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Sample records for zonas pesqueras del

  1. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  2. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in Malbec vineyards from the "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" region in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Laura; Sturm, María Elena; Rojo, María Cecilia; Ciklic, Iván; Martínez, Claudio; Combina, Mariana

    2011-12-15

    The "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" (ZARM) is the major Malbec grape viticulture region of Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity in ZARM vineyards. Interdelta PCR and RFLP mtDNA molecular markers were applied to differentiate S. cerevisiae strains. The presence of commercial strains on ZARM vineyards was also assessed. Our results reveal a highly diverse, but genetically closely related, S. cerevisiae population (containing more than 190 molecular patterns among 590 S. cerevisiae isolates). According to the S. cerevisiae strain diversity found in vineyards, they were classified as vineyards with high and low polymorphic S. cerevisiae populations. Six vineyards showed a high polymorphic population, with more than 20 different S. cerevisiae molecular patterns. S. cerevisiae populations in these vineyards were diverse and irregularly distributed, with different strains in each vineyard site. Low polymorphic S. cerevisiae population vineyards displayed very low yeast diversity, with only 9 to 10 different S. cerevisiae strains and presence of two commercial strains widely distributed. Population diversity estimators were calculated to determine the population structure of S. cerevisiae in the ZARM vineyards. The obtained values support the hypothesis that the eight sampled subpopulations come indeed from a larger population.

  3. The zona pellucida "receptors".

    PubMed

    Hinsch, E; Hägele, W; Schill, W B; Hinsch, K D

    1997-01-01

    Binding of mammalian sperm to the zona pellucida and the induction of the acrosome reaction are prerequisites for successful oocyte fertilization. In the mouse model, the zona pellucida consists of three sulfated glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3. Zona pellucida proteins are secreted to form a filamentous zona matrix in which ZP2 and ZP3 complex into co-polymers cross-linked by ZP1. ZP3 is the ligand for primary sperm binding and important for the induction of the acrosome reaction. The zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP2 is also crucially involved in the process of fertilization. Previous reports suggest that ZP2 mediates secondary binding of spermatozoa and that cleavage of ZP2 by proteases released through cortical granule reaction causes zona "hardening" and thus prevents polyspermy. Human and mouse ZP2 proteins differ in the primary structure as derived from cDNA clones. We designed an immunological approach to search for ZP2 domains with functional relevance. Antisera were generated against synthetic peptides derived (a) from ZP2 amino acid sequences that are homologous in human and mouse ZP2 amino acid sequences (AS ZP2-20) or (b) from human ZP2 amino acid sequences that differ from the mouse ZP2 sequence (AS ZP2-26). Immunochemical studies with microbisected bovine zonae pellucidae demonstrated that both antisera, AS ZP2-20 and AS ZP2-26, specifically detected ZP2 protein. Using the competition-hemizona-assay, sperm binding to antibody treated bovine hemizonae pellucidae were compared with control hemizonae (given as hemizona index). Antiserum AS ZP2-20 significantly inhibited binding of spermatozoa to test hemizonae (p < 0.0001), whereas treatment of hemizonae with AS ZP2-26 did not influence sperm-egg interaction. Our results show that antibodies against ZP2 peptides react with bovine zonae pellucidae and can be used as markers for ZP2. Furthermore, AS ZP2-20 identifies a ZP2 epitope that is possibly of functional relevance for sperm-egg interaction. PMID

  4. Zona hardening, zona drilling and assisted hatching: new achievements in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    De Vos, A; Van Steirteghem, A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to fertilization, the zona pellucida surrounding the mammalian oocyte acts as a species-specific sperm barrier and is involved in sperm binding. After fertilization, the zona plays a role in blocking polyspermic fertilization, it protects the integrity of the preimplantation embryo during early embryonic development, and also helps its oviductal transport. Zona hardening occurs naturally after fertilization in order to ensure this threefold function. A combination of lysins produced by the cleaving embryo or the uterus and physical expansion then reduces the zona thickness in preparation for hatching. Zona hardening, although not readily quantifiable, may also be induced by in vitro culture and by in vivo aging. Indeed, prolonged exposure of human oocytes and embryos to artificial culture conditions seems to impair their ability to implant. Implantation rates are also inversely correlated with advanced female age. Recently, failure of the embryonic zona pellucida to rupture following blastocyst expansion has been put forward as a possible contributing factor in implantation failure. In order to help embryos escape from their zonae during blastocyst expansion, different types of assisted hatching have been developed. Zona drilling involves the creation of an opening in the zona with acidified medium, whereas zona slitting is carried out in the same manner as partial zona dissection. In zona thinning, the zona is just made thinner over a certain area without a hole or a slit being created. More recently, laser-assisted hatching has been introduced. In vitro studies with both mouse and human embryos have indicated that an artificial gap in the zona pellucida significantly improves the hatching ability of blastocysts grown in vitro as compared to non-micromanipulated embryos. However, the clinical relevance of assisted hatching within an assisted reproduction program remains controversial and elusive. Very few randomized studies are available. Most reports are of

  5. Interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve fertilization sperm cells, first need to successfully interact with the zona pellucida. To this end, the sperm surface is extensively remodeled during capacitation and the resulting sperm cells also possess hyperactivated motility. Together, this serves to mediate optimal recognition of the zona pellucida in the oviduct or after in vitro fertilization incubations (primary zona pellucida binding). When the sperm cell attaches to the zona pellucida, it will be triggered to undergo the acrosome reaction which allows the hyperactivated motile sperm cell to drill through the zona pellucida (secondary zona pellucida binding coinciding with sequential local zona pellucida digestion and rebinding). After successful zona penetration, some sperm cells may enter the perivitelline space. This delaying strategy of the oocyte allows only one sperm cell at a given time to bind and fuse with the oocyte (fertilization) and thus minimizes the risk of polyspermy. The fertilization fusion between the oocyte and the first sperm cell is immediately followed by a polyspermic fertilization block, in which the content of the oocyte's cortical granules is released into the perivitelline space. The cortical reaction blocks further sperm-oocyte fusion either by sticking at the oolemma or by the induction of a biochemical reaction of the zona pellucida (zona pellucida hardening). The cortical reaction thus blocks sperm-zona pellucida binding and/or sperm-zona pellucida penetration. This review summarizes the current understanding of sperm-zona pellucida interactions in relation to mammalian fertilization. The lack of knowledge about sperm-zona pellucida binding in ruminants will be critically discussed. PMID:21755679

  6. Estudio de seeing en la zona del Cerro Champaqui (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Eikenberry, S.; Scott, J.; Levato, H.; Firpo, V.; Farina, C.; Piroddi, D.; Jamud, N.; Bosch, G.; Mudrik, A.; Guzzo, P.; Donoso, V.; Recabarren, P.; Seifer, E.

    We report the results of the most recent seeing feasibility study performed in the region of Cerro Champaqui (2800m) at the mountain range of Sierras Grandes at the Province of Cordoba. We also describe the high frequency DIMM device built for this and other seeing samplings obtained at the provinces of San Juan; San Luis and Cordoba. This work is part of a long term project started in 2006; in search of sites of very low turbulence and suited for near infrared telescopes with active and adaptive optics. Two of the sites have been monitored during a total of 46 nights distributed in six months of the period 2011-2012. The preliminary results suggest the existence of `sub-arcsecond' seeing conditions during extended periods of time in at least one location in the mountain range in the SW of Cordoba and NE of San Luis provinces. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. New aspects of sperm-zona pellucida binding.

    PubMed

    Franken, D R

    1998-01-01

    Sperm-zona pellucida binding tests have become a widely used diagnostic application for clinicians to obtain guidance in so far as the therapeutic approach of the subfertile couple is concerned. Expanding the oocyte sources is imperative to ensure the consistent use of sperm-zona binding assays. Sources include oocytes derived from post-mortem ovaries, inseminated non-fertilized IVF oocytes and recycled hemizonae. Identification of specific gamete dysfunction is one of the most formidable tasks and fertilization disorders due to defective sperm-zona pellucida interaction are relatively common in the clinical practice, thereby emphasizing the importance of sperm-zona binding tests as diagnostic/predictive tests. Independent publications from Norfolk (USA), Melbourne (Australia), Tygerberg (South Africa) and Israel of highly comparable results confirm that sperm-zona binding tests are good predictors of fertilization. Studies using solubilized human pellucida recently evaluated the influence of solubilized human pellucida on spermatozoa during the capacitational process and subsequent sperm-zona binding. Involvement of G protein and carbohydrate moieties in sperm-zona pellucida binding emphasized the biological and biochemical properties of lectin and have afforded much weight to their employment as membrane probes to evaluate cell surface components. Attention has been focused on the alterations of sperm surface receptors (oligosaccharides) during the differential pathway, epididymal transit and capacitation. PMID:9739424

  8. The clinical significance of sperm-zona pellucida binding.

    PubMed

    Franken, D R

    1998-12-15

    The development of homologous functional bio-assay for sperm quality assessment has been a focal point of reproductive biologists; in order to provide a scientific based diagnosis in cases of fertilization failure. The availability of oocytes still remains an important limiting factor for laboratories to embark on the methodology of the assay. The use of zonae pellucidae, derived from post mortem and different in vitro fertilization oocytes, enhanced to availability of zonae. Sperm-zona binding has been illustrated to be an essential requisite during human fertilization and can be measured under hemizona assay as well intact zona pellucida conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of sperm-zona binding results indicated the assay to be positively and significantly correlated with in vitro fertilization outcome. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation were illustrated to exist between the normal sperm morphology, hyperactivation, sperm creatine kinase activity and the zona binding capacity of a given sperm sample. It was concluded that andrology testing remains an ever-growing component in the work-up of the infertile couple. We enter the next millennium with many questions that remain to be answered by the hand of efficacious screening techniques and a new formidable therapy in intra cellular sperm injection. PMID:9851912

  9. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Differentially Expressed Transcripts Between the Human Adrenal Zona Fasciculata and Zona Reticularis

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Juilee; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Tao; Merchen, Todd D.; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Context: The human adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) are responsible for the production of cortisol and 19-carbon steroids (often called adrenal androgens), respectively. However, the gene profiles and exact molecular mechanisms leading to the functional phenotype of the ZF and ZR are still not clearly defined. In the present study, we identified the transcripts that are differentially expressed in the ZF and ZR. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the transcriptome profiles of ZF and ZR. Design and Methods: ZF and ZR were microdissected from 10 human adrenals. Total RNA was extracted from 10 ZF/ZR pairs and hybridized to Illumina microarray chips. The 10 most differentially expressed transcripts were studied with quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry was also performed on four zone-specific genes. Results: Microarray results demonstrated that only 347 transcripts of the 47 231 were significantly different by 2-fold or greater in the ZF and ZR. ZF had 195 transcripts with 2-fold or greater increase compared with its paired ZR, whereas ZR was found to have 152 transcripts with 2-fold or greater higher expression than in ZF. Microarray and qPCR analysis of transcripts encoding steroidogenic enzymes (n = 10) demonstrated that only 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, steroid sulfotransferase, type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome b5 were significantly different. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR studies confirmed that the ZF had an increased expression of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and nephroblastoma overexpressed, whereas ZR showed an increased expression of solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter) (SLC27A2), member 2 and TSPAN12 (tetraspanin 12) Conclusion: Microarray revealed several novel candidate genes for elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing the ZF and ZR, thereby increasing our understanding of the functional zonation of these two adrenocortical zones. PMID:24423296

  10. Le zona ophtalmique: une dermatose rare chez l'enfant

    PubMed Central

    Zakia, Douhi; Meziane, Marieme; Salim, Gallouj; Zahra, Mernissi Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Le zona est dû a une réactivation du virus varicelle-zona (VZV) qui reste quiescent dans les ganglions sensitifs dorsaux après la varicelle. Le zona de l'enfant est rare et particulièrement la forme ophtalmique, qui peut être responsable de complications oculaires graves nécessitant une prise en charge adéquate et précoce. Il est parfois associé à des douleurs post-zostériennes dont le traitement est difficile. L'aciclovir per os administré dans les 72 heures après l’éruption a prouvé son efficacité dans la prévention des complications oculaires. Nous en rapportant un nouveaux cas chez un garçon immunocompétent de 9 ans, sans notion de varicelle antérieure. PMID:26955408

  11. Scintigraphy of normal mouse ovaries with monoclonal antibodies to ZP-2, the major zona pellucida protein

    SciTech Connect

    East, I.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Larson, S.M.; Dean, J.

    1984-08-31

    The zona pellucida is an extracellular glycocalyx, made of three sulfated glycoproteins, that surrounds mammalian oocytes. Parenterally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for ZP-2, the most abundant zona protein, localize in the zona pellucida. When labeled with iodine-125, these monoclonal antibodies demonstrate a remarkably high target-to-nontarget tissue ratio and provide clear external radioimaging of ovarian tissue.

  12. Role of zona pellucida glycoproteins during fertilization in humans.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, scientific investigations pertaining to the role of zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins during fertilization in humans have led to new insights. This has been achieved using purified native/recombinant human zona proteins and transgenic mice expressing human ZP glycoproteins. The proposed model in mice of ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) acting as primary sperm receptor and ZP glycoprotein-2 (ZP2) as secondary sperm receptor has been modified for sperm-egg binding in humans. ZP glycoprotein-1 (ZP1), ZP3, and ZP glycoprotein-4 (ZP4) have been shown to bind to the capacitated human sperm. ZP2 binds to the acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa. Further, the eggs obtained from transgenic mice expressing human ZP2 alone or in conjunction with other human instead of mouse zona proteins showed binding of human sperm, suggesting that ZP2 might also play a role in sperm-egg binding. This function has been mapped to a domain corresponding to amino acid residues 51-144 of ZP2. In contrast to mice, where ZP3 is the primary agonist for inducing the acrosome reaction, in humans, the acrosome reaction can be mediated by ZP1, ZP3, and ZP4. The effect of mutations in the genes encoding zona proteins on the ZP morphology and infertility has not been established. Further, the role of autoantibodies against ZP in women with 'unexplained infertility' leading to poor outcome of in vitro fertilization is currently controversial and needs further investigations. Understanding the role of ZP glycoproteins during human fertilization facilitates the development of new contraceptives and strategies to overcome the problem of infertility.

  13. Viscous forces are predominant in the zona pellucida mechanical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Maiorana, Alessandro; Douet, Cécile; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Goudet, Ghylène; De Spirito, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a multilayer glycoprotein spherical shell surrounding mammalian eggs. The ZP's mechanical response plays a crucial role in mammalian fertilization and is a parameter commonly adopted in "in vitro fertilization" to characterize the oocytes quality. While it is assumed that ZP mechanical response is purely elastic, here we prove that dissipative forces cannot be neglected. Physiologically, this evidence implies that an increase in the spermatozoa motility can induce dramatic changes on the ZP reaction force turning ZP shell in an impenetrable barrier leading to fertility impairments.

  14. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side.

  15. Applications of pig zona pellucida immunocontraception to wildlife fertility control.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Turner, J W; Liu, I K; Fayrer-Hosken, R

    1996-01-01

    A unique application of pig zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception is the control of wildlife populations. A native PZP vaccine has been successfully applied to wild horse and donkey populations. A single annual booster inoculation was capable of maintaining contraception. Seven consecutive years of PZP treatment in wild mares resulted in no detectable debilitating side effects, and reversibility of contraception has been documented among mares treated for up to 4 consecutive years. Long-term treatment (5-7 years) is associated with some ovulation failure and depressed urinary oestrogen concentrations. Complex social behaviours in horses were unaffected by treatment. PZP immunocontraception has also been successfully applied to white-tailed deer, with no detectable changes in ovarian histology after 2 years of treatment. Seventy-four species of captive zoo animals have been treated with the PZP vaccine, with documented success in 27 species, including members of the orders Perissodactyla (Equidae), Artiodactyla (Cervidae, Capridae, Giraffidae, Bovidae), and Carnivora (Ursidae, Mustelidae, Felidae). Immunocytochemistry studies have demonstrated a high degree of crossreactivity between anti-PZP antibodies and African elephant zona pellucida. The need for a one-inoculation form of the vaccine has led to the incorporation of PZP into lactide-glycolide microspheres, which cause a delayed release of the PZP. PZP immunocontraception of wildlife has potential because of (1) > 90% effectiveness, (2) the ability for remote delivery, via darts, (3) reversibility after short-term use, (4) a wide breadth of effectiveness across many species, (5) a lack of debilitating side-effects even after long-term treatment, and (6) minimal effects upon social behaviours. PMID:8984182

  16. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda–Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side. PMID:22675161

  17. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-11-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side. PMID:22675161

  18. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, B.; Han, L.; Soriano-Úbeda, C.; Avilés, M.; Coy, P.; Jovine, L.; Jiménez-Movilla, M.

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  19. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters.

    PubMed

    Algarra, B; Han, L; Soriano-Úbeda, C; Avilés, M; Coy, P; Jovine, L; Jiménez-Movilla, M

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  20. Four glycoproteins are expressed in the cat zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Stetson, I; Avilés, M; Moros, C; García-Vázquez, F A; Gimeno, L; Torrecillas, A; Aliaga, C; Bernardo-Pisa, M V; Ballesta, J; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2015-04-15

    The mammalian oocyte is surrounded by a matrix called the zona pellucida (ZP). This envelope participates in processes such as acrosome reaction induction, sperm binding and may be involved in speciation. In cat (Felis catus), this matrix is composed of at least three glycoproteins called ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. However, recent studies have pointed to the presence of a fourth protein in several mammals (rat, human, hamster or rabbit), meaning that a reevaluation of cat ZP is needed. For this reason, the objective of this research was to analyze the protein composition of cat ZP by means of proteomic analysis. Using ZP from ovaries and oocytes, several peptides corresponding to four proteins were detected, yielding a coverage of 33.17%, 71.50%, 50.23%, and 49.64% for ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4, respectively. Moreover, the expression of four genes was confirmed by molecular analysis. Using total RNA isolated from cat ovaries, the complementary deoxyribonucleic acids encoding cat ZP were partially amplified by reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, ZP1 was totally amplified for the first time in this species. As far as we are aware, this is the first study that confirms the presence of four proteins in cat ZP.

