{I}}_{s}} instability within the pattern formation literature. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the ZF wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of ZF wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system. We also conclude that the stability of the equilibria near the bifurcation point, which is governed by the Eckhaus instability, is independent of the Rayleigh-Kuo criterion.

  9. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  10. Zonally Asymmetric Ozone and the Morphology of the Planetary Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    sections for the 271 troposphere , J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2600-2616. 272 Eyring, V., et al. (2007), Multimodel projections of stratospheric ozone ...GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, JULY 15, 2011 Zonally asymmetric ozone and the morphology of the 1 planetary waveguide...that zonally asymmetric 6 ozone (ZAO) profoundly changes the morphology of the Northern Hemisphere planetary 7 waveguide (PWG). ZAO causes the PWG to

  11. Present-day secular variations in the zonal harmonics of earth's geopotential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Peltier, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mathematical formulation required for predicting secular variation in the geopotential is developed for the case of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating, viscoelastic earth model and an arbitrary surface load which can include a gravitational self-consistent ocean loading component. The theory is specifically applied to predict the present-day secular variation in the zonal harmonics of the geopotenial arising from the surface mass loading associated with the late Pleistocene glacial cycles. A procedure is outlined in which predictions of the present-day geopotential signal due to the late Pleistocene glacial cycles may be used to derive bounds on the net present-day mass flux from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to the local oceans.

  12. Mapping potential vorticity dynamics on saturn: Zonal mean circulation from Cassini and Voyager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Gierasch, P. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Zuchowski, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    Maps of Ertel potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces (IPV) and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (QGPV) are well established in dynamical meteorology as powerful sources of insight into dynamical processes involving 'balanced' flow (i.e. geostrophic or similar). Here we derive maps of zonal mean IPV and QGPV in Saturn's upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by making use of a combination of velocity measurements, derived from the combined tracking of cloud features in images from the Voyager and Cassini missions, and thermal measurements from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument. IPV and QGPV are mapped and compared for the entire globe between latitudes 89∘S-82∘N. As on Jupiter, profiles of zonally averaged PV show evidence for a step-like "stair-case" pattern suggestive of local PV homogenisation, separated by strong PV gradients in association with eastward jets. The northward gradient of PV (IPV or QGPV) is found to change sign in several places in each hemisphere, however, even when baroclinic contributions are taken into account. The stability criterion with respect to Arnol'd's second stability theorem may be violated near the peaks of westward jets. Visible, near-IR and thermal-IR Cassini observations have shown that these regions exhibit many prominent, large-scale eddies and waves, e.g. including 'storm alley'. This suggests the possibility that at least some of these features originate from instabilities of the background zonal flow.

  13. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    SciT

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of themore » temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.« less

  14. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    aragonite is 8.18 and 3.5). As a result of ocean fertilization, 10 years from now, the depth of saturation horizon (the depth below which ocean water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate) for aragonite in the Southern Ocean shoals from its present average value of about 700 m to 100 m. In contrast, no significant change in the depth of aragonite saturation horizontal is seen in the scenario without fertilization for the corresponding period. By year 2100, global mean calcite saturation horizon shoals from its present value of 3150 m to 2965 and 2534 m in the case without fertilization and with it. In contrast, if the sale of carbon credits from ocean fertilization leads to greater CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (e.g., if carbon credits from ocean fertilization are used to offset CO2 emissions from a coal plant), then there is the potential that ocean fertilization would further acidify the deep ocean without conferring any chemical benefit to surface ocean waters.

  15. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-07-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling time-scale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  16. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  17. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

  18. The role of zonal flows in disc gravito-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.

    2018-04-01

    The work presented here focuses on the role of zonal flows in the self-sustenance of gravito-turbulence in accretion discs. The numerical analysis is conducted using a bespoke pseudo-spectral code in fully compressible, non-linear conditions. The disc in question, which is modelled using the shearing sheet approximation, is assumed to be self-gravitating, viscous, and thermally diffusive; a constant cooling timescale is also considered. Zonal flows are found to emerge at the onset of gravito-turbulence and they remain closely linked to the turbulent state. A cycle of zonal flow formation and destruction is established, mediated by a slow mode instability (which allows zonal flows to grow) and a non-axisymmetric instability (which disrupts the zonal flow), which is found to repeat numerous times. It is in fact the disruptive action of the non-axisymmetric instability to form new leading and trailing shearing waves, allowing energy to be extracted from the background flow and ensuring the self-sustenance of the gravito-turbulent regime.

  19. Future Effects of Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Zonal Asymmetries on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, K.; Solomon, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Fyfe, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Stratospheric zonal asymmetries in the Southern Hemisphere have been shown to have significant influences on both stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics and climate. Accurate representation of stratospheric ozone in particular is important for realistic simulation of the polar vortex strength and temperature trends. This is therefore also important for stratospheric ozone change's effect on the troposphere, both through modulation of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and more localized climate. Here, we characterization the impact of future changes in Southern Hemisphere zonal asymmetry on tropospheric climate, including changes to future tropospheric temperature, and precipitation. The separate impacts of increasing GHGs and ozone recovery on the zonal asymmetric influence on the surface are also investigated. For this purpose, we use a variety of models, including Chemistry Climate Model Initiative simulations from the Community Earth System Model, version 1, with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)) and the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator-Chemistry Climate Model (ACCESS-CCM). These models have interactive chemistry and can therefore more accurately represent the zonally asymmetric nature of the stratosphere. The CESM1(WACCM) and ACCESS-CCM models are also compared to simulations from the Canadian Can2ESM model and CESM-Large Ensemble Project (LENS) that have prescribed ozone to further investigate the importance of simulating stratospheric zonal asymmetry.

  20. A new paradigm for predicting zonal-mean climate and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Roe, G.; Donohoe, A.; Siler, N.; Markle, B. R.; Liu, X.; Feldl, N.; Battisti, D. S.; Frierson, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    How will the pole-to-equator temperature gradient, or large-scale patterns of precipitation, change under global warming? Answering such questions typically involves numerical simulations with comprehensive general circulation models (GCMs) that represent the complexities of climate forcing, radiative feedbacks, and atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Yet, our understanding of these predictions hinges on our ability to explain them through the lens of simple models and physical theories. Here we present evidence that zonal-mean climate, and its changes, can be understood in terms of a moist energy balance model that represents atmospheric heat transport as a simple diffusion of latent and sensible heat (as a down-gradient transport of moist static energy, with a diffusivity coefficient that is nearly constant with latitude). We show that the theoretical underpinnings of this model derive from the principle of maximum entropy production; that its predictions are empirically supported by atmospheric reanalyses; and that it successfully predicts the behavior of a hierarchy of climate models - from a gray radiation aquaplanet moist GCM, to comprehensive GCMs participating in CMIP5. As an example of the power of this paradigm, we show that, given only patterns of local radiative feedbacks and climate forcing, the moist energy balance model accurately predicts the evolution of zonal-mean temperature and atmospheric heat transport as simulated by the CMIP5 ensemble. These results suggest that, despite all of its dynamical complexity, the atmosphere essentially responds to energy imbalances by simply diffusing latent and sensible heat down-gradient; this principle appears to explain zonal-mean climate and its changes under global warming.

  1. Transonic Navier-Stokes wing solutions using a zonal approach. Part 2: High angle-of-attack simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code is under development whereby the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are to be applied to realistic fighter-aircraft configurations. This transonic Navier-Stokes code (TNS) utilizes a zonal approach in order to treat complex geometries and satisfy in-core computer memory constraints. The zonal approach has been applied to isolated wing geometries in order to facilitate code development. Part 1 of this paper addresses the TNS finite-difference algorithm, zonal methodology, and code validation with experimental data. Part 2 of this paper addresses some numerical issues such as code robustness, efficiency, and accuracy at high angles of attack. Special free-stream-preserving metrics proved an effective way to treat H-mesh singularities over a large range of severe flow conditions, including strong leading-edge flow gradients, massive shock-induced separation, and stall. Furthermore, lift and drag coefficients have been computed for a wing up through CLmax. Numerical oil flow patterns and particle trajectories are presented both for subcritical and transonic flow. These flow simulations are rich with complex separated flow physics and demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the zonal approach.

  2. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Impacts of Interactive Stratospheric Chemistry on Antarctic and Southern Ocean Climate Change in the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Vikhliaev, Yury V.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Perlwitz, Judith; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2016-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion plays a major role in driving climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. To date, many climate models prescribe the stratospheric ozone layer's evolution using monthly and zonally averaged ozone fields. However, the prescribed ozone underestimates Antarctic ozone depletion and lacks zonal asymmetries. In this study we investigate the impact of using interactive stratospheric chemistry instead of prescribed ozone on climate change simulations of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. Two sets of 1960-2010 ensemble transient simulations are conducted with the coupled ocean version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5: one with interactive stratospheric chemistry and the other with prescribed ozone derived from the same interactive simulations. The model's climatology is evaluated using observations and reanalysis. Comparison of the 1979-2010 climate trends between these two simulations reveals that interactive chemistry has important effects on climate change not only in the Antarctic stratosphere, troposphere, and surface, but also in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice. Interactive chemistry causes stronger Antarctic lower stratosphere cooling and circumpolar westerly acceleration during November-December-January. It enhances stratosphere-troposphere coupling and leads to significantly larger tropospheric and surface westerly changes. The significantly stronger surface wind stress trends cause larger increases of the Southern Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation, leading to year-round stronger ocean warming near the surface and enhanced Antarctic sea ice decrease.

  4. Laboratory modeling of multiple zonal jets on the polar beta-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Zonal jets observed in the oceans and atmospheres of planets are studied in a laboratory rotating tank. The fluid layer in the rotating tank has parabolic free surface and dynamically simulates the polar beta-plane where the Coriolis parameter varies quadratically with distance from the pole. Velocity and surface elevation fields are measured with an optical altimetry method (Afanasyev et al., Exps Fluids 2009). The flows are induced by a localized buoyancy source along radial direction. The baroclinic flow consisting of a field of eddies propagates away from the source due West and forms zonal jets (Fig. 1). Barotropic jets ahead of the baroclinic flow are formed by radiation of beta plumes. Inside the baroclinic flow the jets flow between the chains of eddies. Experimental evidence of so-called noodles (baroclinic instability mode with motions in the radial, North-South direction) theoretically predicted by Berloff et al. (JFM, JPO 2009) was found in our experiments. Beta plume radiation mechanism and the mechanism associated with the instability of noodles are likely to contribute to formation of jets in the baroclinic flow.

  5. The climatology of low-latitude ionospheric densities and zonal drifts from IMAGE-FUV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, T. J.; Sagawa, E.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Patel, J.

    2004-12-01

    The IMAGE satellite was the first dedicated to magnetospheric imaging, but has also provided numerous images of the nightside ionosphere with its Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) spectrographic imager. Nightside emissions of O I at 135.6-nm originating away from the aurora are due to recombination of ionospheric O+, and vary in intensity with (O+)2. IMAGE-FUV, operating in a highly elliptical orbit with apogee at middle latitudes and >7 Re altitude, measures this emission globally with 100-km resolution. During each 14.5 hour orbit, IMAGE-FUV is able to monitor nightside ionospheric densities for up to 6-7 hours. Hundreds of low-latitude ionospheric bubbles, their development and drift speed, and a variety of other dynamical variations in brightness and morphology of the equatorial anomalies have been observed during this mission. Furthermore, the average global distribution of low-latitude ionospheric plasma densities can be determined in 3 days. Imaging data collected from February through June of 2002 are used to compile a dataset containing a variety of parameters (e.g., latitude and brightness of peak plasma density, zonal bubble drift speed) which can be drawn from for climatological studies. Recent results indicate that the average ground speed of low-latitude zonal plasma drifts vary with longitude by up to 50%, and that a periodic variation in ionospheric densities with longitude suggests the influence of a lower-thermospheric non-migrating tide with wave number = 4 on ionospheric densities. An excellent correlation between zonal drift speed and the magnetic storm index Dst is also found.

  6. Effect of Long-Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S. D.

    1997-01-01

    The second-degree zonal tide raising potential is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the oceans.

  7. Gravitational Anomalies Caused by Zonal Winds in Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Kong, D.; Zhang, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an accurate three-dimensional non-spherical numerical calculation of the gravitational anomalies caused by zonal winds in Jupiter. The calculation is based on a three-dimensional finite element method and accounts for the full effect of significant departure from spherical geometry caused by rapid rotation. Since the speeds of Jupiter's zonal winds are much smaller than that of its rigid-body rotation, our numerical calculation is carried out in two stages. First, we compute the non-spherical distributions of density and pressure at the equilibrium within Jupiter via a hybrid inverse approach by determining an a priori unknown coefficient in the polytropic equation of state that results in a match to the observed shape of Jupiter. Second, by assuming that Jupiter's zonal winds extend throughout the interior along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis, we compute gravitational anomalies produced by the wind-related density anomalies, providing an upper bound to the gravitational anomalies caused by the Jovian zonal winds.

  8. Eastern Tropical Pacific Precipitation Response to Zonal SPCZ events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Quesada, A. M.; Lintner, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme El Niño events and warming conditions in the eastern tropical Pacific have been linked to pronounced spatial displacements of the South Pacific Convergence Zone known as "zonal SPCZ" events.. Using a global dataset of Lagrangian back trajectories computed with the FLEXPART model for the period 1980-2013, comprehensive analysis of the 3D circulation characteristics associated with the SPCZ is undertaken. Ten days history of along-trajectory specific humidity, potential vorticity and temperature are reconstructed for zonal SPCZ events as well as other states,, with differences related to El Niño intensity and development stage as well as the state of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. How zonal events influence precipitation over the Eastern Tropical Pacific is examined using back trajectories, reanalysis, TRMM precipitation, and additional satellite derived cloud information. It is found that SPCZ displacements are associated with enhanced convection over the Eastern Tropical Pacific in good agreement with prior work. The connection between intensification of precipitation over the eastern Tropical Pacific during zonal events and suppression of rainfall over the Maritime continent is also described.

  9. Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Zonal Asymmetries on the Tropospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedy, Olga; Waugh, Darryn; Li, Feng; Oman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The depletion and recovery of Antarctic ozone plays a major role in changes of Southern Hemisphere (SH) tropospheric climate. Recent studies indicate that the lack of polar ozone asymmetries in chemistry climate models (CCM) leads to a weaker and warmer Antarctic vortex, and smaller trends in the tropospheric mid-latitude jet and the surface pressure. However, the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries is not well understood. In this study we report on a series of integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to further examine the effect of zonal asymmetries on the state of the stratosphere and troposphere. Integrations with the full, interactive stratospheric chemistry are compared against identical simulations using the same CCM except that (1) the monthly mean zonal mean stratospheric ozone from first simulation is prescribed and (2) ozone is relaxed to the monthly mean zonal mean ozone on a three day time scale. To analyze the tropospheric response to ozone asymmetries, we examine trends and quantify the differences in temperatures, zonal wind and surface pressure among the integrations.

  10. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  11. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Affek, Hagit P.; Ivany, Linda C.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sijp, Willem P.; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10–17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands. PMID:24753570

  12. Climatology of mesopause region nocturnal temperature, zonal wind, and sodium density observed by sodium lidar over Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Ban, C.; Fang, X.; Li, J.; Wu, Z.; Xiong, J.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Science and Technology of China narrowband sodium temperature/wind lidar, located in Hefei, China (32°N, 117°E), was installed in November 2011 and have made routine nighttime measurements since January 2012. We obtained 154 nights ( 1400 hours) of vertical profiles of temperature, sodium density, and zonal wind, and 83 nights ( 800 hours) of vertical flux of gravity wave (GW) zonal momentum in the mesopause region (80-105 km) during the period of 2012 to 2016. In temperature, it is likely that the diurnal tide dominates below 100 km in spring, while the semidiurnal tide dominates above 100 km throughout the year. A clear semiannual variation in temperature is revealed near 90 km, likely related to the tropical mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). The variability of sodium density is positively correlated with temperature, suggesting that in addition to dynamics, the chemistry may also play an important role in the formation of sodium atoms. The observed sodium peak density is 1000 cm-3 higher than that simulated by the model. In zonal wind, the diurnal tide dominates in both spring and fall, while semidiurnal tide dominates in winter. The observed semiannual variation in zonal wind near 90 km is out-of-phase with that in temperature, consistent with tropical MSAO. The GW zonal momentum flux is mostly westward in fall and winter, anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind. The annual mean flux averaged over 87-97 km is -0.3 m2/s2 (westward), anti-correlated with eastward zonal wind of 10 m/s. The comparisons of lidar results with those observed by satellite, nearby radar, and simulated by model show generally good agreements.

  13. Zonal management of arsenic contaminated ground water in Northwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jason; Hossain, Faisal; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2009-09-01

    This paper used ordinary kriging to spatially map arsenic contamination in shallow aquifers of Northwestern Bangladesh (total area approximately 35,000 km(2)). The Northwestern region was selected because it represents a relatively safer source of large-scale and affordable water supply for the rest of Bangladesh currently faced with extensive arsenic contamination in drinking water (such as the Southern regions). Hence, the work appropriately explored sustainability issues by building upon a previously published study (Hossain et al., 2007; Water Resources Management, vol. 21: 1245-1261) where a more general nation-wide assessment afforded by kriging was identified. The arsenic database for reference comprised the nation-wide survey (of 3534 drinking wells) completed in 1999 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) in collaboration with the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) of Bangladesh. Randomly sampled networks of zones from this reference database were used to develop an empirical variogram and develop maps of zonal arsenic concentration for the Northwestern region. The remaining non-sampled zones from the reference database were used to assess the accuracy of the kriged maps. Two additional criteria were explored: (1) the ability of geostatistical interpolators such as kriging to extrapolate information on spatial structure of arsenic contamination beyond small-scale exploratory domains; (2) the impact of a priori knowledge of anisotropic variability on the effectiveness of geostatistically based management. On the average, the kriging method was found to have a 90% probability of successful prediction of safe zones according to the WHO safe limit of 10ppb while for the Bangladesh safe limit of 50ppb, the safe zone prediction probability was 97%. Compared to the previous study by Hossain et al. (2007) over the rest of the contaminated country side, the probability of successful detection of safe zones in the Northwest is observed to be about 25

  14. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  15. Low-latitude zonal and vertical ion drifts seen by DE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical ion drift data from the DE 2 spacecraft have been used to determine average zonal and vertical plasma flow (electric field) characteristics in the +/- 26-deg dip latitude region during a time of high solar activity. The 'average data' local time profile for an apex height bin centered at 400 km indicates westward plasma flow from 0600 to 1900 solar local time ((SLT) with a maximum westward velocity of 80 m/s in the early afternoon. There is a sharp change to eastward flow at approximately 1900 hours with an early evening peak of 170 m/s. A secondary nighttime maximum exists at 0430 SLT preceeding the reversal to westward flow. This profile is in good agreement with Jicamarca, Peru, radar measurements made under similar solar maximum conditions. Haramonic analysis indicates a net superrotation which is strongest at lower apex altitudes. The diurnal term is dominant, but higher order terms through the quatradiurnal are significant.

  16. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    SciT

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-05-15

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxesmore » to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed.« less

  17. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  18. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    SciT

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirablemore » to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.« less

  19. Zonal flow dynamics and control of turbulent transport in stellarators.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, P; Mischchenko, A; Helander, P; Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2011-12-09

    The relation between magnetic geometry and the level of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven turbulence in stellarators is explored through gyrokinetic theory and direct linear and nonlinear simulations. It is found that the ITG radial heat flux is sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration that can be understood in terms of the linear behavior of zonal flows. The results throw light on the question of how the optimization of neoclassical confinement is related to the reduction of turbulence.

  20. Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential and their implications for mantle viscosity and Antarctic melting history due to the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi

    2017-06-01

    Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential based on the satellite laser ranging observations, {\\dot{J}_n}, contain important information about the Earth's deformation due to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and recent melting of glaciers and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Here, we examine the GIA-induced {\\dot{J}_n}, \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} (2 ≤ n ≤ 6), derived from the available geopotential zonal secular rate and recent melting taken from the IPCC 2013 Report (AR5) to explore the possibility of additional information on the depth-dependent lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model inferred from the analyses of the \\dot{J}_2^{GIA} and relative sea level changes. The sensitivities of the \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} to lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model with a global averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) of ∼130 m indicate that the secular rates for n = 3 and 4 are mainly caused by the viscous response of the lower mantle to the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet regardless of GIA ice models adopted in this study. Also, the analyses of the \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} based on the available geopotential zonal secular rates indicate that permissible lower-mantle viscosity structure satisfying even zonal secular rates of n = 2, 4 and 6 is obtained for the GIA ice model with an Antarctic ESL component of ∼20 or ∼30 m, but there is no viscosity solution satisfying \\dot{J}_3^{GIA} and \\dot{J}_5^{GIA} values. Moreover, the inference model for the lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model from each odd zonal secular rate is distinctly different from that satisfying GIA-induced even zonal secular rate. The discrepancy between the inference models for the even and odd zonal secular rates may partly be attributed to uncertainties of the geopotential zonal secular rates for n > 2 and particularly those for odd zonal secular rates due to weakness in the orbital geometry. If this problem is overcome at least for the secular rates of n < 5, then the analyses of

  1. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  2. Spice: Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Melet, A.; Maes, C.

    2010-12-01

    South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The south branch is associated with comparable impacts in the Tasman Sea area. The Southwest Pacific is a region of complex circulation, with the SEC splitting in strong zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos. Those jets partition on the Australian eastern boundary to feed the East Australian Current for the southern branch and the North Queensland Current and eventually the Equatorial Undercurrent for the northern branch. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) position and intensity. The circulation, and its influence on remote and regional climate, is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate measurements. Ocean and atmosphere scientists from Australia, France, New Zealand, the United States and Pacific Island countries initiated an international research project under the auspices of CLIVAR to comprehend the southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and its direct and indirect influence on the climate and environment. SPICE is a regionally-coordinated experiment to measure, study and monitor the ocean circulation and the SPCZ, to validate and improve numerical models, and to integrate with assimilating systems. This ongoing project reflects a strong sense that substantial progress can be made through collaboration among South Pacific national research groups, coordinated with broader South Pacific projects.

  3. On the fast zonal transport of the STS-121 space shuttle exhaust plume in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jia; Liu, Han-Li; Meier, R. R.; Chang, Loren; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Russell, James, III

    2013-03-01

    Meier et al. (2011) reported rapid eastward transport of the STS-121 space shuttle (launch: July 4, 2006) main engine plume in the lower thermosphere, observed in hydrogen Lyman α images by the GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite. In order to study the mechanism of the rapid zonal transport, diagnostic tracer calculations are performed using winds from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) simulation of July, 2006. It is found that the strong eastward jet at heights of 100-110 km, where the exhaust plume was deposited, results in a persistent eastward tracer motion with an average velocity of 45 m/s. This is generally consistent with, though faster than, the prevailing eastward shuttle plume movement with daily mean velocity of 30 m/s deduced from the STS-121 GUVI observation. The quasi-two-day wave (QTDW) was not included in the numerical simulation because it was found not to be large. Its absence, however, might be partially responsible for insufficient meridional transport to move the tracers away from the fast jet in the simulation. The current study and our model results from Yue and Liu (2010) explain two very different shuttle plume transport scenarios (STS-121 and STS-107 (launch: January 16, 2003), respectively): we conclude that lower thermospheric dynamics is sufficient to account for both very fast zonal motion (zonal jet in the case of STS-121) and very fast meridional motion to polar regions (large QTDW in the case of STS-107).

  4. Southern Ocean monthly wave fields for austral winters 1985-1988 by Geosat radar altimeter

    Josberger, E.G.; Mognard, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Four years of monthly averaged wave height fields for the austral winters 19851988 derived from the Geosat altimeter data show a spatial variability of the scale of 500-1000 km that varies monthly and annually. This variability is superimposed on the zonal patterns surrounding the Antarctic continent and characteristic of the climatology derived from the U.S. Navy [1992] Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. The location and the intensity of these large-scale features, which are not found in the climatological fields, exhibit strong monthly and yearly variations. A global underestimation of the climatological mean wave heights by more than l m is also found over large regions of the Southern Ocean. The largest monthly averaged significant wave heights are above 5 m and are found during August of every year in the Indian Ocean, south of 40??S. The monthly wave fields show more variability in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans than in the Indian Ocean. The Seasat data from 1978 and the Geosat data from 1985 and 1988 show an eastward rotation of the largest wave heights. However, this rotation is absent in 1986 and 1987; the former was a year of unusually low sea states, and the latter was a year of unusually high sea states, which suggests a link to the El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation event of 1986. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Uncertainty in regional and zonal monthly mean downward surface irradiances from Edition 4.0 CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) data product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Rutan, D. A.; Rose, F. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of the Earth receives solar radiation (shortwave) and emission from the atmosphere (longwave). At a global and annual mean approximately 12% of solar radiation incident on the surface is reflected and the rest is absorbed by the surface. The surface emits radiation proportional to the forth power of the temperature. Although the uncertainty in global and annual mean surface irradiances is estimated in earlier studies (Zhang et al. 1995, 2004; L'Ecuyer et al. 2008; Stephens et al. 2012; Kato et al. 2012), only a few studies estimated the uncertainty in computed surface irradiances at smaller spatial and temporal scales (Zhang et al. 1995, 2004; Kato et al. 2012). We use surface observations at 46 buoys and 36 land sites and newly released the Edition 4.0 Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF)-surface data product to estimate the uncertainty in regional and zonal monthly mean downward shortwave and longwave surface irradiances. The root-mean-square difference of monthly mean computed and observed irradiances is used for the regional uncertainty. The uncertainty is separated into bias and spatially random components. The random component decreases when irradiances are averaged over a larger area, nearly inversely proportional to the number of surface observation sites. The presentation provides the uncertainty in the regional and zonal monthly mean downward surface irradiances over ocean and land. ReferencesKato, S. and N.G.Loeb, D. A.Rutan, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack,W.F.Miller, and Y. Chen, 2012. Surv. Geophys., 33, 395-412, doi:10.1007/s10712-012-9179-x. L'Ecuyer, T. S., N. B. Wood, T. Haladay, G. L. Stephens, and P. W. Stackhouse Jr., 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A15, doi:10.1029/2008JD009951. Stephens, G. L. and Coauthors, 2012, Nat. Geosci., 5, 691-696, doi:10.1038/ngeo1580. Zhang, Y., W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, and M. I. Mishchenko, 2004, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19105, doi:10.1029/2003JD

  6. Climate warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2 - Simulations with a multilayer coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal energy balance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Peng; Chou, Ming-Dah; Arking, Albert

    1987-01-01

    The transient response of the climate to increasing CO2 is studied using a modified version of the multilayer energy balance model of Peng et al. (1982). The main characteristics of the model are described. Latitudinal and seasonal distributions of planetary albedo, latitude-time distributions of zonal mean temperatures, and latitudinal distributions of evaporation, water vapor transport, and snow cover generated from the model and derived from actual observations are analyzed and compared. It is observed that in response to an atmospheric doubling of CO2, the model reaches within 1/e of the equilibrium response of global mean surface temperature in 9-35 years for the probable range of vertical heat diffusivity in the ocean. For CO2 increases projected by the National Research Council (1983), the model's transient response in annually and globally averaged surface temperatures is 60-75 percent of the corresponding equilibrium response, and the disequilibrium increases with increasing heat diffusivity of the ocean.

  7. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  8. Temporal Variability and Latitudinal Jets in Venus's Zonal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Bullock, M. A.; Tavenner, T.; Coyote, S.; Murphy, J. R.

    2008-09-01

    We have observed Venus's night hemisphere from NASA's IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) during each inferior conjunction since 2001 to quantify the motion of features in Venus's lower and middle cloud decks. We now present latitudinal profiles from 11 nights, obtained in May and July 2004, February 2006 and September 2007. In about 7 of the 11 nights there are zonal jets near 45N and/or -50S, with speed differentials of 5 to 15 m/s relative to the adjacent equatorward latitude bands. These jets may be evidence of episodic Hadley cell-type circulation. About half of the nights show relatively constant velocity profiles between the latitudes of 50N to 50S, suggesting that considerable mixing is taking place between latitudes. Our most remarkable result is the temporal variability in the median zonal speeds from day to day. For example, the median velocity near the equator increases from 53 to 65 m/s over the period from July 11 - 13, 2004, and increases from 65 to 82 m/s over the period from Sept. 9 - 11, 2007. These velocity changes are too great to be due to the tracking of clouds that are in the middle vs. lower cloud deck, nor can they be caused by clouds that occupy different altitudes; a velocity variation of 25% corresponds to an altitude difference of 15 km, based on vertical profiles of zonal windspeeds from tracking of Pioneer Venus and Venera descent probes. Fifteen km is greater than the expected variation in either cloud base. VIRTIS observations of Venus's southern hemisphere were also obtained in September 2007 and should be able to corroborate or contradict the observed variations. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Atmospheres programs.

  9. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciT

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few diskmore » scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.« less

  10. Dynamics of zonal shear collapse with hydrodynamic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, R. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theory for the collapse of the edge zonal shear layer, as observed at the density limit at low β. This paper investigates the scaling of the transport and mean profiles with the adiabaticity parameter α, with special emphasizes on fluxes relevant to zonal flow (ZF) generation. We show that the adiabaticity parameter characterizes the strength of production of zonal flows and so determines the state of turbulence. A 1D reduced model that self-consistently describes the spatiotemporal evolution of the mean density n ¯ , the azimuthal flow v¯ y , and the turbulent potential enstrophy ɛ=⟨(n˜ -∇2ϕ˜ ) 2/2 ⟩ —related to fluctuation intensity—is presented. Quasi-linear analysis determines how the particle flux Γn and vorticity flux Π=-χy∇2vy+Πre s scale with α, in both hydrodynamic and adiabatic regimes. As the plasma response passes from adiabatic (α > 1) to hydrodynamic (α < 1), the particle flux Γn is enhanced and the turbulent viscosity χy increases. However, the residual flux Πres—which drives the flow—drops with α. As a result, the mean vorticity gradient ∇2v¯ y=Πre s/χy —representative of the strength of the shear—also drops. The shear layer then collapses and turbulence is enhanced. The collapse is due to a decrease in ZF production, not an increase in damping. A physical picture for the onset of collapse is presented. The findings of this paper are used to motivate an explanation of the phenomenology of low β density limit evolution. A change from adiabatic ( α=kz2vth 2/(|ω|νei)>1 ) to hydrodynamic (α < 1) electron dynamics is associated with the density limit.

  11. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.; ...

    2017-03-06

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  12. A simple inertial model for Neptune's zonal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Lumetta, James T.

    1990-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of zonal cloud-tracked winds on Neptune revealed a strongly subrotational equatorial jet with a speed approaching 500 m/s and generally decreasing retrograde motion toward the poles. The wind data are interpreted with a speculative but revealingly simple model based on steady gradient flow balance and an assumed global homogenization of potential vorticity for shallow layer motion. The prescribed model flow profile relates the equatorial velocity to the mid-latitude shear, in reasonable agreement with the available data, and implies a global horizontal deformation scale L(D) of about 3000 km.

  13. Dynamic Stall Computations Using a Zonal Navier-Stokes Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL lotMonterey ,California CD Lj STATF ,-S THESIS DYNAMIC STALL CALCULATIONS USING A ZONAL.-,_ % 0 NVETESISDE by Jack H...Conroyd, Jr. June 1988 Thesis Co-advisors: M.F. Platzer Lawrence W. Carr Approved for public release; distribution is unlimitedDOTIC , ~~~~~~~~ELECT...OINT %, Master s Thesis OM To June 212 6 SLP;’LEENTARY NOTATION ri The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the

  14. Zonal flow generation in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciT

    Peterson, J. L.; Humbird, K. D.; Field, J. E.

    A supervised machine learning algorithm trained on a multi-petabyte dataset of inertial confinement fusion simulations has identified a class of implosions that robustly achieve high yield, even in the presence of drive variations and hydrodynamic perturbations. These implosions are purposefully driven with a time-varying asymmetry, such that coherent flow generation during hotspot stagnation forces the capsule to self-organize into an ovoid, a shape that appears to be more resilient to shell perturbations than spherical designs. Here this new class of implosions, whose configurations are reminiscent of zonal flows in magnetic fusion devices, may offer a path to robust inertial fusion.

  15. Implementing Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications Using MPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. Unfortunately, simple message passing models, like Intel's NX library, only allow point-to-point and global communication within a single system-defined partition. This makes implementation of these applications quite difficult, if not impossible. In this report it is shown that the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard is a viable portable library for implementing the message passing portion of multidisciplinary applications. Further, with the extension of a portable loader, fully portable multidisciplinary application programs can be developed. Finally, the performance of MPI is compared to that of some native message passing libraries. This comparison shows that MPI can be implemented to deliver performance commensurate with native message libraries.

  16. Application of zonal model on indoor air sensor network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Lisa; Wen, Jin

    2007-04-01

    Growing concerns over the safety of the indoor environment have made the use of sensors ubiquitous. Sensors that detect chemical and biological warfare agents can offer early warning of dangerous contaminants. However, current sensor system design is more informed by intuition and experience rather by systematic design. To develop a sensor system design methodology, a proper indoor airflow modeling approach is needed. Various indoor airflow modeling techniques, from complicated computational fluid dynamics approaches to simplified multi-zone approaches, exist in the literature. In this study, the effects of two airflow modeling techniques, multi-zone modeling technique and zonal modeling technique, on indoor air protection sensor system design are discussed. Common building attack scenarios, using a typical CBW agent, are simulated. Both multi-zone and zonal models are used to predict airflows and contaminant dispersion. Genetic Algorithm is then applied to optimize the sensor location and quantity. Differences in the sensor system design resulting from the two airflow models are discussed for a typical office environment and a large hall environment.

  17. A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-03-01

    A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  18. EFFECTS OF NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS ON LOWER STRATOSPHERIC AND UPPER TROPOSPHERIC 2-D ZONAL AVERAGE MODEL CLIMATOLOGY. (R826384)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Evaluating the effect of oceanic striations on biogeochemistry in the eastern South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, P. A.; Belmadani, A.; Donoso, D.; Hormazabal, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, quasi-zonal mesoscale jet-like features or striations have been ubiquitously detected in the time-mean circulation of the world ocean using satellite altimetry and in situ data. Most likely the result of some organization of the mesoscale eddy field such as preferred eddy tracks, these striations may be able to advect and mix physical properties. Yet, their impact on biogeochemistry has not been assessed yet. Off central Chile, the interaction between striations and sharp background gradients of biogeochemical properties may spatially structure biogeochemistry, with potential implications for marine ecosystems. For instance, striations may affect the mean horizontal distribution of surface phytoplankton biomass in the coastal transition zone (CTZ), or the structure and variability of the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ). Here, we evaluate the expression of striations in satellite records of ocean color and in a set of numerically simulated biogeochemical tracers off central Chile (chlorophyll, carbon, primary production, oxygen, nutrients), averaged over the surface productive layer, the OMZ at intermediate depths or the water column. A multi-decadal hindcast simulation of the physical-biogeochemical dynamics was run over the period 1984-2013 using the ROMS-PISCES (for Regional Oceanic Modeling System - Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies) platform at an eddy-resolving resolution. Satellite data and model outputs are spatially high-pass filtered to remove the large-scale signal and evaluate the match between striations and biogeochemical tracer anomalies in the model and observations. The effect of striations on the mean shape of the zonal gradient of phytoplankton biomass in the CTZ between eutrophic coastal waters and oligotrophic offshore waters is then deduced. The fraction of tracer anomalies due to striations is quantified, and the structuring roles of stationary and transient striations are respectively explored by matching

  20. Saturn’s gravitational field induced by its equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-level zonal winds of Saturn are marked by a substantial equatorially antisymmetric component with a speed of about 50ms‑1 which, if they are sufficiently deep, can produce measurable odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4. This study, based on solutions of the thermal-gravitational wind equation, provides a theoretical basis for interpreting the odd gravitational coefficients of Saturn in terms of its equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow. We adopt a Saturnian model comprising an ice-rock core, a metallic dynamo region and an outer molecular envelope. We use an equatorially antisymmetric zonal flow that is parameterized, confined in the molecular envelope and satisfies the solvability condition required for the thermal-gravitational wind equation. The structure and amplitude of the zonal flow at the cloud level are chosen to be consistent with observations of Saturn. We calculate the odd zonal gravitational coefficients ΔJ 2k+1, k = 1, 2, 3, 4 by regarding the depth of the equatorially antisymmetric winds as a parameter. It is found that ΔJ 3 is ‑4.197 × 10‑8 if the zonal winds extend about 13 000 km downward from the cloud tops while it is ‑0.765 × 10‑8 if the depth is about 4000 km. The depth/profile of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds can eventually be estimated when the high-precision measurements of the Cassini Grand Finale become available.

  1. Heat balances of the surface mixed layer in the equatorial Atlantic and Indian Ocean during FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Surface meteorological and surface and subsurface oceanographic data collected during FGGE in the equatorial Atlantic and Indian Oceans are used to estimate the terms in a heat balance relation for the mixed layer. The first balance tested is between changes in mixed layer temperature (MLT) and surface energy fluxes. Away from regions of low variance in MLT time series and equatorial and coastal upwelling, surface fluxes can account for 75 percent of the variance in the observed time series. Differences between observed and estimated MLTs indicate that on the average, maximum errors in surface flux are of the order of 20 to 30 W/sq m. In the Atlantic, the addition of zonal advection does not significantly improve the estimates. However in regions of equatorial upwelling, the eastern Atlantic vertical mixing and meridional advection can play an important role in the evolution of MLTs.

  2. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  3. A Zonal Approach for Prediction of Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, S. H.; Hixon, D. R.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    A zonal approach for direct computation of sound generation and propagation from a supersonic jet is investigated. The present work splits the computational domain into a nonlinear, acoustic-source regime and a linear acoustic wave propagation regime. In the nonlinear regime, the unsteady flow is governed by the large-scale equations, which are the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the linear acoustic regime, the sound wave propagation is described by the linearized Euler equations. Computational results are presented for a supersonic jet at M = 2. 1. It is demonstrated that no spurious modes are generated in the matching region and the computational expense is reduced substantially as opposed to fully large-scale simulation.

  4. Convection driven zonal flows and vortices in the major planets.

    PubMed

    Busse, F. H.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamical properties of convection in rotating cylindrical annuli and spherical shells are reviewed. Simple theoretical models and experimental simulations of planetary convection through the use of the centrifugal force in the laboratory are emphasized. The model of columnar convection in a cylindrical annulus not only serves as a guide to the dynamical properties of convection in rotating sphere; it also is of interest as a basic physical system that exhibits several dynamical properties in their most simple form. The generation of zonal mean flows is discussed in some detail and examples of recent numerical computations are presented. The exploration of the parameter space for the annulus model is not yet complete and the theoretical exploration of convection in rotating spheres is still in the beginning phase. Quantitative comparisons with the observations of the dynamics of planetary atmospheres will have to await the consideration in the models of the effects of magnetic fields and the deviations from the Boussinesq approximation.

  5. Biohazards Assessment in Large-Scale Zonal Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, C. L.; Lemp, J. F.; Barbeito, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biohazards associated with use of the large-scale zonal centrifuge for purification of moderate risk oncogenic viruses. To safely and conveniently assess the hazard, coliphage T3 was substituted for the virus in a typical processing procedure performed in a National Cancer Institute contract laboratory. Risk of personnel exposure was found to be minimal during optimal operation but definite potential for virus release from a number of centrifuge components during mechanical malfunction was shown by assay of surface, liquid, and air samples collected during the processing. High concentration of phage was detected in the turbine air exhaust and the seal coolant system when faulty seals were employed. The simulant virus was also found on both centrifuge chamber interior and rotor surfaces. Images PMID:1124921

  6. The role of zonal flows in reactive fluid closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, WEILAND

    2018-07-01

    We will give an overview of results obtained by our reactive fluid model. It is characterised as a fluid model where all moments with sources in the experiment are kept. Furthermore, full account is taken for the highest moments appearing in unexpanded denominators also including full toroidicity. It has been demonstrated that the strength of zonal flows is dramatically larger in reactive fluid closures than in those which involve dissipation. This gives a direct connection between the fluid closure and the level of excitation of turbulence. This is because zonal flows are needed to absorb the inverse cascade in quasi 2D turbulence. This also explains the similarity in structure of the transport coefficients in our model with a reactive closure in the energy equation and models which have a reactive closure because of zero ion temperature such as the Hasegawa–Wakatani model. Our exact reactive closure unifies several well-known features of tokamak experiments such as the L–H transition, internal transport barriers and the nonlinear Dimits upshift of the critical gradient for onset of transport. It also gives transport of the same level as that in nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Since these include the kinetic resonance this confirms the validity of the thermodynamic properties of our model. Furthermore, we can show that while a strongly nonlinear model is needed in kinetic theory a quasilinear model is sufficient in the fluid description. Thus our quasilinear fluid model will be adequate for treating all relevant problems in bulk transport. This is finally confirmed by the reproduction by the model of the experimental power scaling of the confinement time τ E ∼ P ‑2/3. This confirms the validity of our reactive fluid model. This also gives credibility to our ITER simulations including the H-mode barrier. A new result is here, that alpha heating strongly reduces the slope of the H-mode barrier. This should significantly reduce the effects of ELM’s.