  1. Involvement of N-linked carbohydrate chains of pig zona pellucida in sperm-egg binding.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, N; Aoki, H; Hatanaka, Y; Nakano, M

    1995-10-01

    The sperm receptor activity of pig zona pellucida has been previously shown to exist in one of the components, pig zona protein 3 alpha (PZP3 alpha), that can be purified after the removal of sialylated and/or sulfated N-acetylpoly(lactosamine) by digestion with endo-beta-galactosidase. In this study, we examined whether N-linked or O-linked carbohydrate chains are involved in the sperm receptor activity of pig zona pellucida. The elimination of N-linked carbohydrate chains from endo-beta-galactosidase-digested PZP3 alpha by digestion with N-glycanase markedly reduced its inhibitory effect on sperm-egg binding in an in vitro competition assay, whereas the elimination of O-linked carbohydrate chains by alkali treatment hardly reduced the inhibitory effect. These results indicate that N-linked carbohydrate chains of PZP3 alpha play a major role in mediating the sperm binding of zona pellucida in pig.

  2. The anatomy of the caudal zona incerta in rodents and primates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Charles; Lind, Christopher R P; Thomas, Meghan G

    2014-01-01

    The caudal zona incerta is the target of a recent modification of established procedures for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and tremor. The caudal zona incerta contains a number of neuronal populations that are distinct in terms of their cytoarchitecture, connections, and pattern of immunomarkers and is located at a position where a number of major tracts converge before turning toward their final destination in the forebrain. However, it is not clear which of the anatomical features of the region are related to its value as a target for DBS. This paper has tried to identify features that distinguish the caudal zona incerta of rodents (mouse and rat) and primates (marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human) from the remainder of the zona incerta. We studied cytoarchitecture, anatomical relationships, the pattern of immunomarkers, and gene expression in both of these areas. We found that the caudal zona incerta has a number of histological and gene expression characteristics that distinguish it from the other subdivisions of the zona incerta. Of particular note are the sparse population of GABA neurons and the small but distinctive population of calbindin neurons. We hope that a clearer appreciation of the anatomy of the region will in the end assist the interpretation of cases in which DBS is used in human patients. PMID:24138151

  3. Glycodelin-A interacts with fucosyltransferase on human sperm plasma membrane to inhibit spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Philip C N; Chung, Man-Kin; Koistinen, Riitta; Koistinen, Hannu; Seppala, Markku; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest H Y; Lee, Kai-Fai; Yeung, William S B

    2007-01-01

    Fertilization depends on successful binding of the spermatozoa to the zona pellucida of the oocyte. Glycodelin-A inhibits spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding. Previous data showed that glycodelin-A receptor(s) and zona pellucida protein receptor(s) on human spermatozoa are closely related. Using a chemical cross-linking approach, the glycodelin-A-sperm receptor complex was isolated. The receptor was identified to be fucosyltransferase-5 (FUT5) by mass spectrometry and confirmed with the use of anti-FUT5 antibodies. Sperm FUT5 was an externally oriented integral membrane protein in the acrosomal region of human spermatozoa. Biologically active FUT5 was purified from spermatozoa. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between glycodelin-A and sperm FUT5. Solubilized zona pellucida reduced the binding of glycodelin-A to sperm FUT5. An anti-FUT5 antibody and FUT5 acceptor blocked the binding of glycodelin-A to spermatozoa and the zona binding inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A. Sperm FUT5 bound strongly to intact and solubilized human zona pellucida. The equilibrium dissociation constant of sperm FUT5 binding to solubilized zona pellucida was 42.82 pmol/ml. These observations suggest that human sperm FUT5 is a receptor of glycodelin-A and zona pellucida proteins, and that glycodelin-A inhibits spermatozoa-zona binding by blocking the binding of sperm FUT5 to the zona pellucida.

  4. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs.

  5. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs. PMID:15526881

  6. Amyloid Properties of the Mouse Egg Zona Pellucida

    PubMed Central

    Egge, Nathan; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Cornwall, Gail A.

    2015-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) surrounding the oocyte is an extracellular fibrillar matrix that plays critical roles during fertilization including species-specific gamete recognition and protection from polyspermy. The mouse ZP is composed of three proteins, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3, all of which have a ZP polymerization domain that directs protein fibril formation and assembly into the three-dimensional ZP matrix. Egg coats surrounding oocytes in nonmammalian vertebrates and in invertebrates are also fibrillar matrices and are composed of ZP domain-containing proteins suggesting the basic structure and function of the ZP/egg coat is highly conserved. However, sequence similarity between ZP domains is low across species and thus the mechanism for the conservation of ZP/egg coat structure and its function is not known. Using approaches classically used to identify amyloid including conformation-dependent antibodies and dyes, X-ray diffraction, and negative stain electron microscopy, our studies suggest the mouse ZP is a functional amyloid. Amyloids are cross-β sheet fibrillar structures that, while typically associated with neurodegenerative and prion diseases in mammals, can also carry out functional roles in normal cells without resulting pathology. An analysis of the ZP domain from mouse ZP3 and ZP3 homologs from five additional taxa using the algorithm AmylPred 2 to identify amyloidogenic sites, revealed in all taxa a remarkable conservation of regions that were predicted to form amyloid. This included a conserved amyloidogenic region that localized to a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids previously shown in mouse ZP3 to be essential for fibril assembly. Similarly, a domain in the yeast protein α-agglutinin/Sag 1p, that possesses ZP domain-like features and which is essential for mating, also had sites that were predicted to be amyloidogenic including a hydrophobic stretch that appeared analogous to the critical site in mouse ZP3. Together, these studies suggest that

  7. The clinical significance of sperm-zona pellucida binding: 17 years later.

    PubMed

    Franken, Daniel R; Oehninger, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The development of homologous functional bio-assays for sperm quality assessment has been a focal point of reproductive biologists in order to provide a scientifically- based diagnosis in cases of fertilization failure. The availability of viable oocytes still remains an important limiting factor for laboratories to embark on the methodology of assays that examine sperm-oocyte interaction. The use of zonae pellucidae obtained from oocytes derived from post mortem tissue and failed in vitro fertilization cycles, enhanced the availability of zona material. Sperm-zona pellucida binding has been illustrated to be an essential requisite during human fertilization. This fundamental biological step can be measured under hemizona assay as well intact-oocyte test conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of sperm-zona binding results indicated the assay to be positively and significantly correlated with in vitro fertilization outcome. Furthermore, highly significant correlations were demonstrated between normal sperm morphology, hyperactivated motility, sperm creatine kinase activity and the zona binding capacity of a given sperm sample. It was concluded that andrology testing remains an ever-growing component in the work-up of the infertile couple. We enter the next millennium with many questions that remain to be answered by the hand of efficacious screening techniques and a new formidable therapy in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:16368508

  8. Inhibition of human spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding by a combinatorially derived peptide from a synthetic target.

    PubMed

    Pieczenik, George; Garrisi, John; Cohen, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    Intact zona-free human oocytes were screened using a combinatorial peptide library selection protocol. Pieczenik Peptide Sequence 1 (PPS1) HEHRKRG binds human spermatozoa. A complementary and unique binding sequence HNSSLSPLATPA (PPS2) was developed from the first PPS1 ligand that binds to the human zona pellucida or oolemma. Cytoplasm-free zonae from unfertilized eggs were obtained and used as an assay system to test the effects of exposure to these two ligands. Spermatozoa were inserted into evacuated zonae and their behaviour and binding activity were assessed at regular intervals. The behaviour of spermatozoa exposed to PPS1 and unlabelled spermatozoa injected into unexposed zonae was similar as far as binding was concerned (50 and 54% binding), but PPS1 exposed spermatozoa had higher motility and displacement, marked by their escape from the zona pellucida. Zonae exposed to PPS2 inhibited the interaction between injected spermatozoa and the inside of the zona when compared with controls (8.3 and 53.8% attached respectively, P < 0.001). The sperm-zona pellucida interaction described in this paper is applied as a functional assay for molecular interactions of sperm binding and can be used to assess function for potential surface markers on gametes. It is shown here that a unique binding ligand (PPS2) can be synthesized from another complimentary ligand (PPS1) without the need for a known intermediate substrate. PPS1 and PPS2 may have properties that can be used to target processes involved in conception and assisted reproduction. A movie sequence taken approximately 30 min after injection of spermatozoa into empty human zonae pellucidae shows behaviour of non-manipulated spermatozoa into zonae not exposed or exposed to ligand. This may be purchased for viewing on the Internet at www.rbmonline.com/Article/2159 (free to web subscribers).

  9. alpha-MSH and zona glomerulosa function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vinson, G P; Whitehouse, B J; Dell, A; Bateman, A; McAuley, M E

    1983-07-01

    The responses of rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells to stimulation by alpha-MSH and ACTH and related peptides have been studied. The major findings were that: (1) alpha-MSH stimulated corticosterone production in glomerulosa cells from from normal animals at concentrations of about 10(-10) mol/l, but other steroids, including aldosterone, were not significantly stimulated until levels of 10(-7) mol/l were used. Peptide structure-function relationships showed that in the adrenal cortex, in contrast with other systems, ACTH 4-10 had no effect and did not block the response of glomerulosa cells to alpha-MSH, bisacetyl Ser 1-alpha-MSH, (nor-valine-12)-alpha-MSH, and ACTH 1-13 amide were equipotent with alpha-MSH, while alpha-MSH 1-10 had activity but was considerably less potent. alpha-MSH 6-13, 7-13, 8-13 and lys-11-acetyl-alpha-MSH were all inactive. N-formyl-N-epsilon-benzyloxycarbonyl alpha-MSH stimulated only at 10(-6) mol/l. (2) Normalised alpha-MSH dose-response curves for aldosterone production in glomerulosa cells from normal rats, and corticosterone in inner zone cells were coincident. In glomerulosa cells, prior sodium depletion shifts the dose-response curve for aldosterone to the left, indicating a more sensitive response, and for corticosterone to the right. Bromocriptine treatment (which depresses the level of alpha-MSH in circulating plasma) and metoclopramide (which enhances it) respectively increased and decreased the sensitivity of the response of corticosterone to alpha-MSH in subsequently incubated glomerulosa cells, but had no effect on aldosterone. (3) In contrast, normalised ACTH stimulated dose-response curves for glomerulosa corticosterone and aldosterone, and for fasciculata corticosterone production were all coincident, and were unaffected by sodium depletion, or by metoclopramide or bromocriptine pretreatment. (4) Cyclic-AMP production by glomerulosa cells was stimulated by alpha-MSH only at levels of in excess of 10(-5) mol/l, five orders

  10. Use of mucosal immunization with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brent J; Suckow, Mark A; Wolter, William R; Berger, Thomas; Turner, John W

    2006-07-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and two strains of mice (Mus musculus, one inbred and one outbred) were immunized against porcine zona pellucida (PZP) antigen. Alginate microspheres or cholera toxin B were used alone or in combination when mucosal immunization routes were used. Serum antibody responses and fertility were assessed. Neither rabbit or mouse groups immunized by mucosal routes generated significant antibody responses to PZP as compared to parenteral immunization (ANOVA, P > 0.05). The study shows that porcine zona pellucida is not an effective mucosal antigen in small mammals.

  11. Sperm binding capacity of human zona pellucida derived from oocytes obtained from different sources.

    PubMed

    Franken, D R; Kruger, T F; Oehninger, S C; Kaskar, K; Hodgen, G D

    1994-01-01

    The important contributions of sperm-oocyte interaction to infertility diagnostics is well established. Scientists are urged to search for methods to improve the assessment of gamete interaction. Sperm binding and penetration assays have frequented the literature, reporting on various aspects of sperm-oocyte interaction using either microbisected or whole human oocytes during the assay procedure. The objective of the study was to evaluate additional zona pellucida sources which can be used during zona binding studies. Hemizonae were obtained from the following oocytes: 1) experiment 1, prophase I oocytes from post-mortem ovarian tissue from different age groups namely, 7 months, 5 years, 7 years, 12 years and 30 years; 2) experiment 2 used donated immature Prophase I oocytes from the IVF treatment program and 3) experiment 3 evaluated zona binding for hemizonae which were previously used in hemizona assays. Results indicated that, in experiment 1, ovarian age does not have any influence on the zona pellucida's capacity to bind spermatozoa. The mean number of bound sperm among the different age groups did not differ significantly, namely 38.9 +/- 17 (7 months), 31.0 +/- 27 (5 years), 49.3 +/- 21 (7 years), 32.8 +/- 18 (12 years) and 39.5 +/- 17 (30 years). The pooled mean +/- SD binding for all the age groups in experiment 1 was 37.7 +/- 7. Likewise, the mean number of sperm bound (experiment 2) to zonae collected from oocytes using different ovulation induction regimes were 31.1 +/- 20 (unstimulated), 54.4 +/- 12 (HMG/HCG) and 15.3 +/- 9 (HMG alone).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7825743

  12. Protein A gold identification of ureaplasmas on the bovine zona pellucida.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, A P; Miller, R B; Ruhnke, H L; Johnson, W M

    1989-01-01

    The object of this study was to develop a prefixation protein A gold labelling technique for Ureaplasma diversum and to apply this to bovine embryos. Sixteen hour cultures of Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 were incubated with either specific antiserum or nonimmune serum, followed by exposure to protein A gold and negative staining. The ureaplasmas which were incubated with specific antiserum were labelled with gold particles while those ureaplasmas which were incubated with nonimmune serum were not labelled. Twenty-three unhatched, day 7 bovine embryos were then incubated in either embryo culture medium (ECM) alone, ECM with sterile ureaplasma broth added or ECM with 1.7 X 10(6) colony forming units of Ureaplasma diversum strain 2312 per embryo. After 16 hours, the embryos were washed twice and incubated with either specific antiserum or nonimmune serum. The embryos were then incubated with medium containing protein A gold and examined by electron microscopy. No ureaplasmas were identified on the zona pellucida of the control embryos. Ureaplasmas were identified on the outer surface of the zona pellucida of 13 of the 17 embryos which had been exposed to the organism. Of these, the embryos which were incubated with specific antiserum had labelled ureaplasmas while the embryos which were incubated with nonimmune serum had unlabelled ureaplasmas on the zona pellucida. It was concluded that the protein A gold method was a suitable technique for the identification of ureaplasmas in EM preparations. The presence of ureaplasmas on the outer surface of the bovine zona pellucida following in vitro exposure to the organism was confirmed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2469532

  13. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  14. Thermal effects in laser-assisted pre-embryo zona drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2001-04-01

    Diode lasers ((lambda) equals 1480 nm) are used with in vitro fertilization to dissect the zone pellucida (shell) of pre- embryos. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel or trench in the zona pellucida. The procedure is used to facilitate biopsy or as a promoter of embryo hatching. We present examples and measurements of zona pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g., by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed- beam experiment a HeNe laser probe is used to detect the temperature-induced change in the refractive index of an aqueous solution, and estimate local thermal gradient. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 degree(s)C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  15. Effect of a water-rich diet on adrenal zona glomerulosa in Gerbillus tarabuli.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Leila; Lebaili, Nemcha

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the aldosterone level and to study the gerbil adrenal zona glomerulosa morphology in the presence of an important water diet content during seven days. Thirty adult gerbils, Gerbilus tarabuli, were randomly assigned to two watering regimes, with fifteen gerbils per group. The first group was the control and the second group was exposed to a water-rich diet during seven days. Thin sections of the adrenal glands were observed in photonic and electron microscopy. Their blood was sampled and analyzed for aldosterone, electrolyte concentrations and hematocrit. Urine was collected after 24hours. A water-rich diet decreased the body weight but increased the hematocrit, total protein, aldosterone concentration and urine volume. In electronic microscopy, the adrenal zona glomerulosa cells present a decrease in lipid compartment and Golgi apparatus zone development. The blood electrolyte concentrations were not changed significantly. These findings indicate that the water-rich diet exerts a potent stimulatory effect on aldosterone secretion by the gerbil adrenal zona glomerulosa through plasma volume perturbation.

  16. Body mass index is not associated with sperm–zona pellucida binding ability in subfertile males

    PubMed Central

    Sermondade, Nathalie; Dupont, Charlotte; Faure, Céline; Boubaya, Marouane; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Sifer, Christophe; Lévy, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as weight and nutritional status may affect male fertility, including sperm fertilization ability. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sperm–zona pellucida binding ability assessed according to the zona binding (ZB) test, which has been described to be a relevant diagnostic tool for the prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability. Three hundred and six male patients from couples diagnosed with primary idiopathic or mild male factor infertility were included. Correlations between BMI and semen parameters according to ZB test indices were assessed, together with frequencies of positive and negative tests across the BMI categories. In this selected population, BMI was not related to conventional semen parameters or sperm quality assessed according to the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. The previously described poor outcomes of IVF procedures in cases of male obesity could be due to other sperm defects, such as alterations of sperm capacitation or acrosome reaction. The link between male BMI and biological outcomes during IVF procedures, such as fertilization rates, should be further evaluated. PMID:23770940

  17. The interaction of boar sperm proacrosin with its natural substrate, the zona pellucida, and with polysulfated polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Urch, U A; Patel, H

    1991-04-01

    Boar sperm acrosin is an acrosomal protease with trypsin-like specificity, and it functions in fertilization by assisting sperm passage through the zona pellucida by limited hydrolysis of this extracellular matrix. In addition to a proteolytic active site domain, acrosin binds the zona pellucida at a separate binding domain that is lost during proacrosin autolysis. In this study, we quantitate the binding of proacrosin to the physiological substrate for acrosin, the zona pellucida, and to a non-substrate, the polysulfated polysaccharide fucoidan. Binding was analogous to sea urchin sperm bindin that binds egg jelly fucan and the vitelline envelope of sea urchin eggs. Proacrosin was found to bind to fucoidan and to the zona pellucida with binding affinities similar to bindin interaction with egg jelly fucan. These interactions were competitively inhibited by similar relative molecular mass polysulfated polymers. Since bindin and proacrosin have distinctly different amino acid sequences, their interaction with acidic sulfate esters demonstrates an example of convergent evolution wherein different macromolecules localized in analogous sperm compartments have the same biological function. From cDNA sequence analysis of proacrosin, this binding may be mediated through a consensus sequence for binding sulfated glycoconjugates. Proacrosin binding to the zona pellucida may serve as both a recognition or primary sperm receptor, as well as maintaining the sperm on the zona pellucida once the acrosome reaction has occurred.

  18. Susceptibility of zona-intact and zona-free in vitro-produced bovine embryos at different stages of development to infection with bovine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Vanroose, G; Nauwynck, H; Van Soom, A; Vanopdenbosch, E; de Kruif, A

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if BHV-1 is able to replicate within in vitro produced embryos and to investigate the degree to which the zona pellucida (ZP) is able to protect in vitro produced embryos against infection with BHV-1. Both ZP-intact and ZP-free matured oocytes, zygotes (1 d post insemination; 1dpi), 8-cell stage embryos (3 dpi), morulae (6 dpi) were incubated for 1 h in 1 ml of MEM containing 10(7.7) TCID(50)/ml BHV-1 (Cooper strain). Three titers (10(5.7), 10(6.7) and 10(7.7) TCID(50)/ml) of the Cooper strain were used for incubation of hatched blastocysts (9 dpi). Bovine embryonic lung cells (BEL) on microcarriers were inoculated following the same protocol as for the embryos. At 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post inoculation (hpi), groups of embryos and BEL cells were collected for virus titration and for the determination of the percentage of viral antigen positive cells by immunofluorescence. For the 3 developmental stages in ZP-free embryos, similar maximal intracellular virus progeny titers were obtained at 24 to 48 hpi ranging from 10(1.32) to 10(1.43) TCID(50)/ 100 embryonic cells. The intracellular virus titer in the BEL cells peaked at 10(3.08) TCID(50)/ 100 BEL cells. The percentage of cells which expressed viral antigens was 13% in ZP-free hatched blastocysts, 17% in ZP-free morulae and 100% in BEL cells. In ZP-intact embryos, no replication of BHV-1 was detected. These results clearly show that only after removal of the zona pellucida, BHV-1 is able to replicate within the in vitro produced embryos, with only a subset of embryonic cells being fully susceptible.

  19. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination.

  20. The effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and their cell numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sanmee, Usanee; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn

    2016-01-01

    Objective We studied the effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and the cell numbers of the completely hatched blastocysts. Methods Mouse blastocysts were randomly allocated to the inner cell mass (ICM) group (zona opening performed at the site of the ICM, n=125), the trophectoderm (TE) group (zona opening performed opposite to the ICM, n=125) and the control group (no zona opening, n=125). Results The rate of complete hatching of the blastocysts was not significantly different in the ICM and the TE group (84.8% vs 80.8%, respectively; p=0.402), but was significantly lower in the control group (51.2%, p<0.001). The cell numbers in the completely hatched blastocysts were comparable in the control group, the ICM group, and the TE group (69±19.3, 74±15.7, and 71±16.8, respectively; p=0.680). Conclusion These findings indicate that the site of laser zona opening did not influence the rate of complete hatching of mouse blastocysts or their cell numbers. PMID:27689037

  1. A single domain of the ZP2 zona pellucida protein mediates gamete recognition in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Avella, Matteo A.; Baibakov, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular zona pellucida surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates gamete recognition that is essential for mammalian fertilization. Zonae matrices contain three (mouse) or four (human) glycoproteins (ZP1–4), but which protein binds sperm remains controversial. A defining characteristic of an essential zona ligand is sterility after genetic ablation. We have established transgenic mice expressing human ZP4 that form zonae pellucidae in the absence of mouse or human ZP2. Neither mouse nor human sperm bound to these ovulated eggs, and these female mice were sterile after in vivo insemination or natural mating. The same phenotype was observed with truncated ZP2 that lacks a restricted domain within ZP251–149. Chimeric human/mouse ZP2 isoforms expressed in transgenic mice and recombinant peptide bead assays confirmed that this region accounts for the taxon specificity observed in human–mouse gamete recognition. These observations in transgenic mice document that the ZP251–149 sperm-binding domain is necessary for human and mouse gamete recognition and penetration through the zona pellucida. PMID:24934154

  2. The effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and their cell numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sanmee, Usanee; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn

    2016-01-01

    Objective We studied the effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and the cell numbers of the completely hatched blastocysts. Methods Mouse blastocysts were randomly allocated to the inner cell mass (ICM) group (zona opening performed at the site of the ICM, n=125), the trophectoderm (TE) group (zona opening performed opposite to the ICM, n=125) and the control group (no zona opening, n=125). Results The rate of complete hatching of the blastocysts was not significantly different in the ICM and the TE group (84.8% vs 80.8%, respectively; p=0.402), but was significantly lower in the control group (51.2%, p<0.001). The cell numbers in the completely hatched blastocysts were comparable in the control group, the ICM group, and the TE group (69±19.3, 74±15.7, and 71±16.8, respectively; p=0.680). Conclusion These findings indicate that the site of laser zona opening did not influence the rate of complete hatching of mouse blastocysts or their cell numbers.

  3. A study of the zona piercing process in piezodriven intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Chen, Zhen

    2008-08-01

    The mouse zona piercing process in piezodriven intracytoplasmic sperm injection (piezo-ICSI) is modeled and simulated with the material point method (MPM) to study the physics behind the piercing process. The MPM simulation reveals that the lateral vibration of the injection pipette plays a key role in the piercing process and disproves the claim that the axial displacement of the pipette pierces the zona. The lateral vibration of the injection pipette is further analyzed using the finite element method to investigate the role of mercury in the piercing process. It is shown that the use of mercury generally reduces the amplitude of the pipette tip and that a shorter piezopulse duration results in a smaller vibration amplitude. This implies that the effect of mercury on the piezo-ICSI procedure may lie in causing less oocyte damage due to the reduced amplitude of the pipette tip, and the development of a piezo-ICSI procedure without using mercury is possible by changing the dimensions of the injection micropipette and the piezodrill controller parameters.

  4. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  5. Automatic segmentation of zona pellucida and its application in cleavage-stage embryo biopsy position selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenan; Ang, Wei Tech; Tan, Steven Yih Min; Latt, Win Tun

    2015-08-01

    A very important step of Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is embryo biopsy, in which process the zona pellucida (ZP) is cut open partially and a part of cellular material is extracted from the embryo. Recognition of the ZP is necessary not only for embryo biopsy, but also for other applications such as zona pellucida thickness variation (ZPTV), embryo dissection, etc. The ZP opening position is closely related to the cell survival rate after the biopsy. Selection of an unsuitable position may cause blastomere lysis after the ZP opening. Normal procedures of ZP recognition and biopsy position selection involve a skilled human embryologist. In order to make the process automatic, we introduce an automatic segmentation method for ZP recognition by using edge detection and ellipse fitting with a value adjustment algorithm in this paper. An application of ZP recognition in embryo biopsy position selection is also introduced. Our ZP recognition algorithm was able to correctly segment 43 out of 45 sample embryo images, achieving a success rate of 96%. Its application in embryo biopsy position selection achieved a success rate of 93%. PMID:26737136

  6. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos: use of a mouse model to investigate effects upon zona hardness and formulate treatment strategies in an in-vitro fertilization programme.

    PubMed

    Matson, P L; Graefling, J; Junk, S M; Yovich, J L; Edirisinghe, W R

    1997-07-01

    Mouse oocytes and embryos were obtained following ovulation induction of (C57B16 x CBA) F1 animals. Zonae pellucidae were exposed to alpha-chymotrypsin in phosphate-buffered medium (PB1) supplemented with 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin upon a heated stage (37 degrees C) and were observed constantly through an inverted microscope. The endpoint of the bioassay was the limits of the zona no longer being seen clearly at x 200 magnification, and the time taken for each zona to dissolve was recorded. A dose-dependent response in dissolution time was clearly seen, with 1% alpha-chymotrypsin being chosen as the routine working solution. Cryopreservation of 2-cell mouse embryos using propanediol did not cause zona hardening but induced a small and significant softening, as gauged by the time taken for zona dissolution (2181 +/- 167 versus 1864 +/- 82 s). Zona hardening was not suspected to occur after the freezing of human embryos as there was no difference in implantation rates per embryo for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles between fresh [IVF: 63/644 (9.7%); ICSI: 51/330 (15.5%)] and frozen embryos [IVF: 36/458 (7.9%); ICSI: 18/112 (16.1%)]. Conversely, significant hardening of the zonae of mature oocytes was seen following cryopreservation (747 +/- 393 s) compared with freshly ovulated oocytes (151 +/- 68 s). It is concluded that (i) the freezing of murine oocytes with propanediol results in zona hardening, implying a possible benefit of ICSI after the cryopreservation of human oocytes, and (ii) the cryopreservation of embryos is not associated with zona hardening or reduced implantation, making microdissection of the zona in such cases generally unwarranted. PMID:9262294

  7. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    SciTech Connect

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.

    1984-02-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.

  8. Expression of claudins, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 in canine organs.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Da-Hye; Lee, Dongoh; Kang, Su-Myung; Seok, Ju-Hyung; Kang, Hee Young; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-10-01

    Tight junctions are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are classified as transmembrane proteins. These factors form selective permeability barriers between cells, act as paracellular transporters and regulate structural and functional polarity of cells. Although tight junctions have been previously studied, comparison of the transcriptional‑translational levels of these molecules in canine organs remains to be investigated. In the present study, organ‑specific expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 was examined in the canine duodenum, lung, liver and kidney. Results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the tight junctions were localized in intestinal villi and glands of the duodenum, bronchiolar epithelia and alveolar walls of the lung, endometrium and myometrium of the hepatocytes, and the distal tubules and glomeruli of the kidney. These results suggest that tight junctions are differently expressed in organs, and therefore may be involved in organ‑specific functions to maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:27600198

  9. Expression of claudins, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 in canine organs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Da-Hye; Lee, Dongoh; Kang, Su-Myung; Seok, Ju-Hyung; Kang, Hee Young; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are classified as transmembrane proteins. These factors form selective permeability barriers between cells, act as paracellular transporters and regulate structural and functional polarity of cells. Although tight junctions have been previously studied, comparison of the transcriptional-translational levels of these molecules in canine organs remains to be investigated. In the present study, organ-specific expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 was examined in the canine duodenum, lung, liver and kidney. Results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the tight junctions were localized in intestinal villi and glands of the duodenum, bronchiolar epithelia and alveolar walls of the lung, endometrium and myometrium of the hepatocytes, and the distal tubules and glomeruli of the kidney. These results suggest that tight junctions are differently expressed in organs, and therefore may be involved in organ-specific functions to maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:27600198

  10. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  11. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  12. NMDA receptors in the medial zona incerta stimulate luteinizing hormone and prolactin release.

    PubMed

    Bregonzio, Claudia; Moreno, Griselda N; Cabrera, Ricardo J; Donoso, Alfredo O

    2004-06-01

    1. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the interaction between the glutamatergic/NMDA and dopaminergic systems in the medial zona incerta on the control of luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion and the influence of reproductive hormones. 2. Proestrus and ovariectomized rats were primed with estrogen and progesterone to induce high or low levels of luteinizing hormone and prolactin. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist, and dopamine were injected in the medial zona incerta. Blood samples were withdrawn every hour between 1,600 and 2,000 hours or 2,200 hours via intracardiac catheter from conscious rats. Additional groups of animals injected with the NMDA receptor antagonist were killed 1 or 4 h after injection. Dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were measured in different hypothalamic regions. 3. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid blocked the ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge in proestrus rats. 2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid also blocked the increase in luteinizing hormone induced by ovarian hormones in ovariectomized rats, an effect that was partially reversed by dopamine injection. Conversely, the increased release of luteinizing hormone and prolactin induced by dopamine was prevented by 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid. We found that the NMDA antagonist injection decreased the dopaminergic activity--as evaluated by the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio--in the medio basal hypothalamus and increased in the preoptic area. 4. Our results show an stimulatory role of NMDA receptors on the ovulatory luteinizing hormone release and on luteinizing hormone release induced by sexual hormones and demonstrate that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on luteinizing hormone and prolactin is mediated by the NMDA receptors. These results suggest a close interaction between the glutamatergic and dopaminergic incertohypothalamic systems on the control of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release

  13. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation.

  14. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. PMID:26332056

  15. Ram seminal plasma proteins contribute to sperm capacitation and modulate sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna, C; Colás, C; Casao, A; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2015-03-01

    Incubation of ram spermatozoa in capacitating conditions with cAMP-elevating agents promotes a progressive time-dependent increase in the capacitated sperm subpopulation. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of ram spermatozoa (ability to bind to the zona pellucida, ZBA rate) capacitated in these conditions was determined. The results showed an increase (P < 0.001) in ZBA rate related to control samples in basal medium that contained BSA, calcium, and bicarbonate (1.97 ± 0.19 vs. 1.31 ± 0.09 sperm bound/oocyte, respectively). A significant correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ZBA rate (P < 0.05, r = 0.501) corroborated that incubation in a "high-cAMP" environment improves the fertilizing ability of ram spermatozoa. Likewise, the presence of two seminal plasma (SP) proteins able to protect sperm against cold shock (RSVP14 and RSVP20) was evidenced in both SP and the ram sperm surface, and their influence in the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa capacitated in basal medium or with cAMP-elevating agents was determined. The results verified that RSVP14 and RSVP20 act as decapacitating factors given that their addition to SP-free sperm samples previously to capacitation maintained high proportions of the noncapacitated sperm pattern with no increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the obtained ZBA rate in the high-cAMP-containing samples was increased in the presence of RSVP20 (P < 0.05). These findings would indicate that the stimulating effect exerted by this protein on the sperm-oocyte binding occurs downstream from the cAMP generation and that the mechanisms by which RSVP20 promotes the zona pellucida binding might be independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:25515364

  16. Ram seminal plasma proteins contribute to sperm capacitation and modulate sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna, C; Colás, C; Casao, A; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2015-03-01

    Incubation of ram spermatozoa in capacitating conditions with cAMP-elevating agents promotes a progressive time-dependent increase in the capacitated sperm subpopulation. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of ram spermatozoa (ability to bind to the zona pellucida, ZBA rate) capacitated in these conditions was determined. The results showed an increase (P < 0.001) in ZBA rate related to control samples in basal medium that contained BSA, calcium, and bicarbonate (1.97 ± 0.19 vs. 1.31 ± 0.09 sperm bound/oocyte, respectively). A significant correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ZBA rate (P < 0.05, r = 0.501) corroborated that incubation in a "high-cAMP" environment improves the fertilizing ability of ram spermatozoa. Likewise, the presence of two seminal plasma (SP) proteins able to protect sperm against cold shock (RSVP14 and RSVP20) was evidenced in both SP and the ram sperm surface, and their influence in the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa capacitated in basal medium or with cAMP-elevating agents was determined. The results verified that RSVP14 and RSVP20 act as decapacitating factors given that their addition to SP-free sperm samples previously to capacitation maintained high proportions of the noncapacitated sperm pattern with no increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the obtained ZBA rate in the high-cAMP-containing samples was increased in the presence of RSVP20 (P < 0.05). These findings would indicate that the stimulating effect exerted by this protein on the sperm-oocyte binding occurs downstream from the cAMP generation and that the mechanisms by which RSVP20 promotes the zona pellucida binding might be independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  17. Is the sperm-binding capability of the zona pellucida linked to its surface structure? A scanning electron microscopic study of human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Familiari, G; Nottola, S A; Micara, G; Aragona, C; Motta, P M

    1988-06-01

    The structure of the zona pellucida and the early interactions between human oocytes and spermatozoa were investigated in an in vitro fertilization program. Thirty-five mature (preovulatory) oocytes, 10 immature oocytes lacking a germinal vesicle, and 11 atretic oocytes which had not undergone fertilization at 10-20 hr after insemination were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Observed through employment of these techniques, the zona pellucida showed two basically different patterns: a mesh-like, spongy structure having wide and/or close meshes; and a compact, smooth surface. The smooth-surfaced zona was most commonly seen in the cultured oocytes belonging to the immature and atretic groups. These observations seem to show that the spongy appearance of the zona pellucida is related mainly to oocyte development and maturity. In this study, greater numbers of penetrating spermatozoa were noted on oocytes showing the mesh-like zona, in contrast to the presence of a few sperm flattened against its surface or the frank absence of sperm associated with oocytes having the more compact, smooth zona. It is likely that the condensation of the outer aspect of the zona pellucida causes a disorientation of sperm-binding sites, which would probably result in markedly reduced binding and penetration capacity with spermatozoa. These changes might ultimately lead to impairment of in vitro oocyte fertilizability.

  18. Improved fertilization and implantation rates after non-touch zona pellucida microdrilling of mouse oocytes with a 1.48 microm diode laser beam.

    PubMed

    Germond, M; Nocera, D; Senn, A; Rink, K; Delacretaz, G; Pedrazzini, T; Hornung, J P

    1996-05-01

    The safety of microdrilling the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes with a 1.48 microm diode laser has been investigated by determining the ability of mouse oocytes to fertilize in vitro and develop in vivo. Mice born after transfer of control and zona pellucida-microdrilled embryos into foster mothers were submitted to anatomical and immunohistochemical investigations, and their aptitude to breed was assessed in two subsequent generations. Decoronization of the oocytes with hyaluronidase induced a reduction of the fertilization and implantation rates, which was attributed to a zona hardening phenomenon. After laser zona pellucida microdrilling, these rates were restored to those obtained with embryos derived from untreated oocyte-cumulus complexes. Pups derived from zona pellucida microdrilled embryos were comparable with those obtained from control embryos, confirming the lack of deleterious effects of the laser treatment. In conclusion, the 1.48 microm diode laser allows safe microdrilling of the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes after decoronization with hyaluronidase. Based on the health of the F2 generation and the lack of neuroanatomical and neurochemical differences, we concluded that this technology may be investigated in the human, particularly when the zona pellucida represents the main impediment for fertilization or embryo hatching.