  7. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    SciT

    Burns, Lyle

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mudmore » losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability

  8. Relativistic satellite orbits: central body with higher zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanner, Maximilian; Soffel, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Satellite orbits around a central body with arbitrary zonal harmonics are considered in a relativistic framework. Our starting point is the relativistic Celestial Mechanics based upon the first post-Newtonian approximation to Einstein's theory of gravity as it has been formulated by Damour et al. (Phys Rev D 43:3273-3307, 1991; 45:1017-1044, 1992; 47:3124-3135, 1993; 49:618-635, 1994). Since effects of order (GM/c^2R) × J_k with k ≥ 2 for the Earth are very small (of order 7 × 10^{-10} × J_k) we consider an axially symmetric body with arbitrary zonal harmonics and a static external gravitational field. In such a field the explicit J_k/c^2-terms (direct terms) in the equations of motion for the coordinate acceleration of a satellite are treated first with first-order perturbation theory. The derived perturbation theoretical results of first order have been checked by purely numerical integrations of the equations of motion. Additional terms of the same order result from the interaction of the Newtonian J_k-terms with the post-Newtonian Schwarzschild terms (relativistic terms related to the mass of the central body). These `mixed terms' are treated by means of second-order perturbation theory based on the Lie-series method (Hori-Deprit method). Here we concentrate on the secular drifts of the ascending node <{\\dot{Ω }}> and argument of the pericenter <{\\dot{ω }}>. Finally orders of magnitude are given and discussed.

  9. Combining zonal refractive and diffractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gonzalo; Albarrán-Diego, César; Javaloy, Jaime; Sakla, Hani F; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    To assess visual performance with the combination of a zonal refractive aspheric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) (Lentis Mplus, Oculentis GmbH) and a diffractive aspheric MIOL (Acri.Lisa 366, Acri.Tech GmbH). This prospective interventional cohort study comprised 80 eyes from 40 cataract patients (mean age: 65.5±7.3 years) who underwent implantation of the Lentis Mplus MIOL in one eye and Acri.Lisa 366 MIOL in the fellow eye. The main outcome measures were refraction; monocular and binocular uncorrected and corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; monocular and binocular defocus curves; binocular photopic contrast sensitivity function compared to a monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) control group (40 age-matched pseudophakic patients implanted with the AR-40e [Abbott Medical Optics]); and quality of vision questionnaire. Binocular uncorrected visual acuities were 0.12 logMAR (0.76 decimal) or better at all distances measured between 6 m and 33 cm. The Lentis Mplus provided statistically significant better vision than the Acri.Lisa at distances between 2 m and 40 cm, and the Acri.Lisa provided statistically significant better vision than the Lentis Mplus at 33 cm. Binocular defocus curve showed little drop-off at intermediate distances. Photopic contrast sensitivity function for distance and near were similar to the monofocal IOL control group except for higher frequencies. Moderate glare (15%), night vision problems (12.5%), and halos (10%) were reported. Complete independence of spectacles was achieved by 92.5% of patients. The combination of zonal refractive aspheric and diffractive aspheric MIOLs resulted in excellent uncorrected binocular distance, intermediate, and near vision, with low incidence of significant photic phenomena and high patient satisfaction. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. The deep meridional overturning circulation in the Indian Ocean inferred from the GECCO synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqiang; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef

    2012-11-01

    The deep time-varying meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the Indian Ocean in the German “Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean” consortium efforts (GECCO) ocean synthesis is being investigated. An analysis of the integrated circulation suggests that, on time average, 2.1 Sv enter the Indian Ocean in the bottom layer (>3200 m) from the south and that 12.3 Sv leave the Indian Ocean in the upper and intermediate layers (<1500 m), composed of the up-welled bottom layer inflow water, augmented by 9.6 Sv Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) water. The GECCO time-mean results differ substantially from those obtained by inverse box models, which being based on individual hydrographic sections and due to the strong seasonal cycle are susceptible to aliasing. The GECCO solution shows a large seasonal variation in its deep MOC caused by the seasonal reversal of monsoon-related wind stress forcing. The associated seasonal variations of the deep MOC range from -7 Sv in boreal winter to 3 Sv in summer. In addition, the upper and bottom transports across the 34°S section show pronounced interannual variability with roughly biennial variations superimposed by strong anomalies during each La Niña phase as well as the ITF, which mainly affect the upper layer transports. On decadal and longer timescale, the meridional overturning variability as well as long-term trends differs before and after 1980. GECCO shows a stable trend for the period 1960-1979 and substantial changes in the upper and bottom layer for the period 1980-2001. By means of an extended EOF analysis, the importance of Ekman dynamics as driving forces of the deep MOC of the Indian Ocean on the interannual timescale is highlighted. The leading modes of the zonal and meridional wind stress favour a basin-wide meridional overturning mode via Ekman upwelling or downwelling mostly in the central and eastern Indian Ocean. Moreover, tropical zonal wind stress along the equator and alongshore wind stress

  11. Stable isotopes in water vapor and rainwater over Indian sector of Southern Ocean and estimation of fraction of recycled moisture.

    PubMed

    Rahul, P; Prasanna, K; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Anilkumar, N; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-05-15

    Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen isotopic composition of water vapor, rainwater and surface seawater show a distinct trend across the latitude over the Southern Indian Ocean. Our observations on isotopic composition of surface seawater, water vapor and rainwater across a transect covering the tropical Indian Ocean to the regions of the Southern Ocean showed a strong latitudinal dependency; characterized by the zonal process of evaporation and precipitation. The sampling points were spread across diverse zones of SST, wind speed and rainfall regimes. The observed physical parameters such as sea surface temperature, wind speed and relative humidity over the oceanic regions were used in a box model calculation across the latitudes to predict the isotopic composition of water vapor under equilibrium and kinetic conditions, and compared with results from isotope enabled global spectral model. Further, we obtained the average fraction of recycled moisture across the oceanic transect latitudes as 13.4 ± 7.7%. The values of recycled fraction were maximum at the vicinity of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), while the minimum values were recorded over the region of subsidence and evaporation, at the Northern and Southern latitudes of the ITCZ. These estimates are consistent with the earlier reported recyling values.

  12. Long-term Internal Variability of the Tropical Pacific Atmosphere-Ocean System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi Bordbar, Mohammad; Martin, Thomas; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    The tropical Pacific has featured some remarkable trends during the recent decades such as an unprecedented strengthening of the Trade Winds, a strong cooling of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the eastern and central part, thereby slowing global warming and strengthening the zonal SST gradient, and highly asymmetric sea level trends with an accelerated rise relative to the global average in the western and a drop in the eastern part. These trends have been linked to an anomalously strong Pacific Walker Circulation, the major zonal atmospheric overturning cell in the tropical Pacific sector, but the origin of the strengthening is controversial. Here we address the question as to whether the recent decadal trends in the tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean system are within the range of internal variability, as simulated in long unforced integrations of global climate models. We show that the recent trends are still within the range of long-term internal decadal variability. Further, such variability strengthens in response to enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations, which may further hinder detection of anthropogenic climate signals in that region.

  13. Rossby waves and two-dimensional turbulence in a large-scale zonal jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Theodor G.

    1987-01-01

    Homogeneous barotropic beta-plane turbulence is investigated, taking into account the effects of spatial inhomogeneity in the form of a zonal shear flows. Attention is given to the case of zonal flows that are barotropically stable and of larger scale than the resulting transient eddy field. Numerical simulations reveal that large-scale zonal flows alter the picture of classical beta-plane turbulence. It is found that the disturbance field penetrates to the largest scales of motion, that the larger disturbance scales show a tendency to meridional rather than zonal anisotropy, and that the initial spectral transfer rate away from an isotropic intermediate-scale source is enhanced by the shear-induced transfer associated with straining by the zonal flow.

  14. Effects of finite poloidal gyroradius, shaping, and collisions on the zonal flow residuala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yong; Catto, Peter J.; Dorland, William

    2007-05-01

    Zonal flow helps reduce and regulate the turbulent transport level in tokamaks. Rosenbluth and Hinton have shown that zonal flow damps to a nonvanishing residual level in collisionless [M. Rosenbluth and F. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] and collisional [F. Hinton and M. Rosenbluth, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41, A653 (1999)] banana regime plasmas. Recent zonal flow advances are summarized including the evaluation of the effects on the zonal flow residual by plasma cross-section shaping, shorter wavelengths including those less than an electron gyroradius, and arbitrary ion collisionality relative to the zonal low frequency. In addition to giving a brief summary of these new developments, the analytic results are compared with GS2 numerical simulations [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1991)] to demonstrate their value as benchmarks for turbulence codes.

  15. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  16. Fifty Years of Water Cycle Change expressed in Ocean Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durack, P. J.; Wijffels, S.

    2010-12-01

    Using over 1.6 million profiles of salinity, potential temperature and density from historical archives and Argo, we derive the global field of linear change for ocean state properties over the period 1950-2008, taking care to minimise aliasing associated with seasonal and El Nino Southern Oscillation modes. We find large, robust and spatially coherent multi-decadal linear trends in ocean surface salinities. Increases are found in evaporation-dominated regions and freshening in precipitation-dominated regions. The spatial patterns of surface change strongly resemble the climatological mean surface salinity field, consistent with an amplification of the global water cycle. A robust amplification of the mean salinity pattern of 8% (to 200m depth) is found globally and 5-9% is found in each of the 3 key ocean basins. 20th century runs from the CMIP3 model suite support the relationship between amplified patterns of freshwater flux driving an amplified pattern of ocean surface salinity only in models that warm substantially. Models with volcanic aerosols show a diminished warming response and a corresponding weak response in ocean surface salinity change, which implies dampened changes to the global water cycle. The warming response represented in realistic (when compared to observations) 20th century simulations appear quite similar in their broad zonal patterns to those of the projected 21st century simulations, these projected runs being strongly forced by greenhouse gases. This pattern amplification is mostly absent from 20th century simulations which include volcanic forcing. While we confirm that global mean precipitation only weakly change with surface warming (2-3% K-1), the pattern amplification rate in both the freshwater flux and ocean salinity fields indicate larger responses. Our new observed salinity estimates suggest a change of between 8-16% K-1, close to, or greater than, the theoretical response described by the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The

  17. States' Average College Tuition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglin, Joseph J., Jr.; And Others

    This report presents statistical data on trends in tuition costs from 1980-81 through 1995-96. The average tuition for in-state undergraduate students of 4-year public colleges and universities for academic year 1995-96 was approximately 8.9 percent of median household income. This figure was obtained by dividing the students' average annual…

  18. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  19. Monthly Maps of Sea Surface Height in the North Atlantic and Zonal Indices for the Gulf Stream Using TOPEX/Poseidon Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sandipa; Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1997-01-01

    Monthly Maps of sea surface height are constructed for the North Atlantic Ocean using TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. Mean sea surface height is reconstructed using a weighted combination of historical, hydrographic data and a synthetic mean obtained by fitting a Gaussian model of the Gulf Stream jet to altimeter data. The resultant mean shows increased resolution over the hydrographic mean, and incorporates recirculation information that is absent in the synthetic mean. Monthly maps, obtained by adding the mean field to altimeter sea surface height residuals, are used to derive a set of zonal indices that describe the annual cycle of meandering as well as position and strength of the Gulf Stream.

  20. Turbulence, transport, and zonal flows in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. R.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hauff, T.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness and the effect of zonal flows in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) are investigated from numerical solutions of the gyrokinetic equations with and without magnetic external perturbations introduced to model tearing modes. For simulations without external magnetic field perturbations, zonal flows produce a much larger reduction of transport for the density-gradient-driven TEM turbulence than they do for the ITG turbulence. Zonal flows are studied in detail to understand the nature of their strong excitation in the RFP and to gain insight into the key differences between the TEM- and ITG-driven regimes. The zonal flow residuals are significantly larger in the RFP than in tokamak geometry due to the low safety factor. Collisionality is seen to play a significant role in the TEM zonal flow regulation through the different responses of the linear growth rate and the size of the Dimits shift to collisionality, while affecting the ITG only minimally. A secondary instability analysis reveals that the TEM turbulence drives zonal flows at a rate that is twice that of the ITG turbulence. In addition to interfering with zonal flows, the magnetic perturbations are found to obviate an energy scaling relation for fast particles.

  1. Role of zonal flows in trapped electron mode turbulence through nonlinear gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. R.; Lang, J.; Nevins, W. M.; Hoffman, M.; Chen, Y.; Dorland, W.; Parker, S.

    2009-05-01

    Trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibits a rich variety of collisional and zonal flow physics. This work explores the parametric variation of zonal flows and underlying mechanisms through a series of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, using both particle-in-cell and continuum methods. A new stability diagram for electron modes is presented, identifying a critical boundary at ηe=1, separating long and short wavelength TEMs. A novel parity test is used to separate TEMs from electron temperature gradient driven modes. A nonlinear scan of ηe reveals fine scale structure for ηe≳1, consistent with linear expectation. For ηe<1, zonal flows are the dominant saturation mechanism, and TEM transport is insensitive to ηe. For ηe>1, zonal flows are weak, and TEM transport falls inversely with a power law in ηe. The role of zonal flows appears to be connected to linear stability properties. Particle and continuum methods are compared in detail over a range of ηe=d ln Te/d ln ne values from zero to five. Linear growth rate spectra, transport fluxes, fluctuation wavelength spectra, zonal flow shearing spectra, and correlation lengths and times are in close agreement. In addition to identifying the critical parameter ηe for TEM zonal flows, this paper takes a challenging step in code verification, directly comparing very different methods of simulating simultaneous kinetic electron and ion dynamics in TEM turbulence.

  2. On the tertiary instability formalism of zonal flows in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Seiferling, F.; Weikl, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the so-called tertiary instabilities driven by the zonal flow in gyro-kinetic tokamak core turbulence. The Kelvin Helmholtz instability is first considered within a 2D fluid model and a threshold in the zonal flow wave vector kZF>kZF,c for instability is found. This critical scale is related to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by flux-surfaces, which is incorporated into the modified adiabatic electron response. The stability of undamped Rosenbluth-Hinton zonal flows is then investigated in gyro-kinetic simulations. Absolute instability, in the sense that the threshold zonal flow amplitude tends towards zero, is found above a zonal flow wave vector kZF,cρi≈1.3 ( ρi is the ion thermal Larmor radius), which is comparable to the 2D fluid results. Large scale zonal flows with kZFzonal temperature perturbations on the tertiary instability is examined. Although temperature perturbations favor instability, the realistic values of gradient-driven gyro-kinetic simulations still lie deeply in the stable parameter regime. Therefore, the relevance of the tertiary instability as a saturation mechanism to the zonal flow amplitude is questioned, as most of the zonal flow intensity is concentrated in modes satisfying kZF≪kZF,c as well as ωE×B≪ωE×B,c .

  3. The Deep Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Indian Ocean Inferred from the GECCO Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Koehl, A.; Stammer, D.

    2012-04-01

    The meridional overturning circulation in the Indian Ocean and its temporal variability in the GECCO ocean synthesis are being investigated. An analysis of the integrated circulation in different layers suggests that, on time average, 2.1 Sv enter the Indian Ocean in the bottom layer (>3200m) from the south and that 12.3 Sv leave the Indian Ocean in the upper and intermediate layers (<1500m), composed of the up-welled bottom layer inflow water, augmented by 9.6 Sv Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) water. The GECCO time-mean results differ significantly from those obtained by box inverse models, which, being based on individual hydrographic sections, are susceptible to aliasing. The GECCO solution has a large seasonal variation in its meridional overturning caused by the seasonal reversal of monsoon-related wind stress forcing. Associated seasonal variations of the deep meridional overturning range from -7 Sv in boreal winter to 3 Sv in summer. In addition, the upper and bottom transports across 34°S section show pronounced interannual variability with roughly biennial variations superimposed by strong anomalies during each La Niña phase as well as the ITF, which mainly affect the upper layer transports. On decadal and longer timescale, the meridional overturning variability as well as long-term trends differ before and after 1980. Notably, our analysis shows a rather stable trend for the period 1960-1979 and significant changes in the upper and bottom layer for the period 1980-2001. By means of a multivariate EOF analysis, the importance of Ekman dynamics as driving forces of the deep meridional overturning of the Indian Ocean on the interannual timescale is highlighted. The leading modes of the zonal and meridional wind stress favour a basin-wide meridional overturning mode via Ekman upwelling or downwelling mostly in the central and eastern Indian Ocean. Moreover, tropical zonal wind stress along the equator and alongshore wind stress off the Sumatra-Java coast

  4. Oceanic primary production 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, David; André, Jean-Michel; Morel, André

    A fast method has been proposed [Antoine and Morel, this issue] to compute the oceanic primary production from the upper ocean chlorophyll-like pigment concentration, as it can be routinely detected by a spaceborne ocean color sensor. This method is applied here to the monthly global maps of the photosynthetic pigments that were derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data archive [Feldman et al., 1989]. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) field is computed from the astronomical constant and by using an atmospheric model, thereafter combined with averaged cloud information, derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The aim is to assess the seasonal evolution, as well as the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic carbon fixation within the world ocean and for a ``climatological year,'' to the extent that both the chlorophyll information and the cloud coverage statistics actually are averages obtained over several years. The computed global annual production actually ranges between 36.5 and 45.6 Gt C yr-1 according to the assumption which is made (0.8 or 1) about the ratio of active-to-total pigments (recall that chlorophyll and pheopigments are not radiometrically resolved by CZCS). The relative contributions to the global productivity of the various oceans and zonal belts are examined. By considering the hypotheses needed in such computations, the nature of the data used as inputs, and the results of the sensitivity studies, the global numbers have to be cautiously considered. Improving the reliability of the primary production estimates implies (1) new global data sets allowing a higher temporal resolution and a better coverage, (2) progress in the knowledge of physiological responses of phytoplankton and therefore refinements of the time and space dependent parameterizations of these responses.

  5. A Preliminary Study on the Circulation of an ocean covering a Synchronously Rotating Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Ishiwatari, M.; Takehiro, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakajima, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, nearly 800 extrasolar planets have been detected. It seems that some of them present into habitable zone, in which planets can have ocean, and such planets rotate synchronously with their central stars. Ocean is necessary for life, and the circulation makes climate mild by heat transport on the earth. The earth is the only planet that has ocean in the solar system so that it has not been understood what oceanic circulation is like in another planets. The purpose of this study is prediction of oceanic circulation on extrasolar planets by using numerical simulation. As a first step, elementary consideration is made. The planet is almost entirely covered with ocean and whose rotation period corresponds with its orbital period. On synchronously rotating planets, the thermal contrast between day-hemisphere and night-hemisphere would be extreme. However, it may be lessend if there is significant zonal heat transport. The circulation in such conditions has not been known well. We performed a numerical experiment based on the linear shallow water equation, assuming that both the evaporation and the precipitation occur only on day-hemisphere (Noda et al., 2011). With these distributions of the evaporation and the precipitation, one may anticipate the circulation occurs in only day-hemisphere. However, the resulting calculation is characterized with zonally uniform zonal flow, which also covers night hemisphere. In addition, the intensity of the flow increases with time. That behavior can be understood by constructing asymptotic solution which is first degree in time. The importance of Coriolis force, which bends meridional flow to zonal flow, is identified. It is implied that, even when only day-hemisphere has the evaporation and precipitation, there may be significant amount of heat can be transported from the day-hemisphere to the night-hemisphere by the strong zonal flow. The growth of zonal flow would be stopped when the evaporation and the precipitation are

  6. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  7. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    SciT

    Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  8. Threaded average temperature thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

  9. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  10. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    SciT

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less

  11. Zonal Flow Velocimetry in Spherical Couette Flow using Acoustic Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew M.; Mautino, Anthony R.; Stone, Douglas R.; Triana, Santiago A.; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2015-11-01

    We present studies of spherical Couette flows using the technique of acoustic mode Doppler velocimetry. This technique uses rotational splittings of acoustic modes to infer the azimuthal velocity profile of a rotating flow, and is of special interest in experiments where direct flow visualization is impractical. The primary experimental system consists of a 60 cm diameter outer spherical shell concentric with a 20 cm diameter sphere, with air or nitrogen gas serving as the working fluid. The geometry of the system approximates that of the Earth's core, making these studies geophysically relevant. A turbulent shear flow is established in the system by rotating the inner sphere and outer shell at different rates. Acoustic modes of the fluid volume are excited using a speaker and measured via microphones, allowingdetermination of rotational splittings. Preliminary results comparing observed splittings with those predicted by theory are presented. While the majority of these studies were performed in the 60 cm diameter device using nitrogen gas, some work has also been done looking at acoustic modes in the 3 m diameter liquid sodium spherical Couette experiment. Prospects for measuring zonal velocity profiles in a wide variety of experiments are discussed.

  12. Comments on "extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Barrett, Christopher D.

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, Li et al. (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006) used results of atomistic simulations to advance a growth mechanism of ? ? twinning in titanium based on the concept of two elementary twinning dislocations which nucleate and glide in pairs but separately and sequentially on two neighbouring planes. This new Comment was stimulated after A. Serra, D.J. Bacon and R.C. Pond privately raised concerns on this growth model to one of the present authors, H. El Kadiri, who This was a co-author of the original paper (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006). We repeated the simulations and obtained nearly the same simulations results as Li et al. However, after re-analysing these results, we have concluded that the extended extrinsic zonal dislocation mechanism claimed to be that for twin growth in titanium is in fact false, confirming the accuracy of the Comment by Serra et al that results of Li and co-authors were misinterpreted.

  13. Equatorial superrotation in a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.

    1981-01-01

    Near the equator where the Coriolis force vanishes, the momentum balance for the axially symmetric circulation is established between horizontal and vertical diffusion, which, a priori, does not impose constraints on the direction or magnitude of the zonal winds. Solar radiation absorbed at low latitudes is a major force in driving large scale motions with air rising near the equator and falling at higher latitudes. In the upper leg of the meridional cell, angular momentum is redistributed so that the atmosphere tends to subrotate (or corotate) at low latitudes and superrotate at high latitudes. In the lower leg, however, the process is reversed and produces a tendency for the equatorial region to superrotate. The outcome depends on the energy budget which is closely coupled to the momentum budget through the thermal wind equation; a pressure (temperature) maximum is required to sustain equatorial superrotation. Such a condition arises in regions which are convectively unstable and the temperature lapse rate is superadiabatic. It should arise in the tropospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; planetary energy from the interior is carried to higher altitudes where radiation to space becomes important. Upward equatorial motions in the direct and indirect circulations (Ferrel-Thomson type) imposed by insolation can then trap dynamic energy for equatorial heating which can sustain the superrotation of the equatorial region.

  14. Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. However, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. Here we present a new theory that captures both of these effects, while still treating DW quanta (``driftons'') as particles in phase space. In this theory, the drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner-Moyal type, which is analogous to the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. The ``Hamiltonian'' and the ``dissipative'' parts of the DW-ZF interactions are clearly identified. Moreover, this theory can be interpreted as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion (CE2). In the GO limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the traditional WKE. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. Supported by the U.S. DOE through Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.

  15. A cyclostrophic transformed Eulerian zonal mean model for the middle atmosphere of slowly rotating planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, King-Fai; Yao, Kaixuan; Taketa, Cameron; Zhang, Xi; Liang, Mao-Chang; Jiang, Xun; Newman, Claire; Tung, Ka-Kit; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-04-01

    With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As an example, we apply this model to Titan. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss an application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.

  16. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    DOE PAGES

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-10

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in anmore » $$\\boldsymbol{E}\\times \\boldsymbol{B}$$ nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.« less

  17. A cyclostrophic transformed Eulerian zonal mean model for the middle atmosphere of slowly rotating planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. F.; Yao, K.; Taketa, C.; Zhang, X.; Liang, M. C.; Jiang, X.; Newman, C. E.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As examples, we apply this model to Titan and Venus. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss the application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.

  18. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  19. Observations of the Mf ocean tide from Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartwright, David E.; Ray, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Zonal averages of the 13.66-day Mf tide are derived from one year of Geosat altimetry records. The orbit errors are reduced by 1/revolution corrections taken over long (several day) arcs. The short-period tides are removed using a model previously derived from the same data. The Mf zonal averages indicate definite nonequilibrium character at nearly all latitudes. The imaginary admittances indicate a Q of at least 8; such a value is consistent with a simplified theory of coupled gravitational and vorticity modes and suggests a value for Proudman's 'friction period' about 123 days.

  20. Average Revisited in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the responses of 247 middle school students to items requiring the concept of average in three different contexts: a city's weather reported in maximum daily temperature, the number of children in a family, and the price of houses. The mixed but overall disappointing performance on the six items in the three contexts indicates…

  1. Your Average Nigga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Vershawn Ashanti

    2004-01-01

    "Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

  2. Determining average yarding distance.

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  3. The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, F Alexander; Rödenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C E; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2015-09-11

    Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 -has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012, the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more in time than previously recognized. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Role of ocean isopycnal mixing in setting the uptake of anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M. A. S.; Abernathey, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of the isopycnal stirring coefficient ARedi is poorly constrained from data and varies greatly across Earth System Models. This paper documents the impact of such uncertainty on the oceanic carbon cycle. We compare six spatial representations of ARedi. Four constant values (400, 800, 1200 and 2400 m2/s) are used to explore the difference between using the low values found in many models and the higher values seen in observational estimates. Models are also run with two spatially dependent values of ARedi based on altimetry, one which captures the fully two-dimensional structure of the mixing coefficient, the other of which looks at the zonally averaged structure alone. Under global warming significant changes are seen in the biological pump in convective regions, but these changes are largely locally compensated by changes in preformed DIC. Instead, differences in anthropogenic uptake of carbon are largely centered in the tropics, and can be well described in terms of a relatively simple diffusive approximation. Using ideal age as a tracer can give insight into the expected behavior of the models. The rate of oceanic mixing represents a quantitatively significant uncertainty in future projections of the global carbon cycle, amounting to about 20% of the oceanic uptake.

  5. Stationary zonal flows during the formation of the edge transport barrier in the JET tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Meyer, H.; Maggi, C. F.; ...

    2016-02-10

    In this study, high spatial resolution Doppler backscattering measurements in JET have enabled new insights into the development of the edge E r. We observe fine-scale spatial structures in the edge E r well with a wave number k rρi ≈ 0.4-0.8, consistent with stationary zonal flows, the characteristics of which vary with density. The zonal flow amplitude and wavelength both decrease with local collisionality, such that the zonal flow E x B shear increases. Above the minimum of the L-H transition power threshold dependence on density, the zonal flows are present during L mode and disappear following the H-modemore » transition, while below the minimum they are reduced below measurable amplitude during L mode, before the L-H transition.« less

  6. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    SciT

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger thanmore » or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.« less

  7. Rossby Wave Propagation into the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere: The Role of Zonal Phase Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeisen, Daniela I. V.; Martius, Olivia; Jiménez-Esteve, Bernat

    2018-02-01

    Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are to a dominant part induced by upward propagating planetary waves. While theory predicts that the zonal phase speed of a tropospheric wave forcing affects wave propagation into the stratosphere, its relevance for SSW events has so far not been considered. This study shows in a linear wave diagnostic and in reanalysis data that phase speeds tend eastward as waves propagate upward, indicating that the stratosphere preselects eastward phase speeds for propagation, especially for zonal wave number 2. This also affects SSW events: Split SSW events tend to be preceded by anomalously eastward zonal phase speeds. Zonal phase speed may indeed explain part of the increased wave flux observed during the preconditioning of SSW events, as, for example, for the record 2009 SSW event.

  8. Two- and three-dimensional natural and mixed convection simulation using modular zonal models

    SciT

    Wurtz, E.; Nataf, J.M.; Winkelmann, F.

    We demonstrate the use of the zonal model approach, which is a simplified method for calculating natural and mixed convection in rooms. Zonal models use a coarse grid and use balance equations, state equations, hydrostatic pressure drop equations and power law equations of the form {ital m} = {ital C}{Delta}{sup {ital n}}. The advantage of the zonal approach and its modular implementation are discussed. The zonal model resolution of nonlinear equation systems is demonstrated for three cases: a 2-D room, a 3-D room and a pair of 3-D rooms separated by a partition with an opening. A sensitivity analysis withmore » respect to physical parameters and grid coarseness is presented. Results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and experimental data.« less

  9. Theory of Fine-scale Zonal Flow Generation From Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence

    SciT

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    Most existing zonal flow generation theory has been developed with a usual assumption of qrρθ¡ << 1 (qr is the radial wave number of zonal flow, and ρθ¡ is the ion poloidal gyrora- dius). However, recent nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence exhibit a relatively short radial scale of the zonal flows with qrρθ¡ ~ 1 [Z. Lin et al., IAEA-CN/TH/P2-8 (2006); D. Ernst et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 055906 (2009)]. This work reports an extension of zonal flow growth calculation to this short wavelength regime via the wave kinetics approach. A generalized expression for the polarizationmore » shielding for arbitrary radial wavelength [Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2009)] which extends the Rosenbluth-Hinton formula in the long wavelength limit is applied.« less

  10. Ion Layer Separation and Equilibrium Zonal Winds in Midlatitude Sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, G. D.; Kane, T. J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In-situ observations of a moderately strong mid-latitude sporadic-E layer show a separation in altitude between distinct sublayers composed of Fe(+), Mg(+), and NO(+). From these observations it is possible to estimate the zonal wind field consistent with diffusive equilibrium near the altitude of the layer. The amplitude of the zonal wind necessary to sustain the layer against diffusive effects is less than 10 meters per second, and the vertical wavelength is less than 10 km.

  11. Intraseasonal oscillation features of the South China Sea summer monsoon and its response to abnormal MJO in the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes Intraseasonal Oscillation (ISO) features and inter-annual differences of the South China Sea (SCS) Summer Monsoon (SCSSM), evolution of its Low Frequency (LF) circulation and convection fields and precipitation anomalies, and path of ISO propagation, as well as impact of MJO in tropical Indian Ocean on SCSSM ISO during 1979-2008. It is found that (1) The SCSSM ISO goes through six phases (exclusive of the weak phase) at every complete fluctuation: developing, strongest, weakening, restraining, weakest and recovering phase. Due to tropical LF convection propagating eastward and northward, the LF convection and circulation in the 1st-3rd and 4th-6th phases present the anti-phase in the Arabian Sea-West Pacific zonal band. Its corresponding rainy bands also present anti-phase roughly. The rainy band moves eastward with LF convection mainly in tropical regions in the south of 20° N, while moves northward in East Asia subtropical regions in the north of 20° N. (2) The SCSSM ISO intensity presents significant inter-annual difference. There are three stronger ISO in the stronger SCSSM ISO years. The first two oscillations propagates from the tropical Indian Ocean to the Bay of Bengal firstly, and then to SCS along the 10° -20° N zonal direction, stimulates the ISO to propagate to South China, forming a relay propagation path in meridional-zonal direction. Moreover, in the weaker SCSSM ISO years, the ISO weakens greatly and irregularly. In averaged conditions, the ISO propagates from tropical Indian Ocean to the SCS by about 20 days (one half ISO periods). (3) MJO1 (the first modal of MJO index provided by the Climate Prediction Center) averaged value in the 1st-2nd pentads of April has the negative correlation with the SCSSM ISO intensity. When MJO in tropical Indian Ocean is more active in the 1st-2nd pentads of April, it is stronger in the subsequent May to August, and the ISO also propagates strongly to the SCS, so that the SCSSM ISO strengthens

  12. Zonally Symmetric Oscillations of the Thermosphere at Planetary Wave Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Maute, Astrid; Hagan, Maura E.

    2018-05-01

    New mechanisms for imposing planetary wave (PW) variability on the ionosphere-thermosphere system are discovered in numerical experiments conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. First, it is demonstrated that a tidal spectrum modulated at PW periods (3-20 days) entering the ionosphere-thermosphere system near 100 km is responsible for producing ±40 m/s and ±10-15 K PW period oscillations between 110 and 150 km at low to middle latitudes. The dominant response is broadband and zonally symmetric (i.e., "S0") over a range of periods and is attributable to tidal dissipation; essentially, the ionosphere-thermosphere system "vacillates" in response to dissipation of the PW-modulated tidal spectrum. In addition, some specific westward propagating PWs such as the quasi-6-day wave are amplified by the presence of the tidal spectrum; the underlying mechanism is hypothesized to be a second-stage nonlinear interaction. The S0 total neutral mass density (ρ) response at 325 km consists of PW period fluctuations of order ±3-4%, roughly equivalent to the day-to-day variability associated with low-level geomagnetic activity. The variability in ρ over short periods (˜< 9 days) correlates with temperature changes, indicating a response of hydrostatic origin. Over longer periods ρ is also controlled by composition and mean molecular mass. While the upper-thermosphere impacts are modest, they do translate to more significant changes in the F region ionosphere.

  13. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  14. Atmospheric Response to Zonal Variations in Midlatitude SST: Transient and Stationary Eddies and Their Feedback(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Mukougawa, Hitoshi; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2003-10-01

    Midwinter storm track response to zonal variations in midlatitude sea surface temperatures (SSTs) has been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model under aquaplanet and perpetual-January conditions. Zonal wavenumber-1 SST variations with a meridionally confined structure are placed at various latitudes. Having these SST variations centered at 30°N leads to a zonally localized storm track, while the storm track becomes nearly zonally uniform when the same SST forcing is moved farther north at 40° and 50°N. Large (small) baroclinic energy conversion north of the warm (cold) SST anomaly near the axis of the storm track (near 40°N) is responsible for the large (small) storm growth. The equatorward transfer of eddy kinetic energy by the ageostrophic motion and the mechanical damping are important to diminish the storm track activity in the zonal direction.Significant stationary eddies form in the upper troposphere, with a ridge (trough) northeast of the warm (cold) SST anomaly at 30°N. Heat and vorticity budget analyses indicate that zonally localized condensational heating in the storm track is the major cause for these stationary eddies, which in turn exert a positive feedback to maintain the localized storm track by strengthening the vertical shear near the surface. These results indicate an active role of synoptic eddies in inducing deep, tropospheric-scale response to midlatitude SST variations. Finally, the application of the model results to the real atmosphere is discussed.

  15. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  16. Changes in Jupiter's Zonal Wind Profile Preceding and During the Juno Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollefson, Joshua; Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Simon, Amy A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Cosentino, Richard G.; Januszewski, William; Morales-Juberias, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present five epochs of WFC3 HST Jupiter observations taken between 2009-2016 and extract global zonal wind profiles for each epoch. Jupiter's zonal wind field is globally stable throughout these years, but significant variations in certain latitude regions persist. We find that the largest uncertainties in the wind field are due to vortices or hot-spots, and show residual maps which identify the strongest vortex flows. The strongest year-to-year variation in the zonal wind profiles is the 24 deg N jet peak. Numerous plume outbreaks have been observed in the Northern Temperate Belt and are associated with decreases in the zonal velocity and brightness. We show that the 24 deg N jet peak velocity and brightness decreased in 2012 and again in late 2016, following outbreaks during these years. Our February 2016 zonal wind profile was the last highly spatially resolved measurement prior to Juno s first science observations. The final 2016 data were taken in conjunction with Juno's perijove 3 pass on 11 December 2016, and show the zonal wind profile following the plume outbreak at 24 deg N in October 2016.

  17. ``Supemodeling" by Coupling Multiple Atmospheres to A Single Ocean Simulates Single-ITCZ Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, G. S.; Shen, M. L.; Keenlyside, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    If the members of an ensemble of different models are allowed to interact with one another in run time, predictive skill can be improved as compared to that of any individual model or any average of individual model outputs. Inter-model connections in such an interactive ensemble can be trained, using historical data, so that the resulting ``supermodel" synchronizes with reality when observations are continuously assimilated, as in weather prediction. In climate-projection mode, the supermodel, after training, reproduces the attractor of the real system. We consider a variant of full supermodeling in which the models are only connected via the fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Two ECHAM atmospheres that differ in their convection parametrization schemes are thus connected to a single, shared ocean. The atmospheres partially synchronize at lower levels in the tropics, giving more realistic SST patterns than the constituent models: Although the constituent models both exhibit double ITCZ's, with cold tongues that extend too far west, the supermodel has the desired single ITCZ [Shen et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 2016]. Here we explain the physical mechanism through which the supermodel removes even defects that are shared. One model (Nordeng) produces an unrealistically large zonal wind stress that results in upwelling of cold water and westward extension of the cold tongue. The other model (Tiedtke) produces an unrealistically small zonal wind stress that also implies a reduced wind stress curl off the equator because of Hadley-Walker coupling. The reduced wind stress curl leads to downwelling off the equator, and resultant upwelling of cold water at the equator through the tropical ocean cell. Thus the two constituent models give erroneous patterns of the same type, while the supermodel, which combines the models dynamically, avoids the error. If the models were linear, the errors of the two models would average; the success of the supermodel depends on

  18. Intraseasonal and interannual oscillations in coupled ocean-atmosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirst, Anthony C.; Lau, K.-M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is presented of coupled ocean-atmosphere models' behavior in an environment where atmospheric wave speeds are substantially reduced from dry atmospheric values by such processes as condensation-moisture convergence. Modes are calculated for zonally periodic, unbounded ocean-atmosphere systems, emphasizing the importance of an inclusion of prognostic atmosphere equations in simple coupled ocean-atmosphere models with a view to simulations of intraseasonal variability and its possible interaction with interannual variability. The dynamics of low and high frequency modes are compared; both classes are sensitive to the degree to which surface wind anomalies are able to affect the evaporation rate.

  19. Average is Over

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    The popular perception of statistical distributions is depicted by the iconic bell curve which comprises of a massive bulk of 'middle-class' values, and two thin tails - one of small left-wing values, and one of large right-wing values. The shape of the bell curve is unimodal, and its peak represents both the mode and the mean. Thomas Friedman, the famous New York Times columnist, recently asserted that we have entered a human era in which "Average is Over" . In this paper we present mathematical models for the phenomenon that Friedman highlighted. While the models are derived via different modeling approaches, they share a common foundation. Inherent tipping points cause the models to phase-shift from a 'normal' bell-shape statistical behavior to an 'anomalous' statistical behavior: the unimodal shape changes to an unbounded monotone shape, the mode vanishes, and the mean diverges. Hence: (i) there is an explosion of small values; (ii) large values become super-large; (iii) 'middle-class' values are wiped out, leaving an infinite rift between the small and the super large values; and (iv) "Average is Over" indeed.

  20. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  1. Another look at zonal flows: Resonance, shearing, and frictionless saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We show that shear is not the exclusive parameter that represents all aspects of flow structure effects on turbulence. Rather, wave-flow resonance enters turbulence regulation, both linearly and nonlinearly. Resonance suppresses the linear instability by wave absorption. Flow shear can weaken the resonance, and thus destabilize drift waves, in contrast to the near-universal conventional shear suppression paradigm. Furthermore, consideration of wave-flow resonance resolves the long-standing problem of how zonal flows (ZFs) saturate in the limit of weak or zero frictional drag, and also determines the ZF scale. We show that resonant vorticity mixing, which conserves potential enstrophy, enables ZF saturation in the absence of drag, and so is effective at regulating the Dimits up-shift regime. Vorticity mixing is incorporated as a nonlinear, self-regulation effect in an extended 0D predator-prey model of drift-ZF turbulence. This analysis determines the saturated ZF shear and shows that the mesoscopic ZF width scales as LZ F˜f3 /16(1-f ) 1 /8ρs5/8l03 /8 in the (relevant) adiabatic limit (i.e., τckk‖2D‖≫1 ). f is the fraction of turbulence energy coupled to ZF and l0 is the base state mixing length, absent ZF shears. We calculate and compare the stationary flow and turbulence level in frictionless, weakly frictional, and strongly frictional regimes. In the frictionless limit, the results differ significantly from conventionally quoted scalings derived for frictional regimes. To leading order, the flow is independent of turbulence intensity. The turbulence level scales as E ˜(γL/εc) 2 , which indicates the extent of the "near-marginal" regime to be γL<εc , for the case of avalanche-induced profile variability. Here, εc is the rate of dissipation of potential enstrophy and γL is the characteristic linear growth rate of fluctuations. The implications for dynamics near marginality of the strong scaling of saturated E with γL are discussed.

  2. Ocean heat budget analysis on sea surface temperature anomaly in western Indian Ocean during strong-weak Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathrio, Ibnu; Manda, Atsuyoshi; Iizuka, Satoshi; Kodama, Yasu-Masa; Ishida, Sachinobu

    2018-05-01

    This study presents ocean heat budget analysis on seas surface temperature (SST) anomalies during strong-weak Asian summer monsoon (southwest monsoon). As discussed by previous studies, there was close relationship between variations of Asian summer monsoon and SST anomaly in western Indian Ocean. In this study we utilized ocean heat budget analysis to elucidate the dominant mechanism that is responsible for generating SST anomaly during weak-strong boreal summer monsoon. Our results showed ocean advection plays more important role to initate SST anomaly than the atmospheric prcess (surface heat flux). Scatterplot analysis showed that vertical advection initiated SST anomaly in western Arabian Sea and southwestern Indian Ocean, while zonal advection initiated SST anomaly in western equatorial Indian Ocean.