  19. Glycoprotein from the liver constitutes the inner layer of the egg envelope (zona pellucida interna) of the fish, Oryzias latipes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamazaki, T.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Iuchi, I.; Yamagami, K.

    1989-05-01

    A glycoprotein from the liver, which shares epitopes with chorion (egg envelope or zona pellucida) glycoproteins, is present only in the spawning female fish, Oryzias latipes, under natural conditions. This spawning female-specific (SF) substance is distinct from vitellogenin but closely resembles a major glycoprotein component, ZI-3, of the inner layer (zona radiata interna) of the ovarian egg envelope with respect to some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics. Here we report that the (/sup 125/I)SF substance, injected into the abdominal cavity of the spawning female fish, was rapidly transported by the blood circulation into the ovary and incorporated into the inner layer of egg envelope of the growing oocytes. The result strongly suggests that the SF substance from the liver is a precursor substance of the major component, ZI-3, of the inner layer of egg envelope in the fish.

  20. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception of wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Turner, J W; Liu, I K M; Flanagan, D R; Bynum, K S; Rutberg, A T

    2002-01-01

    Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception was investigated for possible use in free-roaming wild horses in the western USA. A protocol of two injections (3-4 weeks apart) of vaccine lasting 1 year was first used and a single-injection controlled-release vaccine of 1 year duration was developed and tested in the field. Studies of a presumptive vaccine of 2 year duration were initiated. The parameters of anti-PZP antibody titre response, pregnancy testing and offspring production were used, and PZP vaccine was found to provide up to 94% infertility in free-roaming wild mares. In addition, a single-injection PZP vaccine of 1 year duration and containing a controlled-release component of PZP in a polymer matrix can provide infertility equivalent to the two-injection PZP vaccine. All the PZP vaccine preparations tested were associated with a return to normal fertility within 1 year. During the course of these studies, attention was given to practical aspects of management application of PZP contraception. Preparation of the controlled-release portion of the vaccine in pellets, which fit into the needle of a dart or syringe, has simplified vaccine handling and permitted long-term storage of the controlled-release component. Vaccine delivery is now performed using a jabstick on captured mares restrained in a field stock chute during routine horse gathers. Provision of a vaccine-training programme has maximized personnel safety during vaccine preparation and use.

  1. Identification of bovine embryos cultured in groups by attachment of barcodes to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Morató, Roser; Penon, Oriol; Duran, Sara; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Mogas, Teresa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The low number of oocytes collected from unstimulated donors by ovum pick-up means that embryos produced from each individual female have to be cultured individually or in very small groups. However, it has been demonstrated that single-embryo culture is less efficient than embryo culture in groups. To overcome this limitation, we developed a direct embryo-tagging system, which allows the collective culture of embryos from different origins whilst preserving their pedigree. Presumptive bovine zygotes were tagged with eight wheat-germ agglutinin biofunctionalised polysilicon barcodes attached to the outer surface of the zona pellucida (ZP). Four different barcodes were used to encode groups of 20-25 embryos, which were then cultured in the same drop. Cleavage, Day-7 and Day-8 blastocysts and barcode retention rates were assessed. In addition, Day-7 blastocysts were vitrified and warmed. Barcode attachment to the ZP of bovine embryos affected neither in vitro embryo development nor post-warming survival of the tagged embryos. All the embryos maintained barcodes attached until Day 8 of culture (3.63±0.37 barcodes per embryo) and could be identified. In conclusion, identification of embryos by barcodes attached to the ZP is feasible and will allow the culture of embryos from different donors in the same drop. PMID:24942183

  2. The serine protease hepsin mediates urinary secretion and polymerisation of Zona Pellucida domain protein uromodulin

    PubMed Central

    Brunati, Martina; Perucca, Simone; Han, Ling; Cattaneo, Angela; Consolato, Francesco; Andolfo, Annapaola; Schaeffer, Céline; Olinger, Eric; Peng, Jianhao; Santambrogio, Sara; Perrier, Romain; Li, Shuo; Bokhove, Marcel; Bachi, Angela; Hummler, Edith; Devuyst, Olivier; Wu, Qingyu; Jovine, Luca; Rampoldi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Uromodulin is the most abundant protein in the urine. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells and it plays key roles in kidney function and disease. Uromodulin mainly exerts its function as an extracellular matrix whose assembly depends on a conserved, specific proteolytic cleavage leading to conformational activation of a Zona Pellucida (ZP) polymerisation domain. Through a comprehensive approach, including extensive characterisation of uromodulin processing in cellular models and in specific knock-out mice, we demonstrate that the membrane-bound serine protease hepsin is the enzyme responsible for the physiological cleavage of uromodulin. Our findings define a key aspect of uromodulin biology and identify the first in vivo substrate of hepsin. The identification of hepsin as the first protease involved in the release of a ZP domain protein is likely relevant for other members of this protein family, including several extracellular proteins, as egg coat proteins and inner ear tectorins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08887.001 PMID:26673890

  3. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum.

    PubMed

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties.

  4. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  5. Identification of potential oviductal factors responsible for zona pellucida hardening and monospermy during fertilization in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, Irene; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Avilés, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Oviduct fluid increases the time required for digestion of the zona pellucida (ZP) by proteolytic enzymes (ZP hardening). This effect has been associated with levels of monospermy after in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the pig and cow, but the possible existence of a directly proportional relationship between hardening and monospermy remains unknown. To investigate whether variations in hardening of different oviductal fluids (OFs) are correlated with variations in levels of monospermy after IVF, porcine oocytes were incubated with three batches of OFs known to produce different ZP hardening effects (3, 7, and 25 min); after IVF, monospermy levels were 0%, 14.58% ± 5.14%, and 35.14% ± 7.95%, respectively. These results could partially explain the lack of polyspermy found during in vivo fertilization in pigs (with a hardened oviductal ZP) compared with levels found during IVF (with no hardened ZP). Using the bovine model, OF was fractionated by heparin affinity chromatography, and the hardening effect on the ZP was tested for each fraction obtained from a linear gradient of sodium chloride concentration. The highest effect was obtained with the fraction eluted with 0.4 M sodium chloride. Fractions with high-level or low-level effects were processed by on-chip electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A list of potential proteins responsible for this effect includes OVGP1 and members of the HSP and PDI families.

  6. Neofunctionalization of zona pellucida proteins enhances freeze-prevention in the eggs of Antarctic notothenioids

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lixue; Huang, Qiao; Wu, Zhichao; Cao, Dong-dong; Ma, Zhanling; Xu, Qianghua; Hu, Peng; Fu, Yanxia; Shen, Yu; Chan, Jiulin; Zhou, Cong-zhao; Zhai, Wanying; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the eggs of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing are not fully understood. Zona pellucida proteins (ZPs) are constituents of the chorion which forms a protective matrix surrounding the egg. Here we report occurrence of freezing temperature-related gene expansion and acquisition of unusual ice melting-promoting (IMP) activity in a family of Antarctic notothenioid ZPs (AnnotoZPs). Members of AnnotoZPs are shown to bind with ice and non-colligatively depress the melting point of a solution in a range of 0.26 to 0.65 °C at a moderate concentration. Eggs of zebrafishes expressing an AnnotoZP transgene show improved melting point depression and enhanced survival in freezing conditions. Mutational analyses in a representative AnnotoZP indicate the ZP domain and patches of acidic residues are essential structures for the IMP activity. AnnotoZPs, therefore, represent a group of macromolecules that prevent freezing by a unique ZP–ice interaction mechanism distinct from the known antifreeze proteins. PMID:27698404

  7. Neofunctionalization of zona pellucida proteins enhances freeze-prevention in the eggs of Antarctic notothenioids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lixue; Huang, Qiao; Wu, Zhichao; Cao, Dong-Dong; Ma, Zhanling; Xu, Qianghua; Hu, Peng; Fu, Yanxia; Shen, Yu; Chan, Jiulin; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Zhai, Wanying; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms by which the eggs of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing are not fully understood. Zona pellucida proteins (ZPs) are constituents of the chorion which forms a protective matrix surrounding the egg. Here we report occurrence of freezing temperature-related gene expansion and acquisition of unusual ice melting-promoting (IMP) activity in a family of Antarctic notothenioid ZPs (AnnotoZPs). Members of AnnotoZPs are shown to bind with ice and non-colligatively depress the melting point of a solution in a range of 0.26 to 0.65 °C at a moderate concentration. Eggs of zebrafishes expressing an AnnotoZP transgene show improved melting point depression and enhanced survival in freezing conditions. Mutational analyses in a representative AnnotoZP indicate the ZP domain and patches of acidic residues are essential structures for the IMP activity. AnnotoZPs, therefore, represent a group of macromolecules that prevent freezing by a unique ZP-ice interaction mechanism distinct from the known antifreeze proteins.

  8. Dicalcin, a zona pellucida protein that regulates fertilization competence of the egg coat in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Naofumi

    2015-11-01

    Fertilization is a highly coordinated process whereby sperm interact with the egg-coating envelope (called the zona pellucida, ZP) in a taxon-restricted manner, Fertilization triggers the resumption of the cell cycle of the egg, ultimately leading to generation of a new organism that contains hereditary information of the parents. The complete sperm-ZP interaction comprises sperm recognition of the ZP, the acrosome reaction, penetration of the ZP, and fusion with the egg. Recent evidence suggests that these processes involve oligosaccharides associated with a ZP constituent (termed ZP protein), the polypeptide backbone of a ZP protein, and/or the proper three-dimensional filamentous structure of the ZP. However, a detailed description of the molecular mechanisms involved in sperm-ZP interaction remains elusive. Recently, I found that dicalcin, a novel ZP protein-associated protein, suppresses fertilization through its association with gp41, the frog counterpart of the mammalian ZPC protein. This review focuses on molecular aspects of sperm-ZP interaction and describes the fertilization-suppressive function of dicalcin and associated molecular mechanisms. The amount of dicalcin in the ZP significantly correlates with alteration of the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP and the orientation pattern of ZP filaments, which may assist in elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie sperm-ZP interaction.

  9. Investigating the mechanical properties of zona pellucida of whole human oocytes by atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Laura; Masiero, Elena; Giolo, Elena; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Dal Zilio, Simone; Delfino, Ines; Bortul, Roberta; Zweyer, Marina; Ricci, Giuseppe; Lazzarino, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The role of mechanics in numerous biological processes is nowadays recognized, while in others, such as the fertilization process, it is still neglected. In the case of oocytes the description of their mechanical properties could improve the comprehension of the oocyte-spermatozoon interaction and be helpful for application in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Herein the mechanical properties of whole human oocytes (HOs) immediately after retrieval are investigated by indentation measurements with atomic force spectroscopy under physiological conditions. Measurements are performed on immature (metaphase I - MI) and mature (metaphase II - MII) HOs. According to their morphological characteristics MII-HOs are classified as "suitable" and "rejected"; these latter would be usually rejected for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For all maturation stages we observe that the elastic response of the zona pellucida (ZP) outer layer was different and distinguishable from the rest of the ZP-HO. The elasticity of this ZP outer layer varies with maturation and quality: stiffness decreases from immature MI to good quality MII, up to poor-quality rejected MII. An indirect analysis with IVF outcome indicates that the ZP outer layer of analysed HOs donated by women who achieved pregnancy is stiffer than that of HOs from women with negative outcome. Our findings suggest that mechanical properties can represent important oocyte quality indicators that may be exploited for the design of innovative ICSI dedicated cell sorters. PMID:27476747

  10. Demi-embryo production from hatching of zona-drilled bovine and rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Skrzyszowska, M; Smorag, Z; Katska, L

    1997-09-01

    It is known that the pregnancy rate resulting after transfer of bisected embryos is lower than after transfer of whole embryos. The main reason is the reduced cell number in the demi-embryo which is less than 1 2 of that in the intact embryo, since a number of blastomeres is damaged as a result of the procedure used in conventional embryo splitting. The aim of our experiment was to develop a non-invasive procedure which would limit cell losses during microsurgery. The experiment was carried out on bovine IVM-IVF embryos at middle, late and expanded blastocyst stage and rabbit embryos at late blastocyst stage cultured in vitro from in vivo produced zygotes. The zona pellucida of these embryos was drilled on the line between the inner cell mass and the trophoblast using a glass microneedle (

  11. Fucosyl neoglycoprotein binds to mouse epididymal spermatozoa and inhibits sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y S; Ahn, H S; Gye, M C

    2013-12-01

    Glycan epitopes of cellular glycoconjugates act as versatile biochemical signals, and this sugar coding plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition processes. In this study, our aims were to determine the distribution of sperm receptors with activity for fucosyl- and galactosyl glycans and to address whether monosugar neoglycoproteins functionally mimic the binding between zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins and spermatozoa. In mouse epididymal spermatozoa with intact acrosomes, fucopyranosyl bovine serum albumin (BSA-Fuc) bound to the segment of the acrosome, the equatorial segment, and the postacrosome region of the sperm head. Galactosyl BSA (BSA-Gal) binding activity was similar to that of BSA-Fuc, but was weaker. In acrosome-reacted spermatozoa treated with the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, BSA-zuc binding was lost in the apical segment of the acrosome but remained in the equatorial segment and postacrosome regions. BSA-Gal binding to the equatorial region was increased. In the presence of 2.5 μg ml(-1) BSA-Fuc, in vitro sperm-ZP binding was significantly decreased, indicating that fucosyl BSA functionally mimics ZP glycoproteins during sperm-egg ZP interactions. At the same concentration, BSA-Gal was not effective. Fucosyl BSA that efficiently inhibited the sperm-ZP binding can mimic the ZP glycoconjugate and has potential for use as a sperm fertility control agent in mouse.

  12. The Crucial Role of Zona Pellucida in Cryopreservation of Oocytes by Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Yue, Tao; Huang, Haishui; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Mingjun; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes have a proteinaceous hydrogel-like outer shell known as the zona pellucida (ZP) that semi-encloses their plasma membrane and cytoplasm. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse oocytes either with or without ZP by vitrification. Our results show that the presence of an intact ZP could significantly improve the post-vitrification survival of oocytes to 92.1% from 13.3% for oocytes without ZP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryonic development between fresh and cryopreserved oocytes with ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Further atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the intact oocytes with ZP have an elastic modulus that is more than 85 times higher than that of oocytes without ZP. This may partially explain the important role of ZP in protecting the oocytes by resisting the mechanical stress due to possible ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification. Collectively, this study reveals a new biophysical role of ZP during vitrification of oocytes and suggests microencapsulation of the many mammalian cells without a ZP in ZP-like hydrogel is an effective strategy to improve their survival post cryopreservation by vitrification. PMID:26297946

  13. Evidence for extracellular, but not intracellular, generation of angiotensin II in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, H.; Khosla, M.C.; Bumpus, M.; Husain, A. )

    1988-11-01

    Based on the observation that high levels of renin and angiotensin II (Ang II) are found in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), it has been postulated that Ang II is formed intracellularly by the renin-converting enzyme cascade in this tissue. To test this hypothesis, the authors examined renin-angiotensin system components in subcellular fractions of the rat adrenal ZG. Renin activity and immunoreactive-Ang II (IR-Ang II) were observed in vesicular fractions but were not colocalized. In addition, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, and converting enzyme were not observed in the renin or IR-Ang II-containing vesicular fractions. These data do not support the hypothesis that Ang II is formed intracellularly within the renin-containing vesicles of the ZG. Rather, since modulatable renin release from adrenal ZG slices was observed and renin activity was found in dense vesicular fractions (33-39% sucrose), it is likely that Ang II formation in the ZG is extracellular and initiated by the release of vesicular renin. In ZG lysomal fractions {sup 125}I-labeled Ang II was degraded to {sup 125}I-labeled des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II. Since Ang II antibodies do not recognize des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II, these finding explain why IR-Ang II in the ZG is due predominantly to Ang II and not to its C-terminal immunoreactive fragments.

  14. Identification of bovine embryos cultured in groups by attachment of barcodes to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Morató, Roser; Penon, Oriol; Duran, Sara; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Mogas, Teresa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The low number of oocytes collected from unstimulated donors by ovum pick-up means that embryos produced from each individual female have to be cultured individually or in very small groups. However, it has been demonstrated that single-embryo culture is less efficient than embryo culture in groups. To overcome this limitation, we developed a direct embryo-tagging system, which allows the collective culture of embryos from different origins whilst preserving their pedigree. Presumptive bovine zygotes were tagged with eight wheat-germ agglutinin biofunctionalised polysilicon barcodes attached to the outer surface of the zona pellucida (ZP). Four different barcodes were used to encode groups of 20-25 embryos, which were then cultured in the same drop. Cleavage, Day-7 and Day-8 blastocysts and barcode retention rates were assessed. In addition, Day-7 blastocysts were vitrified and warmed. Barcode attachment to the ZP of bovine embryos affected neither in vitro embryo development nor post-warming survival of the tagged embryos. All the embryos maintained barcodes attached until Day 8 of culture (3.63±0.37 barcodes per embryo) and could be identified. In conclusion, identification of embryos by barcodes attached to the ZP is feasible and will allow the culture of embryos from different donors in the same drop.

  15. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  16. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  17. An antisperm monoclonal antibody inhibits sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but not homologous eggs.

    PubMed

    Primakoff, P; Hyatt, H

    1986-09-01

    The zona-free hamster egg penetration assay (HEPA) was evaluated as a test for identifying fertilization-blocking antibodies. A monoclonal antibody, AH-20, that binds to the surface of guinea pig sperm was used to test antibody inhibition of sperm-egg fusion. AH-20 strongly inhibited guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but had no effect on guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free guinea pig eggs. No inhibition by AH-20 was found in the homologous fusion assay over a wide range of sperm concentration, fertilization rate, and fertilization index. The results suggest that although guinea pig sperm can fuse with both hamster and guinea pig eggs, some aspect of the fusion mechanism is different in the two cases. The findings also indicate that HEPA, which is frequently used to assess the fertility potential of human sperm, can identify as blockers of sperm-egg fusion antibodies that have no effect on homologous sperm-egg fusion.

  18. Characterization of cell surface polypeptides of unfertilized, fertilized, and protease-treated zona-free mouse eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, J.; Gunter, L.E.; Howe, A.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The polypeptide composition of unfertilized, fertilized, and protease-treated zona-free mouse eggs was evaluated in this study. Zona-free eggs were radioiodinated by an Iodogen-catalyzed reaction. Light microscopic autoradiography of egg sections revealed that labeling was restricted to the cell surface. Labeled eggs were solubilized, and cell surface polypeptides were identified by one-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The unfertilized egg demonstrated 8-10 peptides that incorporated {sup 125}I, with major bands observed at approximately 145-150, 94, and 23 kilodaltons (kD). Zona-free eggs fertilized in vitro and then radiolabeled demonstrated several new bands in comparison to unfertilized eggs, with a major band appearing at approximately 36 kD. Treatment of radiolabeled unfertilized eggs with either trypsin or chymotrypsin (1 mg/ml for 5-20 min) caused enzyme-specific modifications in labeled polypeptides. Trypsin (T) treatment resulted in time-dependant modification of the three major peptides at 145-150, 94, and 23 kD. Chymotrypsin (CT) treatment, in contrast, was associated with loss or modification of the 94 kD band, with no apparent effect on either the 145-150 or 23 kD band. Taken together with previous data indicating that T or CT egg treatment interferes with sperm-egg attachment and fusion, these results suggest a possible role for the 94 kD protein in sperm-egg interaction.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Powell, D M

    1999-01-01

    Successful management of captive populations of wild animals requires effective control of reproduction. Contraception is one tool for controlling reproduction of animals in zoos; however, the options available to the animal manager are limited. Contraceptives vary in efficacy, reversibility, and side effects, and thus may not be suitable for widespread use. One consideration when selecting a contraceptive is its potential for side effects on behavior, especially given the fact that reproduction plays such a prominent role in the biology of any species. To date, there have been few evaluations of contraceptives for behavioral effects, and those that have been conducted have focused on hormone-based contraceptives. This study sought to evaluate a novel method of population control, immunocontraception, for behavioral effects in a population of feral horses. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception prevents fertilization of ova and does not alter normal hormone secretion patterns. It therefore should leave the animal behaviorally intact in terms of reproductive behavior. The study examined the behavior of 43 sexually mature mares on Assateague Island during the 1997 breeding season and, with help from Earthwatch volunteers, collected observations over a 3-month period. The study found no significant differences between treated and untreated mares in general activity budget, aggression given or received, and spatial relationships relative to the stallion. These preliminary findings indicate that PZP contraception seems to have no acute behavioral effects on the behavior of individuals. The study findings also suggest that PZP could be a desirable and effective management tool for captive species in which social behavior plays an integral role in group dynamics. Analyses of group level effects and population level effects are continuing.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Powell, D M

    1999-01-01

    Successful management of captive populations of wild animals requires effective control of reproduction. Contraception is one tool for controlling reproduction of animals in zoos; however, the options available to the animal manager are limited. Contraceptives vary in efficacy, reversibility, and side effects, and thus may not be suitable for widespread use. One consideration when selecting a contraceptive is its potential for side effects on behavior, especially given the fact that reproduction plays such a prominent role in the biology of any species. To date, there have been few evaluations of contraceptives for behavioral effects, and those that have been conducted have focused on hormone-based contraceptives. This study sought to evaluate a novel method of population control, immunocontraception, for behavioral effects in a population of feral horses. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception prevents fertilization of ova and does not alter normal hormone secretion patterns. It therefore should leave the animal behaviorally intact in terms of reproductive behavior. The study examined the behavior of 43 sexually mature mares on Assateague Island during the 1997 breeding season and, with help from Earthwatch volunteers, collected observations over a 3-month period. The study found no significant differences between treated and untreated mares in general activity budget, aggression given or received, and spatial relationships relative to the stallion. These preliminary findings indicate that PZP contraception seems to have no acute behavioral effects on the behavior of individuals. The study findings also suggest that PZP could be a desirable and effective management tool for captive species in which social behavior plays an integral role in group dynamics. Analyses of group level effects and population level effects are continuing. PMID:16363936

  1. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Characterization of glycoside residues of porcine zona pellucida and ooplasm during follicular development and atresia.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Luis M; Lucas, Xiomara; Pallares, Jacinto; Bernal-Mañas, Carmen M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Morales, Eva; Beltran, Esther; Zuasti, Adelina; Ferrer, Concepcion

    2008-09-01

    The glycoside residues (glycoconjugates, GC) of the zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins are important during the first phases of fecundation. Our aim in this work was to determine the lectin affinity pattern of porcine ZP in order to analyze the changes that take place during: (a) preantral folliculogenesis, (b) the follicular atresia process, and (c) antral growth. Several prepubertal and adult pig ovaries and different sized antral follicles were used. Conventional carbohydrate histochemical techniques and peroxidase and digoxigenin (DIG) lectins were used to reveal the acid groups and the glycosidic residues of the ZP. It was seen that the ZP forms in the preantral follicles throughout their growth period. In primordial and primary follicles, ZP in the process of formation showed neutral GC. SBA, RCA-I, MAA, WGA lectins, and AAA after methylation-saponification (MS) were positive in the ZP of primordial and primary follicles. The affinity for SBA, RCA-I, MAA, and WGA increased in the multilaminar-primary follicles and new affinities for UEA-I and LFA were observed. After MS, AAA, SNA, PNA, and SBA reactivity was observed. The ZP of antral follicle oocytes of different sizes showed the same lectin pattern as multilaminar-primary follicles. The oocyte ooplasm and the follicular fluid of large antral follicles showed less affinity for WGA and LFA lectins and less intensive staining with AB (pH 2.5). Atresia did not change the antral or preantral follicle oocyte ZP lectin pattern. In conclusion, the follicles showed substantial changes in their ZP glycosidic composition as they developed, especially, during the change from primary to multilaminar-primary follicles. The ZP glycosidic composition showed no significant change during the growth of antral follicles and follicular atresia in our study.

  3. Contraceptive efficacy of recombinant fusion protein comprising zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 fragment and gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Arukha, Ananta Prasad; Minhas, Vidisha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Contraceptive vaccines have been used for the management of wildlife population. In the present study, we have examined the contraceptive potential of Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein comprising of 'promiscuous' T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker (KK), dog ZP3 fragment (aa residues 307-346), triglycine spacer (GGG), T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase; aa residues 94-104), GnRH, T cell epitope of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (CSP; aa residues 362-383), and GnRH. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified refolded protein revealed a dominant ∼12 kDa band, which in Western blot reacted with mouse polyclonal antibodies against dog ZP3 fragment and mouse monoclonal antibodies against GnRH. Immunization of female FvB/J mice following two booster schedule with the above recombinant protein supplemented with alum led to high antibody titres against the immunogen as well as ZP3 and GnRH as determined by ELISA. The immune sera reacted with zona pellucida of mouse oocyte and also inhibited in-vitro fertilization. The qRT-PCR studies showed decrease in the ovarian GnRH receptor in mice immunized with the recombinant fusion protein. Mating studies revealed high contraceptive efficacy of the recombinant protein as in two independent experiments, 90% of the immunized female mice failed to conceive. Following one booster immunization schedule, 50% of the immunized female mice failed to conceive. However, in adjuvanted controls, all the female mice became pregnant. To conclude, the recombinant protein described herein has a good potential to be developed as candidate contraceptive vaccine. PMID:26859695

  4. Feasibility and challenges in the development of immunocontraceptive vaccine based on zona pellucida glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sangeeta; Srivastava, Neelu; Narwal, P S; Rath, Archana; Jaiswal, Sonika; Gupta, Satish K

    2007-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins play a crucial role during fertilization and thus are considered as important target antigens for the development of immunocontraceptive vaccines aiming to inhibit fertility at a pre-fertilization stage. In order to evaluate the immunocontraceptive potential of ZP glycoproteins, bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 have been cloned and expressed using either E. coli or baculovirus expression systems. Active immunization studies with the recombinant ZP glycoproteins in female baboons (Papio anubis) and bonnet monkeys revealed curtailment of fertility. In order to minimize the ovarian pathology, synthetic peptides corresponding to B cell epitopes that are devoid of 'oophoritogenic' T cell epitopes were designed and their in vitro immunocontraceptive potential explored. There are several issues that need to be addressed before ZP glycoproteins based immunocontraceptive vaccines become feasible for use in humans. Nonetheless, the utility of such a vaccine is imminent for controlling wild life population. In this direction, active immunization of female non-descript dogs with recombinant canine ZP3 conjugated to diphtheria toxoid led to curtailment of fertility. Further, canine ZP3 has also been expressed in insect cells as a fusion protein with rabies virus glycoprotein G (RV-G), an antigen that is involved in providing protection against rabies. The immunogenicity of such a recombinant protein and its potential to curtail fertility was explored both in female mice and dogs. Simultaneously, DNA vaccine encoding canine ZP3 and RV-G have been made and evaluated for their immunogenicity. The results obtained so far, current shortcomings and the possible ways to circumvent these have been discussed in the present manuscript. PMID:17566293

  5. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  6. Evidence suggesting a role for sperm metalloendoprotease activity in penetration of zona-free hamster eggs by human sperm.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Pérez, E; Thomas, P; Meizel, S

    1988-11-01

    It has been reported that metalloendoprotease (MEP) activity is involved in somatic cell membrane fusion events and in the sea urchin sperm acrosome reaction (AR). MEP activity also has been demonstrated in human and other mammalian sperm. The present study was concerned with investigating whether a human sperm MEP is important in membrane events necessary for sperm egg fusion. Ejaculated human sperm were washed, capacitated in vitro, and preincubated with the competitive MEP inhibitors phosphoramidon (50 microM) or CBZ-L-phenylalanine (1 mM), with 100 microM diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), a heavy metal chelator, or as controls, with the appropriate solvents. The AR was initiated in vitro with preovulatory human follicular fluid and the sperm washed to dilute inhibitors and then coincubated with zona-free golden hamster eggs (zonae and cumuli removed with trypsin and hyaluronidase, respectively). Eggs were washed after 0.5 h, and the number of sperm remaining bound was counted. After 2.5 h further incubation, the eggs were stained with acetolacmoid or acetoorcein and penetration was assayed by counting the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg (penetration index) and the percent of penetrated eggs. The inhibitor treatments did not decrease the percentage of penetrated eggs (range 80-90%), but a significant reduction in the penetration index was observed. Phosphoramidon reduced the penetration index by 45%, CBZ-L-phenylalanine by 57%, and DTPA by 56%. None of the inhibitors decreased the penetration index or the percentage of penetrated eggs when added directly to suspensions of acrosome-reacted sperm and zona-free eggs at the diluted levels that would have been present after washing inhibitor-treated sperm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Canine zona pellucida glycoprotein-3: up-scaled production, immunization strategy and its outcome on fertility.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Abhinav; Srichandan, Sudeepa; Minhas, Vidisha; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins based contraceptive vaccines have been proposed for the management of wildlife population. In the present study, a fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by a dilysine linker and an ectodomain of dog ZP3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) without any affinity tag (TT-KK-ZP3) has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was successfully produced in fed-batch fermentor and purified. The average yield of purified refolded protein was 12.20 ± 0.61 mg/2g wet cell pellet. Female FvB/J mice immunized with the varying doses of recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 supplemented with alum/PetGel A as adjuvants following a three injection schedule, showed dose dependent increase in serum IgG titer. Antibodies against TT-KK-ZP3 recognized native mouse/dog ZP and significantly inhibited mouse in-vitro fertilization (p=0.012). Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility (p<0.05). Higher antibody titers were associated with a decrease in the number of pups born to the immunized female mice. To reduce the number of injections, two injection schedule using various dose combinations of TT-KK-ZP3 supplemented with alum revealed lower immunogenicity and contraceptive efficacy as compared to the three injection schedule. To overcome this, CpG motif was included in addition to alum and both intraperitoneal and intranasal route of immunization following the two injection schedule was investigated. Inclusion of CpG significantly enhanced the antibody titer and improved contraceptive efficacy. In the mice immunized following intraperitoneal route, serum/vaginal IgG and in the mice immunized through intranasal route, vaginal IgA seemed to be important for curtailment in fertility. To conclude, the recombinant protein described herein may be a good candidate for developing contraceptive vaccine for the wildlife population management, in particular street dogs. PMID

  8. The application of the zona-free hamster egg test for the prognosis of human in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Foreman, R; Cohen, J; Fehilly, C B; Fishel, S B; Edwards, R G

    1984-09-01

    The zona-free hamster egg test was carried out using spermatozoa from 15 men which consistently failed to fertilize their wives' oocytes in vitro. Spermatozoa from nine of these men fertilized hamster eggs in vitro, indicating that positive results in this assay are an unreliable guide to human in vitro fertilization. Donor spermatozoa were needed to fertilize the wife's oocytes in three of these cases. Nevertheless, the proportion of hamster egg penetration was significantly lower compared with spermatozoa from 15 men who could fertilize their wives' oocytes in vitro. The hamster assay also failed to indicate the establishment of pregnancy.

  9. Use of fetal bovine serum substitutes for the protection of the mouse zona pellucida against hardening during cryoprotectant addition.

    PubMed

    George, M A; Johnson, M H

    1993-11-01

    The addition of 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to media used for mouse oocyte cryopreservation prevents hardening of the zona pellucida that otherwise can occur due to premature release of cortical granule contents (George et al., Hum. Reprod., 7, 401-412, 1992). Protection of human oocytes would ideally be achieved by using a human macromolecular source or a more defined bovine source than total FBS. Here we investigate whether FBS can be replaced by human serum, human cord serum, human serum albumin or fetuin, the major protein component of FBS. Only fetuin was found to be effective. PMID:7507131

  10. Couplet alignment and improved electrofusion by dielectrophoresis for a zona-free high-throughput cloned embryo production system.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, P; Wells, D N; Oback, B

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian cloning by somatic nuclear transfer has great potential for developing medical applications such as biopharmaceuticals and generation of tissues for transplantation. For agricultural applications, it allows the rapid dissemination of genetic gain in livestock breeding. The maximisation of that potential requires improvements to overall cloning technology, especially with respect to increasing cloning efficiency and throughput rates in cloned embryo production. A zona-free embryo reconstruction system was developed to increase cloning throughput and ease of operation. Central to this system is a modified electrofusion procedure for nuclear transfer. Cytoplast-donor cell couplets were placed in a custom-designed 'parallel plate' electrode chamber. A 1 MHz sinusoidal AC dielectrophoresis alignment electric field of 6-10 kV m(-1) was applied for 5-10s. The couplets were then fused using 2 x 10 micros rectangular DC-field pulses (150-200 kV m(-1)), followed by application of the AC field (6-10 kV m(-1)) for another 5-10 s. Fusion was performed in hypoosmolar buffer (210 mOsm). Automated alignment of up to 20 couplets at a time has been achieved, resulting in greatly improved fusion throughput rates (2.5-fold increase) and improved fusion yields (1.3-fold increase), compared with commonly followed zona-intact protocols.

  11. Cupulin Is a Zona Pellucida-Like Domain Protein and Major Component of the Cupula from the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Dernedde, Jens; Weise, Christoph; Müller, Eva-Christina; Hagiwara, Akira; Bachmann, Sebastian; Suzuki, Mamoru; Reutter, Werner; Tauber, Rudolf; Scherer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular membranes of the inner ear are essential constituents to maintain sensory functions, the cupula for sensing torsional movements of the head, the otoconial membrane for sensing linear movements and accelerations like gravity, and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea for hearing. So far a number of structural proteins have been described, but for the gelatinous cupula precise data are missing. Here, we describe for the first time a major proteinogenic component of the cupula structure with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa from salmon. Analyses of respective peptides revealed highly conserved amino-acid sequences with identity to zona pellucida-like domain proteins. Immunohistochemistry studies localized the protein in the ampulla of the inner ear from salmon and according to its anatomical appearance we identified this glycoprotein as Cupulin. Future research on structure and function of zona pellucida-like domain proteins will enhance our knowledge of inner ear diseases, like sudden loss of vestibular function and other disturbances. PMID:25369234

  12. Cupulin is a zona pellucida-like domain protein and major component of the cupula from the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Dernedde, Jens; Weise, Christoph; Müller, Eva-Christina; Hagiwara, Akira; Bachmann, Sebastian; Suzuki, Mamoru; Reutter, Werner; Tauber, Rudolf; Scherer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular membranes of the inner ear are essential constituents to maintain sensory functions, the cupula for sensing torsional movements of the head, the otoconial membrane for sensing linear movements and accelerations like gravity, and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea for hearing. So far a number of structural proteins have been described, but for the gelatinous cupula precise data are missing. Here, we describe for the first time a major proteinogenic component of the cupula structure with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa from salmon. Analyses of respective peptides revealed highly conserved amino-acid sequences with identity to zona pellucida-like domain proteins. Immunohistochemistry studies localized the protein in the ampulla of the inner ear from salmon and according to its anatomical appearance we identified this glycoprotein as Cupulin. Future research on structure and function of zona pellucida-like domain proteins will enhance our knowledge of inner ear diseases, like sudden loss of vestibular function and other disturbances.

  13. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  14. Efficiency of asynchronously in vitro-matured oocytes as recipients for nuclear transfer and of blind enucleation in zona-free bovine cloning.