  3. Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind

  4. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciT

    Kaladze, T. D.; I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 2 University Str., 0186 Tbilisi; Shad, M.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift wavesmore » and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.« less

  5. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciT

    Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Howard, N. T.

    2016-06-15

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. The zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  6. Frequency-dependent behavior of the barotropic and baroclinic modes of zonal jet variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Stratosphere-troposphere interactions are frequently described in terms of the leading modes of variability, i.e. the annular modes. An idealized dynamical core model is used to explore the differences between the low- and high- frequency (periods greater and less than 30 days) behavior of the first two principal components of zonal mean zonal wind and eddy kinetic energy, i.e., the barotropic/baroclinic annular modes of variability of the extratropical circulation. The modes show similar spatial characteristics in the different frequency ranges considered, however the ranking of the modes switches in some cases from one range to the other. There is some cancelation in the signatures of eddy heat flux and eddy kinetic energy in the leading low-pass and high-pass filtered zonal wind mode, partly explaining their small signature in the total. At low frequencies, the first zonal wind mode describes latitudinal shifts of both the midlatitude jet and its associated storm tracks, and the persistence of zonal wind anomalies appears to be sustained primarily by a baroclinic, rather than a barotropic, feedback. On shorter time scales, the behavior is more complicated and transient.

  7. Analysis of solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition by zonal elution affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Pingyang; Poddar, Saumen; Sun, Zuchen; Hage, David S; Chen, Jianzhong

    2018-02-02

    Many biological processes involve solute-protein interactions and solute-solute competition for protein binding. One method that has been developed to examine these interactions is zonal elution affinity chromatography. This review discusses the theory and principles of zonal elution affinity chromatography, along with its general applications. Examples of applications that are examined include the use of this method to estimate the relative extent of solute-protein binding, to examine solute-solute competition and displacement from proteins, and to measure the strength of these interactions. It is also shown how zonal elution affinity chromatography can be used in solvent and temperature studies and to characterize the binding sites for solutes on proteins. In addition, several alternative applications of zonal elution affinity chromatography are discussed, which include the analysis of binding by a solute with a soluble binding agent and studies of allosteric effects. Other recent applications that are considered are the combined use of immunoextraction and zonal elution for drug-protein binding studies, and binding studies that are based on immobilized receptors or small targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of zonal flows in the saturation of multi-scale gyrokinetic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Staebler, Gary M.; Candy, John; Howard, Nathan T.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The 2D spectrum of the saturated electric potential from gyrokinetic turbulence simulations that include both ion and electron scales (multi-scale) in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is analyzed. The paradigm that the turbulence is saturated when the zonal (axisymmetic) ExB flow shearing rate competes with linear growth is shown to not apply to the electron scale turbulence. Instead, it is the mixing rate by the zonal ExB velocity spectrum with the turbulent distribution function that competes with linear growth. A model of this mechanism is shown to be able to capture the suppression of electron-scale turbulence by ion-scale turbulence and the thresholdmore » for the increase in electron scale turbulence when the ion-scale turbulence is reduced. The model computes the strength of the zonal flow velocity and the saturated potential spectrum from the linear growth rate spectrum. The model for the saturated electric potential spectrum is applied to a quasilinear transport model and shown to accurately reproduce the electron and ion energy fluxes of the non-linear gyrokinetic multi-scale simulations. Finally, the zonal flow mixing saturation model is also shown to reproduce the non-linear upshift in the critical temperature gradient caused by zonal flows in ionscale gyrokinetic simulations.« less

  9. Can increased poleward oceanic heat flux explain the warm Cretaceous climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    1996-10-01

    The poleward transport of heat in the mid-Cretaceous (100 Ma) is examined using an idealized coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The oceanic component consists of two zonally averaged basins representing the proto-Pacific and proto-Indian oceans and models the dynamics of the meridional thermohaline circulation. The atmospheric component is a simple energy and moisture balance model which includes the diffusive meridional transport of sensible heat and moisture. The ocean model is spun up with a variety of plausible Cretaceous surface temperature and salinity profiles, and a consistent atmosphere is objectively derived based on the resultant sea surface temperature and the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The coupled model does not exhibit climate drift. Multiple equilibria of the coupled model are found that break the initial symmetry of the ocean circulation; several of these equilibria have one-cell (northern or southern sinking) thermohaline circulation patterns. Two main classes of circulation are found: circulations where the densest water is relatively cool and is formed at the polar latitudes and circulations where the densest water is warm, but quite saline, and the strongest sinking occurs at the tropics. In all cases, significant amounts of warm, saline bottom water are formed in the proto-Indian basin which modify the deepwater characteristics in the larger (proto-Pacific) basin. Temperatures in the deep ocean are warm, 10°-17°C, in agreement with benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope data. The poleward transport of heat in the modeled Cretaceous oceans is larger than in some comparable models of the present day thermohaline circulation and significantly larger than estimates of similar processes in the present-day ocean. It is consistently larger in the polar sinking cases when compared with that seen in the tropical sinking cases, but this represents an increase of only 10%. The largest increase over present-day model transports is in the atmospheric

  10. Global, Hemispheric, and Zonal Temperature Deviations Derived From a 63-Station Radiosonde Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    Angell, J. K. [NOAA, Air Resources Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures and thickness-derived temperatures from a 63-station, globally distributed radiosonde network have been used to estimate global, hemispheric, and zonal annual and seasonal temperature deviations. Most of the temperature values used were column-mean temperatures, obtained from the differences in height (thickness) between constant-pressure surfaces at individual radiosonde stations. The pressure-height data before 1980 were obtained from published values in Monthly Climatic Data for the World. Between 1980 and 1990, Angell used data from both the Climatic Data for the World and the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) Network received at the National Meteorological Center. Between 1990 and 1995, the data were obtained only from GTS, and since 1995 the data have been obtained from National Center for Atmospheric Research files. The data are evaluated as deviations from the mean based on the interval 1958-1977. The station deviations have been averaged (with equal weighting) to obtain annual and seasonal temperature deviations for the globe, the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and the following latitudinal zones: North (60° N-90° N) and South (60° S-90° S) Polar; North (30° N-60° N) and South (30° S-60° S) Temperate; North (10° N-30° N) and South (10° S-30° S) Subtropical; Tropical(30° S-30° N); and Equatorial (10° S-10° N). The seasonal calculations are for the standard meteorological seasons (i.e., winter is defined as December, January, and February; spring is March, April, and May, etc.) and the annual calculations are for December through the following November (i.e., for the four meteorological seasons). For greater details, see Angell and Korshover (1983) and Angell (1988, 1991)

  11. Generation of zonal magnetic fields by low-frequency dispersive electromagnetic waves in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma.

    PubMed

    Shukla, P K

    2004-04-01

    It is shown that zonal magnetic fields can be parametrically excited by low-frequency dispersive driftlike compressional electromagnetic (DDCEM) modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma. For this purpose, we derive a pair of coupled equations which exhibits the nonlinear coupling between DDCEM modes and zonal magnetic fields. The coupled mode equations are Fourier analyzed to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation. The latter depicts that zonal magnetic fields are nonlinearly generated at the expense of the low-frequency DDCEM wave energy. The relevance of our investigation to the transfer of energy from short scale DDCEM waves to long scale zonal magnetic field structures in dark molecular clouds is discussed.

  12. Average Annual Rainfall Over the Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74×1017 J of solar radiation per second and it is divided over various channels as given in Table 1. It keeps our planet warm and maintains its average temperature2 of 288 K with the help of the atmosphere in such a way that life can survive. It also recycles the water in the oceans/rivers/ lakes by initial evaporation and subsequent precipitation; the average annual rainfall over the globe is around one meter. According to M. King Hubbert the amount of solar power going into the evaporation and precipitation channel is 4.0×1016 W. Students can verify the value of average annual rainfall over the globe by utilizing this part of solar energy. This activity is described in the next section.

  13. Geographic distribution of zonal wind and UV albedo at cloud top level from VMC camera on Venus Express: Influence of Venus topography through stationary gravity waves vertical propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Khatunstsev, Igor; Hauchecorne, Alain; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Marcq, Emmanuel; Lebonnois, Sébastien; Patsaeva, Marina; Turin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    UV images (at 365 nm) of Venus cloud top collected with VMC camera on board Venus Express allowed to derive a large number of wind measurements at altitude 67±2 km from tracking of cloud features in the period 2006-2012. Both manual (45,600) and digital (391,600) individual wind measurements over 127 orbits were analyzed showing various patterns with latitude and local time. A new longitude-latitude geographic map of the zonal wind shows a conspicuous region of strongly decreased zonal wind, a remarkable feature that was unknown up to now. While the average zonal wind near equator (from 5°S to 15°s) is -100.9 m/s in the longitude range 200-330°, it reaches -83.4 m/s in the range 60-100°, a difference of 17.5 m/s. When compared to the altimetry map of Venus, it is found that the zonal wind pattern is well correlated with the underlying relief in the region of Aphrodite Terra, with a downstream shift of about 30° (˜3,200 km). We interpret this pattern as the result of stationary gravity waves produced at ground level by the up lift of air when the horizontal wind encounters a mountain slope. These waves can propagate up to cloud top level, break there and transfer their momentum to the zonal flow. A similar phenomenon is known to operate on Earth with an influence on mesospheric winds. The LMD-GCM for Venus was run with or without topography, with and without a parameterization of gravity waves and does not display such an observed change of velocity near equator. The cloud albedo map at 365 nm varies also in longitude and latitude. We speculate that it might be the result of increased vertical mixing associated to wave breaking, and decreased abundance of the UV absorber which makes the contrast in images. The impact of these new findings on current super rotation theories remains to be assessed. This work was triggered by the presence of a conspicuous peak at 117 days in a time series of wind measurements. This is the length of the solar day as seen at the

  14. Parameterized and resolved Southern Ocean eddy compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, Mads B.; Jochum, Markus; Nuterman, Roman

    2018-04-01

    The ability to parameterize Southern Ocean eddy effects in a forced coarse resolution ocean general circulation model is assessed. The transient model response to a suite of different Southern Ocean wind stress forcing perturbations is presented and compared to identical experiments performed with the same model in 0.1° eddy-resolving resolution. With forcing of present-day wind stress magnitude and a thickness diffusivity formulated in terms of the local stratification, it is shown that the Southern Ocean residual meridional overturning circulation in the two models is different in structure and magnitude. It is found that the difference in the upper overturning cell is primarily explained by an overly strong subsurface flow in the parameterized eddy-induced circulation while the difference in the lower cell is mainly ascribed to the mean-flow overturning. With a zonally constant decrease of the zonal wind stress by 50% we show that the absolute decrease in the overturning circulation is insensitive to model resolution, and that the meridional isopycnal slope is relaxed in both models. The agreement between the models is not reproduced by a 50% wind stress increase, where the high resolution overturning decreases by 20%, but increases by 100% in the coarse resolution model. It is demonstrated that this difference is explained by changes in surface buoyancy forcing due to a reduced Antarctic sea ice cover, which strongly modulate the overturning response and ocean stratification. We conclude that the parameterized eddies are able to mimic the transient response to altered wind stress in the high resolution model, but partly misrepresent the unperturbed Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transports.

  15. The enhanced nodal equilibrium ocean tide and polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The tidal response of the ocean to long period forcing functions was investigated. The results indicate the possibility of excitation of a wobble component with the amplitude and frequency indicated by the data. An enhancement function for the equilibrium tide was postulated in the form of an expansion in zonal harmonics and the coefficients of such an expansion were estimated so as to obtain polar motion components of the required magnitude.

  16. Conservative zonal schemes for patched grids in 2 and 3 dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hessenius, Kristin A.

    1987-01-01

    The computation of flow over complex geometries, such as realistic aircraft configurations, poses difficult grid generation problems for computational aerodynamicists. The creation of a traditional, single-module grid of acceptable quality about an entire configuration may be impossible even with the most sophisticated of grid generation techniques. A zonal approach, wherein the flow field is partitioned into several regions within which grids are independently generated, is a practical alternative for treating complicated geometries. This technique not only alleviates the problems of discretizing a complex region, but also facilitates a block processing approach to computation thereby circumventing computer memory limitations. The use of such a zonal scheme, however, requires the development of an interfacing procedure that ensures a stable, accurate, and conservative calculation for the transfer of information across the zonal borders.

  17. Zonal flow generation and its feedback on turbulence production in drift wave turbulence

    SciT

    Pushkarev, Andrey V.; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Nazarenko, Sergey V.

    2013-04-15

    Plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations is simulated numerically for different models and values of the adiabaticity parameter C. It is found that for low values of C turbulence remains isotropic, zonal flows are not generated and there is no suppression of the meridional drift waves and particle transport. For high values of C, turbulence evolves towards highly anisotropic states with a dominant contribution of the zonal sector to the kinetic energy. This anisotropic flow leads to a decrease of turbulence production in the meridional sector and limits the particle transport across the mean isopycnal surfaces. This behavior allowsmore » to consider the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations a minimal PDE model, which contains the drift-wave/zonal-flow feedback loop mechanism.« less

  18. Nonlinear saturation of the slab ITG instability and zonal flow generation with fully kinetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Sturdevant, Benjamin J.; Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott E.

    2018-05-01

    Fully kinetic turbulence models are of interest for their potential to validate or replace gyrokinetic models in plasma regimes where the gyrokinetic expansion parameters are marginal. Here, we demonstrate fully kinetic ion capability by simulating the growth and nonlinear saturation of the ion-temperature-gradient instability in shearless slab geometry assuming adiabatic electrons and including zonal flow dynamics. The ion trajectories are integrated using the Lorentz force, and the cyclotron motion is fully resolved. Linear growth and nonlinear saturation characteristics show excellent agreement with analogous gyrokinetic simulations across a wide range of parameters. The fully kinetic simulation accurately reproduces the nonlinearly generated zonal flow. This work demonstrates nonlinear capability, resolution of weak gradient drive, and zonal flow physics, which are critical aspects of modeling plasma turbulence with full ion dynamics.

  19. Jupiter: New estimates of mean zonal flow at the cloud level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reexamine the magnitude differences of the Jovian atmosphere's jets, as determined by Voyager 1 and 2 images, a novel approach is used to ascertain the zonal mean east-west component of motion. This technique is based on digital pattern matching, and is applied on pairs of mapped images to yield a profile of the mean zonal component that reproduces the exact locations of the easterly and westerly jets between + and 60 deg latitude. Results were obtained for all of the Voyager 1 and 2 cylindrical mosaics; the correlation coefficient between Voyagers 1 and 2 in mean zonal flow between + and - 60 deg latitude, determined from violet filter mosaics, is 0.998.

  20. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  1. Effects of dynamic long-period ocean tides on changes in earth's rotation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, Young; Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    As a generalization of the zonal response coefficient first introduced by Agnew and Farrell (1978), the zonal response function kappa of the solid earth-ocean system is defined as the ratio, in the frequency domain, of the tidal change in earth's rotation rate to the tide-generating potential. Amplitudes and phases of kappa for the monthly, fortnightly, and nine-day lunar tides are estimated from 2 1/2 years of VLBI UT1 observations, corrected for atmospheric angular momentum effects using NMC wind and pressure series. Using the dynamic ocean tide model of Dickman (1988, 1989), amplitudes and phases of kappa for an elastic earth-ocean system are predicted. The predictions confirm earlier results which found that dynamic effects of the longer-period ocean tides reduce the amplitude of kappa by about 1 percent.

  2. Numerical experiments with a wind- and buoyancy-driven two-and-a-half-layer upper ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Yuen, C. W.; Lin, C. A.; Mysak, L. A.

    1990-09-01

    We describe numerical experiments with a limited domain (15°-67°N, 65° west to east) coarse-resolution two-and-a-half-layer upper ocean model. The model consists of two active variable density layers: a Niiler and Kraus (1977) type mixed layer and a pycnocline layer, which overlays a semipassive deep ocean. The mixed layer is forced with a cosine wind stress and Haney type heat and precipitation-evaporation fluxes, which were derived from zonally averaged climatological (Levitus, 1982) surface temperatures and salinities for the North Atlantic. The second layer is forced from below with (1) Newtonian cooling to climatological temperatures and salinities at the lower boundary, (2) convective adjustment, which occurs whenever the density of the second layer is unstable with respect to climatology, and (3) mass entrainment in areas of strong upwelling, when the deep ocean ventilates through the bottom surface. The sensitivity of this model to changes in its internal (mixed layer) and external (e.g., a Newtonian coupling coefficient) parameters is investigated and compared to the results from a control experiment. We find that the model is not overly sensitive to changes in most of the parameters that were tested, albeit these results may depend to some extent on the choice of the control experiment.

  3. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore Kumar, G.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Williams, Bifford P.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the possibility that sufficiently large electric fields and/or ionization during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may invalidate the assumptions applied in the retrieval of neutral horizontal winds from meteor and/or lidar measurements. As per our knowledge, the possible errors in the wind estimation have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27°N, 16.04°E) during intense substorms in the declining phase of the January 2005 solar proton event (21-22 January 2005). In total, 14 h of measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal wind measurements are averaged over the same time and altitude as the meteor radar wind measurements. High cross correlations (∼0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the electric field and/or ionization impact on the neutral wind estimation. For the periods of low ionization, the neutral winds estimated with both instruments are quite consistent with each other. During periods of elevated ionization, comparatively large differences are noticed at the highermost altitude, which might be due to the electric field and/or ionization impact on the wind estimation. At present, one event is not sufficient to make any firm conclusion. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test the statistical significance of the result.

  4. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during quiet and sub-storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandhi, Kishore Kumar; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Williams, Bifford P.; Stober, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    It is speculated that sufficiently large electric fields during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may decouple the meteor trail electron motions from the background neutral winds and leads to erroneous neutral wind estimation. As per our knowledge, the potential errors have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27oN,16.04oE) during intense sub storms in the declining phase of Jan 2005 solar proton event (21-22 Jan 2005). In total 14 hours of continuous measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal winds are averaged in meteor radar time and height bins. High cross correlations (˜0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in the light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the ionization impact on the meteor radar winds. For quiet hours, the observed meteor radar winds are quite consistent with lidar winds. While during the disturbed hours comparatively large differences are noticed at higher most altitudes. This might be due to ionization impact on meteor radar winds. At the present one event is not sufficient to make any consolidate conclusion. However, at least from this study we found some effect on the neutral wind measurements for the meteor radar. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test statistical significance of the result.

  5. The study of Merydunal and Zonal Index and its relationships with Cyclone Gonu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzatian, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Distinguish the integrated natural disaster management is basic, also there happens rarely during 100 years. Cyclone Gonu, an unusually strong tropical cyclone, developed in the eastern part of the Arabian Sea on June 1st. The cyclone made landfall in Oman on the 6th with maximum sustained winds near 148 km/hr. A few days prior to landfall, Gonu had intensified to a powerful super cyclonic storm with maximum sustained winds near 260 km/hr on the 5th, becoming the first documented super cyclone in the Arabian Sea and tied for the strongest cyclone in the North Indian Ocean. After making landfall in Oman, Gonu moved through the Gulf of Oman making a second landfall in Iran. Tropical Cyclone Gonu affected more than 20,000 people and was responsible for 49 fatalities and 27 missing people in Oman. Gonu brought heavy rainfall which caused floods and landslides. Meanwhile in Iran 5 fatalities were reported and 9 people remain missing. Tropical cyclones as strong as Gonu are rare in the Arabian Sea. Severe thunderstorms, associated with an outer band of the tropical cyclone Yemyin , produced heavy rains and winds during June 23-25. The storms produced heavy rains which caused floodings and destroyed thousands of homes .Tropical Cyclone Yemyin developed as a depression in the Bay of Bengal on the 21st and made landfall in India's southern state on the 22nd. Yemyin brought heavy rain in the southern parts of India, leaving over 254 mm of rain. After crossing over India, Yemyin moved into the Arabian Sea and began moving towards the northwest. On June 26, the cyclone intensified and maximum sustained winds reached 93 km/hr. The cyclone was responsible for at least 21 fatalities in the Baluchistan province. Meanwhile in Afghanistan, Yemyin produced heavy rainfall which prompted floods that were responsible for 56 deaths and left thousands of people homeless . Because of these happenings we decided surveying the synoptic patterns in this month. Key words: Tropical cyclones

  6. Deep Zonal Flow and Time Variation of Jupiter’s Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hao; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    All four giant planets in the Solar System feature zonal flows on the order of 100 m/s in the cloud deck, and large-scale intrinsic magnetic fields on the order of 1 Gauss near the surface. The vertical structure of the zonal flows remains obscure. The end-member scenarios are shallow flows confined in the radiative atmosphere and deep flows throughout the entire planet. The electrical conductivity increases rapidly yet smoothly as a function of depth inside Jupiter and Saturn. Deep zonal flows will advect the non-axisymmetric component of the magnetic field, at depth with even modest electrical conductivity, and create time variations in the magnetic field.The observed time variations of the geomagnetic field has been used to derive surface flows of the Earth’s outer core. The same principle applies to Jupiter, however, the connection between the time variation of the magnetic field (dB/dt) and deep zonal flow (Uphi) at Jupiter is not well understood due to strong radial variation of electrical conductivity. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the connection between dB/dt and Uphi for Jupiter adopting realistic interior electrical conductivity profile, taking the likely presence of alkali metals into account. This provides a tool to translate expected measurement of the time variation of Jupiter’s magnetic field to deep zonal flows. We show that the current upper limit on the dipole drift rate of Jupiter (3 degrees per 20 years) is compatible with 10 m/s zonal flows with < 500 km vertical scale height below 0.972 Rj. We further demonstrate that fast drift of resolved magnetic features (e.g. magnetic spots) at Jupiter is a possibility.

  7. A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    A zonal method for modeling powered-lift aircraft flow fields is based on the coupling of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code to a potential flow code. By minimizing the extent of the viscous Navier-Stokes zones the zonal method can be a cost effective flow analysis tool. The successful coupling of the zonal solutions provides the viscous/inviscid interations that are necessary to achieve convergent and unique overall solutions. The feasibility of coupling the two vastly different codes is demonstrated. The interzone boundaries were overlapped to facilitate the passing of boundary condition information between the codes. Routines were developed to extract the normal velocity boundary conditions for the potential flow zone from the viscous zone solution. Similarly, the velocity vector direction along with the total conditions were obtained from the potential flow solution to provide boundary conditions for the Navier-Stokes solution. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the overlap of the interzone boundaries and the convergence of the zonal solutions on the convergence of the overall solution. The zonal method was applied to a jet impingement problem to model the suckdown effect that results from the entrainment of the inviscid zone flow by the viscous zone jet. The resultant potential flow solution created a lower pressure on the base of the vehicle which produces the suckdown load. The feasibility of the zonal method was demonstrated. By enhancing the Navier-Stokes code for powered-lift flow fields and optimizing the convergence of the coupled analysis a practical flow analysis tool will result.

  8. Zonal NePhRO scoring system: a superior renal tumor complexity classification model.

    PubMed

    Hakky, Tariq S; Baumgarten, Adam S; Allen, Bryan; Lin, Hui-Yi; Ercole, Cesar E; Sexton, Wade J; Spiess, Philippe E

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of the first standardized renal tumor complexity system, many subsequent scoring systems have been introduced, many of which are complicated and can make it difficult to accurately measure data end points. In light of these limitations, we introduce the new zonal NePhRO scoring system. The zonal NePhRO score is based on 4 anatomical components that are assigned a score of 1, 2, or 3, and their sum is used to classify renal tumors. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is made up of the (Ne)arness to collecting system, (Ph)ysical location of the tumor in the kidney, (R)adius of the tumor, and (O)rganization of the tumor. In this retrospective study, we evaluated patients exhibiting clinical stage T1a or T1b who underwent open partial nephrectomy performed by 2 genitourinary surgeons. Each renal unit was assigned both a zonal NePhRO score and a RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) score, and a blinded reviewer used the same preoperative imaging study to obtain both scores. Additional data points gathered included age, clamp time, complication rate, urine leak rate, intraoperative blood loss, and pathologic tumor size. One hundred sixty-six patients underwent open partial nephrectomy. There were 37 perioperative complications quantitated using the validated Clavien-Dindo system; their occurrence was predicted by the NePhRO score on both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .0008). Clinical stage, intraoperative blood loss, and tumor diameter were all correlated with the zonal NePhRO score on univariate analysis only. The zonal NePhRO scoring system is a simpler tool that accurately predicts the surgical complexity of a renal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocean tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  10. Triple Cascade Behavior in Quasigeostrophic and Drift Turbulence and Generation of Zonal Jets

    SciT

    Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2009-09-11

    We study quasigeostrophic (QG) and plasma drift turbulence within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. We focus on the zonostrophy, an extra invariant in the CHM model, and on its role in the formation of zonal jets. We use a generalized Fjoertoft argument for the energy, enstrophy, and zonostrophy and show that they cascade anisotropically into nonintersecting sectors in k space with the energy cascading towards large zonal scales. Using direct numerical simulations of the CHM equation, we show that zonostrophy is well conserved, and the three invariants cascade as predicted by the Fjoertoft argument.

  11. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Generation of large-scale eddies and zonal winds in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Astafieva, N. M.

    2008-06-01

    The review deals with a theoretical description of the generation of zonal winds and vortices in a turbulent barotropic atmosphere. These large-scale structures largely determine the dynamics and transport processes in planetary atmospheres. The role of nonlinear effects on the formation of mesoscale vortical structures (cyclones and anticyclones) is examined. A new mechanism for zonal wind generation in planetary atmospheres is discussed. It is based on the parametric generation of convective cells by finite-amplitude Rossby waves. Weakly turbulent spectra of Rossby waves are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the results of satellite microwave monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  13. The seasonal march of the equatorial Pacific upper-ocean and its El Niño variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparin, Florent; Roemmich, Dean

    2017-08-01

    Based on two modern data sets, the climatological seasonal march of the upper-ocean is examined in the equatorial Pacific for the period 2004-2014, because of its large contribution to the total variance, its relationship to El Niño, and its unique equatorial wave phenomena. Argo provides a broadscale view of the equatorial Pacific upper-ocean based on subsurface temperature and salinity measurements for the period 2004-2015, and satellite altimetry provides synoptic observations of the sea surface height (SSH) for the period 1993-2015. Using either 11-year (1993-2003/2004-2014) time-series for averaging, the seasonal Rossby waves stands out clearly and eastward intraseasonal Kelvin wave propagation is strong enough in individual years to leave residuals in the 11-year averages, particularly but not exclusively, during El Niño onset years. The agreement of altimetric SSH minus Argo steric height (SH) residuals with GRACE ocean mass estimates confirms the scale-matching of in situ variability with that of satellite observations. Surface layer and subsurface thermohaline variations are both important in determining SH and SSH basin-wide patterns. The SH/SSH October-November maximum in the central-eastern Pacific is primarily due to a downward deflection of the thermocline (∼20 m), causing a warm subsurface anomaly (>1 °C), in response to the phasing of downwelling intraseasonal Kelvin and seasonal Rossby waves. Compared with the climatology, the stronger October-November maximum in the 2004-2014 El Niño composites is due to higher intraseasonal oscillations and interannual variability. Associated with these equatorial wave patterns along the thermocline, the western warm/fresh pool waters move zonally at interannual timescales through zonal wind stress and pressure gradient fluctuations, and cause substantial fresh (up to 0.6 psu) and warm (∼1 °C higher than the climatology) anomalies in the western-central Pacific surface-layer during the El Niño onset

  14. Does the vorticity flux from Agulhas rings control the zonal pathway of NADW across the South Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Erik; Johns, William E.; Beal, Lisa M.

    2012-05-01

    As part of the global thermohaline circulation, some North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) exits the Atlantic basin to the south of Africa. Observations have shown that there is a quasi-zonal pathway centered at 25°S carrying NADW eastward, connecting the Deep Western Boundary Current to the Cape Basin. However, it has been unclear what sets this pathway. In particular, waters must move southward through the Cape Basin, thereby crossing isolines of planetary vorticity, in order to exit the basin. Here, we find that an eddy thickness flux induced by Agulhas rings moving northwestward forces a circulation of NADW through the Cape Basin. The pathway at 25°S feeds the southeastward flow of this circulation while conserving potential vorticity. Using Lagrangian floats advected for 300 years in a 1/10° resolution ocean model, we show that the most common pathway for NADW in our model lies directly below the Agulhas ring corridor. By analyzing the velocity and density fields in the model, we find that the decay of these rings, and their forward tilt with depth, results in a southward velocity, across isolines of planetary vorticity, of 1 to 2 cm/s in the deep waters. The associated stream function pattern yields a deep circulation transporting 4 Sv of NADW from the Deep Western Boundary Current at 25°S to the southern tip of Africa.

  15. An ocean dynamical thermostat—dominant in observations, absent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    The pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific Ocean is coupled to the Walker circulation, necessitating an understanding of how this pattern will change in response to anthropogenic radiative forcing. State-of-the-art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) overwhelmingly project a decrease in the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient over the coming century. This decrease in the zonal SST gradient is a response of the ocean to a weakening Walker circulation in the CMIP5 models, a consequence of the mass and energy balances of the hydrologic cycle identified by Held and Soden (2006). CMIP5 models, however, are not able to reproduce the observed increase in the zonal SST gradient between 1900-2013 C.E., which we argue to be robust using advanced statistical techniques and new observational datasets. While the observed increase in the zonal SST gradient is suggestive of the ocean dynamical thermostat mechanism of Clement et al. (1996), a strengthening Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) also contributes to eastern equatorial Pacific cooling. Importantly, the strengthening EUC is a response of the ocean to a seasonal weakening of the Walker circulation and thus can reconcile disparate observations of changes to the atmosphere and ocean in the equatorial Pacific. CMIP5 models do not capture the magnitude of this response of the EUC to anthropogenic radiative forcing potentially because of biases in the sensitivity of the EUC to changes in zonal wind stress, like the weakening Walker circulation. Consequently, they project a continuation of the opposite to what has been observed in the real world, with potentially serious consequences for projected climate impacts that are influenced by the tropical Pacific.

  16. Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) scientific advances and future west pacific coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; Lin, X.; Ando, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. It was designed to measure and monitor the ocean circulation, and to validate and improve numerical models. South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. Water transit through the Coral and Solomon Seas is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the SPCZ position and intensity. The circulation is complex, with the SEC splitting into zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos, before joining either the East Australian Current or the New Guinea Costal UnderCurrent towards the equator. SPICE included large, coordinated in situ measurement programs and high resolution numerical simulations of the area. After 8 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. We will review the recent advancements and discuss

  17. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  18. Unsteady Airfoil Flow Solutions on Moving Zonal Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-17

    for the angle-of-attack of 15.5’, the comparisons diverge. This happens because of the different turbulence models used . At this angle- of attack, the...downstream in the wake . This vortex shedding phenomenon alters the chordwise pressure distribution on the upper surface of the airfoil resulting in higher...in- terest, turbulence modeling is used . Turbulence models are implemented with the time-averaged forms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Two widely

  19. Variability in tropical cyclone heat potential over the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malan, N.; Reason, C. J. C.; Loveday, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) has been proposed as being important for hurricane and typhoon intensity. Here, a climatology of TCHP is developed for the Southwest Indian Ocean, a basin that experiences on average 11-12 tropical cyclones per year, many of which impact on Mauritius, Reunion and Madagascar, and Mozambique. SODA data and a regional ocean model forced with the GFDL-CORE v.2b reanalysis winds and heat fluxes are used to derive TCHP values during the 1948-2007 period. The results indicate that TCHP increases through the austral summer, peaking in March. Values of TCHP above 40 kJ cm-2, suggested as the minimum needed for tropical cyclone intensification, are still present in the northern Mozambique Channel in May. A time series of TCHP spatially averaged over the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR), an important area for tropical cyclones, is presented. The model time series, which agrees well with XBT-based observations (r = 0.82, p = 0.01), shows considerable interannual variability overlaying an upward tendency that matches with an observed increase in severe tropical cyclone days in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Although an increase in severe storms is seen during 1997-2007, the increasing TCHP tendency time series after 1997 coincides with a decrease in total cyclone numbers, a mismatch that is ascribed to increased atmospheric anticyclonicity over the basin. Seasons of increased (decreased) TCHP over the SCTR appear to be associated with dry (wet) conditions over certain areas of southern and East Africa and are linked with changes in zonal wind and vertical motion in the midtroposphere.

  20. Fast and slow shifts of the zonal-mean intertropical convergence zone in response to an idealized anthropogenic aerosol

    DOE PAGES

    Voigt, Aiko; Pincus, Robert; Stevens, Bjorn; ...

    2017-04-03

    Previous modeling work showed that aerosol can affect the position of the tropical rain belt, i.e., the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Yet it remains unclear which aspects of the aerosol impact are robust across models, and which are not. Here we present simulations with seven comprehensive atmosphere models that study the fast and slow impacts of an idealized anthropogenic aerosol on the zonal-mean ITCZ position. The fast impact, which results from aerosol atmospheric heating and land cooling before sea-surface temperature (SST) has time to respond, causes a northward ITCZ shift. Yet the fast impact is compensated locally by decreased evaporationmore » over the ocean, and a clear northward shift is only found for an unrealistically large aerosol forcing. The local compensation implies that while models differ in atmospheric aerosol heating, this does not contribute to model differences in the ITCZ shift. The slow impact includes the aerosol impact on the ocean surface energy balance and is mediated by SST changes. The slow impact is an order of magnitude more effective than the fast impact and causes a clear southward ITCZ shift for realistic aerosol forcing. Models agree well on the slow ITCZ shift when perturbed with the same SST pattern. However, an energetic analysis suggests that the slow ITCZ shifts would be substantially more model-dependent in interactive-SST setups due to model differences in clear-sky radiative transfer and clouds. In conclusion, we also discuss implications for the representation of aerosol in climate models and attributions of recent observed ITCZ shifts to aerosol.« less

  1. Time-varying zonal asymmetries in stratospheric nitrous oxide and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Previously analyses of Stratospheric And Mesospheric Sounder (SAMS) data of atmospheric constituent gases have dealt almost exclusively with zonal means (and mostly monthly means), owing perhaps to concern over data quality. The purpose of this note is to show that, with care, time-dependent zonally-asymmetric features may be recovered from the SAMS nitrous oxide and methane data. As an example, we demonstrate the existence of zonal wave-1 constituent perturbations with periods of a few weeks in the middle and upper stratosphere. When the perturbations are normalized by the constituent zonal-mean mixing ratio to compensate for the slowly varying (in both space and time) background concentration of constituents, wavepacket-like features are found over all latitudes and seasons in the three-year SAMS record. One specific low-latitude case discussed had features which appear to be consistent with constituent oscillations induced by episodic equatorial Kelvin waves. Further studies are needed to better identify the nature of the plethora of observed wave-like phenomena.

  2. Numerical simulation of phenomenon on zonal disintegration in deep underground mining in case of unsupported roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengshan; Wu, Xinli; Li, Xia; Zhu, Dekang

    2018-02-01

    Zonal disintegration phenomenon was found in deep mining roadway surrounding rock. It seriously affects the safety of mining and underground engineering and it may lead to the occurrence of natural disasters. in deep mining roadway surrounding rock, tectonic stress in deep mining roadway rock mass, horizontal stress is much greater than the vertical stress, When the direction of maximum principal stress is parallel to the axis of the roadway in deep mining, this is the main reasons for Zonal disintegration phenomenon. Using ABAQUS software to numerical simulation of the three-dimensional model of roadway rupture formation process systematically, and the study shows that when The Direction of maximum main stress in deep underground mining is along the roadway axial direction, Zonal disintegration phenomenon in deep underground mining is successfully reproduced by our numerical simulation..numerical simulation shows that using ABAQUA simulation can reproduce Zonal disintegration phenomenon and the formation process of damage of surrounding rock can be reproduced. which have important engineering practical significance.

  3. Self-Organization of Zonal Jets in Outer Planet Atmospheres: Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechnical theory of a two-dimensional Euler fluid is appleid for the first time to explore the spontaneous self-oganization of zonal jets in outer planet atmospheres. Globally conserved integralls of motion are found to play a central role in defining jet structure.

  4. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  5. Simulations of Turbulence in Tokamak Edge and Effects of Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress is reported on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge. This extends previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT that solves Braginskii-based plasma fluid equations in tokamak edge domain. The calculations use realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produce fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  6. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  7. Educational Change Leadership through a New Zonal Theory Lens: Using Mathematics Curriculum Change as the Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen; Branson, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines actions that educational change leaders can take to better meet their curriculum change obligations and responsibilities. In order to do this we extend Vygotsky's (1978) zonal theory and its many extensions and elaborations by positioning educational change leadership within this theory. We rename the zones to Zone of Principal…

  8. Isolation of Intact Chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis by Zonal Centrifugation 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Aurea; Pollack, Marilyn; Mendiola, Leticia R.; Hoffmann, H.-P.; Brown, D. H.; Price, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Chloroplasts were separated from Euglena gracilis by zonal centrifugation at low speed in density gradients of Ficoll or dextran. The chloroplasts were intact by the criteria of ultrastructure and their content of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and soluble protein. The chloroplasts also contained ribosomes and ribosomal RNA uncontaminated by the corresponding cytoplasmic particles. Images PMID:16657599

  9. The Galileo probe Doppler wind experiment: Measurement of the deep zonal winds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.; Pollack, James B.; Seiff, Alvin

    1998-09-01

    During its descent into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the Galileo probe transmitted data to the orbiter for 57.5 min. Accurate measurements of the probe radio frequency, driven by an ultrastable oscillator, allowed an accurate time history of the probe motions to be reconstructed. Removal from the probe radio frequency profile of known Doppler contributions, including the orbiter trajectory, the probe descent velocity, and the rotation of Jupiter, left a measurable frequency residual due to Jupiter's zonal winds, and microdynamical motion of the probe from spin, swing under the parachute, atmospheric turbulence, and aerodynamic buffeting. From the assumption of the dominance of the zonal horizontal winds, the frequency residuals were inverted and resulted in the first in situ measurements of the vertical profile of Jupiter's deep zonal winds. A number of error sources with the capability of corrupting the frequency measurements or the interpretation of the frequency residuals were considered using reasonable assumptions and calibrations from prelaunch and in-flight testing. It is found that beneath the cloud tops (about 700 mbar) the winds are prograde and rise rapidly to 170 m/s at 4 bars. Beyond 4 bars to the depth at which the link with the probe was lost, nearly 21 bars, the winds remain constant and strong. Corrections for the high temperatures encountered by the probe have recently been completed and provide no evidence of diminishing or strengthening of the zonal wind profile in the deeper regions explored by the Galileo probe.

  10. Dynamics of a Snowball Earth ocean.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi; Losch, Martin; Macdonald, Francis A; Schrag, Daniel P; Tziperman, Eli

    2013-03-07

    Geological evidence suggests that marine ice extended to the Equator at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (about 750 to 635 million years ago), inspiring the Snowball Earth hypothesis that the Earth was globally ice-covered. In a possible Snowball Earth climate, ocean circulation and mixing processes would have set the melting and freezing rates that determine ice thickness, would have influenced the survival of photosynthetic life, and may provide important constraints for the interpretation of geochemical and sedimentological observations. Here we show that in a Snowball Earth, the ocean would have been well mixed and characterized by a dynamic circulation, with vigorous equatorial meridional overturning circulation, zonal equatorial jets, a well developed eddy field, strong coastal upwelling and convective mixing. This is in contrast to the sluggish ocean often expected in a Snowball Earth scenario owing to the insulation of the ocean from atmospheric forcing by the thick ice cover. As a result of vigorous convective mixing, the ocean temperature, salinity and density were either uniform in the vertical direction or weakly stratified in a few locations. Our results are based on a model that couples ice flow and ocean circulation, and is driven by a weak geothermal heat flux under a global ice cover about a kilometre thick. Compared with the modern ocean, the Snowball Earth ocean had far larger vertical mixing rates, and comparable horizontal mixing by ocean eddies. The strong circulation and coastal upwelling resulted in melting rates near continents as much as ten times larger than previously estimated. Although we cannot resolve the debate over the existence of global ice cover, we discuss the implications for the nutrient supply of photosynthetic activity and for banded iron formations. Our insights and constraints on ocean dynamics may help resolve the Snowball Earth controversy when combined with future geochemical and geological observations.