    PubMed

    Malenko, Galina P; Stepanov, Oleg I; Komissarov, Andrey V; Antipova, Tatyana A; Pinyugina, Marina V; Prokofiev, Michael I

    2009-06-01

    We studied the dynamics of in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes, the efficiency of asynchronously matured oocytes as recipients for the generation of embryos produced by nuclear transfer, and the potential for using blind enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes in bovine cloning. At 15 h after the initiation of maturation (hpm), oocytes were freed from both cumulus cells and the zona pellucida, and the dynamics of oocyte maturation were monitored every 30 min through the criterion of extrusion of the first polar body (PB1). More than 41% of bovine oocytes had extruded PB1 by 16.5 hpm, and were designated as representing a group of rapidly maturing oocytes. A second group, comprising about 25% of all oocytes, had extruded PB1 by 18.5-20.0 hpm. Examination of Hoechst 33342-stained samples demonstrated that PB1 on the surfaces of zona-free bovine oocytes were always located near the maternal chromosomes. Zona-free oocytes were enucleated by removing PB1 and about 3% of the adjacent oocyte cytoplasm without chromatin staining. Successful enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes was achieved in 96.9% of cases. The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was significantly greater in embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing oocytes (47.8%) than with oocytes maturing at 18.0-20.0 hpm (33.3%). Overall, two large groups of bovine oocytes could be distinguished during in vitro maturation by the time required to reach the second stage of metaphase. Bovine embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing enucleated oocytes had a significantly greater rate of development to the blastocyst stage than did embryos derived from later-maturing oocytes. We conclude that blind enucleation is a simple and efficient method for preparing cytoplasts in zona-free bovine cloning.

  15. Binding of Sperm to the Zona Pellucida Mediated by Sperm Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins is not Species-Specific in Vitro between Pigs and Cattle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Yasuomi; Kanai-Kitayama, Saeko; Suzuki, Reiichiro; Sato, Reiko; Toma, Kazunori; Geshi, Masaya; Akagi, Satoshi; Nakano, Minoru; Yonezawa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates are candidates for the basis of species-selective interaction of gametes during mammalian fertilization. In this study, we sought to clarify the roles of sugar residues in the species-selective, sperm-oocyte interaction in pigs and cattle. Acrosome-intact porcine and bovine sperm exhibited their strongest binding affinities for β-Gal and α-Man residues, respectively. Porcine-sperm specificity changed from β-Gal to α-Man after the acrosome reaction, while bovine-sperm specificity did not. Binding of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm decreased after trypsinization, indicating that the carbohydrate-binding components are proteins. While immature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm, oocytes matured in vitro bound similar numbers of homologous and heterologous sperm. Lectin staining revealed the aggregation of α-Man residues on the outer surface of the porcine zona during maturation. In both species, zona-free, mature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm. The lectin-staining patterns of the zona pellucida and zona-free oocytes coincided with the carbohydrate-binding specificities of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm, respectively, supporting the involvement of carbohydrates in gamete recognition in pigs and cattle. These results also indicate that sperm-zona pellucida and sperm-oolemma bindings are not strictly species-specific in pigs and cattle, and further suggest that sperm penetration into the zona and/or fusion with oolemma may be species-specific between pigs and cattle.

  16. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  17. Hardening of the zona pellucida of unfertilized eggs can reduce polyspermic fertilization in the pig and cow.

    PubMed

    Coy, Pilar; Grullon, Luis; Canovas, Sebastian; Romar, Raquel; Matas, Carmen; Aviles, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms of polyspermy block is an increased resistance of the zona pellucida (ZP) to proteolytic digestion (ZP hardening) as a consequence of cortical granule exocytosis that occurs soon after fertilization. However, evidence is available that the zonae pellucidae of freshly ovulated pig and cow oocytes harden considerably before fertilization. It was thought that such pre-fertilization ZP hardening could be involved in the control of polyspermy, and its lack in the oocytes matured in vitro could be one of the reasons for the extremely high incidence of polyspermy in pig in vitro fertilization (IVF). To test this hypothesis, two different types of cross-linking reagents were employed and their effects on ZP hardening and IVF efficiency were examined. The sulfhydryl-reactive cross-linkers produced a slight hardening of ZP (P<0.001) of treated oocytes compared with control oocytes, and totally inhibited sperm penetration into pig oocytes after IVF. In the cow, sperm penetration into eggs was reduced to 10%. It is proposed that formation of disulfide bonds in ZP or blocking of SH groups in the oocyte plasma membrane proteins prevents sperm penetration. An amine-reactive cross-linker was then assayed and produced strong ZP hardening, increasing the incidence of monospermy in both pig and cow oocytes after fertilization. When the cross-linker concentration was optimized, a 45% improvement for pig IVF efficiency was reached. It is proposed that the observed physiological ZP hardening is a mechanism to control polyspermy, differentially affecting various mammalian species and can be imitated by the use of amine-reactive cross-linkers during IVF.

  18. Outcomes of vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryo hatching after in vitro laser-assisted zona pellucida thinning in patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, En-Hua; Wang, An-Cong; Wang, Bao-Song; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the size of the zona pellucida (ZP) thinning area by laser-assisted hatching affected the potential development of vitrified-warmed embryos. A total of 196 vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos (from 49 patients, four sister embryos per patient) were used in the study, i.e., four sister embryos from each patient were randomly assigned to four groups: a control group of embryos that were not zona-manipulated (zona intact, group A); one experimental group of embryos in which a quarter of the zona pellucida was thinned using laser-assisted ZP thinning (group B); a second experimental group of embryos in which half of ZP was thinned (group C); and a third group in which two-thirds of the ZP was thinned (group D). Subsequent blastocyst development was assessed. Microscopy was performed to study the hatching process of the embryos after zona thinning. The blastocyst formation rates were 71.43% in group A, 67.35% in group B, 65.31% in group C, and 51.02% in group D (groups B-D vs. group A, P=0.661, P=0.515, P=0.038, respectively). The rates of complete hatching were 30.61% in group A, 38.78% in group B, 61.22% in group C, and 48.98% in group D (groups B-D vs. group A, P=0.396, P=0.002, P=0.063, respectively). For a subgroup of patients, there was a significant difference in the complete hatching in all the groups for women aged <35 years (P=0.011), and there was a significant difference in the complete hatching in all the groups for secondary infertility women (P=0.022). There was no significant difference in the blastocyst formation rates in the different groups of women aged ≥35 years (P=0.340). In addition, there was no significant difference in the complete hatching in the different groups among women aged ≥35 years (P=0.492). The results of the present study showed that in vitrified-warmed embryo transfers at the cleavage-stage, and the two-thirds zona pellucida thinning group demonstrated a significantly

  19. Outcomes of vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryo hatching after in vitro laser-assisted zona pellucida thinning in patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, En-Hua; Wang, An-Cong; Wang, Bao-Song; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the size of the zona pellucida (ZP) thinning area by laser-assisted hatching affected the potential development of vitrified-warmed embryos. A total of 196 vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos (from 49 patients, four sister embryos per patient) were used in the study, i.e., four sister embryos from each patient were randomly assigned to four groups: a control group of embryos that were not zona-manipulated (zona intact, group A); one experimental group of embryos in which a quarter of the zona pellucida was thinned using laser-assisted ZP thinning (group B); a second experimental group of embryos in which half of ZP was thinned (group C); and a third group in which two-thirds of the ZP was thinned (group D). Subsequent blastocyst development was assessed. Microscopy was performed to study the hatching process of the embryos after zona thinning. The blastocyst formation rates were 71.43% in group A, 67.35% in group B, 65.31% in group C, and 51.02% in group D (groups B-D vs. group A, P=0.661, P=0.515, P=0.038, respectively). The rates of complete hatching were 30.61% in group A, 38.78% in group B, 61.22% in group C, and 48.98% in group D (groups B-D vs. group A, P=0.396, P=0.002, P=0.063, respectively). For a subgroup of patients, there was a significant difference in the complete hatching in all the groups for women aged <35 years (P=0.011), and there was a significant difference in the complete hatching in all the groups for secondary infertility women (P=0.022). There was no significant difference in the blastocyst formation rates in the different groups of women aged ≥35 years (P=0.340). In addition, there was no significant difference in the complete hatching in the different groups among women aged ≥35 years (P=0.492). The results of the present study showed that in vitrified-warmed embryo transfers at the cleavage-stage, and the two-thirds zona pellucida thinning group demonstrated a significantly

  20. Albedo polarimétrico de asteroides del grupo Hungaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    La región del cinturón de asteroides en donde se encuentra el grupo de los Hungarias (a= 1.79 a 1.98 UA, i=15 a 40 grados) es la única zona donde es común encontrar objetos de tipo taxonómico E, caracterizados por altos albedos, colores relativamente neutros y espectros sin detalles. Este tipo de asteroides está relacionado espectralmente con ciertos meteoritos (aubritas) que indican la existencia de episodios de gran calentamiento que ocurrieron durante la formación del Sistema Solar. Como el espectro de los asteroides de tipo E es idéntico a los de tipo M y P, la única forma de clasificar un asteroide en alguno de estos tres tipos taxonómicos es mediante el albedo. En este trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la determinación polarimétrica de albedos para objetos de este grupo utilizando el polarímetro CASPROF de CASLEO.

  1. Use of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine as a contraceptive agent in free-ranging tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes).

    PubMed

    Shideler, S E; Stoops, M A; Gee, N A; Howell, J A; Lasley, B L

    2002-01-01

    The potential for the application of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception in wildlife population management has been tested over a 15 year period and promises to provide a useful wildlife management tool. These studies have provided evidence indicating that the use of PZP immunocontraception in wildlife: (i) is effective at both the physiological and population level (Liu et al., 1989; Kirkpatrick et al., 1996; Turner et al., this supplement); (ii) is deliverable by remote means (Kirkpatrick et al., 1990; Shideler, 2000); (iii) is safe in pregnant animals (Kirkpatrick and Turner, this supplement); (iv) is reversible (Kirkpatrick et al., 1991; Kirkpatrick and Turner, this supplement); (v) results in no long-term debilitating health problems (Kirkpatrick et al., 1995; Turner and Kirkpatrick, this supplement); (vi) has no implications for passage through the food chain (Harlow and Lane, 1988); and (vii) is reasonably inexpensive (J. F. Kirkpatrick, personal communication). This report presents the results of a 5 year study in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes), 3 years of which were on the application of PZP immunocontraception to an expanding elk population living in a wilderness area of Point Reyes National Seashore in Marin County, CA, where hunting is not allowed and culling is not publicly acceptable.

  2. Reversibility of action and safety during pregnancy of immunization against porcine zona pellucida in wild mares (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Turner, A

    2002-01-01

    Contraceptive management of publicly valued wildlife species requires safeguards to ensure that these populations are preserved in a healthy state. In addition, reversibility of contraceptive effects and safety in pregnant animals are major concerns. A population of wild horses has been immunized against porcine zona pellucida (PZP) over a 12 year period on Assateague Island National Seashore, MD (ASIS). Mares initially received one or two 65 microg inoculations and once a year 65 microg booster inoculations, all delivered by dart. All young mares aged > 2 years were treated with PZP for 3 consecutive years regardless of whether they have bred successfully and they were then removed from treatment until they had foaled. All mares vaccinated for 1 or 2 consecutive years became fertile again and 69% of mares treated for 3 consecutive years returned to fertility. All five mares treated for 4 or 5 consecutive years have also returned to fertility, but over longer periods of time. Mares treated for 7 consecutive years have not returned to fertility, but several, while still infertile, have started ovulating again. There was no difference in survival rates between foals born to treated and untreated mares, and PZP treatment of pregnant mares did not affect subsequent fertility of their female offspring.

  3. Zona occludens-2 inhibits cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation and exhibits changes in localization along the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Islas, Socorro; Avila-Flores, Antonia; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Weiske, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-02-01

    Here, we have studied the effect of the tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2 on cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression. CD1 is essential for cell progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have found that in cultures of synchronized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ZO-2 inhibits cell proliferation at G0/G1 and decreases CD1 protein level. These effects occur in response to a diminished CD1 translation and an augmented CD1 degradation at the proteosome triggered by ZO-2. ZO-2 overexpression decreases the amount of Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylated at Ser9 and represses beta-catenin target gene expression. We have also explored the expression of ZO-2 through the cell cycle and demonstrate that ZO-2 enters the nucleus at the late G1 phase and leaves the nucleus when the cell is in mitosis. These results thus explain why in confluent quiescent epithelia ZO-2 is absent from the nucleus and localizes at the cellular borders, whereas in sparse proliferating cultures ZO-2 is conspicuously present at the nucleus.

  4. Zona Occludens-2 Inhibits Cyclin D1 Expression and Cell Proliferation and Exhibits Changes in Localization along the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Rocio; Huerta, Miriam; Islas, Socorro; Avila-Flores, Antonia; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; Weiske, Jörg; Huber, Otmar; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-01-01

    Here, we have studied the effect of the tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2 on cyclin D1 (CD1) protein expression. CD1 is essential for cell progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. We have found that in cultures of synchronized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ZO-2 inhibits cell proliferation at G0/G1 and decreases CD1 protein level. These effects occur in response to a diminished CD1 translation and an augmented CD1 degradation at the proteosome triggered by ZO-2. ZO-2 overexpression decreases the amount of Glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylated at Ser9 and represses β-catenin target gene expression. We have also explored the expression of ZO-2 through the cell cycle and demonstrate that ZO-2 enters the nucleus at the late G1 phase and leaves the nucleus when the cell is in mitosis. These results thus explain why in confluent quiescent epithelia ZO-2 is absent from the nucleus and localizes at the cellular borders, whereas in sparse proliferating cultures ZO-2 is conspicuously present at the nucleus. PMID:19056685

  5. Traditional intracytoplasmic sperm injection provides equivalent outcomes compared with human zona pellucida-bound selected sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Casciani, Valentina; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fabozzi, Gemma; Scarselli, Filomena; Colasante, Alessandro; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Ermanno

    2014-11-01

    The capability of human zona pellucida (ZP) to bind selectively to normal functional sperm with normal chromatin has been reported widely in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ZP-binding sperm selection may represent a method to retrieve superior spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Patients were divided into two groups: a ZP-ICSI and a conventional ICSI group. In the ZP-ICSI group, spermatozoa for injection were selected after ZP-sperm incubation and spermatozoa that were tightly bound to the ZP were used for ICSI (ZP-ICSI). Clinical outcomes of ZP-ICSI were compared with the outcomes of traditional scientist-selected sperm injection (conventional ICSI). Results did not show any significant difference in fertilization, pregnancy, implantation and take-home-baby rates between conventional ICSI and ZP-ICSI. However, when data relative to patients who received ZP-ICSI were analyzed, an interesting result was observed: higher sperm concentration and morphology correlated with higher ZP-sperm binding. Additionally, patients with higher ZP-sperm binding seem to have improved pregnancy and take-home-baby rates. In conclusion, this study shows that ZP-ICSI is not a superior method compared with conventional ICSI. However, clinical ICSI outcomes were apparently improved in the presence of good ZP-sperm binding. We therefore speculate that sperm competence to ICSI could be reduced when the sperm's ability to bind the ZP is impaired.

  6. Cysteine analogs with a free thiol group promote fertilization by reducing disulfide bonds in the zona pellucida of mice.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toru; Horikoshi, Yuka; Nakao, Satohiro; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Ishizuka, Yuta; Tsutsumi, Aki; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Nakagata, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Archives of cryopreserved sperm harvested from genetically engineered mice, in mouse resource centers, are a readily accessible genetic resource for the scientific community. We previously reported that exposure of oocytes to reduced glutathione (GSH) greatly improves the fertilization rate of frozen-thawed mouse sperm. Application of GSH to in vitro fertilization techniques is widely accepted as a standard protocol to produce sufficient numbers of mice from cryopreserved sperm. However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of fertilization mediated by GSH in vitro is not fully understood. Here we focused on the chemical by determining the effects of its amino acid constituents and cysteine analogs on the fertilization of oocytes by frozen-thawed sperm. Furthermore, we determined the stability of these compounds in aqueous solution. We show here that l-cysteine (l-Cys), d-cysteine (d-Cys), or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) increased the rate of fertilization when added to the medium but did not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The levels of thiol groups of proteins in the zona pellucida (ZP) and the expansion of the ZP were increased by l-Cys, d-Cys, and NAC. These effects were abrogated by the methylation of the thiol group of l-Cys. NAC was the most stable of these compounds in the fertilization medium at 4°C. These results suggest that the thiol groups of cysteine analogs markedly enhance the fertilization rate of mouse oocytes.

  7. Dipeptidase-inactivated tACE action in vivo: selective inhibition of sperm-zona pellucida binding in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Eishi; Tani, Taeko; Watanabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Shuichi; Kondoh, Gen

    2007-11-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a crucial role in male fertilization and is a key regulator of blood pressure. Testicular ACE (tACE), the germinal specific isozyme expressed on different promoters, exclusively carries out the role of ACE in fertility, although the site and mode of action are not well known. To investigate the contribution of tACE in fertilization, we produced transgenic mouse lines carrying a dipeptidase-inactivated mutant. Although the transgenic mice showed normal blood pressure, kidney morphology, and fertility, reduced fertilization was observed after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding was exclusively impaired in these lines in a manner similar to that observed in an Ace knockout mouse. The dipeptidase activity was reduced in epididymal ingredients but not in the testis. Furthermore, direct application of mutant protein did not suppress sperm-ZP binding of intact sperm during IVF, implying that the dipeptidase-inactivated mutant affects sperm modification in the epididymis for ZP binding. Our results indicate that the dipeptidase-inactivated tACE acts in vivo, suggesting that tACE contributes to fertilization as a dipeptidase at least in the epididymis.

  8. Effects of exposure of epididymal boar spermatozoa to seminal plasma on the binding of zona pellucida proteins during in vitro capacitation.

    PubMed

    Harkema, W; Colenbrander, B; Engel, B; Woelders, H

    2004-01-15

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether seminal plasma plays a role in the increase during in vitro capacitation of the number of boar spermatozoa with enhanced binding of zona pellucida proteins. Ejaculated spermatozoa and spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymides of boars were incubated at 39 degrees C in a Tyrode's IVF medium. During incubation, the zona binding ability of individual spermatozoa was assessed with fluorescein-conjugated solubilized zona pellucida proteins (FITC-sZP), using a flow cytometer. Propidium iodide (PI) was included to simultaneously monitor cell viability. During incubation of ejaculated spermatozoa, a percentage of the spermatozoa expressed enhanced binding of FITC-sZP. The percentage of viable spermatozoa with enhanced binding reached a maximum of 37% (S.D.=8, averaged over five boars) after 2-3 h. In epididymal sperm, a similar maximum was observed after incubation in vitro, but a longer time of incubation was needed (6 h). Also, the rate of cell death of epididymal sperm was much lower than that of ejaculated sperm. When epididymal spermatozoa was exposed to seminal plasma in vitro, the time needed to reach a maximal percentage of viable spermatozoa with enhanced FITC-sZP binding was similar to that in ejaculated semen. However, the rate of cell death was still much lower than in ejaculated sperm. We concluded that the binding sites on the sperm surface that are involved in the increased binding of zona proteins during incubation under IVF conditions were not derived from the seminal plasma. The cellular processes leading to the increased binding capacity were accelerated by exposure of the sperm to seminal plasma. PMID:14662123

  9. Sperm surface hyaluronan binding protein (HABP1) interacts with zona pellucida of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) through its clustered mannose residues.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ilora; Datta, Kasturi

    2003-02-01

    Sperm-oocyte interaction during fertilization is multiphasic, with multicomponent events, taking place between zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins and sperm surface receptor. d-mannosylated glycoproteins, the major constituents of ZP are considered to serve as ligands for sperm binding. The presence of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) on sperm surface of different mammals including cattle and its possible involvement in sperm function is already reported. Recently, we have demonstrated the specificity of clustered mannose as another ligand for HABP1 (Kumar et al., 2001: J Biosci 26:325-332). Here, we report that only N-linked mannosylated zona-glycoproteins bind to sperm surface HABP1. Labeled HABP1 interacts with ZP of intact oocyte of Bubalus bubalis, which can be competed with unlabeled HABP1 or excess d-mannosylated albumin (DMA). This data suggests the specific interaction of HABP1 with ZP, through clustered mannose residues. In order to examine the physiological significance of such an interaction, the capacity of sperm binding to oocytes under in vitro fertilization plates was examined either in presence of DMA alone or in combination with HABP1. The number of sperms, bound to oocytes was observed to reduce significantly in presence of DMA, which could be reversed by the addition of purified recombinant HABP1 (rHABP1) in the same plate. This suggests that sperm surface HABP1 may act as mannose binding sites for zona recognition.

  10. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  11. Replication of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in zona-free and zona-intact in vitro-produced bovine embryos and the effect on embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Vanroose, G; Nauwynck, H; Van Soom, A; Vanopdenbosch, E; de Kruif, A

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not cytopathic (CP) and noncytopathic (NCP) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are able to replicate within in vitro-produced embryos and to investigate whether inoculation of embryos with BVDV affects their normal development. Zona pellucida (ZP)-free oocytes, zygotes, 8-cell-stage embryos, morulae, and hatched blastocysts (HB) were incubated for 1 h in 1 ml of Minimal Essential Medium containing 10(6.00) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50/ml NCP BVDV isolate 22,146 or 10(6.25) TCID50/ml CP BVDV strain Oregon C24V. At 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h postinoculation (hpi), groups of embryos were collected for virus titration. A small amount of newly produced virus was detected in 8-cell embryos at 60 hpi (10(1.8) TCID50/100 cells), but only for CP BVDV. For ZP-free morulae and HB, maximal intracellular virus titers were, respectively, 10(1.47) and 10(2.33) TCID50/100 cells at 48 hpi for the CP biotype and 10(0.64) and 10(0.84) TCID50/100 cells at 72 hpi for the NCP biotype. Only an infection with CP BVDV had a significant inhibitory effect on further development of ZP-free morulae. It can be concluded that ZP-free in vitro-produced embryos are permissive to an infection with BVDV, with increasing susceptibility of the embryos in accordance with their developmental stage. In contrast to observations in ZP-free in vitro-produced embryos, no virus replication or signs of embryonic degeneration were detected in ZP-intact in vitro-derived embryos.

  12. Effects of milk proteins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Coutinho da Silva, Marco A; Seidel, George E; Squires, Edward L; Graham, James K; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2014-11-10

    Objectives were to determine the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) and milk proteins on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in stallion sperm; and to determine the effects of single caseins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). In Experiment I, sperm were incubated in media containing 2 or 4mM Ca(2+) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was determined after ionomycin treatment and long-term incubation (3h). Extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (2 compared with 4mM) did not affect baseline intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of sperm. However, incubating sperm in a medium containing 4 compared with 2mM Ca(2+) resulted in greater (P<0.05) influx of Ca(2+) into sperm. In Experiment II, sperm incubated in media containing 1mg/mL of native phosphocaseinate (NP) or sodium caseinate (SC) showed similar baseline intracellular Ca(2+) and influx of Ca(2+) than control (TALP). In Experiment III, sperm-ZP binding assays were performed in TALP medium containing: no additions (TALP); 1mg/mL SC; 1 or 3mg/mL of α-casein; 1 or 3mg/mL of β-casein; and 1 or 3mg/mL of κ-casein. The number of stallion sperm bound to bovine ZP was greatest (P<0.05) when SC was used. Co-incubation in media containing single caseins (α-, β- or κ-casein) resulted in similar results to TALP; however, a dose effect (P<0.05) was observed for β- and κ-caseins. In conclusion, extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and milk proteins did not affect baseline intracellular calcium in stallion sperm. It appears that β- and κ-caseins may be responsible for enhancing sperm binding to ZP, but the mechanism remains unknown.

  13. Expression and cellular distribution of zona pellucida glycoproteins in canine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Kempisty, Bartosz; Piotrowska, Hanna; Bukowska, Dorota; Woźna, Magdalena; Ciesiółka, Sylwia; Wojtanowicz-Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Włodarczyk, Renata; Jopek, Karol; Jeseta, Michal; Bruska, Małgorzata; Nowicki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Jędrzej M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Zabel, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating zona pellucida glycoproteins (ZP) ZP2, ZP3 mRNA expression as well as ZP3, ZP4 (ZPB) protein distribution before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) in canine oocytes. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from 27 anoestrous mongrel bitches and matured for 72 h in TCM199 medium. The canine COCs were analysed before and after IVM. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), both groups of oocytes were analysed for detection of ZP2 and ZP3 mRNA profiles as well as using confocal microscopic analysis for observation of ZP3 and ZP4 protein distribution. In post-IVM canine oocytes an increase in transcript content of ZP2 and ZP3 genes as well as a decrease in ZP3 and ZP4 protein levels were observed when compared with pre-IVM oocytes. Moreover, the ZP4 protein before IVM was significantly distributed in the peripheral area of cytoplasm, whereas after IVM it was localized rather than in the entire cytoplasm. In contrast, the ZP3 protein was found both before and after IVM was distributed in the peripheral area of the cytoplasm. In conclusion, we suggest that the expression of ZP2 and ZP3 genes is associated with the maturation stage of canine oocytes, as higher mRNAs levels were found after IVM. However, a decreased expression of ZP3 and ZP4 proteins after IVM suggests maturation-dependent down-regulation of these protein translations, which may result in disturbed fertilization.

  14. Differential influence of ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells on zona pellucida hardening and in vitro fertilization in ovine.

    PubMed

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Shamsi, Helia; Hajiyavand, Amir M; Saadat, Mozafar

    2016-03-01

    The central role of the oviduct, as the site of zona pellucida (ZP) maturation, fertilization and early embryogenesis, has been recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells have different effects on in vitro ZP hardening, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of the resulting embryos. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a coculture system with ampullary/isthmic epithelial cells, TCM199 supplemented with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial derived growth factor (EGF) (GF treated group), conditioned media produced using ampullary (ACM), isthmic (ICM), COCs+ampullary, and COCs+isthmic epithelial cells, contactless culture system, oviductal fluid, GF+ACM/ICM, and drops of TCM199 (control), for 24h. The matured oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: Group I was subjected to ZP digestion; Group II underwent IVF. The duration of the ZP digestion, in a coculture system with ampullary epithelial cells (AE) was significantly increased (p<0.05), compared with other groups. Penetrated oocytes and monospermic fertilization were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the AE group. The mean number of spermatozoa per penetrated oocyte was reduced dramatically for the AE group (p<0.05). A significant increase (p<0.05) in the embryo development was observed in all treated groups, compared to the control. Results revealed that epithelial cells harvested from the ampullary segment of the oviduct had in vitro specialized role in ZP hardening and have subsequent IVF and IVC outcomes.

  15. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  16. Interleukin-6 inhibits adrenal androgen release from bovine adrenal zona reticularis cells by inhibiting the expression of steroidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    McIlmoil, S; Call, G B; Barney, M; Strickland, J; Judd, A M

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is secreted by adrenocortical cells and modifies cortisol secretion. In this study, the effects of IL-6 on adrenal androgen release were investigated. The zona reticularis (ZR) was generally isolated from bovine adrenal glands by dissection. In select experiments, the intact adrenal cortex (ie, all 3 adrenocortical zones) was dissected from the adrenal glands. For androgen release experiments, ZR and intact adrenocortical cubes were dispersed into isolated cells, the cells cultured and exposed to IL-6 and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and androgen release determined by radioimmunoassay. Basal and ACTH-stimulated androgen release from the ZR was inhibited by IL-6 in a concentration-dependent (10-1000 pg/mL) and time-dependent (4-24 h) manner (P < 0.01 by 1-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test). In contrast, IL-6 increased basal and ACTH-stimulated androgen release from mixed adrenocortical cells (P < 0.01). The mechanism of IL-6 inhibition of androgen release was investigated by exposing ZR strips to IL-6 and measuring the expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein of steroidogenic factors. Basal and ACTH-stimulated expression of the mRNA and protein for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, steroid 17-α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase/17,20 desmolase, and the nuclear factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), that stimulates steroidogenesis, were decreased by IL-6 (P < 0.01). In contrast IL-6 increased the mRNA and protein for dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1 (DAX-1), a nuclear factor that inhibits steroidogenesis (P < 0.01). In summary, IL-6 decreased androgen release and the expression of steroidogenic factors in the ZR, and this decrease may be mediated in part through increasing DAX-1 and decreasing SF-1. PMID:26218834

  17. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  18. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  19. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  20. Digitalización de diapositivas del Sol en H α

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missio, H.; Montenegro, C.; Montenegro, R.

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el de obtener imágenes digitalizadas de las diapositivas tomadas del Sol en luz de hidrógeno de la línea correspondiente a Hα, y de esta manera llegar a convertir las mismas a un archivo digital para poder ser tratadas luego por computadora y poder contabilizar con exactitud, mediante un programa adecuado para tal fin, las zonas activas del Sol en la imagen digitalizada. En principio, para llegar a esto se pensó en la utilización de medios accesibles, y como detector se utilizó un fototransistor ubicado dentro de un soporte rectangular sobre dos ejes de desplazamiento X e Y. Se han obtenido con este procedimiento imágenes de buena calidad, construídas a partir de tres datos digitalizados en cada barrido que aportan la posición X e Y y la intensidad del pixel en ese punto indicada en 255 tonos de grises.

  1. The Zona Incerta Regulates Communication between the Superior Colliculus and the Posteromedial Thalamus: Implications for Thalamic Interactions with the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Glenn D.R.; Smith, Jared B.

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty concerning the circuit connections by which the superior colliculus interacts with the basal ganglia. To address this issue, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, into the superior colliculus and globus pallidus of Sprague-Dawley rats. In this two-tracer experiment, the projections from the superior colliculus terminated densely in the ventral zona incerta (ZIv), but did not overlap the labeled neurons observed in the subthalamic nucleus. In cases in which anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, in sensory-responsive sites in the superior colliculus and posteromedial (POm) thalamus, the labeled projections from superior colliculus innervated the ZIv regions that contained the labeled neurons that project to POm. We also confirmed this colliculo–incertal–POm pathway by depositing a mixture of retrograde and anterograde tracers at focal sites in ZIv to reveal retrogradely labeled neurons in superior colliculus and anterogradely labeled terminals in POm. When combined with retrograde tracer injections in POm, immunohistochemical processing proved that most ZIv projections to POm are GABAergic. Consistent with these findings, direct stimulation of superior colliculus evoked neuronal excitation in ZIv and caused inhibition of spontaneous activity in POm. Collectively, these results indicate that superior colliculus can activate the inhibitory projections from ZIv to the POm. This is significant because it suggests that the superior colliculus could suppress the interactions between POm and the dorsolateral striatum, presumably to halt ongoing behaviors so that more adaptive motor actions are selected in response to unexpected sensory events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By demonstrating that the zona incerta regulates communication between the superior colliculus and the posteromedial thalamus, we have uncovered a circuit that partly explains the behavioral changes that occur in response to unexpected

  2. Inhibitors of serine proteases decrease sperm penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro by inhibiting sperm binding to the zona pellucida and acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-11-01

    Serine proteases are involved in mammalian fertilization. Inhibitors of serine proteases can be applied to investigate at which point these enzymes exert their action. We selected two serine protease inhibitors, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, 100 μM) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 5 μM) from Glycine max, via previous dose-response IVF experiments and sperm toxicity tests. In the present study, we evaluated how these inhibitors affect porcine fertilization in vitro as calculated on total fertilization rate, polyspermy rate, and the sperm number per fertilized oocyte of cumulus-intact, cumulus-free, and zona-free oocytes. In the control group (no inhibitor), these parameters were 86%, 49%, and 2.2 for cumulus-intact oocytes and 77%, 43%, and 2.2 for cumulus-free oocytes (6-hour gamete incubation period, 1.25 × 10(5) spermatozoa/mL). 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and STI significantly reduced total fertilization and polyspermy rate in cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes (P < 0.05). Total fertilization rates were respectively 65% and 53% (AEBSF) and 36% and 17% (STI). Inhibition rates were higher in cumulus-free oocytes than in cumulus-intact oocytes, indicating that inhibitors exerted their action after sperm passage through the cumulus. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not STI reduced sperm binding to the ZP. The acrosome reaction was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Only 40.4% (AEBSF) and 11.4% (STI) of spermatozoa completed a calcium-induced acrosome reaction compared to 86.7% of spermatozoa in the control group. There was no effect on sperm binding or fertilization parameters in zona-free oocytes. In conclusion, sperm-zona binding and acrosome reaction were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors during porcine IVF.

  3. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  4. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  5. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  6. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  7. Evaluation of recombinant fusion protein comprising dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 and Izumo and individual fragments as immunogens for contraception.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Abhinav; Wadhwa, Neerja; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-23

    Vaccines based on gamete specific proteins have been proposed for fertility inhibition. In the present study, immunogenicity and contraceptive potential of E. coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, comprising promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT) followed by dilysin linker (KK), a fragment of dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3), triglycine spacer (GGG) and a fragment of dog Izumo (Iz) without any affinity tag has been evaluated in female FvB/J mice. In addition, recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 and Izumo linked to the promiscuous T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase-KK-Iz) and their physical mixture were also used. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot studies revealed ∼32kDa band corresponding to TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, ∼22kDa band of TT-KK-ZP3 and ∼11kDa band of bRNase-KK-Iz. Groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to the generation of high antibody titres against the respective proteins. Immunization with recombinant TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz generated higher antibody titre as compared to mice immunized with physical mixture of TT-KK-ZP3 and bRNase-KK-Iz. Antibodies against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and TT-KK-ZP3 recognized mouse and dog ZP and those against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and bRNase-KK-Iz recognized mouse and dog acrosome-reacted sperm in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Immune sera from groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to a significant reduction in mouse in vitro fertilization. Mating studies revealed significant reduction in fertility as compared to adjuvant control group. Highest infertility was observed in group of mice immunized with TT-KK-ZP3 followed by TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz. Infertility was associated with the antibody titres against ZP3, whereas no association in the inhibition of fertility and antibody titres against Izumo was observed. In conclusion, these studies revealed the contraceptive potential of ZP3, which could not be further enhanced by the inclusion of Izumo. PMID:24333343

  8. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  9. Divalent cation permeability and blockade of Ca2+-permeant non-selective cation channels in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Lotshaw, David P; Sheehan, Katherine A

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the divalent cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+ on unitary Na+ currents through receptor-regulated non-selective cation channels were studied in inside-out and cell-attached patches from rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.External Ca2+ caused a concentration-dependent and voltage-independent inhibition of inward Na+ current, exhibiting an IC50 of 1.4 mm. The channel was also Ca2+ permeant and external Ca2+ shifted the reversal potential as expected for a channel exhibiting a constant Ca2+:Na+ permeability ratio near to 4.External and internal 2 mm Mg2+ caused voltage-dependent inhibition of inward and outward Na+ current, respectively. Modelling Mg2+ as an impermeant fast open channel blocker indicated that external Mg2+ blocked the pore at a single site exhibiting a zero voltage Kd of 5.1 mm for Mg2+ and located 19% of the distance through the transmembrane electric field from the external surface. Internal Mg2+ blocked the pore at a second site exhibiting a Kd of 1.7 mm for Mg2+ and located 36% of the distance through the transmembrane electric field from the cytosolic surface.External Ni2+ caused a voltage- and concentration-dependent slow blockade of inward Na+ current. Modelling Ni2+ as an impermeant slow open channel blocker indicated that Ni2+ blocked the pore at a single site exhibiting a Kd of 1.09 mm for Ni2+ and located 13.7% of the distance through the transmembrane electric field from the external surface.External 2 mm Mg2+ increased the Kd for external Ni2+ binding to 1.27 mm, consistent with competition for a single binding site. Changing ionic strength did not substantially affect Ni2+ blockade indicating the absence of surface potential under physiological ionic conditions.It is concluded that at least two divalent cation binding sites, separated by a high free energy barrier (the selectivity filter), are located in the pore and contribute to Ca2+ selectivity and permeability of the channel. PMID:9852322

  10. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  11. p-Aminobenzamidine-sensitive acrosomal protease(s) other than acrosin serve the sperm penetration of the egg zona pellucida in mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, K; Murayama, K; Kohno, N; Kashiwabara, S; Baba, T

    1998-11-01

    It has been reported that a significant delay in protein dispersal from the acrosomal matrix is observed in wild-type sperm by adding p-aminobenzamidine, a trypsin/acrosin inhibitor, to the incubation medium. The pattern of this delayed release was similar to that of the acrosin-deficient mutant mouse sperm (Yamagata et al., J. Biol. Chem., 273, 10470-4, 1998). In the present study, no further delay in protein dispersal was found when the acrosin-deficient sperm were treated with p-aminobenzamidine, indicating that among the p-aminobenzamidine-sensitive protease(s) only acrosin may function to accelerate this process. Although the acrosin-deficient sperm penetrated the zona pellucida (Baba et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 31845-9, 1994), the addition of p-aminobenzamidine to the fertilisation medium caused a significant inhibition of fertilisation in vitro. This indicates that there is a p-aminobenzamidine-sensitive protease(s) other than acrosin participating in the zona penetration step. Indeed, we demonstrated that a non-acrosin protease with a size of 42 kDa was present in the supernatant of the acrosome-reacted sperm suspension. The enzyme was inhibited by p-aminobenzamidine, diisopropyl fluorophosphate and N alpha-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, and was apparently activated by acrosin. PMID:9921641

  12. Expression of the beacon gene in the rat adrenal gland: direct inhibitory effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from dispersed adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Neri, Giuliano; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-02-01

    Beacon gene was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and there is evidence that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the rat adrenal gland, especially in the cortex. Beacon[47-73], at a concentration over 10(-7) M decreased basal aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, without affecting the ACTH-stimulated one. Basal and agonist-stimulated corticosterone secretion from dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis cells and catecholamine release from adrenomedullary slices were unaffected by beacon[47-73]. The suppressive effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells was abolished by either H-89 or calphostin-C, which are inhibitors of protein kinase A and C signaling cascades. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that beacon can be included in the group of regulatory peptides involved in the fine tuning of ZG secretory activity.