  11. On the Longitudinal Morphology of Zonal Irregularity Drift Measured using Networks of GPS Scintillation Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Groves, K. M.; Valladares, C. E.; Delay, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    A complete characterization of field-aligned ionospheric irregularities responsible for the scintillation of satellite signals includes not only their spectral properties (power spectral strength, spectral index, anisotropy ratio, and outer-scale) but also their horizontal drift velocity. From a system impacts perspective, the horizontal drift velocity is important in that it dictates the rate of signal fading and also, to an extent, the level of phase fluctuations encountered by the receiver. From a physics perspective, studying the longitudinal morphology of zonal irregularity may lead to an improved understanding of the F region dynamo and regional electrodynamics at low latitudes. The irregularity drift at low latitudes is predominantly zonal and is most commonly measured by cross-correlating observations of satellite signals made by a pair of closely-spaced antennas. The AFRL-SCINDA network operates a small number of VHF spaced-antenna systems at low latitude stations for this purpose. A far greater number of GPS scintillation monitors are operated by AFRL-SCINDA (25-30) and the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (35-50), but the receivers are situated too far apart to monitor the drift using cross-correlation techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative approach that leverages the weak scatter scintillation theory (Rino, Radio Sci., 1979) to infer the zonal irregularity drift from single-station GPS measurements of S4, sigma-phi, and the propagation geometry alone. Unlike the spaced-receiver technique, this technique requires assumptions for the height of the scattering layer (which introduces a bias in the drift estimates) and the spectral index of the irregularities (which affects the spread of the drift estimates about the mean). Nevertheless, theory and experiment show that the ratio of sigma-phi to S4 is less sensitive to these parameters than it is to the zonal drift, and hence the zonal drift can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. In

  12. Ocean Striations Detecting and Its Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Y. P.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, Z.; Liu, H.; Yu, Y.; Huang, R. X.

    2016-02-01

    Over the past 10 years or so, ocean striations has been one of the research frontiers as reported in many investigators. With suitable filtering subroutines, striations can be revealed from many different types of ocean datasets. It is clear that striations are some types of meso-scale phenomena in the large-scale circulation system, which in the form of alternating band-like structure. We present a comprehensive study on the effectiveness of the different detection approaches to unveiling the striations. Three one-dimensional filtering methods: Gaussian smoothing, Hanning and Chebyshev high-pass filtering. Our results show that all three methods can reveal ocean banded structures, but the Chebyshev filtering is the best choice. The Gaussian smoothing is not a high pass filter, and it can merely bring regional striations, such as those in the Eastern Pacific, to light. The Hanning high pass filter can introduce a northward shifting of stripes, so it is not as good as the Chebyshev filter. On the other hand, striations in the open ocean are mostly zonally oriented; however, there are always exceptions. In particular, in coastal ocean, due to topography constraint and along shore currents, striations can titled in the meridional direction. We examined the band-like structure of striation for some selected regions of the open ocean and the semi-closed sub-basins, such as the South China sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean Sea and the Japan Sea. A reasonable interpretation is given here.

  13. Comparative analysis of zonal systems for macro-level crash modeling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen

    2017-06-01

    Macro-level traffic safety analysis has been undertaken at different spatial configurations. However, clear guidelines for the appropriate zonal system selection for safety analysis are unavailable. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the optimal zonal system for macroscopic crash modeling considering census tracts (CTs), state-wide traffic analysis zones (STAZs), and a newly developed traffic-related zone system labeled traffic analysis districts (TADs). Poisson lognormal models for three crash types (i.e., total, severe, and non-motorized mode crashes) are developed based on the three zonal systems without and with consideration of spatial autocorrelation. The study proposes a method to compare the modeling performance of the three types of geographic units at different spatial configurations through a grid based framework. Specifically, the study region is partitioned to grids of various sizes and the model prediction accuracy of the various macro models is considered within these grids of various sizes. These model comparison results for all crash types indicated that the models based on TADs consistently offer a better performance compared to the others. Besides, the models considering spatial autocorrelation outperform the ones that do not consider it. Based on the modeling results and motivation for developing the different zonal systems, it is recommended using CTs for socio-demographic data collection, employing TAZs for transportation demand forecasting, and adopting TADs for transportation safety planning. The findings from this study can help practitioners select appropriate zonal systems for traffic crash modeling, which leads to develop more efficient policies to enhance transportation safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. GRAVOTURBULENT PLANETESIMAL FORMATION: THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF LONG-LIVED ZONAL FLOWS

    SciT

    Dittrich, K.; Klahr, H.; Johansen, A., E-mail: dittrich@mpia.de

    2013-02-15

    Recent numerical simulations have shown long-lived axisymmetric sub- and super-Keplerian flows in protoplanetary disks. These zonal flows are found in local as well as global simulations of disks unstable to the magnetorotational instability. This paper covers our study of the strength and lifetime of zonal flows and the resulting long-lived gas over- and underdensities as functions of the azimuthal and radial size of the local shearing box. We further investigate dust particle concentrations without feedback on the gas and without self-gravity. The strength and lifetime of zonal flows increase with the radial extent of the simulation box, but decrease withmore » the azimuthal box size. Our simulations support earlier results that zonal flows have a natural radial length scale of 5-7 gas pressure scale heights. This is the first study that combines three-dimensional MHD simulations of zonal flows and dust particles feeling the gas pressure. The pressure bumps trap particles with St = 1 very efficiently. We show that St = 0.1 particles (of some centimeters in size if at 5 AU in a minimum mass solar nebula) reach a hundred-fold higher density than initially. This opens the path for particles of St = 0.1 and dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 or for particles of St {>=} 0.5 and dust-to-gas ratio 10{sup -4} to still reach densities that potentially trigger the streaming instability and thus gravoturbulent formation of planetesimals.« less

  15. Equinoctial asymmetry in the zonal distribution of scintillation as observed by GPS receivers in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadi, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Husin, A.; Liu, Huixin; Saito, S.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the azimuthal distribution of amplitude scintillation observed by Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at Pontianak (0.0°S, 109.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.8°S) and Bandung (6.9°S, 107.6°E; magnetic latitude: 16.7°S) in Indonesia in March and September from 2011 to 2015. The scintillation is found to occur more to the west than to the east in March at both stations, whereas no such zonal difference is found in September. We also analyze the zonal scintillation drift as estimated using three closely spaced single-frequency GPS receivers at Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E; magnetic latitude: 9.9°S) in Indonesia during 2003-2015 and the zonal thermospheric neutral wind as measured by the CHAMP satellite at longitudes of 90°-120°E during 2001-2008. We find that the velocities of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind decrease with increasing latitudes. Interestingly, the latitudinal gradients of both the zonal scintillation drift and the neutral wind are steeper in March than in September. These steeper March gradients may be responsible for the increased westward altitudinal and latitudinal tilting of plasma bubbles in March. This equinoctial asymmetry could be responsible for the observed westward bias in scintillation in March, because the scintillation is more likely to occur when radio waves pass through longer lengths of plasma irregularities in the plasma bubbles.

  16. Mechanisms Controlling the Interannual Variation of Mixed Layer Temperature Averaged over the Nino-3 Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Tong; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines processes governing the interannual variation of MLT in the eastern equatorial Pacific.Processes controlling the interannual variation of mixed layer temperature (MLT) averaged over the Nino-3 domain (5 deg N-5 deg S, 150 deg-90 deg W) are studied using an ocean data assimilation product that covers the period of 1993-2003. The overall balance is such that surface heat flux opposes the MLT change but horizontal advection and subsurface processes assist the change. Advective tendencies are estimated here as the temperature fluxes through the domain's boundaries, with the boundary temperature referenced to the domain-averaged temperature to remove the dependence on temperature scale. This allows the authors to characterize external advective processes that warm or cool the water within the domain as a whole. The zonal advective tendency is caused primarily by large-scale advection of warm-pool water through the western boundary of the domain. The meridional advective tendency is contributed to mostly by Ekman current advecting large-scale temperature anomalies through the southern boundary of the domain. Unlike many previous studies, the subsurface processes that consist of vertical mixing and entrainment are explicitly evaluated. In particular, a rigorous method to estimate entrainment allows an exact budget closure. The vertical mixing across the mixed layer (ML) base has a contribution in phase with the MLT change. The entrainment tendency due to the temporal change in ML depth is negligible compared to other subsurface processes. The entrainment tendency by vertical advection across the ML base is dominated by large-scale changes in upwelling and the temperature of upwelling water. Tropical instability waves (TIWs) result in smaller-scale vertical advection that warms the domain during La Nina cooling events. However, such a warming tendency is overwhelmed by the cooling tendency associated with the large-scale upwelling by a factor of

  17. A Zonal Climate Model for the 1-D Mars Evolution Code: Explaining Meridiani Planum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. V.; McKay, C. P.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Recent MER Opportunity observations suggest there existed an extensive body of shallow water in the present Meridiani Planum during the late Noachian [1]. Observations of roughly contemporaneous valley networks show little net erosion [2]. Hypsometric analysis [3] finds that martian drainage basins are similar to terrestrial drainage basins in very arid regions. The immaturity of martian drainage basins suggests they were formed by infrequent fluvial action. If similar fluvial discharges are responsible for the laminations in the salt-bearing outcrops of Meridiani Planum, their explanation may require a climate model based on surface thermal equilibrium with diurnally averaged temperatures greater than freezing. In the context of Mars' chaotic obliquity, invoking a moderately thick atmosphere with seasonal insolation patterns may uncover the conditions under which the outcrops formed. We compounded a 1-D model of the evolution of Mars' inventories of CO2 over its lifetime called the Mars Evolution Code (MEC) [4]. We are assembling a zonal climate model that includes meridional heat transport, heat conduction to/from the regolith, latent heat deposition, and an albedo distribution based on the depositional patterns of ices. Since water vapor is an important greenhouse gas, and whose ice affects the albedo, we must install a full hydrological cycle. This requires a thermal model of the regolith to model diffusion of water vapor to/from a permafrost layer. Our model carries obliquity and eccentricity distributions consistent with Laskar et al. [5], so we will be able to model the movement of the ice cap with changes in obliquity. The climate model will be used to investigate the conditions under which ponded water could have occurred in the late Noachian, thus supplying a constraint on the free inventory of CO2 at that time. Our evolution code can then investigate Hesperian and Amazonian climates. The model could also be used to understand evidence of recent climate

  18. Zonal PANS: evaluation of different treatments of the RANS-LES interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, L.

    2016-03-01

    The partially Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model can be used to simulate turbulent flows either as RANS, large eddy simulation (LES) or DNS. Its main parameter is fk whose physical meaning is the ratio of the modelled to the total turbulent kinetic energy. In RANS fk = 1, in DNS fk = 0 and in LES fk takes values between 0 and 1. Three different ways of prescribing fk are evaluated for decaying grid turbulence and fully developed channel flow: fk = 0.4, fk = k3/2tot/ɛ and, from its definition, fk = k/ktot where ktot is the sum of the modelled, k, and resolved, kres, turbulent kinetic energy. It is found that the fk = 0.4 gives the best results. In Girimaji and Wallin, a method was proposed to include the effect of the gradient of fk. This approach is used at RANS- LES interface in the present study. Four different interface models are evaluated in fully developed channel flow and embedded LES of channel flow: in both cases, PANS is used as a zonal model with fk = 1 in the unsteady RANS (URANS) region and fk = 0.4 in the LES region. In fully developed channel flow, the RANS- LES interface is parallel to the wall (horizontal) and in embedded LES, it is parallel to the inlet (vertical). The importance of the location of the horizontal interface in fully developed channel flow is also investigated. It is found that the location - and the choice of the treatment at the interface - may be critical at low Reynolds number or if the interface is placed too close to the wall. The reason is that the modelled turbulent shear stress at the interface is large and hence the relative strength of the resolved turbulence is small. In RANS, the turbulent viscosity - and consequently also the modelled Reynolds shear stress - is only weakly dependent on Reynolds number. It is found in the present work that it also applies in the URANS region.

  19. Sensitivity of the ocean overturning circulation to wind and mixing: theoretical scalings and global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikurashin, Maxim; Gunn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a planetary-scale oceanic flow which is of direct importance to the climate system: it transports heat meridionally and regulates the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. The MOC is forced by wind and heat and freshwater fluxes at the surface and turbulent mixing in the ocean interior. A number of conceptual theories for the sensitivity of the MOC to changes in forcing have recently been developed and tested with idealized numerical models. However, the skill of the simple conceptual theories to describe the MOC simulated with higher complexity global models remains largely unknown. In this study, we present a systematic comparison of theoretical and modelled sensitivity of the MOC and associated deep ocean stratification to vertical mixing and southern hemisphere westerlies. The results show that theories that simplify the ocean into a single-basin, zonally-symmetric box are generally in a good agreement with a realistic, global ocean circulation model. Some disagreement occurs in the abyssal ocean, where complex bottom topography is not taken into account by simple theories. Distinct regimes, where the MOC has a different sensitivity to wind or mixing, as predicted by simple theories, are also clearly shown by the global ocean model. The sensitivity of the Indo-Pacific, Atlantic, and global basins is analysed separately to validate the conceptual understanding of the upper and lower overturning cells in the theory.

  20. Alternatives to the Moving Average

    Paul C. van Deusen

    2001-01-01

    There are many possible estimators that could be used with annual inventory data. The 5-year moving average has been selected as a default estimator to provide initial results for states having available annual inventory data. User objectives for these estimates are discussed. The characteristics of a moving average are outlined. It is shown that moving average...

  1. Dynamical excitation of the tropical Pacific Ocean and ENSO variability by Little Ice Age cooling.

    PubMed

    Rustic, Gerald T; Koutavas, Athanasios; Marchitto, Thomas M; Linsley, Braddock K

    2015-12-18

    Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to a lack of evidence from the eastern equatorial Pacific. We reconstructed sea surface temperature, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, and the tropical Pacific zonal gradient for the past millennium from Galápagos ocean sediments. We document a mid-millennium shift (MMS) in ocean-atmosphere circulation around 1500-1650 CE, from a state with dampened ENSO and strong zonal gradient to one with amplified ENSO and weak gradient. The MMS coincided with the deepest LIA cooling and was probably caused by a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone. The peak of the MCA (900-1150 CE) was a warm period in the eastern Pacific, contradicting the paradigm of a persistent La Niña pattern. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Monthly Surface Air Temperature Time Series Area-Averaged Over the 30-Degree Latitudinal Belts of the Globe

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lugina, K. M. [Department of Geography, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Groisman, P. Ya. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina USA); Vinnikov, K. Ya. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (USA); Koknaeva, V. V. [State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia; Speranskaya, N. A. [State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

    2006-01-01

    The mean monthly and annual values of surface air temperature compiled by Lugina et al. have been taken mainly from the World Weather Records, Monthly Climatic Data for the World, and Meteorological Data for Individual Years over the Northern Hemisphere Excluding the USSR. These published records were supplemented with information from different national publications. In the original archive, after removal of station records believed to be nonhomogeneous or biased, 301 and 265 stations were used to determine the mean temperature for the Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. The new version of the station temperature archive (used for evaluation of the zonally-averaged temperatures) was created in 1995. The change to the archive was required because data from some stations became unavailable for analyses in the 1990s. During this process, special care was taken to secure homogeneity of zonally averaged time series. When a station (or a group of stations) stopped reporting, a "new" station (or group of stations) was selected in the same region, and its data for the past 50 years were collected and added to the archive. The processing (area-averaging) was organized in such a way that each time series from a new station spans the reference period (1951-1975) and the years thereafter. It was determined that the addition of the new stations had essentially no effect on the zonally-averaged values for the pre-1990 period.

  3. Results of a zonally truncated three-dimensional model of the Venus middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although the equatorial rotational speed of the solid surface of Venus is only 4 m s(exp-1), the atmospheric rotational speed reaches a maximum of approximately 100 m s(exp-1) near the equatorial cloud top level (65 to 70 km). This phenomenon, known as superrotation, is the central dynamical problem of the Venus atmosphere. We report here the results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the mechanism for maintaining the equatorial cloud top rotation. Maintenance of an equatorial rotational speed maximum above the surface requires waves or eddies that systematically transport angular momentum against its zonal mean gradient. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is driven thermally and acts to reduce the rotational speed at the equatorial cloud top level; thus wave or eddy transport must counter this tendency as well as friction. Planetary waves arising from horizontal shear instability of the zonal flow (barotropic instability) could maintain the equatorial rotation by transporting angular momentum horizontally from midlatitudes toward the equator. Alternatively, vertically propagating waves could provide the required momentum source. The relative motion between the rotating atmosphere and the pattern of solar heating, which as a maximum where solar radiation is absorbed near the cloud tops, drives diurnal and semidiurnal thermal tides that propagate vertically away from the cloud top level. The effect of this wave propagation is to transport momentum toward the cloud top level at low latitudes and accelerate the mean zonal flow there. We employ a semispectral primitive equation model with a zonal mean flow and zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. These waves correspond to the diurnal and semidiurnal tides, but they can also be excited by barotropic or baroclinic instability. Waves of higher wavenumbers and interactions between the waves are neglected. Symmetry about the equator is assumed, so the model applies to one hemisphere and covers the altitude range 30 to

  4. Climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density anomaly with zonal wind and large-scale FAC based on CHAMP observations: IMF By and solar cycle dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Lühr, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    We present climatology of the relationship of cusp-related density enhancement with the neutral zonal wind velocity, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC), small-scale FAC, and electron temperature using the superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method. The dependence of these variables on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component orientation and solar cycle are of particular interest. In addition, the obtained results of relative density enhancement (ρrel), zonal wind, electron temperature and FAC are subdivided into three local seasons of 130 days each: local winter (1 January ±65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April ±32 days and 1 October ±32 days), and local summer (1 July ±65 days). Our investigation is based on CHAMP satellite observations and NASA/GSFC's OMNI online data set for solar maximum (Mar/2002-2007) and minimum (Mar/2004-2009) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA technique uses the time and location of the thermospheric mass density anomaly peaks as reference parameters. The relative amplitude of cusp-related density enhancement does on average not depend on the IMF By orientation, solar cycle phase, and local season. Also, it is apparent that the IMF By amplitude does not have a big influence on the relative amplitude of the density anomaly. Conversely, there exists a good correlation between ρrel and the negative amplitude of IMF Bz prevailing about half an hour earlier. In the cusp region, both large-scale FAC distribution and thermospheric zonal wind velocity exhibit a clear dependence on the IMF By orientation. In the case of positive (negative) IMF By there is a systematic imbalance between downward (upward) and upward (downward) FACs peaks equatorward and poleward of the reference point, respectively. The zonal wind velocity is directed towards west i.e. towards dawn in a geomagnetic latitude-magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. This is true for all local seasons and solar conditions. The thermospheric density

  5. Numerical aspects and implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for LES of compressible turbulent flows on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, George Ilhwan; Moin, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on numerical and practical aspects associated with a parallel implementation of a two-layer zonal wall model for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible wall-bounded turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. A zonal wall model based on the solution of unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a separate near-wall grid is implemented in an unstructured, cell-centered finite-volume LES solver. The main challenge in its implementation is to couple two parallel, unstructured flow solvers for efficient boundary data communication and simultaneous time integrations. A coupling strategy with good load balancing and low processors underutilization is identified. Face mapping and interpolation procedures at the coupling interface are explained in detail. The method of manufactured solution is used for verifying the correct implementation of solver coupling, and parallel performance of the combined wall-modeled LES (WMLES) solver is investigated. The method has successfully been applied to several attached and separated flows, including a transitional flow over a flat plate and a separated flow over an airfoil at an angle of attack.

  6. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the distance between the end of visible nasal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the foveola were assessed to evaluate the image enhancement effect and retinal layer visibility. Retinal thicknesses before and after processing were also measured. All virtual-averaged nonframe-averaged images showed notable improvement and clear resemblance to active eye-tracking frame-averaged images. Signal-to-noise and CNR were significantly improved (SNR: 30.5 vs. 47.6 dB, CNR: 4.4 vs. 6.4 dB, original versus processed, P < 0.0001, paired t -test). The distance between the end of visible nasal RNFL and the foveola was significantly different before (681.4 vs. 446.5 μm, Cirrus versus Spectralis, P < 0.0001) but not after processing (442.9 vs. 446.5 μm, P = 0.76). Sectoral macular total retinal and circumpapillary RNFL thicknesses showed systematic differences between Cirrus and Spectralis that became not significant after processing. The virtual averaging method successfully improved nontracking nonframe-averaged OCT image quality and made the images comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Virtual averaging may enable detailed retinal structure studies on images acquired using a mixture of nonframe-averaged and frame-averaged OCT devices without concerning about systematic differences in both qualitative and quantitative aspects.

  7. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the distance between the end of visible nasal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the foveola were assessed to evaluate the image enhancement effect and retinal layer visibility. Retinal thicknesses before and after processing were also measured. Results All virtual-averaged nonframe-averaged images showed notable improvement and clear resemblance to active eye-tracking frame-averaged images. Signal-to-noise and CNR were significantly improved (SNR: 30.5 vs. 47.6 dB, CNR: 4.4 vs. 6.4 dB, original versus processed, P < 0.0001, paired t-test). The distance between the end of visible nasal RNFL and the foveola was significantly different before (681.4 vs. 446.5 μm, Cirrus versus Spectralis, P < 0.0001) but not after processing (442.9 vs. 446.5 μm, P = 0.76). Sectoral macular total retinal and circumpapillary RNFL thicknesses showed systematic differences between Cirrus and Spectralis that became not significant after processing. Conclusion The virtual averaging method successfully improved nontracking nonframe-averaged OCT image quality and made the images comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Translational Relevance Virtual averaging may enable detailed retinal structure studies on images acquired using a mixture of nonframe-averaged and frame-averaged OCT devices without concerning about systematic differences in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. PMID:26835180

  8. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  9. Direct phase measurement in zonal wavefront reconstruction using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Kerlin, Aaron; MacLennan, Bryan; Ji, Na

    2014-01-27

    In traditional zonal wavefront sensing for adaptive optics, after local wavefront gradients are obtained, the entire wavefront can be calculated by assuming that the wavefront is a continuous surface. Such an approach will lead to sub-optimal performance in reconstructing wavefronts which are either discontinuous or undersampled by the zonal wavefront sensor. Here, we report a new method to reconstruct the wavefront by directly measuring local wavefront phases in parallel using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique. This method determines the relative phases of each pupil segment independently, and thus produces an accurate wavefront for even discontinuous wavefronts. We implemented this method in an adaptive optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated its superior performance in correcting large or discontinuous aberrations.

  10. On the wave forcing of the semi-annual zonal wind oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagpal, O. P.; Raghavarao, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observational evidence of rather large period waves (23-60 d) in the troposphere/stratosphere, particularly during the winter months, is presented. Wind data collected on a regular basis employing high-altitude balloons and meteorological rockets over the past few years are used. Maximum entropy methods applied to the time series of zonal wind data indicate the presence of 23-60-waves more prominently than shorter-period waves. The waves have substantial amplitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, often larger than those noted in the troposphere. The mean zonal wind in the troposphere (5-15 km altitude) during December, January, and February exhibits the presence of strong westerlies at latitudes between 8 and 21 deg N.

  11. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciT

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing framemore » rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.« less

  12. Rare excitatory amino acid from flowers of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Winter, Rudolph E; Singh, Ajay P; Reding, Michael E; Frantz, Jonathan M; Locke, James C; Krause, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    The Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flower petals of zonal geranium, Pelargonium x hortorum. Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from P. x hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paralysis-inducing compound. High-resolution-MS and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, heteronuclear sequential quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) analysis identified the paralytic compound as quisqualic acid (C(5)H(7)N(3)O(5)), a known but rare agonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. Optical rotation measurements and chiral HPLC analysis determined an L-configuration. Geranium-derived and synthetic L-quisqualic acid demonstrated the same positive paralytic dose-response. Isolation of a neurotoxic, excitatory amino acid from zonal geranium establishes the phytochemical basis for induced paralysis of the JB, which had remained uncharacterized since the phenomenon was first described in 1920.

  13. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  14. Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function, from zero to 18th order

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are usually tabulated in normalized form to provide immediate information as to the relative significance of the coefficients in the gravity model. The normalized form of the geopotential coefficients cannot be used for computational purposes unless the gravity model has been modified to receive them. This modification is usually not done because the absolute or unnormalized form of the coefficients can be obtained from the simple mathematical relationship that relates the two forms. This computation can be quite tedious for hand calculation, especially for the higher order terms, and can be costly in terms of storage and execution time for machine computation. In this report, zonal and tesseral harmonic coefficients for the geopotential function are tabulated in absolute or unnormalized form. The report is designed to be used as a ready reference for both hand and machine calculation to save the user time and effort.

  15. Inclusion of inhomogeneous deformation and strength characteristics in the problem on zonal disintegration of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanyshev, AI; Belousova, OE

    2018-03-01

    The authors determine stress and deformation in a heterogeneous rock mass at the preset displacement and Cauchy stress vector at the boundary of an underground excavation. The influence of coordinates on Young’s modulus, shear modulus and ultimate strength is shown. It is found that regions of tension and compression alternate at the excavation boundary—i.e. zonal rock disintegration phenomenon is observed.

  16. Nonlinear growth of zonal flows by secondary instability in general magnetic geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Plunk, G. G.; Navarro, A. Banon

    2017-02-23

    Here we present a theory of the nonlinear growth of zonal flows in magnetized plasma turbulence, by the mechanism of secondary instability. The theory is derived for general magnetic geometry, and is thus applicable to both tokamaks and stellarators. The predicted growth rate is shown to compare favorably with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, with the error scaling as expected with the small parameter of the theory.

  17. A theory of self-organized zonal flow with fine radial structure in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, T.; Mahajan, S. M.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The (low frequency) zonal flow-ion temperature gradient (ITG) wave system, constructed on Braginskii's fluid model in tokamak, is shown to be a reaction-diffusion-advection system; it is derived by making use of a multiple spatiotemporal scale technique and two-dimensional (2D) ballooning theory. For real regular group velocities of ITG waves, two distinct temporal processes, sharing a very similar meso-scale radial structure, are identified in the nonlinear self-organized stage. The stationary and quasi-stationary structures reflect a particular feature of the poloidal group velocity. The equation set posed to be an initial value problem is numerically solved for JET low mode parameters; the results are presented in several figures and two movies that show the spatiotemporal evolutions as well as the spectrum analysis—frequency-wave number spectrum, auto power spectrum, and Lissajous diagram. This approach reveals that the zonal flow in tokamak is a local traveling wave. For the quasi-stationary process, the cycle of ITG wave energy is composed of two consecutive phases in distinct spatiotemporal structures: a pair of Cavitons growing and breathing slowly without long range propagation, followed by a sudden decay into many Instantons that carry negative wave energy rapidly into infinity. A spotlight onto the motion of Instantons for a given radial position reproduces a Blob-Hole temporal structure; the occurrence as well as the rapid decay of Caviton into Instantons is triggered by zero-crossing of radial group velocity. A sample of the radial profile of zonal flow contributed from 31 nonlinearly coupled rational surfaces near plasma edge is found to be very similar to that observed in the JET Ohmic phase [J. C. Hillesheim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 165002 (2016)]. The theory predicts an interior asymmetric dipole structure associated with the zonal flow that is driven by the gradients of ITG turbulence intensity.

  18. Algorithms for Zonal Methods and Development of Three Dimensional Mesh Generation Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    a r-re complete set of equations is used, but their effect is imposed by means of a right hand side forcing function, not by means of a zonal boundary...modifications of flow-simulation algorithms The explicit finite-difference code of Magnus and are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions...used to simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse achieve computational efficiency. More recently, effect on flow-field algorithms and

  19. The effect of the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn on its gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John D.

    2018-04-01

    The penetration depth of Saturn’s cloud-level winds into its interior is unknown. A possible way of estimating the depth is through measurement of the effect of the winds on the planet’s gravitational field. We use a self-consistent perturbation approach to study how the equatorially symmetric zonal winds of Saturn contribute to its gravitational field. An important advantage of this approach is that the variation of its gravitational field solely caused by the winds can be isolated and identified because the leading-order problem accounts exactly for rotational distortion, thereby determining the irregular shape and internal structure of the hydrostatic Saturn. We assume that (i) the zonal winds are maintained by thermal convection in the form of non-axisymmetric columnar rolls and (ii) the internal structure of the winds, because of the Taylor-Proundman theorem, can be uniquely determined by the observed cloud-level winds. We calculate both the variation ΔJn , n = 2, 4, 6 … of the axisymmetric gravitational coefficients Jn caused by the zonal winds and the non-axisymmetric gravitational coefficients ΔJnm produced by the columnar rolls, where m is the azimuthal wavenumber of the rolls. We consider three different cases characterized by the penetration depth 0.36, R S, 0.2, R S and 0.1, R S, where R S is the equatorial radius of Saturn at the 1-bar pressure level. We find that the high-degree gravitational coefficient (J 12 + ΔJ 12) is dominated, in all the three cases, by the effect of the zonal flow with |ΔJ 12/J 12| > 100% and that the size of the non-axisymmetric coefficients ΔJ mn directly reflects the depth and scale of the flow taking place in the Saturnian interior.

  20. Contribution to the study of the zonal variation of the climate aridity in central northern Sahara (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benseghier-Hadjaidji, Fatiha; Talbi, Nadjib; Derridj, Arezki

    2018-05-01

    The environment degradation at the level of all its compartments which we notice at present, calls us to the risks that it would underestimate the climatic and consequently bioclimatic crisis there, in the North as in the South of the Mediterranean region. To protect the environment is not a luxury. In this respect, we wondered about the zonal variation of the climate aridity at the level of three bordering climatic stations: El-Oued, Touggourt and Ouargla. These are distant from 160 km on average some of the others. For that purpose, we based ourselves on the statistical tool the software "instat +" for the estimation of the ETP (PM) and afterward the determination of the pluvio-evapotranspiration "quotient P/ETP". For this analysis, the climatic data spread out over a period of 20 years. The results allowed to specify the aridity degree of the studied zone. So, they reveal a mitigation of the aridity of the climate in Touggourt and El-Oued while the hyper-aridity distinguishes well the Ouargla region. This approach contributes to a better knowledge of the dry ecosystems. This is important to indicate it to turn better in the eremologic search later.

  1. MPIRUN: A Portable Loader for Multidisciplinary and Multi-Zonal Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications are an important class of applications in the area of Computational Aerosciences. In these codes, two or more distinct parallel programs or copies of a single program are utilized to model a single problem. To support such applications, it is common to use a programming model where a program is divided into several single program multiple data stream (SPMD) applications, each of which solves the equations for a single physical discipline or grid zone. These SPMD applications are then bound together to form a single multidisciplinary or multi-zonal program in which the constituent parts communicate via point-to-point message passing routines. One method for implementing the message passing portion of these codes is with the new Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. Unfortunately, this standard only specifies the message passing portion of an application, but does not specify any portable mechanisms for loading an application. MPIRUN was developed to provide a portable means for loading MPI programs, and was specifically targeted at multidisciplinary and multi-zonal applications. Programs using MPIRUN for loading and MPI for message passing are then portable between all machines supported by MPIRUN. MPIRUN is currently implemented for the Intel iPSC/860, TMC CM5, IBM SP-1 and SP-2, Intel Paragon, and workstation clusters. Further, MPIRUN is designed to be simple enough to port easily to any system supporting MPI.

  2. Zonal Flows and Long-lived Axisymmetric Pressure Bumps in Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.

  3. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  4. Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and zonal flows beyond the ray approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the zonal-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by the WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the zonal-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require zonal-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. We also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.

  5. Computation of transonic separated wing flows using an Euler/Navier-Stokes zonal approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaynak, Uenver; Holst, Terry L.; Cantwell, Brian J.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program called Transonic Navier Stokes (TNS) has been developed which solves the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations around wings using a zonal grid approach. In the present zonal scheme, the physical domain of interest is divided into several subdomains called zones and the governing equations are solved interactively. The advantages of the Zonal Grid approach are as follows: (1) the grid for any subdomain can be generated easily; (2) grids can be, in a sense, adapted to the solution; (3) different equation sets can be used in different zones; and, (4) this approach allows for a convenient data base organization scheme. Using this code, separated flows on a NACA 0012 section wing and on the NASA Ames WING C have been computed. First, the effects of turbulence and artificial dissipation models incorporated into the code are assessed by comparing the TNS results with other CFD codes and experiments. Then a series of flow cases is described where data are available. The computed results, including cases with shock-induced separation, are in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, some futuristic cases are presented to demonstrate the abilities of the code for massively separated cases which do not have experimental data.

  6. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine–airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. PMID:25024411

  7. High-fidelity simulations of unsteady civil aircraft aerodynamics: stakes and perspectives. Application of zonal detached eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Deck, Sébastien; Gand, Fabien; Brunet, Vincent; Ben Khelil, Saloua

    2014-08-13

    This paper provides an up-to-date survey of the use of zonal detached eddy simulations (ZDES) for unsteady civil aircraft applications as a reflection on the stakes and perspectives of the use of hybrid methods in the framework of industrial aerodynamics. The issue of zonal or non-zonal treatment of turbulent flows for engineering applications is discussed. The ZDES method used in this article and based on a fluid problem-dependent zonalization is briefly presented. Some recent landmark achievements for conditions all over the flight envelope are presented, including low-speed (aeroacoustics of high-lift devices and landing gear), cruising (engine-airframe interactions), propulsive jets and off-design (transonic buffet and dive manoeuvres) applications. The implications of such results and remaining challenges in a more global framework are further discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Intensified Indian Ocean climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumalai, K.; DiNezro, P.; Tierney, J. E.; Puy, M.; Mohtadi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate models project increased year-to-year climate variability in the equatorial Indian Ocean in response to greenhouse gas warming. This response has been attributed to changes in the mean climate of the Indian Ocean associated with the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. According to these studies, air-sea coupling is enhanced due to a stronger SST gradient driving anomalous easterlies that shoal the thermocline in the eastern Indian Ocean. We propose that this relationship between the variability and the zonal SST gradient is consistent across different mean climate states. We test this hypothesis using simulations of past and future climate performed with the Community Earth System Model Version 1 (CESM1). We constrain the realism of the model for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) where CESM1 simulates a mean climate consistent with a stronger SST gradient, agreeing with proxy reconstructions. CESM1 also simulates a pronounced increase in seasonal and interannual variability. We develop new estimates of climate variability on these timescales during the LGM using δ18O analysis of individual foraminifera (IFA). IFA data generated from four different cores located in the eastern Indian Ocean indicate a marked increase in δ18O-variance during the LGM as compared to the late Holocene. Such a significant increase in the IFA-δ18O variance strongly supports the modeling simulations. This agreement further supports the dynamics linking year-to-year variability and an altered SST gradient, increasing our confidence in model projections.

  9. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-12-01

    Today, the wind data for the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are commonly extrapolated using models or calculated from measurements of the temperature field, but are not measured directly. Still, such measurements would allow direct observations of dynamic processes and thus provide a better understanding of the circulation in this altitude region where the zonal wind speed reaches a maximum. Observations of middle-atmospheric winds are also expected to provide deeper insight in the coupling between the upper and the lower atmosphere, especially in the case of sudden stratospheric warming events. Furthermore, as the local chemical composition of the middle atmosphere can be measured with high accuracy, wind data could be beneficial for the interpretation of the associated transport processes. In future, middle-atmospheric wind measurements could help to improve atmospheric circulation models. Aiming to contribute to the closing of this data gap the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Bern built a new ground-based 142 GHz Doppler-spectro-radiometer with the acronym WIRA (WInd RAdiometer) specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric wind. Currently wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved what makes WIRA the first instrument continuously measuring profiles of horizontal wind in this altitude range. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to ECMWF very good agreement has been found in the long-term statistics, with WIRA = (0.98±0.02) × ECMWF + (0.44±0.91) m/s on average, as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the

  10. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüfenacht, Rolf; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Murk, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Today, the wind data for the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere are commonly extrapolated using models or calculated from measurements of the temperature field, but are not measured directly. Still, such measurements would allow direct observations of dynamic processes and thus provide a better understanding of the circulation in this altitude region where the zonal wind speed reaches a maximum. Observations of middle-atmospheric winds are also expected to provide deeper insight in the coupling between the upper and the lower atmosphere, especially in the case of sudden stratospheric warming events. Furthermore, as the local chemical composition of the middle atmosphere can be measured with high accuracy, wind data could be beneficial for the interpretation of the associated transport processes. In future, middle-atmospheric wind measurements could help to improve atmospheric circulation models. Aiming to contribute to the closing of this data gap the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Bern built a new ground-based 142 GHz Doppler-spectro-radiometer with the acronym WIRA (WInd RAdiometer) specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric wind. Until now wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved what made WIRA the first instrument continuously measuring profiles of horizontal wind in this altitude range. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to ECMWF very good agreement has been found in the long-term statistics, with WIRA = (0.98±0.02) × ECMWF + (0.44±0.91) m/s on average, as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days. WIRA uses a passive heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a

  11. (abstract) Effect of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S.

    1996-01-01

    The second-degree zonal tide raising potential, which is responsible for tidal changes in the Earth's rotation rate and length-of-day, is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the oceans. Ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal bands has been previously detected and extensively examined. Here, the detection of ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the long-period tidal band, specifically at the Mf' (13.63-day) and Mf (13.66-day) tidal frequencies, is reported.

  12. Rossby and drift wave turbulence and zonal flows: The Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey; Quinn, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma, exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form, survive in more realistic and complicated models. As such, they form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. The jets in the strongly nonlinear case further roll up into vortex streets and saturate, while for the weaker nonlinearities, the growth of the unstable mode reverses and the system oscillates between a dominant jet, which is slightly inclined to the zonal direction, and a dominant primary wave. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence-zonostrophy. While the theoretical derivations of this invariant stem from the wave kinetic equation which assumes weak wave amplitudes, it is shown to be relatively well-conserved for higher nonlinearities also. Together with the energy and enstrophy, these three invariants cascade into anisotropic sectors in the k-space as predicted by the Fjørtoft argument. The cascades are characterised by the zonostrophy pushing the energy to the zonal scales. A small scale instability forcing applied to the model has demonstrated the well-known drift wave-zonal flow feedback loop. The drift wave turbulence is generated from this primary instability. The zonal flows are then excited by either one of the generation mechanisms, extracting energy from

  13. Oceanic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R.; Mcgoldrick, L.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of large-scale ocean movements to the moderation of Global Temperature is discussed. The observational requirements of physical oceanography are discussed. Satellite-based oceanographic observing systems are seen as central to oceanography in 1990's.

  14. Ocean Acidification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  15. Using trajectories to explain the moisture budget asymmetry between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, P.; Ferreira, D.; Methven, J.

    2017-12-01

    The net surface water flux (evaporation minus precipitation minus runoff, E-P-R) of the Atlantic Ocean is approximately 0.4 - 0.6 Sv (1 Sv = 109 kg s-1) larger than that of the Pacific Ocean, as shown in atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses and by oceanographic estimates. This asymmetry is linked to the asymmetry in sea surface salinity and the existence of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. It is shown that the reason for the asymmetry in E-P-R is greater precipitation per unit area over the Pacific south of 30N, while evaporation rates are similar over both basins. It is further argued that the Pacific Ocean is anomalous compared to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in terms of atmospheric moisture flux convergence and precipitation across the tropics and subtropics. To clarify the mechanism by which water vapour is exported out of the Atlantic basin and imported into the Pacific, we use an air mass trajectory model driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis. Using 12-hourly releases of 14-day back trajectories on the boundaries of ocean drainage basins over the period 2010-2014, we are able to partition the atmospheric moisture fluxes between basins according to their origins (i.e. last contact with the boundary layer). We show that at most a quarter of the E-P-R asymmetry is explained by higher moisture export to the Arctic and Southern basins from the Atlantic than from the Pacific. The main contributions come from differences in the longitudinal atmospheric transport of moisture between the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific basins. In particular, during the Asian summer monsoon the recurvature of the low level flow in the Somali Jet results in a much weaker westward moisture transport from the Indian into the Atlantic basin than across Central America (where it is similar to the zonal average) while there is stronger eastward transport from the Indian to Pacific basins. The net effect is stronger moisture convergence into the Pacific, but weaker into the Atlantic

  16. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special cluster issue on `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, S.-I.

    2005-07-01

    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (PPCF) invites submissions on the topic of `Experimental studies of zonal flow and turbulence', for consideration for a special topical cluster of articles to be published early in 2006. The topical cluster will be published in an issue of PPCF, combined with regular articles. The Guest Editor for the special cluster will be S-I Itoh, Kyushu University, Japan. There has been remarkable progress in the area of structure formation by turbulence. One of the highlights has been the physics of zonal flow and drift wave turbulence in toroidal plasmas. Extensive theoretical as well as computational studies have revealed the various mechanisms in turbulence and zonal flows. At the same time, experimental research on the zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of global electric field by turbulence has evolved rapidly. Fast growth in reports of experimental results has stimulated further efforts to develop increased knowledge and systematic understanding. Each paper considered for the special cluster should describe the present research status and new scientific knowledge/results from the authors on experimental studies of zonal flow, geodesic acoustic modes and generation of electric field by turbulence (including studies of Reynolds-Maxwell stresses, etc). Manuscripts submitted to this special cluster in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion will be refereed according to the normal criteria and procedures of the journal. The Guest Editor guides the progress of the cluster from the initial open call, through the standard refereeing process, to publication. To be considered for inclusion in the special cluster, articles must be submitted by 2 September 2005 and must clearly state `for inclusion in the Turbulent Plasma Cluster'. Articles submitted after this deadline may not be included in the cluster issue but may be published in a later issue of the journal. Please submit your manuscript electronically via our web site at www

  17. Meridional overturning and large-scale circulation of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, Alexandre; Wunsch, Carl; Marotzke, Jochem; Toole, John

    2000-11-01

    The large scale Indian Ocean circulation is estimated from a global hydrographic inverse geostrophic box model with a focus on the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). The global model is based on selected recent World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) sections which in the Indian Basin consist of zonal sections at 32°S, 20°S and 8°S, and a section between Bali and Australia from the Java-Australia Dynamic Experiment (JADE). The circulation is required to conserve mass, salinity, heat, silica and "PO" (170PO4+O2). Near-conservation is imposed within layers bounded by neutral surfaces, while permitting advective and diffusive exchanges between the layers. Conceptually, the derived circulation is an estimate of the average circulation for the period 1987-1995. A deep inflow into the Indian Basin of 11±4 Sv is found, which is in the lower range of previous estimates, but consistent with conservation requirements and the global data set. The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is estimated at 15±5 Sv. The flow in the Mozambique Channel is of the same magnitude, implying a weak net flow between Madagascar and Australia. A net evaporation of -0.6±0.4 Sv is found between 32°S and 8°S, consistent with independent estimates. No net heat gain is found over the Indian Basin (0.1 ± 0.2PW north of 32°S) as a consequence of the large warm water influx from the ITF. Through the use of anomaly equations, the average dianeutral upwelling and diffusion between the sections are required and resolved, with values in the range 1-3×10-5 cm s-1 for the upwelling and 2-10 cm2 s-1 for the diffusivity.

  18. The transformation of vegetation vertical zonality affected by anthropogenic impact in East Fennoscandia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorik, Vadim; Miulgauzen, Daria

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems of East Fennoscandia have been affected by intensive anthropogenic influence that resulted in their significant transformation. Study of ecosystems in the framework of vegetation vertical zonality disturbance as well as its recovery allows to understand the trends of anthropogenically induced changes. The aim of the present research is the comparative analysis of vegetation vertical zonality of the two uplands in East Fennoscandia which may be considered as unaffected and affected by anthropogenic impact. The objects of key studies carried out in the north-west of Kola Peninsula in the vicinity of the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant are represented by ecosystems of Kalkupya (h 357 m) and Hangaslachdenvara (h 284 m) uplands. They are characterized by the similarity in sequence of altitudinal belts due to the position on the northern taiga - forest-tundra boundary. Plant communities of Kalkupya upland have no visible signs of anthropogenic influence, therefore, they can be considered as model ecosystems of the area. The sequence of altitudinal belts is the following: - up to 200 m - pine subshrub and green moss ("zonal") forest replaced by mixed pine and birch forest near the upper boundary; - 200-300 m - birch crooked subshrub wood; - above 300 m - tundra subshrub and lichen communities. Ecosystems of Hangaslachdenvara upland have been damaged by air pollution (SO2, Ni, Cu emissions) of the Pechenganikel Plant. This impact has led to plant community suppression and formation of barren lands. Besides the soil cover was significantly disturbed, especially upper horizons. Burying of soil profiles, represented by Podzols (WRB, 2015), also manifested itself in the exploited part of the area. The vegetation cover of Hangaslachdenvara upland is the following: - up to 130 m - birch and aspen subshrub and grass forest instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - 130-200 m - barren lands instead of pine forest ("zonal"); - above 200 m - barren lands instead of

  19. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler-α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

  20. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

  1. Indian Ocean and Indian summer monsoon: relationships without ENSO in ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, Julien; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien; Sooraj, K. P.; Roxy, Mathew Koll

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between the Indian Ocean and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and their respective influence over the Indo-Western North Pacific (WNP) region are examined in the absence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in two partially decoupled global experiments. ENSO is removed by nudging the tropical Pacific simulated sea surface temperature (SST) toward SST climatology from either observations or a fully coupled control run. The control reasonably captures the observed relationships between ENSO, ISM and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Despite weaker amplitude, IODs do exist in the absence of ENSO and are triggered by a boreal spring ocean-atmosphere coupled mode over the South-East Indian Ocean similar to that found in the presence of ENSO. These pure IODs significantly affect the tropical Indian Ocean throughout boreal summer, inducing a significant modulation of both the local Walker and Hadley cells. This meridional circulation is masked in the presence of ENSO. However, these pure IODs do not significantly influence the Indian subcontinent rainfall despite overestimated SST variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean compared to observations. On the other hand, they promote a late summer cross-equatorial quadrupole rainfall pattern linking the tropical Indian Ocean with the WNP, inducing important zonal shifts of the Walker circulation despite the absence of ENSO. Surprisingly, the interannual ISM rainfall variability is barely modified and the Indian Ocean does not force the monsoon circulation when ENSO is removed. On the contrary, the monsoon circulation significantly forces the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal SSTs, while its connection with the western tropical Indian Ocean is clearly driven by ENSO in our numerical framework. Convection and diabatic heating associated with above-normal ISM induce a strong response over the WNP, even in the absence of ENSO, favoring moisture convergence over India.

  2. Turbine Engine Flowpath Averaging Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    u~%x AEDC- TMR- 8 I-G 1 • R. P TURBINE ENGINE FLOWPATH AVERAGING TECHNIQUES T. W. Skiles ARO, Inc. October 1980 Final Report for Period...COVERED 00-01-1980 to 00-10-1980 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Turbine Engine Flowpath Averaging Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...property for gas turbine engines were investigated. The investigation consisted of a literature review and review of turbine engine current flowpath

  3. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  4. Effects of Southern Hemisphere Wind Changes on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in Ocean Models.

    PubMed

    Gent, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Observations show that the Southern Hemisphere zonal wind stress maximum has increased significantly over the past 30 years. Eddy-resolving ocean models show that the resulting increase in the Southern Ocean mean flow meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is partially compensated by an increase in the eddy MOC. This effect can be reproduced in the non-eddy-resolving ocean component of a climate model, providing the eddy parameterization coefficient is variable and not a constant. If the coefficient is a constant, then the Southern Ocean mean MOC change is balanced by an unrealistically large change in the Atlantic Ocean MOC. Southern Ocean eddy compensation means that Southern Hemisphere winds cannot be the dominant mechanism driving midlatitude North Atlantic MOC variability.

  5. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

  6. Contrasting Indian Ocean SST Variability With and Without ENSO Influence: A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean GCM Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jin-Yi; Lau, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we perform experiments with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) to examine ENSO's influence on the interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability of the tropical Indian Ocean. The control experiment includes both the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the ocean model component of the CGCM (the Indo-Pacific Run). The anomaly experiment excludes ENSOs influence by including only the Indian Ocean while prescribing monthly-varying climatological SSTs for the Pacific Ocean (the Indian-Ocean Run). In the Indo-Pacific Run, an oscillatory mode of the Indian Ocean SST variability is identified by a multi-channel singular spectral analysis (MSSA). The oscillatory mode comprises two patterns that can be identified with the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) and a basin-wide warming/cooling mode respectively. In the model, the IOZM peaks about 3-5 months after ENSO reaches its maximum intensity. The basin mode peaks 8 months after the IOZM. The timing and associated SST patterns suggests that the IOZM is related to ENSO, and the basin- wide warming/cooling develops as a result of the decay of the IOZM spreading SST anomalies from western Indian Ocean to the eastern Indian Ocean. In contrast, in the Indian-Ocean Run, no oscillatory modes can be identified by the MSSA, even though the Indian Ocean SST variability is characterized by east-west SST contrast patterns similar to the IOZM. In both control and anomaly runs, IOZM-like SST variability appears to be associated with forcings from fluctuations of the Indian monsoon. Our modeling results suggest that the oscillatory feature of the IOZM is primarily forced by ENSO.

  7. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  8. Troposphere-stratosphere (surface-55 km) monthly general circulation statistics for the Northern Hemisphere-four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Olson, J. G.; Gelman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents four year averages of monthly mean Northern Hemisphere general circulation statistics for the period from 1 December 1978 through 30 November 1982. Computations start with daily maps of temperature for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb that were supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential height and geostrophic wind are constructed using the hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, mean zonal wind, and amplitude and phase of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wavenumbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large annual and interannual variations are found in each quantity especially in the stratosphere in accordance with the changes in the planetary wave activity. The results are shown both in graphic and tabular form.

  9. Three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation: part II—dynamical equations of horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shujuan; Cheng, Jianbo; Xu, Ming; Chou, Jifan

    2018-04-01

    The three-pattern decomposition of global atmospheric circulation (TPDGAC) partitions three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation into horizontal, meridional and zonal components to study the 3D structures of global atmospheric circulation. This paper incorporates the three-pattern decomposition model (TPDM) into primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics and establishes a new set of dynamical equations of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations in which the operator properties are studied and energy conservation laws are preserved, as in the primitive equations. The physical significance of the newly established equations is demonstrated. Our findings reveal that the new equations are essentially the 3D vorticity equations of atmosphere and that the time evolution rules of the horizontal, meridional and zonal circulations can be described from the perspective of 3D vorticity evolution. The new set of dynamical equations includes decomposed expressions that can be used to explore the source terms of large-scale atmospheric circulation variations. A simplified model is presented to demonstrate the potential applications of the new equations for studying the dynamics of the Rossby, Hadley and Walker circulations. The model shows that the horizontal air temperature anomaly gradient (ATAG) induces changes in meridional and zonal circulations and promotes the baroclinic evolution of the horizontal circulation. The simplified model also indicates that the absolute vorticity of the horizontal circulation is not conserved, and its changes can be described by changes in the vertical vorticities of the meridional and zonal circulations. Moreover, the thermodynamic equation shows that the induced meridional and zonal circulations and advection transport by the horizontal circulation in turn cause a redistribution of the air temperature. The simplified model reveals the fundamental rules between the evolution of the air temperature and the horizontal, meridional

  10. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zinke, J; Hoell, A; Lough, J M; Feng, M; Kuret, A J; Clarke, H; Ricca, V; Rankenburg, K; McCulloch, M T

    2015-10-23

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  11. Sensitivities of the hydrologic cycle to model physics, grid resolution, and ocean type in the aquaplanet Community Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, James J.; Medeiros, Brian; Clement, Amy C.; Pendergrass, Angeline G.

    2017-06-01

    Precipitation distributions and extremes play a fundamental role in shaping Earth's climate and yet are poorly represented in many global climate models. Here, a suite of idealized Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) aquaplanet simulations is examined to assess the aquaplanet's ability to reproduce hydroclimate statistics of real-Earth configurations and to investigate sensitivities of precipitation distributions and extremes to model physics, horizontal grid resolution, and ocean type. Little difference in precipitation statistics is found between aquaplanets using time-constant sea-surface temperatures and those implementing a slab ocean model with a 50 m mixed-layer depth. In contrast, CAM version 5.3 (CAM5.3) produces more time mean, zonally averaged precipitation than CAM version 4 (CAM4), while CAM4 generates significantly larger precipitation variance and frequencies of extremely intense precipitation events. The largest model configuration-based precipitation sensitivities relate to choice of horizontal grid resolution in the selected range 1-2°. Refining grid resolution has significant physics-dependent effects on tropical precipitation: for CAM4, time mean zonal mean precipitation increases along the Equator and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) narrows, while for CAM5.3 precipitation decreases along the Equator and the twin branches of the ITCZ shift poleward. Increased grid resolution also reduces light precipitation frequencies and enhances extreme precipitation for both CAM4 and CAM5.3 resulting in better alignment with observational estimates. A discussion of the potential implications these hydrologic cycle sensitivities have on the interpretation of precipitation statistics in future climate projections is also presented.Plain Language SummaryPrecipitation plays a fundamental role in shaping Earth's climate. Global climate models predict the <span class="hlt">average</span> precipitation reasonably well but often struggle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H51I1387F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H51I1387F"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> wind indices to reconstruct United States winter precipitation during El Niño</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farnham, D. J.; Steinschneider, S.; Lall, U.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The highly discussed 2015/16 El Niño event, which many likened to the similarly strong 1997/98 El Niño event, led to precipitation impacts over the continental United States (CONUS) inconsistent with general expectations given past events and model-based forecasts. This presents a challenge for regional water managers and others who use seasonal precipitation forecasts who previously viewed El Niño events as times of enhanced confidence in seasonal water availability and flood risk forecasts. It is therefore useful to understand the extent to which wintertime CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by seasonal sea surface temperature heating patterns and the extent to which the precipitation is a product of natural variability. In this work, we define two seasonal indices based on the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind field spanning from the eastern Pacific to the western Atlantic over CONUS that can explain El Niño precipitation variation spatially throughout CONUS over 11 historic El Niño events from 1950 to 2016. The indices reconstruct El Niño event wintertime (Jan-Mar) gridded precipitation over CONUS through cross-validated regression much better than the traditional ENSO sea surface temperature indices or other known modes of variability. Lastly, we show strong relationships between sea surface temperature patterns and the phases of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind indices, which in turn suggests that some of the disparate CONUS precipitation during El Niño events can be explained by different heating patterns. The primary contribution of this work is the identification of intermediate variables (in the form of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind indices) that can facilitate further studies into the distinct hydroclimatic response to specific El Niño events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1440782-wave-kinetics-drift-wave-turbulence-zonal-flows-beyond-ray-approximation','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1440782-wave-kinetics-drift-wave-turbulence-zonal-flows-beyond-ray-approximation"><span>Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows beyond the ray approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.</p> <p></p> <p>Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P51B2062B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P51B2062B"><span>Saturn Ring Mass and <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Gravitational Harmonics Estimate at the End of the Cassini "Grand Finale"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Roth, D. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>"Solstice" mission is the 7-year extension of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft exploration of the Saturn system that will culminate with the "Grand Finale". Beginning in mid-2017, the spacecraft is scheduled to execute 22 orbits that have their periapses between the innermost D-ring and the upper layers of Saturn's atmosphere. These orbits will be perturbed by the gravitational field of Saturn as well as by the rings. We present an analysis of simulated "Grand Finale" radiometric data, and we investigate their sensitivity to the ring mass and higher <span class="hlt">zonal</span> gravitational harmonics of the planet. We model the data quantity with respect to the available coverage of the tracking stations on Earth, and we account for the times when the spacecraft is occulted either by Saturn or the rings. We also use different data weights to simulate changes in the data quality. The dynamical model of the spacecraft motion includes both gravitational and non-gravitational forces, such as the daily momentum management due to Reaction Wheel Assembly and radioisotope thermo-electric generator accelerations. We solve the equations of motion and use a weighted-least squares fit to obtain spacecraft's state vector, mass(es) of the ring or the individual rings, <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonics, and non-gravitational accelerations. We also investigate some a-priori values of the A- and B-ring masses from Tiscareno et al. (2007) and Hedman et al. (2015) analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the "Grand Finale" orbits should remain sensitive to the ring mass even for GMring<2 km3/s2 and that they will also provide high accuracy estimates of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonics J8, J10, and J12.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1440782-wave-kinetics-drift-wave-turbulence-zonal-flows-beyond-ray-approximation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1440782-wave-kinetics-drift-wave-turbulence-zonal-flows-beyond-ray-approximation"><span>Wave kinetics of drift-wave turbulence and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows beyond the ray approximation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhu, Hongxuan; Zhou, Yao; Ruiz, D. E.; ...</p> <p>2018-05-29</p> <p>Inhomogeneous drift-wave turbulence can be modeled as an effective plasma where drift waves act as quantumlike particles and the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-flow velocity serves as a collective field through which they interact. This effective plasma can be described by a Wigner-Moyal equation (WME), which generalizes the quasilinear wave-kinetic equation (WKE) to the full-wave regime, i.e., resolves the wavelength scale. Unlike waves governed by manifestly quantumlike equations, whose WMEs can be borrowed from quantum mechanics and are commonly known, drift waves have Hamiltonians very different from those of conventional quantum particles. This causes unusual phase-space dynamics that is typically not captured by themore » WKE. We demonstrate how to correctly model this dynamics with the WME instead. Specifically, we report full-wave phase-space simulations of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-flow formation (zonostrophic instability), deterioration (tertiary instability), and the so-called predator-prey oscillations. We also show how the WME facilitates analysis of these phenomena, namely, (i) we show that full-wave effects critically affect the zonostrophic instability, particularly its nonlinear stage and saturation; (ii) we derive the tertiary-instability growth rate; and (iii) we demonstrate that, with full-wave effects retained, the predator-prey oscillations do not require <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-flow collisional damping, contrary to previous studies. In conclusion, we also show how the famous Rayleigh-Kuo criterion, which has been missing in wave-kinetic theories of drift-wave turbulence, emerges from the WME.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27439428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27439428"><span>Engineering <span class="hlt">zonal</span> cartilage through bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, Xiang; Wang, Fuyou; Chen, Cheng; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Li; Yang, Liu</p> <p>2016-07-20</p> <p>Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for repairing and regenerating cartilage tissue. To date, attempts have been made to construct <span class="hlt">zonal</span> cartilage that mimics the cartilaginous matrix in different zones. However, little attention has been paid to the chondrocyte density gradient within the articular cartilage. We hypothesized that the chondrocyte density gradient plays an important role in forming the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, collagen type II hydrogel/chondrocyte constructs were fabricated using a bioprinter. Three groups were created according to the total cell seeding density in collagen type II pre-gel: Group A, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL; Group B, 1 × 10(7) cells/mL; and Group C, 0.5 × 10(7) cells/mL. Each group included two types of construct: one with a biomimetic chondrocyte density gradient and the other with a single cell density. The constructs were cultured in vitro and harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 3 weeks for cell viability testing, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), biochemical assays, and histological analysis. We found that total ECM production was positively correlated with the total cell density in the early culture stage, that the cell density gradient distribution resulted in a gradient distribution of ECM, and that the chondrocytes' biosynthetic ability was affected by both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern. Our results suggested that <span class="hlt">zonal</span> engineered cartilage could be fabricated by bioprinting collagen type II hydrogel constructs with a biomimetic cell density gradient. Both the total cell density and the cell distribution pattern should be optimized to achieve synergistic biological effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985icsu...18.....N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985icsu...18.....N"><span>Some studies of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780047975&hterms=types+satellite+artificial&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtypes%2Bsatellite%2Bartificial','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780047975&hterms=types+satellite+artificial&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtypes%2Bsatellite%2Bartificial"><span>Recursive analytical solution describing artificial satellite motion perturbed by an arbitrary number of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> terms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, A. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An analytical first order solution has been developed which describes the motion of an artificial satellite perturbed by an arbitrary number of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonics of the geopotential. A set of recursive relations for the solution, which was deduced from recursive relations of the geopotential, was derived. The method of solution is based on Von-Zeipel's technique applied to a canonical set of two-body elements in the extended phase space which incorporates the true anomaly as a canonical element. The elements are of Poincare type, that is, they are regular for vanishing eccentricities and inclinations. Numerical results show that this solution is accurate to within a few meters after 500 revolutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.723E.161S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.723E.161S"><span>Application of Classical and Lie Transform Methods to <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Perturbation in the Artificial Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>San-Juan, J. F.; San-Martin, M.; Perez, I.; Lopez-Ochoa, L. M.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator program is being carried out. This analytical orbit propagator combines modern perturbation methods, based on the canonical frame of the Lie transform, and classical perturbation methods in function of orbit types or the requirements needed for a space mission, such as catalog maintenance operations, long period evolution, and so on. As a first step on the validation of part of our orbit propagator, in this work we only consider the perturbation produced by <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonic coefficients in the Earth's gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the perturbation methods involved in the corresponding analytical theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPPM1008P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPPM1008P"><span>Influence of large-scale <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> flows driven by convection</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018258&hterms=nagpal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnagpal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018258&hterms=nagpal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnagpal"><span>Some studies of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional wind characteristics at low latitude Indian stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nagpal, O. P.; Kumar, S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme (IMAP), it was decided that the preparation of consolidation reports of already available parameters for the middle atmosphere would be useful. Atmospheric wind data obtained by rockets and balloons constituted one such parameter which had to be consolidated. The present paper summaries the results of this consolidation study. Both <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional components of winds at four low latitude Indian stations namely Thumba, Shar, Hyderabad, and Balasore, have been analyzed to yield reference wind profiles for each month. The montly mean values have been used to bring out the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual and quasi-biennial oscillations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23I0343K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23I0343K"><span>Why the stratospheric <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional wind changes trend in the mid -1990s?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krizan, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional wind in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis data especially monthly mean of geopotential from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790010899','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790010899"><span>Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, K. C.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=algae&id=EJ1120792','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=algae&id=EJ1120792"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Acidification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ocean+AND+climate+AND+changes&pg=3&id=EJ285785','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ocean+AND+climate+AND+changes&pg=3&id=EJ285785"><span>The <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Broecker, Wallace S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The chemistry of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.211..455G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.211..455G"><span>Multiple <span class="hlt">zonal</span> jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde <span class="hlt">zonal</span> jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde <span class="hlt">zonal</span> jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1006K"><span>Impact of asymmetry in the total ozone distribution in Antarctic region to the South <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovalenok, S.; Evtushevsky, A.; Grytsai, A.; Milinevsky, G.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Impact of asymmetry in the total ozone distribution in Antarctic region to South <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> ecosystem is studied. The existence of the considerable <span class="hlt">zonal</span> asymmetry in total ozone distribution over Antarctica observed last decades based on the satellite TOMS measurements in 1979-2005 due to existence of quasi-stationary planetary waves in a polar stratosphere. As was shown by authors earlier in the latitudinal interval of 55-75°S in Antarctic spring months (Sep-Nov) the region of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> total ozone minimum experienced the systematic spatial drift to the east. In the same period a minimum and maximum of quasi-stationary wave in TOC distribution are located: minimum over the Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea area, and maximum in the Ross Sea area. We expect that <span class="hlt">zonal</span> asymmetry in total ozone distribution and its long-term spatial changes should impact to South <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> ecosystem food chain, especially in primary level. The systematic eastern shift of the quasi-stationary minimum in ozone distribution over north Weddell Sea area should cause the increased UV radiation on sea surface in comparison to Ross Sea area, where the lack of UVR should exist in spring month. To study this influence the available data of phytoplankton distribution in South <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in 1997-2007 were analyzed. The results of analysis in connections with Antarctic Peninsula regional climate warming are discussed. The research was partly supported by project 06BF051-12 of the National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........12L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........12L"><span>A low-order model of the equatorial <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legnani, Roberto</p> <p></p> <p>A low order model of the equatorial <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere coupled system is presented. The model atmosphere includes a hydrological cycle with cloud-radiation interaction. The model <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is based on mixed layer dynamics with a parameterization of entrainment processes. The coupling takes place via transfer to momentum, sensible heat, latent heat and short wave and long wave radiation through the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface. The dynamical formulation is that of the primitive equations of an equatorial beta-plane, with <span class="hlt">zonally</span> periodic and meridionally infinite geometry. The system is expanded into the set of normal modes pertinent to the linear problem and severly truncated to a few modes; 54 degrees of freedom are retained. Some nonlinear terms of the equations are evaluated in physical space and then projected onto the functional space; other terms are evaluated directly in the functional space. Sensitivity tests to variations of the parameters are performed, and some results from 10-year initial value simulations are presented. The model is capable of supporting oscillations of different time scales, ranging from a few days to a few years; it prefers a particular <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric state, but temporarily switches to a different (opposite) <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric state in an event-like fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........76L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........76L"><span>a Low-Order Model of the Equatorial <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-Atmosphere System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legnani, Roberto</p> <p></p> <p>A low order model of the equatorial <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere coupled system is presented. The model atmosphere includes a hydrological cycle with cloud-radiation interaction. The model <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is based on mixed layer dynamics with a parameterization of entrainment processes. The coupling takes place via transfer to momentum, sensible heat, latent heat and short -wave and long-wave radiation through the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface. The dynamical formulation is that of the primitive equations of an equatorial beta-plane, with <span class="hlt">zonally</span> periodic and meridionally infinite geometry. The system is expanded into the set of normal modes pertinent to the linear problem and severely truncated to a few modes; 54 degrees of freedom are retained. Some nonlinear terms of the equations are evaluated in physical space and then projected onto the functional space; other terms are evaluated directly in the functional space. Sensitivity tests to variations of the parameters are performed, and some results from 10-year initial value simulations are presented. The model is capable of supporting oscillations of different time scales, ranging from a few days to a few years; it prefers a particular <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric state, but temporarily switches to a different (opposite) <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric state in an event-like fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNG21A..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNG21A..01S"><span>On the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Hueso, R.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Legarreta, J.; Rojas, J. F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of the long-term variability of Jupiter and Saturn <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind profiles at their upper cloud level as retrieved from cloud motion tracking on images obtained at ground-based observatories and with different spacecraft missions since 1979, encompassing about three Jovian and one Saturn years. We study the sensitivity and variability of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind profile in both planets to major planetary-scale disturbances and to seasonal forcing. We finally discuss the implications that these results have for current model efforts to explain the global tropospheric circulation in these planets. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. [1] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Icarus, 147, 405-420 (2000). [2] García-Melendo E., Sánchez LavegaA., Icarus, 152, 316-330 (2001) [3] Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 423, 623-625 (2003). [4] García-Melendo E., et al., Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L22204 (2010).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1178768','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1178768"><span>Subcellular fractionation by <span class="hlt">zonal</span> centrifugation of glucose-repressed anaerobically grown Saccharomyces carlsbergensis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cartledge, T. G.; Lloyd, D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of anaerobically grown, glucoserepressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, and the distributions of marker enzymes investigated after <span class="hlt">zonal</span> centrifugation on sucrose gradients containing 2mm-MgCl2. 2. These homogenates contained no detectable cytochrome c oxidase, succinate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase, succinate–ferricyanide oxidoreductase, l(+)-lactate–cytochrome c oxidoreductase or catalase. Cytochromes a+a3 and c were not detected. 3. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> centrifugation of whole homogenates indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases, adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), adenosine pyrophosphatase (ADPase), pyrophosphatase and acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase. Several different ATPases were distinguished on the basis of their sensitivities to oligomycin and ouabain. 4. Differential centrifugation of whole homogenates at 105g-min left 80–90% of the protein, dithionite-reducible cytochrome b, acid hydrolases and pyrophosphatase in a supernatant (S1) together with 65 and 56% of the NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases respectively, 25% of the ATPases and 71% of the adenosine monophosphatase. 5. Further analysis of supernatant S1 revealed the presence of a class of small particles containing NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases and ATPases. 6. At least four different populations of large particles were distinguished. 7. Electron microscopy indicated that one of these corresponded to `promitochondria' as described by other workers. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2PLATE 3 PMID:4405573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27755372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27755372"><span>ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE <span class="hlt">ZONAL</span> OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>To determine whether ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography findings. Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test used for comparisons of nonparametric continuous variables. All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (five of the five eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard fundus autofluorescence centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). The UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography abnormalities. The UWFFAF along with optical coherence tomography can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050147488&hterms=saber&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsaber','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050147488&hterms=saber&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsaber"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span>-Mean Temperature Variations Inferred from SABER Measurements on TIMED Compared with UARS Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Reber, Carl A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM, Mayr et al., 2003), small-scale gravity waves propagating in the north/south direction can generate <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean (m = 0) meridional wind oscillations with periods between 2 and 4 months. These oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and have been interpreted to be the meridional counterpart of the wave-driven Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> circulation. Wave driven meridional winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. We have analyzed SABER temperature measurements in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to investigate the existence such variations. Because there are also strong tidal signatures (up to approximately 20 K) in the data, our algorithm estimates both mean values and tides together from the data. Based on SABER temperature data, the intra-annual variations with periods between 2 and 4 months can have amplitudes up to 5 K or more, depending on the altitude. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with those inferred Erom UARS data (from different years). The SABER temperature variations also reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, which are qualitatively consistent with wave driven meridional wind oscillations across the equator. Oscillations with similar periods have been seen in the meridional winds based on UARS data (Huang and Reber, 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039534','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039534"><span>The Brown Alga Stypopodium <span class="hlt">zonale</span> (Dictyotaceae): A Potential Source of Anti-Leishmania Drugs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soares, Deivid Costa; Szlachta, Marcella Macedo; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Soares, Angelica Ribeiro; Saraiva, Elvira Maria</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of a lipophilic extract from the brown alga Stypopodium <span class="hlt">zonale</span> and atomaric acid, its major compound. Our initial results revealed high inhibitory activity for intracellular amastigotes in a dose-dependent manner and an IC50 of 0.27 μg/mL. Due to its high anti-Leishmania activity and low toxicity toward host cells, we fractionated the lipophilic extract. A major meroditerpene in this extract, atomaric acid, and its methyl ester derivative, which was obtained by a methylation procedure, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values of 20.2 μM (9 μg/mL) and 22.9 μM (10 μg/mL), and selectivity indexes of 8.4 μM and 11.5 μM. The leishmanicidal activity of both meroditerpenes was independent of nitric oxide (NO) production, but the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be at least partially responsible for the amastigote killing. Our results suggest that the lipophilic extract of S. <span class="hlt">zonale</span> may represent an important source of compounds for the development of anti-Leishmania drugs. PMID:27618071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-acidification','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-acidification"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Acidification | Smithsonian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Portal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Skip to main content Menu Search <em>form</em> Search Search Find Your Blue Smithsonian National Museum of Vents & Volcanoes Temperature & Chemistry Ice The <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Through Time Ancient Seas <em>Fossils</em> CO2 molecules and recombine them with others. When water (H2O) and CO2 mix, they combine to <em>form</em></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22490045-shear-flow-trapped-ion-mode-interaction-revisited-ii-intermittent-transport-associated-low-frequency-zonal-flow-dynamics','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22490045-shear-flow-trapped-ion-mode-interaction-revisited-ii-intermittent-transport-associated-low-frequency-zonal-flow-dynamics"><span>Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Ghizzo, A., E-mail: alain.ghizzo@univ-lorraine.fr; Palermo, F.</p> <p></p> <p>We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was foundmore » that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JIEIB..99...97H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JIEIB..99...97H"><span>A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Exchange Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter <span class="hlt">zonal</span> operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter <span class="hlt">zonal</span> operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810023258','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810023258"><span><span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Lidar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carder, K. L. (Editor)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Instrument concepts which measure <span class="hlt">ocean</span> temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16652369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16652369"><span>Model <span class="hlt">averaging</span> in linkage analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matthysse, Steven</p> <p>2006-06-05</p> <p>Methods for genetic linkage analysis are traditionally divided into "model-dependent" and "model-independent," but there may be a useful place for an intermediate class, in which a broad range of possible models is considered as a parametric family. It is possible to <span class="hlt">average</span> over model space with an empirical Bayes prior that weights models according to their goodness of fit to epidemiologic data, such as the frequency of the disease in the population and in first-degree relatives (and correlations with other traits in the pleiotropic case). For <span class="hlt">averaging</span> over high-dimensional spaces, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) has great appeal, but it has a near-fatal flaw: it is not possible, in most cases, to provide rigorous sufficient conditions to permit the user safely to conclude that the chain has converged. A way of overcoming the convergence problem, if not of solving it, rests on a simple application of the principle of detailed balance. If the starting point of the chain has the equilibrium distribution, so will every subsequent point. The first point is chosen according to the target distribution by rejection sampling, and subsequent points by an MCMC process that has the target distribution as its equilibrium distribution. Model <span class="hlt">averaging</span> with an empirical Bayes prior requires rapid estimation of likelihoods at many points in parameter space. Symbolic polynomials are constructed before the random walk over parameter space begins, to make the actual likelihood computations at each step of the random walk very fast. Power analysis in an illustrative case is described. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPBI2003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPBI2003H"><span>Direct evidence of stationary <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows and critical gradient behavior for Er during formation of the edge pedestal in JET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hillesheim, Jon</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>High spatial resolution measurements with Doppler backscattering in JET have provided new insights into the development of the edge radial electric field during pedestal formation. The characteristics of Er have been studied as a function of density at 2.5 MA plasma current and 3 T toroidal magnetic field. We observe fine-scale spatial structure in the edge Er well prior to the LH transition, consistent with stationary <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> flows are a fundamental mechanism for the saturation of turbulence and this is the first direct evidence of stationary <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows in a tokamak. The radial wavelength of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows systematically decreases with density. The <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows are clearest in Ohmic conditions, weaker in L-mode, and absent in H-mode. Measurements also show that after neutral beam heating is applied, the edge Er builds up at a constant gradient into the core during L-mode, at radii where Er is mainly due to toroidal velocity. The local stability of velocity shear driven turbulence, such as the parallel velocity gradient mode, will be assessed with gyrokinetic simulations. This critical Er shear persists across the LH transition into H-mode. Surprisingly, a reduction in the apparent magnitude of the Er well depth is observed directly following the LH transition at high densities. Establishing the physics basis for the LH transition is important for projecting scalings to ITER and these observations challenge existing models based on increased Er shear or strong <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows as the trigger for the transition. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49..113C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...49..113C"><span>Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF ( 35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind trend during MAM ( 15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23606563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23606563"><span>Three-dimensional assembly of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs results in cartilaginous tissue formation without retainment of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schuurman, W; Harimulyo, E B; Gawlitta, D; Woodfield, T B F; Dhert, W J A; van Weeren, P R; Malda, J</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capabilities. Chondrocytes from different layers of cartilage have specific properties, and regenerative approaches using <span class="hlt">zonal</span> chondrocytes may yield better replication of the architecture of native cartilage than when using a single cell population. To obtain high seeding efficiency while still mimicking <span class="hlt">zonal</span> architecture, cell pellets of expanded deep zone and superficial zone equine chondrocytes were seeded and cultured in two layers on poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT-PBT) scaffolds. Scaffolds seeded with cell pellets consisting of a 1:1 mixture of both cell sources served as controls. Parallel to this, pellets of superficial or deep zone chondrocytes, and combinations of the two cell populations, were cultured without the scaffold. Pellet cultures of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> chondrocytes in scaffolds resulted in a high seeding efficiency and abundant cartilaginous tissue formation, containing collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in all groups, irrespective of the donor (n = 3), <span class="hlt">zonal</span> population or stratified scaffold-seeding approach used. However, whereas total GAG production was similar, the constructs retained significantly more GAG compared to pellet cultures, in which a high percentage of the produced GAGs were secreted into the culture medium. Immunohistochemistry for <span class="hlt">zonal</span> markers did not show any differences between the conditions. We conclude that spatially defined pellet culture in 3D scaffolds is associated with high seeding efficiency and supports cartilaginous tissue formation, but did not result in the maintenance or restoration of the original <span class="hlt">zonal</span> phenotype. The use of pellet-assembled constructs leads to a better retainment of newly produced GAGs than the use of pellet cultures alone. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1357P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1357P"><span>Thermal <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds in the Venus mesosphere from the Venus Express temperature soundings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piccialli, Arianna; Titov, Dmitri; Tellmann, Silvia; Migliorini, Alessandra; Read, Peter; Grassi, Davide; Paetzold, Martin; Haeusler, Bernd; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre</p> <p></p> <p>The Venus mesosphere (60-100 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by extremely complex dynamics: strong retrograde <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds dominate in the troposphere and lower meso-sphere while a solar-antisolar circulation can be observed in the upper mesosphere. The super-rotation extends from the surface up to the cloud top (˜65 km altitude) with wind speeds of only a few meters per second near the surface and reaching a maximum value of ˜100 m s-1 at cloud top, corresponding to a rotation period of ˜4 Earth days (˜60 times faster than Venus itself). The solar-antisolar circulation is driven by the day-night contrast in solar heating, and occurs above 110 km altitude with speeds of 120 m s-1 . The processes responsible for maintain-ing the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> super-rotation in the lower atmosphere and its transition to the solar-antisolar circulation in the upper atmosphere are still poorly understood (Schubert et al.,2007). Different techniques have been used to obtain direct observations of wind at various altitudes: tracking of clouds in ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) images give information on wind speeds at the cloud top (Moissl et al., 2009; Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) and within the clouds (˜47 km, ˜61 km) (Sanchez-Lavega et al., 2008) while ground-based measurements of Doppler shifts in the CO2 band at 10 µm (Sornig et al., 2008) and in several CO millimiter lines (Rengel et al., 2008) provide wind speeds above the clouds up to ˜110 km altitude. The deep atmosphere from the surface up to the cloud top has been investigated through the Doppler tracking of descent probes and balloons (Counselman et al., 1980; Kerzhanovich and Limaye, 1985). In the mesosphere, between 45-85 km of altitude, where direct observations of wind are not possible, the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind field can be derived from the vertical temperature structure using a special approximation of the thermal wind equation: based on cyclostrophic balance. Previous studies (Leovy, 1973; Newman et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE44D1547S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE44D1547S"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> vertical iron fluxes; the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Haucke, J.; Losch, M. J.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Voelker, C. D.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> plays a key role in the climate system, but commonly used large-scale <span class="hlt">ocean</span> general circulation biogeochemical models give different estimates of current and future Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> net primary and export production. The representation of the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> iron sources plays an important role for the modeled biogeochemistry. Studies of the iron supply to the surface mixed layer have traditionally focused on the aeolian and sediment contributions, but recent work has highlighted the importance of the vertical supply from below. We have performed a model study in which the biogeochemical model REcoM2 was coupled to two different <span class="hlt">ocean</span> models, the Finite Element Sea-ice <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Model (FESOM) and the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) and analyzed the magnitude of the iron sources to the surface mixed layer from below in the two models. Our results revealed a remarkable difference in terms of mechanism and magnitude of transport. The mean iron supply from below in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was on <span class="hlt">average</span> four times higher in MITgcm than in FESOM and the dominant pathway was entrainment in MITgcm, whereas diffusion dominated in FESOM. Differences in the depth and seasonal amplitude of the mixed layer between the models affect on the vertical iron profile, the relative position of the base of the mixed layer and ferricline and thereby also on the iron fluxes. These differences contribute to differences in the phytoplankton composition in the two models, as well as in the timing of the onset of the spring bloom. The study shows that the choice of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model has a significant impact on the iron supply to the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> mixed layer and thus on the modeled carbon cycle, with possible implications for model runs predicting the future carbon uptake in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513894T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513894T"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> characterization of hillslope erosion processes in a semi-arid high mountain catchment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torres, Raquel; Millares, Agustín; Aguilar, Cristina; Moñino, Antonio; Ángel Losada, Miguel; José Polo, María</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Mediterranean and semi-arid catchments, generally suffer heterogeneous erosive processes at different spatio-temporal scales which produce, in a synergistic manner, a large amount of sediment supply. In mountainous catchments, the influence of pluvio-nival hydrological regime leads to a clear subdivision into homogeneous zones regarding the nature of hillslope processes. Here, a distinction could be addressed with 1) subsurface erosion due to saturated soil by intense snowmelt pulses and 2) steepest mid-mountain soil loss with rill/interrill, small-scale landslides and ephemeral or permanent gullying. Furthermore, the associated channels in these areas are formed by wide alluvial floodplains with important bedload contributions. This complexity conditions the evaluation of erosion and monitoring at catchment scale with elevated costs in time, devices and staff. The catchment of the Guadalfeo river encloses 1200 km², with important presence of snow in the summits height on its right margin, and semiarid low range hills with very erodible soils on its left margin. Gully erosion, landslides and stream bed-load processes, extremely actives in this area, are responsible of a real problem of soil loss and desertification with a high associated cost. This work suggests a methodology for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> assessment of different erosive processes taking into account the described heterogeneity and the reduction of research costs. To do this, high resolution bathymetric and topographic surveys supported in a reservoir (110 hm3) allowed the differentiation of bedload and suspended sediments as both are deposited in different locations and hence the validation of the hillslope sediment yield. In parallel, measurements in homogeneous areas were selected in order to obtain <span class="hlt">zonal</span> results to achieve the representative processes involved. The use of portable samplers allows the remote changing of sampling routines, and thus to capture the temporal scale of the processes and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P31B1892V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P31B1892V"><span>Are Strong <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Winds in Giant Planets Caused by Density-Stratification?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verhoeven, J.; Stellmach, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>One of the most striking features of giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn are the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind patterns observed on their surfaces. The mechanism that drives this differential rotation is still not clearly identified and is currently strongly debated in the astro- and geophysics community. Different mechanisms have been proposed over the last decades. Here, a recently discovered mechanism based on background density stratification (Glatzmaier et al., 2009) is investigated. This mechanism has the potential to overcome known difficulties of previous explanations and its efficiency has been demonstrated in 2-d simulations covering equatorial planes. By performing highly resolved numerical simulations in a local Cartesian geometry, we are able to test the efficiency and functionality of this mechanism in turbulent, rotating convection in three spatial dimensions. The choice of a Cartesian model geometry naturally excludes other known mechanisms capable of producing differential rotation, thus allowing us to investigate the role of density stratification in isolation. Typically, the dynamics can be classified into two main regimes: A regime exhibiting strong <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds for weak to moderate thermal driving and a regime where <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds are largely absent in the case of a strong thermal forcing. Our results indicate that previous 2-d results must be handled with care and can only explain parts of the full 3-d behavior. We show that the density-stratification mechanism tends to operate in a more narrow parameter range in 3-d as compared to 2-d simulations. The dynamics of the regime transition is shown to differ in both cases, which renders scaling laws derived from two-dimensional studies questionable. Based on our results, we provide estimates for the importance of the density-stratification mechanism for giant planets like Jupiter (strong density stratification), for systems like the Earth's core (weak density stratification) and compare its efficiency with other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020070808','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020070808"><span>The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Wave-One</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20020070808'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20020070808_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20020070808_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20020070808_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20020070808_hide"></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at (<http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz>) are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SeaF...27..300S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SeaF...27..300S"><span>Turbines in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>It is noted that the relatively high-speed <span class="hlt">ocean</span> currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20895130-comparison-analytical-models-zonal-flow-generation-ion-temperature-gradient-mode-turbulence','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20895130-comparison-analytical-models-zonal-flow-generation-ion-temperature-gradient-mode-turbulence"><span>Comparison of analytical models for <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow generation in ion-temperature-gradient mode turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Anderson, J.; Miki, K.; Uzawa, K.</p> <p>2006-11-30</p> <p>During the past years the understanding of the multi scale interaction problems have increased significantly. However, at present there exists a flora of different analytical models for investigating multi scale interactions and hardly any specific comparisons have been performed among these models. In this work two different models for the generation of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) background turbulence are discussed and compared. The methods used are the coherent mode coupling model and the wave kinetic equation model (WKE). It is shown that the two models give qualitatively the same results even though the assumption on the spectral difference ismore » used in the (WKE) approach.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5071398-using-zonal-atmospheric-model-test-biogeophysical-feedback-caused-drought-subtropical-desert','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5071398-using-zonal-atmospheric-model-test-biogeophysical-feedback-caused-drought-subtropical-desert"><span>Using a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> atmospheric model to test biogeophysical feedback-caused drought in the subtropical desert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Potter, G.L.; MacCracken, M.C.; Ellsaesser, H.W.</p> <p>1975-08-01</p> <p>Recent interest in the cause of the sub-Sahara drought has initiated several investigations implying possible anthropogenic origin through increased surface albedo due to reduced plant cover from overgrazing. Results of two integrations of the <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Atmospheric Model (ZAM2) are presented, differing only in the prescribed surface albedo for the subtropical land masses of the northern hemisphere. These studies were initiated to determine whether an albedo change alone can bring about such dramatic impacts on local precipitation rates as have been implied. Preliminary results indicate that an albedo change can affect the climate, not just at the latitude of change butmore » also at other latitudes due to various atmospheric feedback mechanisms. (auth)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatCC...8..434K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatCC...8..434K"><span>Forest response to rising CO2 drives <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric rainfall change over tropical land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Chen, Yang; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Koven, Charles D.; Lindsay, Keith; Pritchard, Michael S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Randerson, James T.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Understanding how anthropogenic CO2 emissions will influence future precipitation is critical for sustainably managing ecosystems, particularly for drought-sensitive tropical forests. Although tropical precipitation change remains uncertain, nearly all models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 predict a strengthening <span class="hlt">zonal</span> precipitation asymmetry by 2100, with relative increases over Asian and African tropical forests and decreases over South American forests. Here we show that the plant physiological response to increasing CO2 is a primary mechanism responsible for this pattern. Applying a simulation design in the Community Earth System Model in which CO2 increases are isolated over individual continents, we demonstrate that different circulation, moisture and stability changes arise over each continent due to declines in stomatal conductance and transpiration. The sum of local atmospheric responses over individual continents explains the pan-tropical precipitation asymmetry. Our analysis suggests that South American forests may be more vulnerable to rising CO2 than Asian or African forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.676a2016M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.676a2016M"><span>Radiative modelling by the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> method and WSGG model in inhomogeneous axisymmetric cylindrical enclosure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Méchi, Rachid; Farhat, Habib; Said, Rachid</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Nongray radiation calculations are carried out for a case problem available in the literature. The problem is a non-isothermal and inhomogeneous CO2-H2O- N2 gas mixture confined within an axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The numerical procedure is based on the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> method associated with the weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) model. The effect of the wall emissivity on the heat flux losses is discussed. It is shown that this property affects strongly the furnace efficiency and that the most important heat fluxes are those leaving through the circumferential boundary. The numerical procedure adopted in this work is found to be effective and may be relied on to simulate coupled turbulent combustion-radiation in fired furnaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820053890&hterms=magnetic+vector+potential&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bvector%2Bpotential','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820053890&hterms=magnetic+vector+potential&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bvector%2Bpotential"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> harmonic model of Saturn's magnetic field from Voyager 1 and 2 observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of the magnetic field of Saturn is presented which takes into account both the Voyager 1 and 2 vector magnetic field observations. The analysis is based on the traditional spherical harmonic expansion of a scale potential to derive the magnetic field within 8 Saturn radii. A third-order <span class="hlt">zonal</span> harmonic model fitted to Voyager 1 and 2 observations is found to be capable of predicting the magnetic field characteristics at one encounter based on those observed at another, unlike models including dipole and quadrupole terms only. The third-order model is noted to lead to significantly enhanced polar surface field intensities with respect to dipole models, and probably represents the axisymmetric part of a complex dynamo field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860019466','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860019466"><span>A <span class="hlt">zonal</span> computational procedure adapted to the optimization of two-dimensional thrust augmentor inlets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A viscous-inviscid interaction methodology based on a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> description of the flowfield is developed as a mean of predicting the performance of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejectors. An inviscid zone comprising the irrotational flow about the device is patched together with a viscous zone containing the turbulent mixing flow. The inviscid region is computed by a higher order panel method, while an integral method is used for the description of the viscous part. A non-linear, constrained optimization study is undertaken for the design of the inlet region. In this study, the viscous-inviscid analysis is complemented with a boundary layer calculation to account for flow separation from the walls of the inlet region. The thrust-based Reynolds number as well as the free stream velocity are shown to be important parameters in the design of a thrust augmentor inlet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29086393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29086393"><span>Free Flow <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Electrophoresis for Fractionation of Plant Membrane Compartments Prior to Proteomic Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barkla, Bronwyn J</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Free flow <span class="hlt">zonal</span> electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile, reproducible, and potentially high-throughput technique for the separation of plant organelles and membranes by differences in membrane surface charge. It offers considerable benefits over traditional fractionation techniques, such as density gradient centrifugation and two-phase partitioning, as it is relatively fast, sample recovery is high, and the method provides unparalleled sample purity. It has been used to successfully purify chloroplasts and mitochondria from plants but also, to obtain highly pure fractions of plasma membrane, tonoplast, ER, Golgi, and thylakoid membranes. Application of the technique can significantly improve protein coverage in large-scale proteomics studies by decreasing sample complexity. Here, we describe the method for the fractionation of plant cellular membranes from leaves by FFZE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51N0267E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51N0267E"><span>Using box models to quantify <span class="hlt">zonal</span> distributions and emissions of halocarbons in the background atmosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; Miller, B.; Butler, J. H.; Mondeel, D. J.; Siso, C.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Rigby, M. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species (HATS) of NOAA's Global Monitoring Division started measurements of the major chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide in 1977 from flask samples collected at five remote sites around the world. Our program has expanded to over 40 compounds at twelve sites, which includes six in situ instruments and twelve flask sites. The Montreal Protocol for Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments has helped to decrease the concentrations of many of the ozone depleting compounds in the atmosphere. Our goal is to provide <span class="hlt">zonal</span> emission estimates for these trace gases from multi-box models and their estimated atmospheric lifetimes in this presentation and make the emission values available on our web site. We plan to use our airborne measurements to calibrate the exchange times between the boxes for 5-box and 12-box models using sulfur hexafluoride where emissions are better understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DPPU11025Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DPPU11025Z"><span>Tertiary instability of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The stability of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P44A..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P44A..03K"><span>Periodical oscillation of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind velocities at the cloud top of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kouyama, T.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Satoh, T.; Futaana, Y.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> wind velocity of Venus increases with height and reaches about 100 m s-1 at the cloud top level (~70km). The speed is approximately 60 times faster than the rotation speed of the solid body of Venus (~1.6 m s-1, at the equator) and this phenomenon is called a "super-rotation". From previous observations, it is known that the super-rotation changes on a long timescale. At the cloud top level, it was suggested that the super-rotation has a few years period oscillation based on observations made by Pioneer Venus orbiter of USA from 1979 to 1985 (Del Genio et al.,1990). However, the period, the amplitude, the spatial structure and the mechanism of the long period oscillation have not been understood well. Venus Express (VEX) of European Space Agency has been observing Venus since its orbital insertion in April 2006. Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard VEX has an ultra violet (UV) filter (365 nm), and VMC has taken day-side cloud images at the cloud top level with this filter. Such images exhibit various cloud features made by unknown UV absorber in the atmosphere. For investigating the characteristics of long-timescale variations of the super-rotation, we analyzed <span class="hlt">zonal</span> velocity fields derived from UV cloud images from May 2006 to January 2010 using a cloud tracking method. UV imaging of VMC is done when the spacecraft is in the ascending portion of its elongated polar orbit. Since the orbital plane is nearly fixed in the inertial space, the local time of VMC/UV observation changes with a periodicity of one Venus year. As a result, periods when VMC observation covered day-side areas of Venus, large enough for cloud trackings, are not continuous. For deriving wind velocities we were able to use cloud images taken in 280 orbits during this period. The derived <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind velocity from 10°S to 40°S latitude shows a prominent year-to-year variation, and the variation is well fitted by a periodical oscillation with a period of about 260 Earth days, although not all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NucFu..57l6052G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NucFu..57l6052G"><span>Impact of impurities on <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow driven by trapped electron mode turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Weixin; Wang, Lu; Zhuang, Ge</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The impact of impurities on the generation of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow (ZF) driven by collisonless trapped electron mode turbulence in deuterium (D)-tritium (T) plasmas is investigated. An expression for ZF growth rate with impurities is derived by balancing the ZF potential shielded by polarization effects and the ZF modulated radial turbulent current. Then, it is shown that the maximum normalized ZF growth rate is reduced by the presence of fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively flat density profile, and slightly reduced by highly ionized trace tungsten, while the maximum normalized ZF growth rate can be enhanced by fully ionized non-trace light impurities with relatively steep density profile. In particular, the effects of high temperature helium from D-T reaction on ZF depend on the temperature ratio between electrons and high temperature helium. The possible relevance of our findings to recent experimental results and future burning plasmas is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3751Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3751Z"><span>On the role of atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor</p> <p></p> <p>It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the <span class="hlt">oceans</span> into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D <span class="hlt">zonally</span> <span class="hlt">averaged</span> interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and <span class="hlt">average</span> expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNG23A1552B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNG23A1552B"><span>Prediction of Rare Transitions in Planetary Atmosphere Dynamics Between Attractors with Different Number of <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouchet, F.; Laurie, J.; Zaboronski, O.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We describe transitions between attractors with either one, two or more <span class="hlt">zonal</span> jets in models of turbulent atmosphere dynamics. Those transitions are extremely rare, and occur over times scales of centuries or millennia. They are extremely hard to observe in direct numerical simulations, because they require on one hand an extremely good resolution in order to simulate accurately the turbulence and on the other hand simulations performed over an extremely long time. Those conditions are usually not met together in any realistic models. However many examples of transitions between turbulent attractors in geophysical flows are known to exist (paths of the Kuroshio, Earth's magnetic field reversal, atmospheric flows, and so on). Their study through numerical computations is inaccessible using conventional means. We present an alternative approach, based on instanton theory and large deviations. Instanton theory provides a way to compute (both numerically and theoretically) extremely rare transitions between turbulent attractors. This tool, developed in field theory, and justified in some cases through the large deviation theory in mathematics, can be applied to models of turbulent atmosphere dynamics. It provides both new theoretical insights and new type of numerical algorithms. Those algorithms can predict transition histories and transition rates using numerical simulations run over only hundreds of typical model dynamical time, which is several order of magnitude lower than the typical transition time. We illustrate the power of those tools in the framework of quasi-geostrophic models. We show regimes where two or more attractors coexist. Those attractors corresponds to turbulent flows dominated by either one or more <span class="hlt">zonal</span> jets similar to midlatitude atmosphere jets. Among the trajectories connecting two non-equilibrium attractors, we determine the most probable ones. Moreover, we also determine the transition rates, which are several of magnitude larger than a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JATP...48.1085R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JATP...48.1085R"><span>Longitudinal differences and inter-annual variations of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind in the tropical stratosphere and troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reddy, C. A.; Raghava Reddi, C.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>A quantitative assessment has been made of the longitude-dependent differences and the interannual variations of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind components in the equatorial stratosphere and troposphere, from the analysis of rocket and balloon data for 1979 and 1980 for three stations near ±8.5° latitude (Ascension Island at 14.4°W, Thumba at 76.9°E and Kwajalein at 67.7°E) and two stations near 21.5° latitude (Barking Sands at 159.6°W and Balasore at 86.9°E). The longitude-dependent differences are found to be about 10-20 m s -1 (amounting to 50-200% in some cases) for the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) and the annual oscillation (AO) amplitudes, depending upon the altitude and latitude. Inter-annual variations of about 10 m s -1 also exist in both oscillations. The phase of the SAO exhibits an almost 180° shift at Kwajalein compared to that at the other two stations near 8.5°, while the phase of the AO is independent of longitude, in the stratosphere. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) are found to be almost independent of longitude in the 18-38 km range, but above 40 km height the QBO amplitude and phase have different values in different longitude sectors for the three stations near ±8.5° latitude. The mean <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind shows no change from 1979 to 1980, but in the troposphere at 8.5° latitude strong easterlies prevail in the Indian zone, in contrast to the westerlies at the Atlantic and Pacific stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12111486K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12111486K"><span><span class="hlt">Zonally</span> resolved impact of ENSO on the stratospheric circulation and water vapor entry values</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Riese, Martin</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Based on simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) for the period 1979-2013, with model transport driven by the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the variability of the dynamics, water vapor, ozone, and mean age of air (AoA) in the tropical lower stratosphere during boreal winter. Our <span class="hlt">zonally</span> resolved analysis at the 390 K potential temperature level reveals that not only (deseasonalized) ENSO-related temperature anomalies are confined to the tropical Pacific (180-300°E) but also anomalous wave propagation and breaking, as quantified in terms of the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux divergence, with strongest local contribution during the La Niña phase. This anomaly is coherent with respective anomalies of water vapor (±0.5 ppmv) and ozone (±100 ppbv) derived from CLaMS being in excellent agreement with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Thus, during El Niño a more <span class="hlt">zonally</span> symmetric wave forcing drives a deep branch of the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation. During La Niña this forcing increases at lower levels (≈390 K) over the tropical Pacific, likely influencing the shallow branch of the BD circulation. In agreement with previous studies, wet (dry) and young (old) tape recorder anomalies propagate upward in the subsequent months following El Niño (La Niña). Using CLaMS, these anomalies are found to be around +0.3 (-0.2) ppmv and -4 (+4) months for water vapor and AoA, respectively. The AoA ENSO anomaly is more strongly affected by the residual circulation (≈2/3) than by eddy mixing (≈1/3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.P24B..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.P24B..04S"><span>Jupiter cloud morphology and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds from ground-based observations before and during Juno exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Iñurrigarro, P.; Mendikoa, I.; Rojas, J. F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present the results of a long term campaign between September 2015 and August 2016 of imaging of Jupiter's cloud morphology and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds in the 0.38 - 1.7 μm wavelength spectral range. We use PlanetCam lucky imaging camera at the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain, and for the optical range, the contribution of a network of observers to the Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory database (PVOL-IOPW at http://pvol.ehu.eus). We have complemented the study with Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera images taken in the 0.275 - 0.89 μm wavelength spectral range during the OPAL program on 9 February 2016. The PlanetCam images have been calibrated in radiance using spectrophotometric standard stars providing absolute reflectivity across the disk in a large series of broadband and narrowband filters sensitive to the altitude distribution and size of aerosols above the ammonia cloud level, and to the spectral dependence of the chromophore coloring agents. The cloud morphology evolution has been studied with an horizontal resolution ranging from 150 to 1000 km. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> wind profiles have been retrieved along the whole observing period from tracking cloud motions that span the latitude range from -80° to +77º. Combining all these results we characterized the 3D-dynamical state and cloud and haze distribution in Jupiter's atmosphere in the altitude range between 10 mbar and 1.5 bar before and during Juno initial exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31A2348P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31A2348P"><span>Thermal Aging of <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Asthenosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paulson, E.; Jordan, T. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To investigate the depth extent of mantle thermal aging beneath <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins, we project 3D Voigt-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> S-velocity variations from an ensemble of global tomographic models onto a 1x1 degree age-based regionalization and <span class="hlt">average</span> over bins delineated by equal increments in the square-root of crustal age. From comparisons among the bin-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> S-wave profiles, we estimate age-dependent convergence depths (minimum depths where the age variations become statistically insignificant) as well as S travel times from these depths to a shallow reference surface. Using recently published techniques (Jordan & Paulson, JGR, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50263, 2013), we account for the aleatory variability in the bin-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> S-wave profiles using the angular correlation functions of the individual tomographic models, we correct the convergence depths for vertical-smearing bias using their radial correlation functions, and we account for epistemic uncertainties through Bayesian <span class="hlt">averaging</span> over the tomographic model ensemble. From this probabilistic analysis, we can assert with 90% confidence that the age-correlated variations in Voigt-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> S velocities persist to depths greater than 170 km; i.e., more than 100 km below the mean depth of the G discontinuity (~70 km). Moreover, the S travel time above the convergence depth decays almost linearly with the square-root of crustal age out to 200 Ma, consistent with a half-space cooling model. Given the strong evidence that the G discontinuity approximates the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins, we conclude that the upper (and probably weakest) part of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> asthenosphere, like the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> lithosphere, participates in the cooling that forms the kinematic plates, or tectosphere. In other words, the thermal boundary layer of a mature <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> plate appears to be more than twice the thickness of its mechanical boundary layer. We do not discount the possibility that small-scale convection creates heterogeneities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5036069-effects-dynamic-long-period-ocean-tides-changes-earth-rotation-rate','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5036069-effects-dynamic-long-period-ocean-tides-changes-earth-rotation-rate"><span>Effects of dynamic long-period <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tides on changes in Earth's rotation rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Nam, Y.S.; Dickman, S.R.</p> <p>1990-05-10</p> <p>As a generalization of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> response coefficient first introduced by Agnew and Farrell (1978), the authors define the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> response function k of the solid earth-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> system as the ratio, in the frequency domain, of the tidal change in Earth's rotation rate to the tide-generating potential. Amplitudes and phases of k for the monthly, fortnightly, and 9-day lunar tides are estimated from 2 1/2 years of very long baseline interferometry UTI observations (both 5-day and daily time series), corrected for atmospheric angular momentum effects using NMC wind and pressure series. Using the dynamic <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide model of Dickman (1988a,more » 1989a), the authors predict amplitudes and phases of k for an elastic earth-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> system. The predictions confirm earlier results which found that dynamic effects of the longer-period <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tides reduce the amplitude of k by about 1%. However, agreement with the observed k is best achieved for all three tides if the predicted tide amplitudes are combined with the much larger satellite-observed <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide phases; in these cases the dynamic tidal effects reduce k by up to 8%. Finally, comparison between the observed and predicted amplitudes of k implies that anelastic effects on Earth's rotation at periods less than fortnightly cannot exceed 2%.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21805234"><span>The <span class="hlt">average</span> Indian female nose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and <span class="hlt">average</span> measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Icar..100..499B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Icar..100..499B"><span>Hubble Space Telescope observations of the 1990 equatorial disturbance on Saturn - <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> winds and central meridian albedos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnet, C. D.; Westphal, J. A.; Beebe, R. F.; Huber, L. F.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The present comparison of two sets of HST data from August and November 1990 with Voyager 1 and 2 data acquired in 1980 and 1981 gives attention to Saturn's equatorial-region disturbance of September 1990. Longitudinal variations in the equatorial <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds are interpreted as evidence for interaction between the storm nucleus that was generated during the disturbance and the local wind field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28034478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28034478"><span>Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how <span class="hlt">zonal</span> banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930015971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930015971"><span>Empirical wind model for the middle and lower atmosphere. Part 1: Local time <span class="hlt">average</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hedin, A. E.; Fleming, E. L.; Manson, A. H.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Avery, S. K.; Franke, S. J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The HWM90 thermospheric wind model was revised in the lower thermosphere and extended into the mesosphere and lower atmosphere to provide a single analytic model for calculating <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional wind profiles representative of the climatological <span class="hlt">average</span> for various geophysical conditions. Gradient winds from CIRA-86 plus rocket soundings, incoherent scatter radar, MF radar, and meteor radar provide the data base and are supplemented by previous data driven model summaries. Low-order spherical harmonics and Fourier series are used to describe the major variations throughout the atmosphere including latitude, annual, semiannual, and longitude (stationary wave 1). The model represents a smoothed compromise between the data sources. Although agreement between various data sources is generally good, some systematic differences are noted, particularly near the mesopause. Root mean square differences between data and model are on the order of 15 m/s in the mesosphere and 10 m/s in the stratosphere for <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind, and 10 m/s and 4 m/s, respectively, for meridional wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367366"><span>Spatial-temporal dynamics of NDVI and Chl-a concentration from 1998 to 2009 in the East coastal zone of China: integrating terrestrial and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> components.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Xiyong; Li, Mingjie; Gao, Meng; Yu, Liangju; Bi, Xiaoli</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Annual normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration are the most important large-scale indicators of terrestrial and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> ecosystem net primary productivity. In this paper, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor level 3 standard mapped image annual products from 1998 to 2009 are used to study the spatial-temporal characters of terrestrial NDVI and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> Chl-a concentration on two sides of the coastline of China by using the methods of mean value (M), coefficient of variation (CV), the slope of unary linear regression model (Slope), and the Hurst index (H). In detail, we researched and analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamics, the longitudinal <span class="hlt">zonality</span> and latitudinal <span class="hlt">zonality</span>, the direction, intensity, and persistency of historical changes. The results showed that: (1) spatial patterns of M and CV between NDVI and Chl-a concentration from 1998 to 2009 were very different. The dynamic variation of terrestrial NDVI was much mild, while the variation of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> Chl-a concentration was relatively much larger; (2) distinct longitudinal <span class="hlt">zonality</span> was found for Chl-a concentration and NDVI due to their hypersensitivity to the distance to shoreline, and strong latitudinal <span class="hlt">zonality</span> existed for Chl-a concentration while terrestrial NDVI had a very weak latitudinal <span class="hlt">zonality</span>; (3) overall, the NDVI showed a slight decreasing trend while the Chl-a concentration showed a significant increasing trend in the past 12 years, and both of them exhibit strong self-similarity and long-range dependence which indicates opposite future trends between land and <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157440','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157440"><span>Aleutian basin <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. <span class="hlt">Average</span> sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with <span class="hlt">average</span> thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2007/20071101_ozone.html','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2007/20071101_ozone.html"><span>NOAA - National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration - Antarctic Ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Hole Returns to Near <span class="hlt">Average</span> <em>Levels</em></A> NOAA HOME WEATHER <span class="hlt">OCEANS</span> FISHERIES CHARTING SATELLITES Returns to Near <span class="hlt">Average</span> <em>Levels</em> Improvement Noted After Last Year's Record Breaker November 1, 2007 The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.3737W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.3737W"><span>Dynamics of upwelling annual cycle in the equatorial Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Li-Chiao; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wu, Chau-Ron; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The annual upwelling is an important component of the equatorial Atlantic annual cycle. A simple theory is proposed using the framework of Zebiak-Cane (ZC) <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model for insights into the dynamics of the upwelling annual cycle. It is demonstrated that in the Atlantic equatorial region this upwelling is dominated by Ekman processing in the west, whereas in the east it is primarily owing to shoaling and deepening of the thermocline resulting from equatorial mass meridional recharge/discharge and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> redistribution processes associated with wind-driven equatorial <span class="hlt">ocean</span> waves. This wind-driven wave upwelling plays an important role in the development of the annual cycle in the sea surface temperature of the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4840806S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4840806S"><span>Shape, <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds and gravitational field of Jupiter: a fully self-consistent, multi-layered model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Gerald; Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We construct a three-dimensional, finite-element, fully self-consistent, multi-layered,non-spheroidal model of Jupiter consisting of an inner core, a metallic electrically conducting dynamo region and an outer molecular electrically insulating envelope. We assume that the Jovian <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds are on cylinders parallel to the rotation axis but, due to the effect of magnetic braking, are confined within the outer molecular envelope. Two related calculations are carried out. The first provides an accurate description of the shape and internal density profile of Jupiter; the effect of rotational distortion is not treated as a small perturbation on a spherically symmetric state. This calculation determines the density, size and shape of the inner core, the irregular shape of the 1-bar pressure level, and the internal structure of Jupiter; the full effect of rotational distortion, without the influence of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds, is accounted for. Our multi-layered model is able to produce the known mass, the known equatorial and polar radii, and the known <span class="hlt">zonal</span> gravitational coefficient J2 of Jupiter within their error bars; it also yields the coefficients J4 and J6 within about 5% accuracy, and the core equatorial radius 0.09RJ containing 3.73 Earth masses.The second calculation determines the variation of the gravitational field caused solely by the effect of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds on the rotationally distorted non-spheroidal Jupiter. Four different cases, ranging from a deep wind profile to a very shallow profile, are considered and implications for accurate interpretation of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> gravitational coefficients expected from the Juno mission are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610021A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610021A"><span>Planet <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afonso, Isabel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, seeing that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, <span class="hlt">oceans</span> are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS41B..06F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS41B..06F"><span>New observations of Yanai waves and equatorial inertia-gravity waves in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farrar, J. T.; Durland, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In the 1970's and 1980's, there was a great deal of research activity on near-equatorial variability at periods of days to weeks associated with <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> equatorial inertia-gravity waves and Yanai waves. At that time, the measurements available for studying these waves were much more limited than today: most of the available observations were from island tide gauges and a handful of short mooring records. We use more than a decade of the extensive modern data record from the TAO/TRITON mooring array in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> to re-examine the internal-wave climate in the equatorial Pacific, with a focus on interpretation of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-wavenumber/frequency spectrum of surface dynamic height relative to 500-m depth. Many equatorial-wave meridional modes can be identified, for both the first and second baroclinic mode. We also estimated <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-wavenumber/frequency spectra for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and meridional wind stress components. The location and extent of spectral peaks in dynamic height is readily rationalized using basic, linear theory of forced equatorial waves and the observed wind stress spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JESS..122..187S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JESS..122..187S"><span>Evaluation of OSCAR <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface current product in the tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> using in situ data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sikhakolli, Rajesh; Sharma, Rashmi; Basu, Sujit; Gohil, B. S.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Prasad, K. V. S. R.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The OSCAR (<span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface current analysis real-time), which is a product derived from various satellite observations, has been evaluated in the tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (TIO) in two different ways. First, the OSCAR-derived monthly climatology has been compared with available drifter-derived climatology in the TIO. From the comparison of the two climatologies, one can infer that OSCAR product is able to capture the variabilities of the well-known surface current systems in the TIO reasonably well. Fourier analysis of the major current systems, as reproduced by OSCAR, shows that the dominant annual and semiannual periodicities, known to exist in these systems, have been faithfully picked up by OSCAR. Next, the evaluation has been carried out by comparing the OSCAR currents with currents measured by moored buoys. The <span class="hlt">zonal</span> component of OSCAR-current is in good agreement with corresponding component of buoy-observed current with a correlation exceeding 0.7, while the match between the meridional components is poorer. The locations of the peaks of the mean and eddy kinetic energies are matching in both the climatologies, although the peak in the drifter climatology is stronger than the same in the OSCAR product. Finally, an important feature of Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> circulation, namely the reverse Wyrtki jet, occurring during anomalous dipole years, has been well-reproduced by OSCAR currents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/ocean-dumping/learn-about-ocean-dumping','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/ocean-dumping/learn-about-ocean-dumping"><span>Learn about <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Dumping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> dumping is regulated by the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). Learn about <span class="hlt">ocean</span> dumping regulation including what materials can and cannot be dumped, the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Dumping Management Program, and MPRSA history and accomplishments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990014560&hterms=oceans+tide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Doceans%2Btide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990014560&hterms=oceans+tide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Doceans%2Btide"><span>Evidence for Excitation of Polar Motion by Fortnightly <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Tides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gross, Richard S.; Hamdan, Kamal H.; Boggs, Dale H.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The second-degree <span class="hlt">zonal</span> tide raising potential, which is responsible for tidal changes in the Earth's rotation rate and length-of-day, is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> tidal excitation of polar motion in the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal bands has been previously detected and examined. Here, the detection of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tidal excitation of polar motion in the long-period tidal band, specifically at the Mf' (13.63-day) and Mf (13.66-day) tidal frequencies, is reported. Spectra of the SPACE94 polar motion excitation series exhibit peaks at the prograde and retrograde fortnightly tidal periods. After removing effects of atmospheric wind and pressure changes, an empirical model for the effect of the fortnightly <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tides upon polar motion excitation is obtained by least-squares fitting periodic terms at the Mf and Mf' tidal frequencies to the residual polar motion excitation series. The resulting empirical model is then compared with the predictions of two hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998EOSTr..79S.494S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998EOSTr..79S.494S"><span>Taking the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> pledge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is sponsoring an "<span class="hlt">ocean</span> ambassadors pledge campaign" to encourage students and others to make a personal, long-term commitment to caring for the world's <span class="hlt">oceans</span>.The pledge campaign, which is part of NOAA's public awareness efforts for the International Year of the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, calls for people to learn what they can about <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, be considerate to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> wildlife, conserve water, and implement other simple measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35.1219S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35.1219S"><span>Unusual behavior of quiet-time <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and vertical plasma drift velocities over Jicamarca during the recent extended solar minimum of 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Ângela M.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Souza, Jonas R.; Batista, Inez S.; Sobral, José H. A.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The influence of the recent deep and prolonged solar minimum on the daytime <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and vertical plasma drift velocities during quiet time is investigated in this work. Analyzing the data obtained from incoherent scatter radar from Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W) we observe an anomalous behavior of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> plasma drift during June 2008 characterized by lower than usual daytime westward drift and its early afternoon reversal to eastward. As a case study the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> drift observed on 24 June 2008 is modeled using a realistic low-latitude ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE (SUPIM-INPE). The results show that an anomalously low <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind was mainly responsible for the observed anomalous behavior in the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> drift. A comparative study of the vertical plasma drifts obtained from magnetometer data for some periods of maximum (2000-2002) and minimum solar activity (1998, 2008, 2010) phases reveal a considerable decrease on the E-region conductivity and the dynamo electric field during 2008. However, we believe that the contribution of these characteristics to the unusual behavior of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> plasma drift is significantly smaller than that arising from the anomalously low <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind. The SUPIM-INPE result of the critical frequency of the F layer (foF2) over Jicamarca suggested a lower radiation flux than that predicted by solar irradiance model (SOLAR2000) for June 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121..410H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121..410H"><span>The impact of wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing on satellite-derived <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Zhenli; Xu, Yongsheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> surface currents estimated from the satellite data consist of two terms: Ekman currents from the wind stress and geostrophic currents from the sea surface height (SSH). But the classical Ekman model does not consider the wave effects. By taking the wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing into account, the impact of waves (primarily the Stokes drift) on <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface currents is investigated and the wave-modified currents are formed. The products are validated by comparing with OSCAR currents and Lagrangian drifter velocity. The result shows that our products with the Stokes drift are better adapted to the in situ Lagrangian drifter currents. Especially in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> region (40°S-65°S), 90% (91%) of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> (meridional) currents have been improved compared with currents that do not include Stokes drift. The correlation (RMSE) in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> has also increased (decreased) from 0.78 (13) to 0.81 (10.99) for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> component and 0.76 (10.87) to 0.79 (10.09) for the meridional component. This finding provides the evidence that waves indeed play an important role in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation, and need to be represented in numerical simulations of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation. This article was corrected on 10 FEB 2016. See the end of the full text for details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4249639-natural-radioactivity-zonal-soils-european-part-soviet-union','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4249639-natural-radioactivity-zonal-soils-european-part-soviet-union"><span>NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY OF <span class="hlt">ZONAL</span> SOILS OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF THE SOVIET UNION (in Russian)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Yastrebov, M.T.</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>Natural radioactivity of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> soils and of their soil forming rocks up to 220-240 cm in depth as well as of the suprasoil air at a 20 cm altitude from the soil surface has been studled from 29.VM to 13.X 1957 in the natural zones of the European part of the USSR located along the meridian from the Arkhangelsk taiga down to the southern coast of Crimea. The measurements were carried out by mica counters (BFL-T-80 and Si-2b), by an aluminum (AS-2) and glass copper cathode (MS-4) which registers alpha , BETA -soft, BETA -hard and gamma - radiation, respectivelymore » with the aid of a field radiometric device PK-10b and a spherical and hemispherical 9-cm lead shield. It was found that natural radioactivity of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> soils increased in the following order: highly podzol on carbonate moraine (Arkhangelsk region), sod-highly podzol soil on loess-like loam (Vologodsk region), sodmedium podzol soil on loess-like loam (Moscow region), light-gray forest soil on loess loam (Tula region), powerful leached chernozem on loess-like loam (Kursk region), dark chestnut on carbonate loess-like loam (Kherson region) brown forest on slate schists (Crimea region). A 5-mm superficial layer of the accumulative A: horizon invariably showed maximal natural radioactivity in all kinds of soil surpassing the natural radioactivity value of the lower A/sub 1/ horizon and of all soil horizons and rocks by 2.2-3.5 times. In the podzol A/sub 2/ horizons a decrease of natural radioactivity was mostiy noted as compared with the natural radioactivity value of the accumulative Ai horizon. In the alluvial horizon (B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/) natural radioactivity increases by 12 to 33% when compared with natural radioactivity of the A: horizon. Most of the soilforming rocks tested showed a lesser natural radioactivity (by 33 to 50%) than natural radioactivity of the accumulative (A/ sub 1/) and alluvial (B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/) soil horizons which have developed on these rocks. (auth)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036030&hterms=flower&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dflower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036030&hterms=flower&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dflower"><span>Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22645326-prostate-zonal-volumetry-predictor-clinical-outcomes-prostate-artery-embolization','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22645326-prostate-zonal-volumetry-predictor-clinical-outcomes-prostate-artery-embolization"><span>Prostate <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Volumetry as a Predictor of Clinical Outcomes for Prostate Artery Embolization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Assis, André Moreira de, E-mail: andre.assis@criep.com.br, E-mail: andre.maa@gmail.com; Maciel, Macello Sampaio, E-mail: macielmjs@gmail.com; Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: airton.mota@criep.com.br</p> <p></p> <p>PurposeTo determine prostate baseline <span class="hlt">zonal</span> volumetry and correlate these findings with clinical outcomes for patients who underwent prostate artery embolization (PAE) for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study that included patients treated by PAE from 2010 to 2014. Baseline and 6-month follow-up evaluations included prostate MRI with whole prostate (WP) and central gland (CG) volume measurements—as well as prostate <span class="hlt">zonal</span> volumetry index (ZVi) calculation, defined as the CG/WP volumes relation—the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the Quality of life (QoL) index. Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi were statistical compared to IPSS andmore » QoL values at 6 months.ResultsA total of 93 consecutive patients were included, with mean age of 63.4 years (range, 51–86). Clinical failure, defined as IPSS > 7 or QoL > 2, was seen in four cases (4.3%). Mean reductions in prostate volumes after PAE were of 30.6% and 31.2% for WP and CG, respectively (p < 0.0001). Clinical parameters had mean decrease from 21 to 3.3 points for IPSS, and from 4.7 to 1.2 points for QoL (p < 0.0001). Baseline WP, CG, and ZVi correlated to the degree of clinical improvement (p < 0.05 for all). The baseline ZVi cut-off calculated for better clinical outcomes was > 0.45, with 85% sensitivity and 75% specificity.ConclusionsBaseline CG and WP volumes as well as ZVi presented strong correlation with clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PAE, and its assessment should be considered in pre-treatment evaluation whenever possible. Both patients and medical team should be aware of the possibility of less favorable outcomes when ZVi < 0.45.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950033279&hterms=homogenization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhomogenization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950033279&hterms=homogenization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhomogenization"><span>A PV view of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extratropical troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of pontential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley circulation. Of particular interest is whether the distribution of temperature and wind corresponding to a constant potential vorticity (PV) along isentropes resembles the observed, and the implications of PV homogenization along isentropes for the role of the tropics. With the assumption that PV is homogenized along isentropes, it is found that the temperature distribution in the extratropical troposphere may be determined by a linear, first-order partial differential equation. When the observed surface temperature distribution and tropical lapse rate are used as the boundary conditions, the solution of the equation is close to the observed temperature distribution except in the upper troposphere adjacent to the Hadley circulation, where the troposphere with no PV gradient is considerably colder. Consequently, the jet is also stronger. It is also found that the meridional distribution of the balanced <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind is very sensitive to the meridional distribution of the tropopause temperature. The result may suggest that the requirement of the global momentum balance has no practical role in determining the extratropical temperature distribution. The authors further investigated the sensitivity of the extratropical troposphere with constant PV along isentropes to changes in conditions at the tropical boundary (the edge of the Hadley circulation). It is found that the temperature and wind distributions in the extratropical troposphere are sensitive to the vertical distribution of PV at the tropical boundary. With a surface distribution of temperature that decreases linearly with latitude, the jet maximum occurs at the tropical boundary and moves with it. The overall pattern of wind distribution is not sensitive to the change of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29037894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29037894"><span>Indentation mapping revealed poroelastic, but not viscoelastic, properties spanning native <span class="hlt">zonal</span> articular cartilage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wahlquist, Joseph A; DelRio, Frank W; Randolph, Mark A; Aziz, Aaron H; Heveran, Chelsea M; Bryant, Stephanie J; Neu, Corey P; Ferguson, Virginia L</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Osteoarthrosis is a debilitating disease affecting millions, yet engineering materials for cartilage regeneration has proven difficult because of the complex microstructure of this tissue. Articular cartilage, like many biological tissues, produces a time-dependent response to mechanical load that is critical to cell's physiological function in part due to solid and fluid phase interactions and property variations across multiple length scales. Recreating the time-dependent strain and fluid flow may be critical for successfully engineering replacement tissues but thus far has largely been neglected. Here, microindentation is used to accomplish three objectives: (1) quantify a material's time-dependent mechanical response, (2) map material properties at a cellular relevant length scale throughout <span class="hlt">zonal</span> articular cartilage and (3) elucidate the underlying viscoelastic, poroelastic, and nonlinear poroelastic causes of deformation in articular cartilage. Untreated and trypsin-treated cartilage was sectioned perpendicular to the articular surface and indentation was used to evaluate properties throughout <span class="hlt">zonal</span> cartilage on the cut surface. The experimental results demonstrated that within all cartilage zones, the mechanical response was well represented by a model assuming nonlinear biphasic behavior and did not follow conventional viscoelastic or linear poroelastic models. Additionally, 10% (w/w) agarose was tested and, as anticipated, behaved as a linear poroelastic material. The approach outlined here provides a method, applicable to many tissues and biomaterials, which reveals and quantifies the underlying causes of time-dependent deformation, elucidates key aspects of material structure and function, and that can be used to provide important inputs for computational models and targets for tissue engineering. Elucidating the time-dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage, and other biological materials, is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036235&hterms=solar+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bradiation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950036235&hterms=solar+radiation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bradiation"><span>The roles of vertical mixing, solar radiation, and wind stress in a model simulation of the sea surface temperature seasonal cycle in the tropical Pacfic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Dake; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Rothstein, Lewis M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The climatological seasonal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific is simulated using a newly developed upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model. The roles of vertical mixing, solar radiation, and wind stress are investigated in a hierarchy of numerical experiments with various combinations of vertical mixing algorithms and surface-forcing products. It is found that the large SST annual cycle in the eastern equatorial Pacific is, to a large extent, controlled by the annually varying mixed layer depth which, in turn, is mainly determined by the competing effects of solar radiation and wind forcing. With the application of our hybrid vertical mixing scheme the model-simulated SST annual cycle is much improved in both amplitude and phase as compared to the case of a constant mixed layer depth. Beside the strong effects on vertical mixing, solar radiation is the primary heating term in the surface layer heat budget, and wind forcing influences SST by driving <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> advective processes that redistribute heat in the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. For example, the SST seasonal cycle in the western Pacific basically follows the semiannual variation of solar heating, and the cycle in the central equatorial region is significantly affected by the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> advective heat flux associated with the seasonally reversing South Equatorial Current. It has been shown in our experiments that the amount of heat flux modification needed to eliminate the annual mean SST errors in the model is, on <span class="hlt">average</span>, no larger than the annual mean uncertainties among the various surface flux products used in this study. Whereas a bias correction is needed to account for remaining uncertainties in the annual mean heat flux, this study demonstrates that with proper treatment of mixed layer physics and realistic forcing functions the seasonal variability of SST is capable of being simulated successfully in response to external forcing without relying on a relaxation or damping formulation for the dominant surface heat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3405667','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3405667"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> acidification in a geoengineering context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an <span class="hlt">average</span> pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce <span class="hlt">average</span> upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to the seafloor or elsewhere in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..524...89Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..524...89Z"><span>Transient pressure analysis of fractured well in bi-<span class="hlt">zonal</span> gas reservoirs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Yong-hui; Hu, Shu-Yong; Liu, Qi-Guo</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>For hydraulic fractured well, how to evaluate the properties of fracture and formation are always tough jobs and it is very complex to use the conventional method to do that, especially for partially penetrating fractured well. Although the source function is a very powerful tool to analyze the transient pressure for complex structure well, the corresponding reports on gas reservoir are rare. In this paper, the continuous point source functions in anisotropic reservoirs are derived on the basis of source function theory, Laplace transform method and Duhamel principle. Application of construction method, the continuous point source functions in bi-<span class="hlt">zonal</span> gas reservoir with closed upper and lower boundaries are obtained. Sequentially, the physical models and transient pressure solutions are developed for fully and partially penetrating fractured vertical wells in this reservoir. Type curves of dimensionless pseudo-pressure and its derivative as function of dimensionless time are plotted as well by numerical inversion algorithm, and the flow periods and sensitive factors are also analyzed. The source functions and solutions of fractured well have both theoretical and practical application in well test interpretation for such gas reservoirs, especial for the well with stimulated reservoir volume around the well in unconventional gas reservoir by massive hydraulic fracturing which always can be described with the composite model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21276983-global-characteristics-zonal-flows-due-effect-finite-bandwidth-drift-wave-turbulence','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21276983-global-characteristics-zonal-flows-due-effect-finite-bandwidth-drift-wave-turbulence"><span>Global characteristics of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows due to the effect of finite bandwidth in drift wave turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Uzawa, K.; Li Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.</p> <p>2009-04-15</p> <p>The spectral effect of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow (ZF) on its generation is investigated based on the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima turbulence model. It is found that the effect of finite ZF bandwidth qualitatively changes the characteristics of ZF instability. A spatially localized (namely, global) nonlinear ZF state with an enhanced, unique growth rate for all spectral components is created under a given turbulent fluctuation. It is identified that such state originates from the successive cross couplings among Fourier components of the ZF and turbulence spectra through the sideband modulation. Furthermore, it is observed that the growth rate of the global ZF is determinedmore » not only by the spectral distribution and amplitudes of turbulent pumps as usual, but also statistically by the turbulence structure, namely, their probabilistic initial phase factors. A ten-wave coupling model of the ZF modulation instability involving the essential effect of the ZF spectrum is developed to clarify the basic features of the global nonlinear ZF state.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1178386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1178386"><span>Subcellular fractionation by differential and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> centrifugation of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cartledge, T. G.; Lloyd, D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>1. Homogenates were prepared from sphaeroplasts of aerobically grown glucose-de-repressed Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and the distributions of marker enzymes were investigated after differential centrifugation. Cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c were sedimented almost completely at 105g-min, and this fraction also contained 37% of the catalase, 27% of the acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, 53 and 54% respectively of the NADH– and NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductases. 2. <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> centrifugation indicated complex density distributions of the sedimentable portions of these enzymes and of adenosine triphosphatases and suggested the presence of two mitochondrial populations, as well as a bimodal distribution of peroxisomes and heterogeneity of the acid p-nitrophenyl phosphatase-containing particles. 3. Several different adenosine triphosphatases were distinguished in a post-mitochondrial supernatant that contained no mitochondrial fragments; these enzymes varied in their sensitivities to oligomycin and ouabain and their distributions were different from those of pyrophosphatase, adenosine phosphatase and adenosine pyrophosphatase. 4. The distribution of NADPH–cytochrome c oxidoreductase demonstrated that it cannot be used in S. carlsbergensis as a specific marker enzyme for the microsomal fraction. Glucose 6-phosphatase, inosine pyrophosphatase, cytochrome P-450 and five other enzymes frequently assigned to microsomal fractions of mammalian origin were not detected in yeast under these growth conditions. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 (cont.)PLATE 1PLATE 2 (cont.) PMID:4400904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150007665','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150007665"><span>Vaporization and <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...91V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...91V"><span>Comparison of Photoacoustic Signals in Photosynthetic and Nonphotosynthetic Leaf Tissues of Variegated Pelargonium <span class="hlt">zonale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veljović-Jovanović, S.; Vidović, M.; Morina, F.; Prokić, Lj.; Todorović, D. M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Green-white variegated leaves of Pelargonium <span class="hlt">zonale</span> were studied using the photoacoustic method. Our aim was to characterize photosynthetically active green tissue and nonphotosynthetically active white tissue by the photoacoustic amplitude signals. We observed lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature in white tissue than in green tissue. Besides these thermal differences, significantly higher absorbance in green tissue was based on chlorophyll and carotenoids which were absent in white tissue. However, optical properties of epidermal layers of both tissues were equal. The photoacoustic amplitude of white tissue was over four times higher compared to green tissue, which was correlated with lower stomatal conductance. In addition, at frequencies >700 Hz, the significant differences between the photoacoustic signals of green and white tissue were obtained. We identified the photoacoustic signal deriving from photosynthetic oxygen evolution in green tissue, using high intensity of red light modulated at 10 Hz. Moreover, the photoacoustic amplitude of green tissue increased progressively with time which corresponded to the period of induction of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. For the first time, very high frequencies (1 kHz to 5 kHz) were applied on leaf material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26702020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26702020"><span>Automated Processing of Plasma Samples for Lipoprotein Separation by Rate-<span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Ultracentrifugation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peters, Carl N; Evans, Iain E J</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Plasma lipoproteins are the primary means of lipid transport among tissues. Defining alterations in lipid metabolism is critical to our understanding of disease processes. However, lipoprotein measurement is limited to specialized centers. Preparation for ultracentrifugation involves the formation of complex density gradients that is both laborious and subject to handling errors. We created a fully automated device capable of forming the required gradient. The design has been made freely available for download by the authors. It is inexpensive relative to commercial density gradient formers, which generally create linear gradients unsuitable for rate-<span class="hlt">zonal</span> ultracentrifugation. The design can easily be modified to suit user requirements and any potential future improvements. Evaluation of the device showed reliable peristaltic pump accuracy and precision for fluid delivery. We also demonstrate accurate fluid layering with reduced mixing at the gradient layers when compared to usual practice by experienced laboratory personnel. Reduction in layer mixing is of critical importance, as it is crucial for reliable lipoprotein separation. The automated device significantly reduces laboratory staff input and reduces the likelihood of error. Overall, this device creates a simple and effective solution to formation of complex density gradients. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9247E..0MM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9247E..0MM"><span>Optimizing <span class="hlt">zonal</span> advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661173"><span>Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomographic findings in acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Imamura, Yutaka; Giovinazzo, Vincent J; Spaide, Richard F</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). A retrospective observational case series of the fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with AZOOR. There were 19 eyes of 11 patients (10 women), who had a mean age of 49.1 +/- 13.9 years. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities were seen in 17 of the 19 eyes, were more common in the peripapillary area, and were smaller in extent than the optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Nine eyes showed progression of hypoautofluorescence area during the mean follow-up of 69.7 months. The mean thickness of the photoreceptor layer at fovea was 177 microm in eyes with AZOOR, which was significantly thinner than controls (193 microm, P = 0.049). Abnormal retinal laminations were found in 12 eyes and were located over areas of loss of the photoreceptors. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was 243 microm, which is normal. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities in AZOOR showed distinct patterns of retinal pigment epithelial involvement, which may be progressive. Thinning of photoreceptor cell layer with loss of the outer segments and abnormal inner retinal lamination in the context of a normal choroid are commonly found in AZOOR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5393961','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5393961"><span>ULTRA-WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE <span class="hlt">ZONAL</span> OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shifera, Amde Selassie; Pennesi, Mark E.; Yang, Paul; Lin, Phoebe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To determine if ultra-wide-field fundus autofluorescence (UWFFAF) findings in acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) correlated well with perimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electroretinography (ERG) findings. Methods Retrospective observational study on 16 eyes of 10 subjects with AZOOR seen at a single referral center from October 2012 to March 2015 who had UWFFAF performed. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U-test used for comparisons of non-parametric continuous variables. Results All eyes examined within 3 months of symptom onset (5 of 5 eyes) had diffusely hyperautofluorescent areas on UWFFAF. The remaining eyes contained hypoautofluorescent lesions with hyperautofluorescent borders. In 11/16 (68.8%) eyes, UWFFAF showed the full extent of lesions that would not have been possible with standard FAF centered on the fovea. There were 3 patterns of spread: centrifugal spread (7/16, 43.8%), centripetal spread (5/16, 31.3%), and centrifugal + centripetal spread (4/16, 25.0%). UWFFAF lesions corresponded well with perimetric, OCT, and ERG abnormalities. Conclusions UWFFAF along with OCT can be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of AZOOR patients. PMID:27755372</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1436927-forest-response-rising-co2-drives-zonally-asymmetric-rainfall-change-over-tropical-land','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1436927-forest-response-rising-co2-drives-zonally-asymmetric-rainfall-change-over-tropical-land"><span>Forest response to rising CO 2 drives <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric rainfall change over tropical land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Chen, Yang; Hoffman, Forrest M.; ...</p> <p>2018-04-27</p> <p>Understanding how anthropogenic CO 2 emissions will influence future precipitation is critical for sustainably managing ecosystems, particularly for drought-sensitive tropical forests. Although tropical precipitation change remains uncertain, nearly all models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 predict a strengthening <span class="hlt">zonal</span> precipitation asymmetry by 2100, with relative increases over Asian and African tropical forests and decreases over South American forests. Here we show that the plant physiological response to increasing CO 2 is a primary mechanism responsible for this pattern. Applying a simulation design in the Community Earth System Model in which CO 2 increases are isolated over individualmore » continents, we demonstrate that different circulation, moisture and stability changes arise over each continent due to declines in stomatal conductance and transpiration. The sum of local atmospheric responses over individual continents explains the pan-tropical precipitation asymmetry. Our analysis suggests that South American forests may be more vulnerable to rising CO 2 than Asian or African forests.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DFD.FR007C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..DFD.FR007C"><span>The generation of a <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-wind oscillation by nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campbell, Lucy</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>Nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves give rise to numerous large-scale phenomena that are observed in the atmosphere, for example the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). This is an oscillation in <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind direction which is observed in the equatorial stratosphere; it is characterized by alternating regimes of easterly and westerly shear that descend with time. In the past few decades, a number of theories have been developed to explain the mechanism by which the QBO is generated. These theories are all based on ``quasi-linear'' representations of wave-mean-flow interactions. In this presentation, a fully nonlinear numerical simulation of the QBO is described. A spectrum of gravity waves over a range of phase speeds is forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagates upwards in a density-stratified shear flow. As a result of the absorption and reflection of the waves at their critical levels, regions of large shear develop in the background flow and propagate downwards with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29379219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29379219"><span>Sensitivity of Gravity Wave Fluxes to Interannual Variations in Tropical Convection and <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Wind.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alexander, M Joan; Ortland, David A; Grimsdell, Alison W; Kim, Ji-Eun</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Using an idealized model framework with high-frequency tropical latent heating variability derived from global satellite observations of precipitation and clouds, the authors examine the properties and effects of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere, contrasting conditions in an El Niño year and a La Niña year. The model generates a broad spectrum of tropical waves including planetary-scale waves through mesoscale gravity waves. The authors compare modeled monthly mean regional variations in wind and temperature with reanalyses and validate the modeled gravity waves using satellite- and balloon-based estimates of gravity wave momentum flux. Some interesting changes in the gravity spectrum of momentum flux are found in the model, which are discussed in terms of the interannual variations in clouds, precipitation, and large-scale winds. While regional variations in clouds, precipitation, and winds are dramatic, the mean gravity wave <span class="hlt">zonal</span> momentum fluxes entering the stratosphere differ by only 11%. The modeled intermittency in gravity wave momentum flux is shown to be very realistic compared to observations, and the largest-amplitude waves are related to significant gravity wave drag forces in the lowermost stratosphere. This strong intermittency is generally absent or weak in climate models because of deficiencies in parameterizations of gravity wave intermittency. These results suggest a way forward to improve model representations of the lowermost stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation winds and teleconnections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835754"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> hierarchy of differentiation markers and nestin expression during oval cell mediated rat liver regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koenig, Sarah; Probst, Irmelin; Becker, Heinz; Krause, Petra</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Oval cells constitute a heterogeneous population of proliferating progenitors found in rat livers following carcinogenic treatment (2-acetylaminofluorene and 70% hepatectomy). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular pattern of various differentiation and cell type markers in this model of liver regeneration. Immunophenotypic characterisation revealed at least two subtypes emerging from the portal field. First, a population of oval cells formed duct-like structures and expressed bile duct (CD49f) as well as hepatocytic markers (alpha-foetoprotein, CD26). Second, a population of non-ductular oval cells was detected between and distally from the ductules expressing the neural marker nestin and the haematopoietic marker Thy1. Following oval cell isolation, a subset of the nestin-positive cells was shown to co-express hepatocytic and epithelial markers (albumin, CD26, pancytokeratin) and could be clearly distinguished from anti-desmin reactive hepatic stellate cells. The gene expression profiles (RT-PCR) of isolated oval cells and oval cell liver tissue were found to be similar to foetal liver (ED14). The present results suggest that the two oval cell populations are organised in a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> hierarchy with a marker gradient from the inner (displaying hepatocytic and biliary markers) to the outer zone (showing hepatocytic and extrahepatic progenitor markers) of the proliferating progeny clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012064"><span>A New Look at Titan's <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Winds from Cassini Radio Occultations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flasar, F. M.; Schinder, P. J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We use the existing thirteen Cassini radio'occultation soundings to construct a meridional cross section of geopotential height vs. pressure and latitude. The assumption of balanced flow permits the construction of a similar cross section of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds, from near the surface to the 0.1'mbar level. In the lower troposphere, the winds are approx.10 m/s, except within 20deg of the equator, where they are much smaller. The winds increase higher up in the troposphere to nearly 40 m/s in the tropopause region, but then decay rapidly in the lower stratosphere to near'zero values at 20 mbar (approx.80 km), reminiscent of the Huygens Doppler Wind Experiment result. This null zone extends over most latitudes, except for limited bands at mid'latitudes. Higher up in the stratosphere, the winds become larger. They are highest in the northern (winter) hemisphere. We compare the occultation results with the DWE and CIRS retrievals and discuss the similarities and differences among the data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21495611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21495611"><span>Abortion and unwanted pregnancy in Adigrat <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Hospital, Tigray, north Ethiopia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gessessew, Amanuel</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the causes of unwanted pregnancy and its impact on maternal health. A cross sectional study (February 1, 2002-January 31, 2004) was conducted on 907 patients with diagnosis of abortion and admitted to the gynecological ward of Adigrat <span class="hlt">zonal</span> hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. This accounts to 12.6% of all hospital and 60.6% of gynecological admissions. The majority of these women (69.8%) had unwanted pregnancy. Modern contraception methods were not in use in 76.2% of unwanted and 57.7% of wanted pregnancies (P = 0.008). Interference was reported in 81.4% of unwanted pregnancy. High incidence of complication was reported in patients with unwanted pregnancy. In this study it is found that unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. The development and prompt implementation of a strategy that enables women to safely manage unwanted pregnancy is recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DPPGP8002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DPPGP8002S"><span>Fundamental Scalings of <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>A basic physics experimental study of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830054517&hterms=moisture+condensation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmoisture%2Bcondensation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830054517&hterms=moisture+condensation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmoisture%2Bcondensation"><span>Saturn meteorology - A diagnostic assessment of thin-layer configurations for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allison, M.; Stone, P. H.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Voyager imaging, infrared, and radio observations for Saturn have been recently interpreted by Smith et al. (1982) as an indication that the jet streams observed at the cloud tops extend to depths greater than the 10,000-bar level. This analysis assumes a maximum latitudinal temperature contrast of a few percent, a mean atmospheric rotation rate at depth given by Saturn's ratio period, and no variation with latitude of the bottom pressure level for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow system. These assumptions are not, however, firmly constrained by observation. The diagnostic analysis of plausible alternative configurations for Saturn's atmospheric structure demonstrates that a thin weather layer system (confined at mid to high latitudes to levels above 200 bar) cannot be excluded by any of the available observations. A quantitative estimate of the effects of moisture condensation (including the differentiation of mean molecular weight) suggests that these might provide the buoyancy contrasts necessary to support a thin-layer flow provided that Saturn's outer envelope is enriched approximately 10 times in water abundance relative to a solar composition atmosphere and strongly differentiated with latitude at the condensation level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21743571"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> wavefront sensor with reduced number of rows in the detector array.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boruah, Bosanta R; Das, Abhijit</p> <p>2011-07-10</p> <p>In this paper, we describe a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wavefront sensor in which the photodetector array can have a smaller number of rows. The test wavefront is incident on a two-dimensional array of diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The periodicity and the orientation of the grating rulings of each grating can be chosen such that the +1 order beam from the gratings forms an array of focal spots in the detector plane. We show that by using a square array of zones, it is possible to generate an array of +1 order focal spots having a smaller number of rows, thus reducing the height of the required detector array. The phase profile of the test wavefront can be estimated by measuring the displacements of the +1 order focal spots for the test wavefront relative to the +1 order focal spots for a plane reference wavefront. The narrower width of the photodetector array can offer several advantages, such as a faster frame rate of the wavefront sensor, a reduced amount of cross talk between the nearby detector zones, and a decrease in the maximum thermal noise. We also present experimental results of a proof-of-concept experimental arrangement using the proposed wavefront sensing scheme. © 2011 Optical Society of America</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080022184&hterms=ocean+climate+changes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bclimate%2Bchanges','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080022184&hterms=ocean+climate+changes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bclimate%2Bchanges"><span>Seasonal Correlations of SST, Water Vapor, and Convective Activity in Tropical <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>: A New Hyperspectral Data Set for Climate Model Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David T.; Broberg, Steven E.; Elliott, Denis A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of the response of the Earth Climate System to the seasonal changes of solar forcing in the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> using four years of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data between 2002 and 2006 gives new insight into amplitude and phase relationships between surface and tropospheric temperatures, humidity, and convective activity. The intensity of the convective activity is measured by counting deep convective clouds. The peaks of convective activity, temperature in the mid-troposphere, and water vapor in the 0 - 30 N and 0 - 30 S tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">zonal</span> means occur about two months after solstice, all leading the peak of the sea surface temperature by several weeks. Phase is key to the evaluation of feedback. The evaluation of climate models in terms of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and annual means and annual mean deviations from <span class="hlt">zonal</span> means can now be supplemented by evaluating the phase of key atmospheric and surface parameters relative to solstice. The ability of climate models to reproduce the statistical flavor of the observed amplitudes and relative phases for broad <span class="hlt">zonal</span> means should lead to increased confidence in the realism of their water vapor and cloud feedback algorithms. AIRS and AMSU were launched into a 705 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, and have been in routine data gathering mode since September 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080044777&hterms=ocean+climate+changes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bclimate%2Bchanges','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080044777&hterms=ocean+climate+changes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bclimate%2Bchanges"><span>Seasonal Correlations of SST, Water Vapor, and Convective Activity in Tropical <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>: A New Hyperspectral Data Set for Climate Model Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David T.; Broberg, Steven E.; Elliott, Denis A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of the response of the Earth Climate System to the seasonal changes of solar forcing in the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> using four years of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) data between 2002 and 2006 gives new insight into amplitude and phase relationships between surface and tropospheric temperatures, humidity, and convective activity. The intensity of the convective activity is measured by counting deep convective clouds. The peaks of convective activity, temperature in the mid-troposphere, and water vapor in the 0-30 N and 0-30 S tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">zonal</span> means occur about two months after solstice, all leading the peak of the sea surface temperature by several weeks. Phase is key to the evaluation of feedback. The evaluation of climate models in terms of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> and annual means and annual mean deviations from <span class="hlt">zonal</span> means can now be supplemented by evaluating the phase of key atmospheric and surface parameters relative to solstice. The ability of climate models to reproduce the statistical flavor of the observed amplitudes and relative phases for broad <span class="hlt">zonal</span> means should lead to increased confidence in the realism of their water vapor and cloud feedback algorithms. AIRS and AMSU were launched into a 705 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, and have been in routine data gathering mode since September 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OcSci..14..225S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018OcSci..14..225S"><span>Shelf sea tidal currents and mixing fronts determined from <span class="hlt">ocean</span> glider observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheehan, Peter M. F.; Berx, Barbara; Gallego, Alejandro; Hall, Rob A.; Heywood, Karen J.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Queste, Bastien Y.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Tides and tidal mixing fronts are of fundamental importance to understanding shelf sea dynamics and ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> gliders enable the observation of fronts and tide-dominated flows at high resolution. We use dive-<span class="hlt">average</span> currents from a 2-month (12 October-2 December 2013) glider deployment along a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> hydrographic section in the north-western North Sea to accurately determine M2 and S2 tidal velocities. The results of the glider-based method agree well with tidal velocities measured by current meters and with velocities extracted from the TPXO tide model. The method enhances the utility of gliders as an <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-observing platform, particularly in regions where tide models are known to be limited. We then use the glider-derived tidal velocities to investigate tidal controls on the location of a front repeatedly observed by the glider. The front moves offshore at a rate of 0.51 km day-1. During the first part of the deployment (from mid-October until mid-November), results of a one-dimensional model suggest that the balance between surface heat fluxes and tidal stirring is the primary control on frontal location: as heat is lost to the atmosphere, full-depth mixing is able to occur in progressively deeper water. In the latter half of the deployment (mid-November to early December), a front controlled solely by heat fluxes and tidal stirring is not predicted to exist, yet a front persists in the observations. We analyse hydrographic observations collected by the glider to attribute the persistence of the front to the boundary between different water masses, in particular to the presence of cold, saline, Atlantic-origin water in the deeper portion of the section. We combine these results to propose that the front is a hybrid front: one controlled in summer by the local balance between heat fluxes and mixing and which in winter exists as the boundary between water masses advected to the north-western North Sea from diverse source regions. The glider observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC14D2094R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC14D2094R"><span>Impact of Parameterized Lateral Mixing on the Circulation of the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ragen, S.; Gnanadesikan, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the strongest <span class="hlt">ocean</span> current in the world, transporting approximately 130 Sv Eastward around Antarctica. This current is often poorly simulated in climate models. It is not clear why this is the case as the Circumpolar Current is affected by both wind and buoyancy. Changes in wind and buoyancy are not independent of each other, however, so determining the effects of both separately has proved difficult. This study was undertaken in order to examine the impact of changing the lateral diffusion coefficient A­redi on ACC transport. A­redi is poorly known and its value ranges across an order of magnitude in the current generation of climate models. To explore these dynamics, a coarse resolution, fully coupled model suite was run with A­redi mixing coefficients of 400 m2/s, 800 m2/s, 1200 m2/s, and 2400 m2/s. Additionally, two models were run with two-dimensional representations of the mixing coefficient based on altimetry. Our initial results indicate that higher values of the lateral mixing coefficient result in the following changes. We see weaker winds over the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> as a whole. The high mixing case results in an 8.7% decrease in peak wind stress. We see a 2% weaker transport in the Drake Passage in the highest mixing case compared to the lowest, but an 11% decrease in transport for a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> <span class="hlt">average</span>. The change of temperature and salinity with depth with different Redi parameters also shows a significant difference between the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> as a whole and the Drake Passage. Our findings seem to suggest that the Drake Passage is not an adequate diagnostic for explaining the differences between different climate models, as processes distant from the passage may play an important role. Observed changes in overturning with an increase in lateral mixing include an increase in northward transport of Antarctic Bottom Water fed by a small diversion of northern deep water inflows. This diversion means that less of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26329498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26329498"><span>Microplastics in the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shim, Won Joon; Thomposon, Richard C</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Since their ubiquity in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and marine organisms was first revealed, global concern about microplastics has grown considerably. The North Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the adjacent marginal seas have high levels of microplastic contamination compared with the global <span class="hlt">average</span>. This special issue on microplastics was organized by the North Pacific Marine Science Organization to share information on microplastic pollution in the North Pacific region. The special issue highlights high levels of contamination in the North Pacific both on shorelines and at the sea surface. Particularly high levels of contamination were reported on the western and southern coasts of Korea. Sources, including sewage discharge, aquaculture, and shipyards, were implicated. With the direction and energy of surface winds and currents have an important influence on shoreline patterns of distribution. The special issue also demonstrates potential for ingestion of microplastic by small planktonic organisms at the base of the food chain. A wide range of chemicals are associated with plastic debris and concerns are expressed about the potential for these chemicals to transfer to biota upon ingestion. As an introduction to the topic, this paper provides a brief background on microplastic contamination, highlights some key research gaps, and summarizes findings from the articles published in this issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810059491&hterms=1091&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231091','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810059491&hterms=1091&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231091"><span>Evidence for wavelike anomalies with short meridional and large <span class="hlt">zonal</span> scales in the lower stratospheric temperature field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stanford, J. L.; Short, D. A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Global microwave brightness temperature measurements are analyzed to investigate the range of meridional wavelengths 2000-3000 km where spectral studies reveal larger than expected variance. The data, from the TIROS-N Microwave Sounding Unit, are sensitive to lower stratospheric temperatures (30-150 mb). The results reveal striking temperature anomalies with short meridional wavelengths (2000-3000 km) and long <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wavelengths (<span class="hlt">zonal</span> wavenumbers 1-4). The anomalies, with amplitudes approximately 1-2 K, extend from the equatorial region to at least as high as 70 deg N and 70 deg S during January 1979. The features exhibit slow eastward movement or else are nearly stationary for several days. In the Northern Hemisphere, comparison with NMC data reveals that the strongest features tend to be associated with major jet streams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..231A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35..231A"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over brazilian region using oi630nm airglow digital images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arruda, D. C. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Castilho, V. M.; Takahashi, H.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">zonal</span> drift velocities of the ionospheric plasma bubbles over the Brazilian region are analyzed in this study that is based on OI630nm airglow digital images. These digital images were obtained by an all-sky imager system between October 1998 and August 2000, at Cachoeira Paulista (22.5°S, 45°W), a low latitude region. In this period, 138 nights of OI 630 nm airglow experiments were carried out of which 30 nights detected the ionospheric plasma bubbles. These 30 nights correspond to magnetically quiet days (ΣK_P<24+) and were grouped according approximately to their season. KEY WORDS: Imager System, Ionospheric Plasma Bubbles, <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> drift velocities, OI630nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMBM...24...25H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMBM...24...25H"><span>Modeling the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> disintegration of rocks near deep level tunnels by gradient internal variable continuous phase transition theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haoxiang, Chen; Qi, Chengzhi; Peng, Liu; Kairui, Li; Aifantis, Elias C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The occurrence of alternating damage zones surrounding underground openings (commonly known as <span class="hlt">zonal</span> disintegration) is treated as a "far from thermodynamic equilibrium" dynamical process or a nonlinear continuous phase transition phenomenon. The approach of internal variable gradient theory with diffusive transport, which may be viewed as a subclass of Landau's phase transition theory, is adopted. The order parameter is identified with an irreversible strain quantity, the gradient of which enters into the expression for the free energy of the rock system. The gradient term stabilizes the material behavior in the post-softening regime, where <span class="hlt">zonal</span> disintegration occurs. The results of a simplified linearized analysis are confirmed by the numerical solution of the nonlinear problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/20621','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/20621"><span>Weighted south-wide <span class="hlt">average</span> pulpwood prices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>James E. Granskog; Kevin D. Growther</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Weighted <span class="hlt">average</span> prices provide a more accurate representation of regional pulpwood price trends when production volumes valy widely by state. Unweighted South-wide <span class="hlt">average</span> delivered prices for pulpwood, as reported by Timber Mart-South, were compared to <span class="hlt">average</span> annual prices weighted by each state's pulpwood production from 1977 to 1986. Weighted <span class="hlt">average</span> prices...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPSC...11..128H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPSC...11..128H"><span>Jupiter cloud morphology and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds from ground-based observations during Juno's first year around Jupiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Rojas, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Peralta, J.; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Chen-Chen, H.; Mendikoa, I.; Peach, D.; Go, C.; Wesley, A.; Miles, P.; Olivetti, T.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of Jupiter's atmospheric activity over Juno's first year around the planet based on ground-based observations. We present variability of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> winds associated to large outbreaks of convective activity at different belts in the planet, a study of short-scale atmospheric waves at low latitudes and examine polar views of the planet that can be compared with JunoCam observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JASTP.171..234R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JASTP.171..234R"><span>Changes in the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean flow, temperature, and planetary waves observed in the Northern Hemisphere mid-winter months during the last decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakushina, E. V.; Ermakova, T. S.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Four sets of data: the UK Met Office, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data (JRA-55), and ERA-Interim data (ERA) have been used to estimate the climatic variability of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean flow, temperature, and Stationary Planetary Waves (SPW1, SPW2) from the troposphere up to the lower mesosphere levels. The composites of the meteorological fields during mid-winter month have been <span class="hlt">averaged</span> over the first (1995-2005) and second (2006-2016) 11 years intervals and have been compared mainly paying attention to interannual and intraseasonal variability. Results show that changes in the mean fields and SPW2 are weaker and statistical significance of these changes is lower in comparison with the changes observed in the intraseasonal variability of these characteristics. All data sets demonstrate a decrease of SPW1 amplitude at the higher-middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere and opposite effect in the upper stratosphere. However, there is an increase of the intraseasonal variability for all meteorological parameters and this rise is statistically significant. The results obtained show that UK Met Office data demonstrate stronger changes and increase of the intraseasonal variability in comparison with other data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5938M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....5938M"><span>Indian-Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Latitudinal Transect (ISOLAT): A proposal for the recovery of high-resolution sedimentary records in the western Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> sector of the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mackensen, A.; Zahn, R.; Hall, I.; Kuhn, G.; Koc, N.; Francois, R.; Hemming, S.; Goldstein, S.; Rogers, J.; Ehrmann, W.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Quantifying <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> variability at timescales of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span>, atmospheric, and cryospheric processes are the fundamental objectives of the international IMAGES program. In this context the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> plays a leading role in that it is involved, through its influence on global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation and carbon budget, with the development and maintenance of the Earth's climate system. The seas surrounding Antarctica contain the world's only <span class="hlt">zonal</span> circum-global current system that entrains water masses from the three main <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins, and maintains the thermal isolation of Antarctica from warmer surface waters to the north. Furthermore, the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is a major site of bottom and intermediate water formation and thus actively impacts the global thermohaline circulation (THC). This proposal is an outcome of the IMAGES Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Working Group and constitutes one component of a suite of new IMAGES/IODP initiatives that aim at resolving past variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) on orbital and sub-orbital timescales and its involvement with rapid global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> variability and climate instability. The primary aim of this proposal is to determine millennial- to sub-centennial scale variability of the ACC and the ensuing Atlantic-Indian water transports, including surface transports and deep-water flow. We will focus on periods of rapid <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and climate change and assess the role of the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in these changes, both in terms of its thermohaline circulation and biogeochemical inventories. We propose a suite of 11 sites that form a latitudinal transect across the ACC in the westernmost Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> sector of the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The transect is designed to allow the reconstruction of ACC variability across a range of latitudes in conjunction with meridional shifts of the surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fronts. The northernmost reaches of the transect extend into the Agulhas Current and its retroflection system which is a key component of the THC warm water return</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhPl...16g2309J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhPl...16g2309J"><span>Influence of the parallel nonlinearity on <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows and heat transport in global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jolliet, S.; McMillan, B. F.; Vernay, T.; Villard, L.; Hatzky, R.; Bottino, A.; Angelino, P.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the influence of the parallel nonlinearity on <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows and heat transport in global particle-in-cell ion-temperature-gradient simulations is studied. Although this term is in theory orders of magnitude smaller than the others, several authors [L. Villard, P. Angelino, A. Bottino et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 46, B51 (2004); L. Villard, S. J. Allfrey, A. Bottino et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 172 (2004); J. C. Kniep, J. N. G. Leboeuf, and V. C. Decyck, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 98 (2004); J. Candy, R. E. Waltz, S. E. Parker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 074501 (2006)] found different results on its role. The study is performed using the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes TORB (theta-pinch) [R. Hatzky, T. M. Tran, A. Könies et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 898 (2002)] and ORB5 (tokamak geometry) [S. Jolliet, A. Bottino, P. Angelino et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 177, 409 (2007)]. In particular, it is demonstrated that the parallel nonlinearity, while important for energy conservation, affects the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> electric field only if the simulation is noise dominated. When a proper convergence is reached, the influence of parallel nonlinearity on the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> electric field, if any, is shown to be small for both the cases of decaying and driven turbulence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPPP2073C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPPP2073C"><span>A Simulation Model for Drift Resistive Ballooning Turbulence Examining the Influence of Self-consistent <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim; Joseph, Ilon</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Progress is reported on including self-consistent <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows in simulations of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence using the BOUT + + framework. Previous published work addressed the simulation of L-mode edge turbulence in realistic single-null tokamak geometry using the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations. The effects of imposed sheared ExB poloidal rotation were included, with a static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In new work our goal is to include the self-consistent effects on the radial electric field driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (<span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow generation). We describe a model for including self-consistent <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flows and an algorithm for maintaining underlying plasma profiles to enable the simulation of steady-state turbulence. We examine the role of Braginskii viscous forces in providing necessary dissipation when including axisymmetric perturbations. We also report on some of the numerical difficulties associated with including the axisymmetric component of the fluctuating fields. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL-ABS-674950).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-13/pdf/2010-8374.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-04-13/pdf/2010-8374.pdf"><span>75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City Air Show 2010, Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, MD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-13</p> <p>...-AA00 Safety Zone; <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City Air Show 2010, Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, Maryland to support the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City Air Show..., 5, and 6, 2010 <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, Maryland will host an air show event on the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> between Talbot...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770316"><span>Organophosphorus esters in the <span class="hlt">oceans</span> and possible relation with <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gyres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Wenhan; Xie, Zhouqing; Blais, Jules M; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Ming; Yang, Chengyun; Huang, Wen; Ding, Rui; Sun, Liguang</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Four organophosphorus esters (OPEs) were detected in aerosol samples collected in the West Pacific, the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> from 2009 to 2010, suggesting their circumpolar and global distribution. In general, the highest concentrations were detected near populated regions in China, Australia and New Zealand. OPE concentrations in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> were about two orders of magnitude lower than those near major continents. Additionally, relatively high OPE concentrations were detected at the Antarctic Peninsula, where several scientific survey stations are located. The four OPEs investigated here are significantly correlated with each other, suggesting they may derive from the same source. In the circumpolar transect, OPE concentrations were associated with <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gyres in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Their concentrations were positively related with <span class="hlt">average</span> vorticity in the sampling area suggesting that a major source of OPEs may be found in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gyres where plastic debris is known to accumulate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.1004P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.1004P"><span>Impact of improved momentum transfer coefficients on the dynamics and thermodynamics of the north Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parekh, Anant; Gnanaseelan, C.; Jayakumar, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Long time series of in situ observations from the north Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are used to compute the momentum transfer coefficients over the north Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The transfer coefficients behave nonlinearly for low winds (<4 m/s), when most of the known empirical relations assume linear relations. Impact of momentum transfer coefficients on the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> parameters is studied using an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> general circulation model. The model experiments revealed that the Arabian Sea and Equatorial Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are more sensitive to the momentum transfer coefficients than the Bay of Bengal and south Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The impact of momentum transfer coefficients on sea surface temperature is up to 0.3°C-0.4°C, on mixed layer depth is up to 10 m, and on thermocline depth is up to 15 m. Furthermore, the impact on the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> current is maximum over the equatorial Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (i.e., about 0.12 m/s in May and 0.15 m/s in October; both May and October are the period of Wyrtki jets and the difference in current has potential impact on the seasonal mass transport). The Sverdrup transport has maximum impact in the Bay of Bengal (3 to 4 Sv in August), whereas the Ekman transport has maximum impact in the Arabian Sea (4 Sv during May to July). These highlight the potential impact of accurate momentum forcing on the results from current <span class="hlt">ocean</span> models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..105Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..105Y"><span>Emerging role of Indian <span class="hlt">ocean</span> on Indian northeast monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yadav, Ramesh Kumar</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>This study examines the emerging role of Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> sea surface temperature (SST) on the inter-annual variability (IAV) of Indian north-east monsoon rainfall (NEMR). The IAV of NEMR is associated with the warm SST anomaly over east Bay-of-Bengal (BoB) (88.5oE-98.5oE; 8.5oN-15.5oN) and cool SST anomaly over east equatorial Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (80.5oE-103.5oE; 6.5oS-3.5oN). The gradient of SST between these boxes (i.e. northern box minus southern box) shows strong and robust association with the Indian NEMR variability in the recent decades. For establishing the teleconnections, SST, mean sea level pressure, North Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> tropical storm track, and circulation data have been used. The study reveals that during the positive SST gradient years, the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifts northwards over the East Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The tropical depressions, storms and cyclones formed in the North Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> moves more <span class="hlt">zonally</span> and strike the southern peninsular India and hence excess NEMR. While, during the negative SST gradient years, the ITCZ shifts southwards over the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The tropical depressions, storms and cyclones formed in the North Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> moves more northwestward direction and after crossing 15oN latitude re-curve to north-east direction towards head BoB and misses southern peninsular India and hence, deficient NEMR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA462427','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA462427"><span>Residual-Mean Analysis of the Air-Sea Fluxes and Associated <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Meridional Overturning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>the adiabatic component of the MOC which is based entirely on the sea surface data . The coordinate system introduced in this study is somewhat...heat capacity of water. The technique utilizes the observational data based on meteorological re- analysis (density flux at the sea surface) and...Figure 8. Annual mean and temporal standard deviation of the <span class="hlt">zonally-averaged</span> mixed- layer depth. The plotted data are based on Levitus 94 climatology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P41C1926G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P41C1926G"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> to get decreasing monotonously to the statistically significant lowest power of 20 K^2 in the height of 450 Pascal level. Similar to the 0-30E longitude region, there is no significant wave in all the heights above the 450 Pascal level. The 190-230 E region shows similar wave characteristics (both the power and height structure) as observed for the 0-30 E region. This would indicate that the here reporting 3.5 day wave might be associated with eastward propagating (observed the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> phase speed of ~0.5 days per 30 degree longitude) wave number 2 Rossby wave as the wave shows similar characteristics in the two longitude regions of 0-30E and 190-230 E with the longitudinal interval of 180 degrees. Peculiarly, in the 250-280 E region, the wave shows maximum power (120 K^2) in the two heights of 550 and 700 Pascal levels. As a further support for the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wave number 2 structure, there is no significant 3.5-day oscillation in all the height levels in the 290-320 E longitude region which is similar to what observed in the 35-60E longitude sector. A detailed investigation of this 3.5 day oscillation will be presented also for other periods of different years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.9449H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.9449H"><span>Connecting tropical climate change with Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> heat uptake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, Yen-Ting; Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Kang, Sarah M.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Under increasing greenhouse gas forcing, climate models project tropical warming that is greater in the Northern than the Southern Hemisphere, accompanied by a reduction in the northeast trade winds and a strengthening of the southeast trades. While the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere coupling indicates a positive feedback, what triggers the coupled asymmetry and favors greater warming in the northern tropics remains unclear. Far away from the tropics, the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (SO) has been identified as the major region of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake. Beyond its local effect on the magnitude of sea surface warming, we show by idealized modeling experiments in a coupled slab <span class="hlt">ocean</span> configuration that enhanced SO heat uptake has a profound global impact. This SO-to-tropics connection is consistent with southward atmospheric energy transport across the equator. Enhanced SO heat uptake results in a <span class="hlt">zonally</span> asymmetric La-Nina-like pattern of sea surface temperature change that not only affects tropical precipitation but also has influences on the Asian and North American monsoons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610520"><span>SSL: Signal Similarity-Based Localization for <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Sensor Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Pengpeng; Ma, Honglu; Gao, Shouwan; Huang, Yan</p> <p>2015-11-24</p> <p>Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are often deployed on the sea surface for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> scientific monitoring. One of the important challenges is to localize the nodes' positions. Existing localization schemes can be roughly divided into two types: range-based and range-free. The range-based localization approaches heavily depend on extra hardware capabilities, while range-free ones often suffer from poor accuracy and low scalability, far from the practical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> monitoring applications. In response to the above limitations, this paper proposes a novel signal similarity-based localization (SSL) technology, which localizes the nodes' positions by fully utilizing the similarity of received signal strength and the open-air characteristics of the sea surface. In the localization process, we first estimate the relative distance between neighboring nodes through comparing the similarity of received signal strength and then calculate the relative distance for non-neighboring nodes with the shortest path algorithm. After that, the nodes' relative relation map of the whole network can be obtained. Given at least three anchors, the physical locations of nodes can be finally determined based on the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) technology. The design is evaluated by two types of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> experiments: a <span class="hlt">zonal</span> network and a non-regular network using 28 nodes. Results show that the proposed design improves the localization accuracy compared to typical connectivity-based approaches and also confirm its effectiveness for large-scale <span class="hlt">ocean</span> sensor networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009846','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009846"><span>Fortnightly <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Tides, Earth Rotation, and Mantle Anelasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ray, Richard; Egbert, Gary</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The fortnightly Mf <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide is the largest of the long-period tides (periods between 1 week and 18.6 years), but Mf is still very small, generally 2 cm or less. All long-period tides are thought to be near equilibrium with the astronomical tidal potential, with an almost pure <span class="hlt">zonal</span> structure. However, several lines of evidence point to Mf having a significant dynamic response to forcing. We use a combination of numerical modeling, satellite altimetry, and observations of polar motion to determine the Mf <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide and to place constraints on certain global properties, such as angular momentum. Polar motion provides the only constraints on Mf tidal currents. With a model of the Mf <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide in hand, we use it to remove the effects of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> from estimates of fortnightly variations in length-of-day. The latter is dominated by the earth's body tide, but a small residual allows us to place new constraints on the anelasticity of the earth's mantle. The result gives the first experimental confirmation of theoretical predictions made by Wahr and Bergen in 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRC..123.2238P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRC..123.2238P"><span>Seasonal Variation of Barrier Layer in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Li; Zhong, Yisen; Liu, Hailong; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Zhaoru; Zhou, Meng</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The seasonal variability of barrier layer (BL) and its formation mechanism in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are investigated using the most recent Argo data. The results reveal that the BL is a persistent feature in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> with a strong seasonal cycle. The thickest BL appears in winter with the maximum amplitude exceeding 250 m while it dramatically decreases to less than 50 m in summer. The spatial distribution of BL is <span class="hlt">zonally</span> oriented in the Pacific and Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> sectors, which is in agreement with that of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and the isothermal layer depth (ILD). Two areas with the most prominent BL are identified. One is located south of Australia and the other in the southeastern Pacific. The BL formation in both areas is generally attributed to a shallow mixed layer controlled by surface freshwater intrusion and a deep isothermal layer modulated by seasonal vertical convection. In the former region, the cold and fresh Antarctic Surface Water (ASW) is transported northward across the Subantarctic Front (SAF) by the Ekman effect and overlies the warm Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW). The resulting inverse temperature structure facilitates the development of thick BLs. In the latter region, the BL emerges in the ventilation area where the shallow Surface Salinity Minimum Water (SSMW) coming from north leans against the deep vertical isotherms. In summer, positive surface heat flux into the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> overwhelms other thermodynamic effects in the mixed layer heat budget. The MLD and ILD coincide and thus the BL is destroyed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51D0791F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51D0791F"><span>Climate contributes to <span class="hlt">zonal</span> forest mortality in Southern California's San Jacinto Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fellows, A.; Goulden, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>An estimated 4.6 million trees died over ~375,000 acres of Southern California forest in 2002-2004. This mortality punctuated a decline in forest health that has been attributed to air pollution, stem densification, or drought. Bark beetles were the proximate cause of most tree death but the underlying cause of this extensive mortality is arguably poor forest health. We investigated the contributions that climate, particularly drought, played in tree mortality and how physiological drought stress may have structured the observed patterns of mortality. Field surveys showed that conifer mortality was <span class="hlt">zonal</span> in the San Jacinto Mountains of Southern California. The proportion of conifer mortality increased with decreasing elevation (p=0.01). Mid-elevation conifers (White Fir, Incense Cedar, Coulter Pine, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine) died in the lower portions of their respective ranges, which resulted in an upslope lean in species’ distribution and an upslope shift in species’ mean elevation. Long-term precipitation (P) is consistent with elevation over the conifer elevation range (p=0.43). Potential evapotranspiration (ET) estimated by Penman Monteith declines with elevation by nearly half over the same range. These trends suggest that ET, more than P, is critical in structuring the elevational trend in drought stress and may have contributed to the patterns of mortality that occurred in 2002-04. Physiological measurements in a mild drought year (2009) showed late summer declines in plant water availability with decreasing elevation (p < 0.01) and concomitant reductions in carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance with decreasing elevation. We tie these observations together with a simple water balance model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/41692-global-ozone-observations-from-uars-mls-overview-zonal-mean-results','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/41692-global-ozone-observations-from-uars-mls-overview-zonal-mean-results"><span>Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Read, W.G.</p> <p>1994-10-15</p> <p>Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the <span class="hlt">zonal</span>-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the lowmore » ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, with a pattern generally consistent with Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of total column; the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30{degrees}S to 30{degrees}N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. Finally, residual ozone values extracted from TOMS-minus-MLS column data are briefly presented as a preliminary view into the potential usefulness of such studies, with information on tropospheric ozone as an ultimate goal. 99 refs., 13 figs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17566980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17566980"><span>Enhanced separation of membranes during free flow <span class="hlt">zonal</span> electrophoresis in plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar</p> <p>2007-07-15</p> <p>Free flow <span class="hlt">zonal</span> electrophoresis (FFZE) is a versatile technique that allows for the separation of cells, organelles, membranes, and proteins based on net surface charge during laminar flow through a thin aqueous layer. We have been optimizing the FFZE technique to enhance separation of plant vacuolar membranes (tonoplast) from other endomembranes to pursue a directed proteomics approach to identify novel tonoplast transporters. Addition of ATP to a mixture of endomembranes selectively enhanced electrophoretic mobility of acidic vesicular compartments during FFZE toward the positive electrode. This has been attributed to activation of the V-ATPase generating a more negative membrane potential outside the vesicles, resulting in enhanced migration of acidic vesicles, including tonoplast, to the anode (Morré, D. J.; Lawrence, J.; Safranski, K.; Hammond, T.; Morré, D. M. J. Chromatogr., A 1994, 668, 201-213). We confirm that ATP does induce a redistribution of membranes during FFZE of microsomal membranes isolated from several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Thellungiella halophila, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, and Ananas comosus. However, we demonstrate, using V-ATPase-specific inhibitors, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs, and ionophores to dissipate membrane potential, that the ATP-dependent migrational shift of membranes under FFZE is not due to activation of the V-ATPase. Addition of EDTA to chelate Mg2+, leading to the production of the tetravalent anionic form of ATP, resulted in a further enhancement of membrane migration toward the anode, and manipulation of cell surface charge by addition of polycations also influenced the ATP-dependent migration of membranes. We propose that ATP enhances the mobility of endomembranes by screening positive surface charges on the membrane surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12081665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12081665"><span>Multiple <span class="hlt">zonal</span> projections of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis to the cerebellar cortex of the rat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Serapide, M F; Parenti, R; Pantò, M R; Zappalà, A; Cicirata, F</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Compartmentalization (alternating labelled and unlabelled stripes) of mossy fibre terminals was found in the cerebellar cortex after iontophoretic injections of biotinylated dextran amine into discrete regions of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP). The <span class="hlt">zonal</span> pattern was only observed when volumes of nuclear tissue ranging from 4.5 x 106 to 17.66 x 106 microm3 were impregnated. Up to nine compartments (i.e. up to five stripes separated by four interstripes) were found in crus I and in vermal lobule VI. Up to seven compartments (four stripes and three interstripes) were found in crus II; up to five compartments (three stripes and two interstripes) were identified in the lobulus simplex, the paraflocculus and vermal lobules IV, V and VII; up to three compartments (two stripes and one interstripe) were identified in the paramedian lobule and, finally, up to two compartments (one stripe and one interstripe) were identified in the copula pyramidis, in the flocculus and in vermal lobules II, III, VIII and IX. The projections of the NRTP are arranged according to a divergent/convergent projection pattern. From single injections in the NRTP, projections were traced to a set of cortical stripes widely distributed over the cerebellar cortex. The set of stripes labelled from different regions of the NRTP partially overlapped but complete overlap was never found. This finding revealed that the topographic combination of the projections of the NRTP to the cerebellar cortex is specific for each region of the NRTP. Finally, the projections to single cortical areas were arranged according to a pattern of compartmentalization that is specific for each cortical area, independent of the site of injection in the NRTP and of the number of stripes evident in the cortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122..821L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122..821L"><span><span class="hlt">Zonal</span> evolution of Alaskan Stream structure and transport quantified with Argo data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Logan, Paige D.; Johnson, Gregory C.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The Alaskan Stream (AS) flows west-southwestward along the south side of Alaska and the Aleutian Island Arc; a western boundary current at the northern edge of the North Pacific subpolar gyre. The Argo float array has improved sampling of the Gulf of Alaska, allowing quantification of the AS's <span class="hlt">zonal</span> evolution from 140°W to 175°W. Geostrophic alongshore transport of the AS in the upper 1000 dbar referenced to an assumed level of no motion at 1000 dbar shows little change from east to west. However, alongshore absolute geostrophic transports in the top 2000 dbar (obtained by combining mean absolute 1000-dbar velocities from float displacements with the geostrophic velocity fields) generally increase to the west. We estimate full-depth transports by fitting a barotropic and the first two baroclinic modes calculated from a climatology to the absolute geostrophic velocities in the upper 2000 dbar and applying the velocities from these fits from 2000 dbar to the seafloor. Flowing west from its formation region at 140°W-145°W the full-depth AS becomes stronger, more barotropic, and also narrower once it reaches ˜160°W, with along-shore transports increasing from -16.4 ± 4.9 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) at 140°W to -32.6 ± 5.2 Sv at 175°W. Mean concentrations of relatively warm, salty, oxygen-poor, and nutrient-rich Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) in the AS decrease from 17.8% ± 0.3% to 8.5% ± 0.5% between 140°W and 175°W. However, the volume transport of PEW by the AS exhibits little change over the PEW density range between these longitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744897','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744897"><span>Sensitive Indicators of <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four <span class="hlt">zonal</span> Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9239E..0SB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9239E..0SB"><span>Vineyard <span class="hlt">zonal</span> management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard <span class="hlt">zonal</span> management strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19529054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19529054"><span>Antiretroviral Service to HIV patients of low CD4 count in Seti <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Hospital.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paudel, B N; Chaudhary, S R; Sharma, S; Dhungana, G P; Paudel, P</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Due to unavailability of vaccine against HIV/AIDS, there are no ways other than relying on ART. We select group of late stage HIV/AIDS with CD4<50 so that opportunistic infections and outcome of patients in this late stage of severe immunosuppression after initiation of ART can be known A cross sectional study was carried out in 53 HIV patients with CD4 count <50 cells/cu mm blood undergoing ART in Seti <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Hospital Dhangadi between December 2006 and May 2008 with objectives to explore the treatment outcome in this late stage of immunosuppression. Only those patients with CD4 count <50 were consecutively selected and recommended for various laboratory test on the basis of which ART regimen were prescribed. Among 53 patients, 42 (79.2%) were males and 11 (20.8%) were females, with predominant age group of 30-40 years (49.1%). Fever (71.7%), diarrhea (56.6%), pneumonia (52.8%), weight loss (52.8%) and oral thrush (33.9%) were found to be the major clinical presentation/Opportunistic infections. 19 (35.8%) patients showed normal activity throughout the treatment period with increase in CD4 count, 10 (19%) were recovered and transferred out. Only 1 (1.8%) showed decrease in CD4 count even after taking ART. Significant relationship was established between the intake of ART and increase in CD4 level (pair t = 7.88, p<0.05). ART service was found to be efficient enough to increase the CD4 count significantly after 6 months of therapy but the prevalence of OIs/clinical manifestations were sufficiently higher in this group of patients with low CD4 count.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3058/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3058/"><span>Studying <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p>Robbins, Lisa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and insights into the patterns and extent of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ClDy...50.1513C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ClDy...50.1513C"><span>Multidecadal-scale adjustment of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mixed layer heat budget in the tropics: examining <span class="hlt">ocean</span> reanalyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.; Sun, Xiaoming</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Distributions of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mixed layer temperature trends and trends in the net heat flux from the atmosphere differ, indicating the important role of the transport of heat within the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> for determining temperature trends. Annual-mean, linear trends in the components of the tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mixed layer heat budget for 1980-2015 are diagnosed in 4 <span class="hlt">ocean</span> reanalyses to improve our physical understanding of multidecadal-scale SST trends. The well-known temperature trend in the tropical Pacific, with cooling in the east and warming in the west, is reproduced in each reanalysis with high statistical significance. Cooling in the east is associated with negative trends in the net heat flux from the atmosphere and enhanced equatorial upwelling related to a strengthening of the subtropical cells. Negative trends in the net heat flux also occur in the western tropical Pacific, but advective warming associated with a strengthening and shoaling of the equatorial undercurrent overwhelms these negative trends. The strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent is consistent with enhanced easterly wind stress, which is applied to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> reanalyses, and differential sea level trends that enhance the negative <span class="hlt">zonal</span> height gradient across the Pacific. The Pacific North Equatorial countercurrent is also strengthening in all 4 reanalyses in association with a strengthening of the sea level trough at 10°N in the central and eastern Pacific. All 4 <span class="hlt">ocean</span> reanalyses produce warming of 0.1-0.3 K/decade in the North Atlantic with statistical significance levels ranging from below 90-99%. The Atlantic is similar to the Pacific in having the equatorial undercurrent strengthening, but indications of shoaling are less consistent in the reanalyses and the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Atlantic is not strengthening. Large-scale <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mixed layer warming trends in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the reanalyses are interrupted by some regional cooling close to the equator. Net surface heat flux trends</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/952553','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/952553"><span>RHIC BPM system <span class="hlt">average</span> orbit calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.</p> <p>2009-05-04</p> <p>RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system <span class="hlt">average</span> orbit was originally calculated by <span class="hlt">averaging</span> positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed <span class="hlt">average</span> orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for <span class="hlt">average</span> orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore <span class="hlt">averaging</span> over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an <span class="hlt">average</span> orbit signal quality improvement, an <span class="hlt">average</span> over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous <span class="hlt">average</span> orbit calculation was developed justmore » prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-sec76-11.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol17-sec76-11.pdf"><span>40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions <span class="hlt">averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions <span class="hlt">averaging</span>. (a) General... <span class="hlt">averaging</span> plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol17-sec76-11.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol17-sec76-11.pdf"><span>40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions <span class="hlt">averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions <span class="hlt">averaging</span>. (a) General... <span class="hlt">averaging</span> plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-1304.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec91-1304.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.1304 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>. (a) A manufacturer may use <span class="hlt">averaging</span> across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec91-1304.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec91-1304.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.1304 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>. (a) A manufacturer may use <span class="hlt">averaging</span> across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec91-1304.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec91-1304.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.1304 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>. (a) A manufacturer may use <span class="hlt">averaging</span> across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-1304.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec91-1304.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.1304 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>. (a) A manufacturer may use <span class="hlt">averaging</span> across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec91-1304.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec91-1304.pdf"><span>40 CFR 91.1304 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>. (a) A manufacturer may use <span class="hlt">averaging</span> across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive... credits obtained through trading. (b) Beginning in model year 2004, credits used to demonstrate a zero or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-204.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-204.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.204 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-204.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-204.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.204 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-204.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-204.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.204 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-204.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-204.pdf"><span>40 CFR 89.204 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an <span class="hlt">averaging</span> set...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ980491.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ980491.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Averaging</span> and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive <span class="hlt">averaging</span> prevails. Young children also use <span class="hlt">averaging</span> in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children <span class="hlt">average</span> the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...96a2007U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...96a2007U"><span>Simulation of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> thermohaline circulation with an eddy-resolving INMIO model configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ushakov, K. V.; Ibrayev, R. A.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, the first results of a simulation of the mean World <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> thermohaline characteristics obtained by the INMIO <span class="hlt">ocean</span> general circulation model configured with 0.1 degree resolution in a 5-year long numerical experiment following the CORE-II protocol are presented. The horizontal and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean distributions of the solution bias against the WOA09 data are analyzed. The seasonal cycle of heat content at a specified site of the North Atlantic is also discussed. The simulation results demonstrate a clear improvement in the quality of representation of the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> compared to the results of experiments with 0.5 and 0.25 degree model configurations. Some remaining biases of the model solution and possible ways of their overcoming are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts054-95-042.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts054-95-042.html"><span>Equatorial Wave Line, Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-19</p> <p>STS054-95-042 (13-19 Jan 1993) --- The Equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is represented in this 70mm view. The international oceanographic research community is presently conducting a program called Joint Global <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Flux Study (JGOFS) to study the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> carbon budget. A considerable amount of effort within this program is presently being focused on the Equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> because of the high annual <span class="hlt">average</span> biological productivity. The high productivity is the result of nearly constant easterly winds causing cool, nutrient-rich water to well up at the equator. In this view of the sun glint pattern was photographed at about 2 degrees north latitude, 103 degrees west longitude, as the Space Shuttle passed over the Equatorial Pacific. The long narrow line is the equatorial front, which defines the boundary between warm surface equatorial water and cool, recently upwelled water. Such features are of interest to the JGOFS researchers and it is anticipated that photographs such as this will benefit the JGOFS program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040031847','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040031847"><span>Elevated Ozone in the Troposphere over the Atlantic and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> in the Northern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Tie, Xuexi</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Tropospheric column ozone (TCO) is derived from differential measurements of total column ozone from Nimus-7 and Earth Probe TOMS, and stratospheric column ozone from the Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite. It is shown that TCO during summer months over the Atlantic and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> at northern mid-latitudes is about the same (50-60 Dobson Units) as over the continents of North America, Europe and Asia, where surface emissions of nitrogen oxides from industrial sources, biomass and biofuel burning and biogenic emissions are significantly larger. This nearly uniform <span class="hlt">zonal</span> variation in TCO is modulated by surface topography of the Rocky and Himalayan mountains and Tibetan Plateau where TCO is reduced by 20-30 Dobson Units. The <span class="hlt">zonal</span> characteristics of TCO derived from satellite measurements are well simulated by a global chemical transport model called MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2). The model results are analyzed to delineate the relative importance of various processes contributing to observed <span class="hlt">zonal</span> characteristics of TCO, and they are shown that the surface emission of NOx contributes about 50% of the TCO at northern mid-latitudes, especially over the continents of North America, Europe and Asia. The result of TCO derived from TOMS and the analysis from MOZART-2 indicate that TCO is a very useful tool to study tropospheric O3 pollution resulting from surface emissions of pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5193B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5193B"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> eddy compensation in a forced eddy-resolving GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruun Poulsen, Mads; Jochum, Markus; Eden, Carsten; Nuterman, Roman</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Contemporary eddy-resolving model studies have demonstrated that the common parameterisation of isopycnal mixing in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is subject to limitations in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> where the mesoscale eddies are of leading order importance to the dynamics. We here present forced simulations from the Community Earth System Model on a global {1/10}° and 1° horizontal grid, the latter employing an eddy parameterisation, where the strength of the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind stress south of 25°S has been varied. With a 50% <span class="hlt">zonally</span> symmetric increase of the wind stress, we show that the two models arrive at two radically different solutions in terms of the large-scale circulation, with an increase of the deep inflow of water to the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> at 40°S by 50% in the high resolution model against 20% at coarse resolution. Together with a weaker vertical displacement of the pycnocline in the 1° model, these results suggest that the parameterised eddies have an overly strong compensating effect on the water mass transformation compared to the explicit eddies. Implications for eddy mixing parameterisations will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED13D..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED13D..02S"><span>The <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy Campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>"<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy is an understanding of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s influence on you and your influence on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting <span class="hlt">ocean</span> literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy: The Essential Principles of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/<span class="hlt">Ocean</span>LitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy: A Report on <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.noaa.gov/coasts.html','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://www.noaa.gov/coasts.html"><span><span class="hlt">Oceans</span> & Coasts | National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NOAA's National <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Service is positioning America's <em>coastal</em> communities for the future Focus_Area_oceanscoasts1.jpg NOAA NOAA's National <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Service is positioning America's <em>coastal</em> communities for the future them. Almost 40 percent of the country's population lives in <em>coastal</em> shoreline counties. These counties</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=salinity&pg=6&id=ED265027','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=salinity&pg=6&id=ED265027"><span>Harvesting the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: 1. The <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet is the first in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and its surrounding countries. The booklet, designed for lower secondary students, provides an introduction to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> environment such that students can understand the physical factors underlying issues raised by the other two…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-31/pdf/2013-12888.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-31/pdf/2013-12888.pdf"><span>78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City Air Show, Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, MD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-31</p> <p>...-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City Air Show, Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, MD to support the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City Air Show... June 9, 2013, <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> City, MD will host an air show event between Talbot Street and 33rd Street over the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/936473','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/936473"><span>Reconstructing Past <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Salinity ((delta)18Owater)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K</p> <p>2005-11-23</p> <p>Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> where 'local'more » changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) <span class="hlt">ocean</span> currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern <span class="hlt">ocean</span> has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on <span class="hlt">average</span> 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an <span class="hlt">average</span> increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5881L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5881L"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport on the atmospheric circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general circulation are found. Increasing the strength of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport up to 2.5 PW leads to an increase in the global mean near-surface temperature and to a decrease in its equator-to-pole gradient. For stronger transports, the gradient is reduced further, but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. Additionally, a stronger <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport leads to a decline in the intensity and a poleward shift of the maxima of both the Hadley and Ferrel cells. Changes in <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean diabatic heating and friction impact the properties of the Hadley cell, while the behavior of the Ferrel cell is mostly controlled by friction. The efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport. This suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production as the enhanced <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fluids with different temperatures, thus reducing the available energy in the climate system and bringing it closer to a state of thermal equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3156N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3156N"><span>Seychelles Dome variability in a high resolution <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nyadjro, E. S.; Jensen, T.; Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR; 5ºS-10ºS, 50ºE-80ºE) in the tropical Southwest Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (SWIO) has been recognized as a region of prominence with regards to climate variability in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Convective activities in this region have regional consequences as it affect socio-economic livelihood of the people especially in the countries along the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> rim. The SCTR is characterized by a quasi-permanent upwelling that is often associated with thermocline shoaling. This upwelling affects sea surface temperature (SST) variability. We present results on the variability and dynamics of the SCTR as simulated by the 1/12º high resolution HYbrid Coordinate <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Model (HYCOM). It is observed that locally, wind stress affects SST via Ekman pumping of cooler subsurface waters, mixing and anomalous <span class="hlt">zonal</span> advection. Remotely, wind stress curl in the eastern equatorial Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> generates westward-propagating Rossby waves that impacts the depth of the thermocline which in turn impacts SST variability in the SCTR region. The variability of the contributions of these processes, especially with regard to the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Dipole (IOD) are further examined. In a typical positive IOD (PIOD) year, the net vertical velocity in the SCTR is negative year-round as easterlies along the region are intensified leading to a strong positive curl. This vertical velocity is caused mainly by anomalous local Ekman downwelling (with peak during September-November), a direct opposite to the climatology scenario when local Ekman pumping is positive (upwelling favorable) year-round. The anomalous remote contribution to the vertical velocity changes is minimal especially during the developing and peak stages of PIOD events. In a typical negative IOD (NIOD) year, anomalous vertical velocity is positive almost year-round with peaks in May and October. The remote contribution is positive, in contrast to the climatology and most of the PIOD years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plastic+AND+pollution&id=EJ376774','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plastic+AND+pollution&id=EJ376774"><span>People and <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>NatureScope, 1988</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses people's relationship with <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, focusing on <span class="hlt">ocean</span> pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840032298&hterms=ethane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dethane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840032298&hterms=ethane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dethane"><span>Ethane <span class="hlt">ocean</span> on Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane <span class="hlt">ocean</span> on Titan. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> contains 25 percent CH4 and that the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 <span class="hlt">ocean</span> are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> layer approximately 1 km deep, with the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/ocean-dumping/ocean-disposal-site-monitoring','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/ocean-dumping/ocean-disposal-site-monitoring"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Disposal Site Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA is responsible for managing all designated <span class="hlt">ocean</span> disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A51P..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A51P..05G"><span>On <span class="hlt">Averaging</span> Timescales for the Surface Energy Budget Closure Problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grachev, A. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Persson, O. P. G.; Uttal, T.; Blomquist, B.; McCaffrey, K.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>An accurate determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface is of obvious relevance for the numerical modelling of the coupled atmosphere-land/<span class="hlt">ocean</span>/snow system over different spatial and temporal scales, including climate modelling, weather forecasting, environmental impact studies, and many other applications. This study analyzes and discusses comprehensive measurements of the SEB and the surface energy fluxes (turbulent, radiative, and ground heat) made over different underlying surfaces based on the data collected during several field campaigns. Hourly-<span class="hlt">averaged</span>, multiyear data sets collected at two terrestrial long-term research observatories located near the coast of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> at Eureka (Canadian Archipelago) and Tiksi (East Siberia) and half-hourly <span class="hlt">averaged</span> fluxes collected during a year-long field campaign (Wind Forecast Improvement Project 2, WFIP 2) at the Columbia River Gorge (Oregon) in areas of complex terrain. Our direct measurements of energy balance show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes systematically underestimate the available energy at half-hourly and hourly time scales by around 20-30% at these sites. This imbalance of the surface energy budget is comparable to other terrestrial sites. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle (the first law of thermodynamics). The lack of energy balance closure at hourly time scales is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology and may be caused by inaccurate estimates of the energy storage terms in soils, air and biomass in the layer below the measurement height and above the heat flux plates. However, the residual energy imbalance is significantly reduced at daily and monthly timescales. Increasing the <span class="hlt">averaging</span> time to daily scales substantially reduces the storage terms because energy locally entering the soil, air column, and vegetation in the morning is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5846132','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5846132"><span>Quantitative Autofluorescence Intensities in Acute <span class="hlt">Zonal</span> Occult Outer Retinopathy vs Healthy Eyes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boudreault, Katherine; Schuerch, Kaspar; Zhao, Jin; Lee, Winston; Cabral, Thiago; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Tsang, Stephen H.; Sparrow, Janet R.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>IMPORTANCE Acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) remains a challenging diagnosis. Early recognition of the disease depends on advances in imaging modalities that can improve phenotyping and contribute to the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES To expand the range of approaches available to assist in the identification of AZOOR by multimodal imaging and to analyze the fundus lesions by quantifying short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (quantitative fundus autofluorescence [qAF]) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this observational study, patients underwent imaging at Columbia University Medical Center between November 2010 and March 2016 and were analyzed between September 2015 and August 2016. Six patients diagnosed as having AZOOR were studied by qAF and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and were compared with 30 age and race/ethnicity–matched controls from a database of 277 healthy control eyes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES In unaffected regions of the macula, qAF was calculated within predetermined circularly arranged segments (qAF8). In addition, qAF was measured within specified regions of interest positioned at the autofluorescent lesion border (AZOOR line). Electroretinograms and electro-oculograms were recorded in 5 of 6 patients. RESULTS Among 6 patients (age range, 26–61 years; 4 female; 4 of white race/ethnicity, 1 Asian, and 1 Hispanic), 5 exhibited an autofluorescent AZOOR line in short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence images, delineating the peripapillary lesion. The mean (SD) region-of-interest qAF measured on the AZOOR line was 60 (26) times higher than in healthy control eyes (P = .03) at equivalent fundus locations. The qAF8 within nondiseased macular regions were within the normal range. At the lesion border, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed a loss of outer retinal integrity in all patients. Single-flash cone b-wave latency and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThCFD..31...89D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThCFD..31...89D"><span>A <span class="hlt">zonally</span> symmetric model for the monsoon-Hadley circulation with stochastic convective forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De La Chevrotière, Michèle; Khouider, Boualem</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Idealized models of reduced complexity are important tools to understand key processes underlying a complex system. In climate science in particular, they are important for helping the community improve our ability to predict the effect of climate change on the earth system. Climate models are large computer codes based on the discretization of the fluid dynamics equations on grids of horizontal resolution in the order of 100 km, whereas unresolved processes are handled by subgrid models. For instance, simple models are routinely used to help understand the interactions between small-scale processes due to atmospheric moist convection and large-scale circulation patterns. Here, a <span class="hlt">zonally</span> symmetric model for the monsoon circulation is presented and solved numerically. The model is based on the Galerkin projection of the primitive equations of atmospheric synoptic dynamics onto the first modes of vertical structure to represent free tropospheric circulation and is coupled to a bulk atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model. The model carries bulk equations for water vapor in both the free troposphere and the ABL, while the processes of convection and precipitation are represented through a stochastic model for clouds. The model equations are coupled through advective nonlinearities, and the resulting system is not conservative and not necessarily hyperbolic. This makes the design of a numerical method for the solution of this system particularly difficult. Here, we develop a numerical scheme based on the operator time-splitting strategy, which decomposes the system into three pieces: a conservative part and two purely advective parts, each of which is solved iteratively using an appropriate method. The conservative system is solved via a central scheme, which does not require hyperbolicity since it avoids the Riemann problem by design. One of the advective parts is a hyperbolic diagonal matrix, which is easily handled by classical methods for hyperbolic equations, while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DyAtO..82...76Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018DyAtO..82...76Y"><span>The 10-30-day oscillation of winter <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind in the entrance region of the East Asian subtropical jet and its relationship with precipitation in southern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yao, Chenyu; Huang, Qian; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Fei</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Using ECMWF ERA-Interim 6-h reanalysis data, <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs) in the entrance region of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) in winter from 1979/1980 to 2012/2013 are studied. The results first show that there is an area with large ISO strength in the northwest of the EASWJ; in the key region, <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind has a dominant period of 10-30 days. The composite analysis reveals that <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind at 200 hPa in this key region has 10-30-day oscillation characteristics. On the 10-30-day time scale, the center of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind anomaly moves eastward. The propagation of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind oscillation relates to temperature tendencies at different latitudes. The remarkable increase (or decrease) in <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind in the key region is mostly determined by temperature anomalies to the north. The 10-30-day filtered temperature advection to the north of the key region leads to either a decrease or an increase in temperature; on the other hand, temperature variations south of the key region have trends opposite of the northern trends, which changes the temperature gradient. On the 10-30-day time scale, <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wind anomalies are associated with precipitation in southern China. When there are easterly wind anomalies over the key region, precipitation occurs over the Yangtze River basin and its south. Diabatic heating during precipitation corresponds with warming to the south of the key region, which combines with the temperature advection to weaken the easterly wind and strengths the westerly wind. Then, the intra-seasonal precipitation moves to southwest China with warm advection and the enhanced westerly wind, which brings the positive relative vorticity advection there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619524','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619524"><span>Deep Water <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Acoustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-07-17</p> <p>under- ice scattering, bathymetric diffraction and the application of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustic Parabolic Equation to infrasound. 2. Tasks a. Task 1...and Climate of the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Phase II (ECCO2): High-Resolution Global-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Sea- Ice Data Synthesis) model re- analysis for the years 1992 and 1993...The ECCO2 model is a state estimation based upon data syntheses obtained by least squares fitting of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and sea- ice configuration of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CeMDA.130....9T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CeMDA.130....9T"><span><span class="hlt">Averaged</span> model to study long-term dynamics of a probe about Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tresaco, Eva; Carvalho, Jean Paulo S.; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Elipe, Antonio; de Moraes, Rodolpho Vilhena</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>This paper provides a method for finding initial conditions of frozen orbits for a probe around Mercury. Frozen orbits are those whose orbital elements remain constant on <span class="hlt">average</span>. Thus, at the same point in each orbit, the satellite always passes at the same altitude. This is very interesting for scientific missions that require close inspection of any celestial body. The orbital dynamics of an artificial satellite about Mercury is governed by the potential attraction of the main body. Besides the Keplerian attraction, we consider the inhomogeneities of the potential of the central body. We include secondary terms of Mercury gravity field from J_2 up to J_6, and the tesseral harmonics \\overline{C}_{22} that is of the same magnitude than <span class="hlt">zonal</span> J_2. In the case of science missions about Mercury, it is also important to consider third-body perturbation (Sun). Circular restricted three body problem can not be applied to Mercury-Sun system due to its non-negligible orbital eccentricity. Besides the harmonics coefficients of Mercury's gravitational potential, and the Sun gravitational perturbation, our <span class="hlt">average</span> model also includes Solar acceleration pressure. This simplified model captures the majority of the dynamics of low and high orbits about Mercury. In order to capture the dominant characteristics of the dynamics, short-period terms of the system are removed applying a double-<span class="hlt">averaging</span> technique. This algorithm is a two-fold process which firstly <span class="hlt">averages</span> over the period of the satellite, and secondly <span class="hlt">averages</span> with respect to the period of the third body. This simplified Hamiltonian model is introduced in the Lagrange Planetary equations. Thus, frozen orbits are characterized by a surface depending on three variables: the orbital semimajor axis, eccentricity and inclination. We find frozen orbits for an <span class="hlt">average</span> altitude of 400 and 1000 km, which are the predicted values for the BepiColombo mission. Finally, the paper delves into the orbital stability of frozen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28590963','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28590963"><span>ACUTE <span class="hlt">ZONAL</span> OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute <span class="hlt">zonal</span> occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.3754O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.3754O"><span>Daily estimates of the migrating tide and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortland, David A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Satellites provide a global view of the structure in the fields that they measure. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, the dominant features in these fields at low <span class="hlt">zonal</span> wave number are contained in the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean, quasi-stationary planetary waves, and tide components. Due to the nature of the satellite sampling pattern, stationary, diurnal, and semidiurnal components are aliased and spectral methods are typically unable to separate the aliased waves over short time periods. This paper presents a data processing scheme that is able to recover the daily structure of these waves and the <span class="hlt">zonal</span> mean state. The method is validated by using simulated data constructed from a mechanistic model, and then applied to Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperature measurements. The migrating diurnal tide extracted from SABER temperatures for 2009 has a seasonal variability with peak amplitude (20 K at 95 km) in February and March and minimum amplitude (less than 5 K at 95 km) in early June and early December. Higher frequency variability includes a change in vertical structure and amplitude during the major stratospheric warming in January. The migrating semidiurnal tide extracted from SABER has variability on a monthly time scale during January through March, minimum amplitude in April, and largest steady amplitudes from May through September. Modeling experiments were performed that show that much of the variability on seasonal time scales in the migrating tides is due to changes in the mean flow structure and the superposition of the tidal responses to water vapor heating in the troposphere and ozone heating in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oceans+AND+tide&pg=2&id=EJ376771','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oceans+AND+tide&pg=2&id=EJ376771"><span>The Physical <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>NatureScope, 1988</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Examines the physical properties of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> (including the composition of seawater; waves, currents, and tides) and the topography of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor. Included are (1) activities on <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, saltwater, and the sea floor; and (2) questions, and a puzzle which can be copied. (Author/RT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1012859','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1012859"><span>Deep Water <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Acoustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-08-03</p> <p>Militia Drive Lexington, MA 02421 Date Submitted: Aug 3, 2016 Notices : Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release...distribution is unlimited. OASIS, INC. 2 Report No. QSR-14C0172-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Acoustics-063016 Contents Notices ...the impact of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and seafloor environmental variability on deep-water (long-range) <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustic propagation and to develop methodologies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED365555.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED365555.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Simulation Activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=animal+AND+adaptations&pg=4&id=EJ445283','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=animal+AND+adaptations&pg=4&id=EJ445283"><span>Activity Book: <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Learning, 1992</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study <span class="hlt">ocean</span> ecology. The activities have students investigate <span class="hlt">ocean</span> inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect <span class="hlt">ocean</span> creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525639-cosmological-ensemble-directional-averages-observables','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22525639-cosmological-ensemble-directional-averages-observables"><span>Cosmological ensemble and directional <span class="hlt">averages</span> of observables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciT</a></p> <p>Bonvin, Camille; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth</p> <p></p> <p>We show that at second order, ensemble <span class="hlt">averages</span> of observables and directional <span class="hlt">averages</span> do not commute due to gravitational lensing—observing the same thing in many directions over the sky is not the same as taking an ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span>. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities that we often use as observables and can lead to a bias in parameter estimation. We derive the relation between the ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span> and the directional <span class="hlt">average</span> of an observable, at second order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of <span class="hlt">averages</span> for making predictions of cosmologicalmore » observables, focusing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span> of the distance in a given observed direction is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional <span class="hlt">average</span> of the distance is decreased. For a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is not affected by second-order lensing perturbations. We also show that standard areas have an advantage over standard rulers, and we discuss the subtleties involved in <span class="hlt">averaging</span> in the case of supernova observations.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25434197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25434197"><span>[Landscape and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> distribution of bloodsucking mosquitoes and horse flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae) in the northeastern Russian Plain].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pestov, S V; Paniukova, E V</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The data on the distribution of 34 species of bloodsucking mosquitoes and on 42 horsefly species of the fauna of the northeastern Russian Plain are given. The analysis of the landscape and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> changes in species diversity and their abundance was performed. Species diversity of these families increased northwards. Two borders of the fauna's depletion were discovered: at the border between the middle and northern taiga subzones (mosquitoes and horseflies) and at the border between the northernmost taiga subzone and the forest-tundra zone (horseflies only). The northern and southern boundaries of species ranges in the region are identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587261"><span>Role of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow predator-prey oscillations in triggering the transition to H-mode confinement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmitz, L; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Hillesheim, J C; Doyle, E J; Groebner, R J; Peebles, W A; Burrell, K H; Wang, G</p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>Direct evidence of <span class="hlt">zonal</span> flow (ZF) predator-prey oscillations and the synergistic roles of ZF- and equilibrium E×B flow shear in triggering the low- to high-confinement (L- to H-mode) transition in the DIII-D tokamak is presented. Periodic turbulence suppression is first observed in a narrow layer at and just inside the separatrix when the shearing rate transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate. The final transition to H mode with sustained turbulence and transport reduction is controlled by equilibrium E×B shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367804"><span>Cell wall glycoproteins at interaction sites between parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its host Pelargonium <span class="hlt">zonale</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Striberny, Bernd; Krause, Kirsten</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The process of host plant penetration by parasitic dodder (genus Cuscuta) is accompanied by molecular and structural changes at the host/parasite interface. Recently, changes in pectin methyl esterification levels in the host cell walls abutting parasitic cells in established infection sites were reported. In addition to that, we show here that the composition of cell wall glycoproteins in Cuscuta-infected Pelargonium <span class="hlt">zonale</span> undergoes substantial changes. While several arabinogalactan protein epitopes exhibit decreased abundances in the vicinity of the Cuscuta reflexa haustorium, extensins tend to increase in the infected areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4883938','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4883938"><span>Cell wall glycoproteins at interaction sites between parasitic giant dodder (Cuscuta reflexa) and its host Pelargonium <span class="hlt">zonale</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Striberny, Bernd; Krause, Kirsten</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The process of host plant penetration by parasitic dodder (genus Cuscuta) is accompanied by molecular and structural changes at the host/parasite interface. Recently, changes in pectin methyl esterification levels in the host cell walls abutting parasitic cells in established infection sites were reported. In addition to that, we show here that the composition of cell wall glycoproteins in Cuscuta-infected Pelargonium <span class="hlt">zonale</span> undergoes substantial changes. While several arabinogalactan protein epitopes exhibit decreased abundances in the vicinity of the Cuscuta reflexa haustorium, extensins tend to increase in the infected areas. PMID:26367804</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3279N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3279N"><span>Landscape and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> features of the formation of producing economy in Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and <span class="hlt">zonal</span> features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2662860','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2662860"><span>Improving consensus structure by eliminating <span class="hlt">averaging</span> artifacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>KC, Dukka B</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics) often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, <span class="hlt">averaging</span> of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA) is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are <span class="hlt">averaged</span>, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure) towards the '<span class="hlt">averaged</span> structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The <span class="hlt">average</span> RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the <span class="hlt">average</span> RMSD of the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> structures). However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%); in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38) of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA [1], our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing <span class="hlt">averaging</span> artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where <span class="hlt">averaging</span> of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure <span class="hlt">averaging</span> is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction [2], which could also benefit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ARMS....7...21E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ARMS....7...21E"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Data Assimilation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many <span class="hlt">ocean</span> environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984EOSTr..65..468R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984EOSTr..65..468R"><span>Emerging <span class="hlt">ocean</span> issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richman, Barbara T.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>Seven topics have been identified by the topics committee of the Year of the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> as focal points of discussions as part of the Year of the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> celebration. The Year of the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (Eos, June 19, 1984, p. 402, and April 24, 1984, p. 326) is a year-long commemoration and celebration, begun on July 1, of the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The commemoration has been endorsed by Congress and by President Ronald Reagan.The topics committee is composed of nearly 20 representatives from government, industry, and academia. Thomas Maginnis, director of the National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration's office of policy and planning, is the chairman of the topics committee.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25103331"><span>Regional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> data assimilation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many <span class="hlt">ocean</span> environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol18-sec86-449.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol18-sec86-449.pdf"><span>40 CFR 86.449 - <span class="hlt">Averaging</span> provisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 <span class="hlt">Averaging</span> provisions. (a) This section describes how... credits may not be banked for use in later model years, except as specified in paragraph (j) of this... <span class="hlt">average</span> emission levels are at or below the applicable standards in § 86.410-2006. (2) Compliance with the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=average+AND+income&pg=4&id=ED551121','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=average+AND+income&pg=4&id=ED551121"><span>Determinants of College Grade Point <span class="hlt">Averages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bailey, Paul Dean</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point <span class="hlt">Averages</span>. Grade Point <span class="hlt">Averages</span> (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol11-sec63-846.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol11-sec63-846.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.846 - Emission <span class="hlt">averaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">averaging</span>. (a) General. The owner or operator of an existing potline or anode bake furnace in a State that... by total aluminum production. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator may <span class="hlt">average</span> TF emissions from anode bake furnaces and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 3 of this subpart using...</p>