  13. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  14. The Del Rio ataxite, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, E. P.; King, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    Basic data are presented on the Del Rio, Nordheim, and Monahans ataxites found in Texas. Results are reported for bulk-chemistry analysis, metallographic observations, and electron-microprobe analysis of the Del Rio meteorite. It is shown that Del Rio is distinctly different from the other two ataxites in terms of nickel, phosphorous, and carbon content, and is composed of at least three coarse grains in different crystallographic orientations. All the kamacite in Del Rio is found to have transformation structures that are probable shock products, and minor inclusions of daubreelite, schreibersite, and troilite are observed. It is concluded that Del Rio was apparently mildly shocked prior to its fall.

  15. Voltage-dependent currents and modulation of calcium channel expression in zona fasciculata cells from rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, J G; Takeda, K

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage-activated currents from single zona fasciculata (ZF) cells from rat adrenal glands were studied. T- and L-type Ca2+ currents and a slowly inactivating A-type K+ current were the three major currents observed. 2. In freshly isolated cells, the A-type K+ current and the T-type Ca2+ current were predominant. The A-type current was activated at -50 mV and inhibited by 4-amino-pyridine with a half-maximal block (IC50) at 130 microM while the T-type current was activated at -70 mV and blocked by Cd2+, Ni2+ and amiloride with IC50 values of 24.1, 132.4 and 518.9 microM, respectively. 3. Under current clamp, depolarizing current pulses produced a single Ca2+ action potential with Cs+ in the pipette internal solution. Upon replacement of Cs+ by K+, the half-amplitude width of the action potential was shortened and membrane potential oscillations were seen after the spike. 4. In freshly isolated cells and during the first 24 h after plating, the T-type current was observed in all cells, with L-type current being observed in < 2% of cells, even in the presence of (+)SDZ 202,791, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist. With time in culture, the T-type current disappeared, and a high-voltage-activated L-type current became increasingly apparent. In cells tested after > 2 days in culture, (+)SDZ 202,791 potentiated L-type current by 407 +/- 12% and the antagonist (-)SDZ 202,791 blocked this increase. The L-type current was activated between -30 and -20 mV and was sensitive to nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA. 5. Pre-incubation of cultured ZF cells with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for 3 days resulted in a high, sustained level of expression of T-type current, with a mean amplitude of 34.2 +/- 5.5 pA pF-1 for ACTH-treated cells compared with 3.4 +/- 1.8 pA pF-1 for untreated cells. Cycloheximide strongly inhibited this effect. Neither treatment affected L-type current expression. 6. The expression of both Ca

  16. Interleukin 6 increases the in vitro expression of key proteins associated with steroidogenesis in the bovine adrenal zona fasciculata.

    PubMed

    McIlmoil, S; Strickland, J; Judd, A M

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the in vitro effects of interleukin 6 (IL-6) on the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins for key steroidogenic factors in the bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) were determined. Bovine adrenal glands were obtained from an abattoir, and the ZF was isolated. Strips of ZF were then exposed to different concentration of murine IL-6 and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for various intervals, the protein and mRNA extracted, and the mRNA and protein expression determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. Exposure (1 h) to IL-6 increased in a concentration-dependent manner (10-pg IL-6/mL, P < 0.05 vs control; 100-pg IL-6/mL, P < 0.01 vs control) the relative expression of the mRNAs and proteins for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3β HSD), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase/17,20-desmolase (P450 17OH), steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450 21OH), steroid 11-β-hydroxylase type 1 (P450 11βOH), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), a nuclear factor that increases StAR and steroidogenic enzymes (SEs) expression. Similarly, IL-6 (10 pg/mL) increased the relative expression of proteins and mRNAs for StAR, P450scc, 3β HSD, P450 17OH, P450 21 OH, P450 11βOH, and SF-1 in a time-dependent manner (30 min, P < 0.05 vs control; 60, 120, and 240 min, P < 0.01 vs control). In contrast, IL-6 decreased in a concentration-dependent (P < 0.01 vs control for 1, 10, and 100 pg IL-6/mL) and time-dependent (P < 0.05 vs control for 30, 60,120, and 240 min of 10 pg IL-6/mL) manner the relative expression of the mRNA and protein for adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1), a nuclear factor that decreases expression of StAR and SEs. Incubation (1 h) of ZF with 100-nM ACTH increased (P < 0.05 vs control) the relative expression of StAR, P450scc, 3β HSD, P450 17OH, P450 21OH, P450 11βOH, and SF-1 and decreased (P < 0.01 vs control) the relative expression

  17. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  18. Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

    Cancer.gov

    El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

  19. Precambrian history of the Zona Transversal of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil: Insights from Sm-Nd and U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schmus, W. R.; Kozuch, M.; de Brito Neves, B. B.

    2011-03-01

    The Borborema Province has three major subprovinces. The northern subprovince lies north of the Patos shear zone and is comprised of Paleoproterozoic cratonic basement with Archean nuclei, plus overlying Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks and Brasiliano plutonic rocks. The central subprovince occurs between the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones and is mainly comprised of the Zona Transversal. The southern subprovince occurs between the Pernamabuco shear zone and the São Francisco craton and is comprised of a tectonic collage of various blocks, terranes, or domains ranging in age from Archean to Neoproterozoic. This report focuses on the Zona Transversal, especially on Brasiliano rocks for which we have the most new information. Paleoproterozoic gneisses with ages of 2.0-2.2 Ga occur discontinuously throughout the Zona Transversal. The Cariris Velhos suite consists of metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and metaplutonic rocks yielding U-Pb zircon ages of 995-960 Ma. This suite is mainly confined to a 100 km wide belt that extends for more than 700 km within the Alto Pajeú terrane. Sm-Nd model ages in metaigneous rocks cluster about 1.3-1.6 Ga, indicating that older crust was involved in genesis of their magmas. Brasiliano supracrustal rocks dominate the Piancó-Alto Brígida terrane, and they probably also constitute significant parts of the Alto Pajeú and Rio Capibaribe terranes. They are only slightly older than early stages of Brasiliano plutonism, with detrital zircon ages at least as young as 620 Ma; most T DM ages range from 1.2 to 1.6 Ga. Brasiliano plutons range from ca. 640 to 540 Ma, and their T DM ages range from 1.2 to 2.5 Ga. Previous workers have shown significant correlations among U-Pb ages, Sm-Nd model ages, petrology, and geochemistry, and we are able to reinforce and extend these correlations. Stage I plutons formed 640-610 Ma and have T DM ages less than 1.5 Ga. Stage II (610-590 Ma) contains few plutons, but coincides with the peak of compressional

  20. Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.

    PubMed

    Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

    2005-04-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in

  1. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  2. Production of tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 for contraceptive vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Affinity tags can interfere in various physicochemical properties and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. In the present study, tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) (TT-KK-ZP3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs), was purified by isolation of IBs, processed to remove host cell proteins, followed by solubilization and refolding. A specific 39 kDa protein including ZP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE. CD spectra showed the presence of α-helices and β-sheets, and fluorescent spectroscopy revealed emission maxima of 265 A.U. at 339 nm for refolded protein and showed red shift in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Immunization of inbred FvB/J female mice with purified recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 (25 μg/animal) led to generation of high antibody titers against the recombinant protein. The antibodies reacted specifically with ZP matrix surrounding mouse oocytes. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility as compared to the control group. The studies described herein provide a simple method to produce and purify tag-free recombinant protein for the development of a contraceptive vaccine. PMID:23242635

  3. Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Improves Sperm Capacitation Status Assessed by Flow Cytometry Analysis and Zona Pellucida-Binding Ability of Frozen/Thawed Bovine Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Águila, L; Arias, M E; Vargas, T; Zambrano, F; Felmer, R

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian sperm undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract that are collectively known as capacitation. Cyclodextrins added to the sperm culture medium have been described to induce in vitro sperm capacitation, enabling its use in protein-free media. However, the additive capacitating effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) in the medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) is unknown in the bovine species. In this study, we evaluated the effects of incubating frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa in a BSA-containing medium supplemented with MβCD on different sperm quality and functional parameters. Sperm viability decreased with the addition of MβCD in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and DNA damage could be observed but only with the highest concentration of MβCD. However, pre-incubation of spermatozoa in MβCD-supplemented medium improved the capacitation status as assessed by the increase in plasma membrane fluidity, intracellular calcium concentration, induced acrosome reactivity and zona pellucida (ZP)-binding ability (p < 0.05). Thus, we conclude that MβCD supplementation is able to enhance the capacitation status of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa cultured in capacitation medium containing BSA and could result in a valid strategy for its application on artificial reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  4. The levels of epithelial anchor proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 are altered by E7 of human papillomaviruses 5 and 8.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Sandra; Hufbauer, Martin; Marx, Benjamin; Tok, Ali; Majewski, Slawomir; Pfister, Herbert; Akgül, Baki

    2016-02-01

    Infection with viruses of the genus Betapapillomavirus, β-human papillomaviruses (β-HPV), is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and HPV8 in patients with the skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The relocalization of the junctional bridging proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the adherens and tight junctions are common processes of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with tumour invasion. Here, we report that β-catenin and ZO-1 are strongly upregulated by the E7 oncoproteins of HPV5 and HPV8 in keratinocytes grown in organotypic skin cultures. Although the membrane-tethered form of β-catenin was elevated, no signs of β-catenin activity within the canonical Wnt signalling pathway could be detected. The upregulation of β-catenin and ZO-1 could also be confirmed in the skin of HPV8 transgenic mice as well as in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of EV patients. These data provide the first evidence that β-catenin and ZO-1 are direct targets of E7 of the oncogenic β-HPV types 5 and 8. The ability to deregulate these epithelial junction proteins may contribute to the oncogenic potential of these viruses in human skin. PMID:26645068

  5. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species: V. Prolonged antibody titers in Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) and domestic goats (Capra hircus) immunized with porcine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Lyda, Robin O; Frank, Kimberly M; Wallace, Roberta; Lamberski, Nadine; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception has been used to inhibit fertility in more than 80 species of ungulates, although the duration of contraception efficacy varies among species in both Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. This study examined anti-PZP antibody titers in Dall sheep and domestic goats at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and also Himalayan tahr and Armenian Mouflon sheep at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and, for comparison, Altai wapiti, lowland wisent, Javan banteng, and southern pudu at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, all were given a primer dose and booster dose of PZP. Of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park animals, the 4 comparison species demonstrated the typical 1-yr pattern of anti-PZP antibodies, whereas the Armenian sheep and Himalayan tahr showed prolonged (2-3 yr) antibody responses after a single primer and booster dose. The Dall sheep and domestic goats had significantly longer durations of antibody titers (3 yr) from a single year's treatment (primer plus booster). Analysis of the data indicates that Armenian sheep, Himalayan tahr, Dall sheep, and domestic goats have prolonged responses, and are more sensitive to PZP in that they produce a protracted antibody response.

  6. Production of tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 for contraceptive vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Affinity tags can interfere in various physicochemical properties and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. In the present study, tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) (TT-KK-ZP3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs), was purified by isolation of IBs, processed to remove host cell proteins, followed by solubilization and refolding. A specific 39 kDa protein including ZP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE. CD spectra showed the presence of α-helices and β-sheets, and fluorescent spectroscopy revealed emission maxima of 265 A.U. at 339 nm for refolded protein and showed red shift in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Immunization of inbred FvB/J female mice with purified recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 (25 μg/animal) led to generation of high antibody titers against the recombinant protein. The antibodies reacted specifically with ZP matrix surrounding mouse oocytes. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility as compared to the control group. The studies described herein provide a simple method to produce and purify tag-free recombinant protein for the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  7. The levels of epithelial anchor proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 are altered by E7 of human papillomaviruses 5 and 8.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Sandra; Hufbauer, Martin; Marx, Benjamin; Tok, Ali; Majewski, Slawomir; Pfister, Herbert; Akgül, Baki

    2016-02-01

    Infection with viruses of the genus Betapapillomavirus, β-human papillomaviruses (β-HPV), is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and HPV8 in patients with the skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The relocalization of the junctional bridging proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the adherens and tight junctions are common processes of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with tumour invasion. Here, we report that β-catenin and ZO-1 are strongly upregulated by the E7 oncoproteins of HPV5 and HPV8 in keratinocytes grown in organotypic skin cultures. Although the membrane-tethered form of β-catenin was elevated, no signs of β-catenin activity within the canonical Wnt signalling pathway could be detected. The upregulation of β-catenin and ZO-1 could also be confirmed in the skin of HPV8 transgenic mice as well as in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of EV patients. These data provide the first evidence that β-catenin and ZO-1 are direct targets of E7 of the oncogenic β-HPV types 5 and 8. The ability to deregulate these epithelial junction proteins may contribute to the oncogenic potential of these viruses in human skin.

  8. Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization.

  9. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Naofumi

    2015-05-22

    Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP), which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  10. The Hinge Region of Bovine Zona Pellucida Glycoprotein ZP3 Is Involved in the Formation of the Sperm-Binding Active ZP3/ZP4 Complex.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kaori; Tatebe, Nanami; Kojima, Sayuri; Hamano, Ayumi; Orita, Misaki; Yonezawa, Naoto

    2015-11-23

    The zona pellucida (ZP) surrounds the mammalian oocyte and mediates species-selective sperm-oocyte interactions. Bovine ZP consists of glycoproteins ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. Neither ZP3 nor ZP4 alone shows inhibitory activity for the binding of sperm to the ZP; however, this activity is seen with the ZP3/ZP4 heterocomplex. Here, we constructed a series of bovine ZP3 mutants to identify the ZP4-binding site on ZP3. Each ZP3 mutant was co-expressed with ZP4 using a baculovirus-Sf9 cell expression system and examined for interaction with ZP4 as well as inhibitory activity for sperm-ZP binding. N-terminal fragment Arg-32 to Arg-160 of ZP3 interacted with ZP4 and inhibited sperm-ZP binding, whereas fragment Arg-32 to Thr-155 showed much weaker interaction with ZP4. Mutation of N-glycosylated Asn-146 to Asp in the N-terminal fragment Arg-32 to Glu-178 of ZP3 did not interrupt the interaction of this fragment with ZP4, but it did reduce the inhibitory activity of the complex for sperm-ZP binding. In contrast, mutation of N-glycosylated Asn-124 to Asp did not significantly reduce the activity. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the ZP4 binding sites exists in the flexible hinge region of ZP3 and that the N-glycosylation in this region is involved in the sperm binding.

  11. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  12. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  13. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  14. Comparative effects of GnRH and porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccines for controlling reproduction in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Curtis, P D; Pooler, R L; Richmond, M E; Miller, L A; Mattfeld, G F; Quimby, F W

    2002-01-01

    Fawning rates and mating behaviour were compared between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) treated with GnRH and porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccines from 1997 to 2000. Female deer from a herd of 102 deer at Seneca Army Depot, near Romulus, New York, were treated with prime and booster injections of PZP (n = 22) or GnRH vaccine (n = 32), or remained untreated as controls (n = 34). During the summers after booster treatment, observed fawning rates for adult female deer were similar for both PZP-treated (0.10-0.11 fawns per female) and GnRH-treated (0.13-0.22 fawns per female) female deer, and were significantly lower (t = -8.93 and t = -9.73; P < or = 0.0005, respectively) than those observed for control female deer (1.22-1.38 fawns per female). During the second (0.36 fawns per female) and third summers (0.61 fawns per female) after the last booster injection, GnRH-treated female deer still produced significantly fewer fawns than did the controls (1.38 and 1.31 fawns per female, respectively). In one breeding season after treatment, five of 18 (28%) females vaccinated with PZP produced fawns, similar to the rate for GnRH-treated females (29%). In addition, females treated with GnRH had fewer oestrous cycles per female (0.06, P < or = 0.05) than did either control (0.22 cycles per female) or PZP-treated deer (0.36 cycles per female). Initial PZP treatment followed by a booster dose 5-7 months later reduced fawn production and prolonged the breeding season as females repeatedly returned to oestrus, similar to results reported in other studies.

  15. Pre-fertilization zona pellucida hardening by different cross-linkers affects IVF in pigs and cattle and improves embryo production in pigs.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Sebastian; Romar, Raquel; Grullon, Luis Alberto; Aviles, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (resistance to proteolysis) has been classically identified as a post-fertilization event that contributes to the block to polyspermy. Di-(N-succinimidyl)-3,3'-dithiodipropionate (DSP), a permeable amine-reactive cross-linker, was recently shown to induce pre-fertilization ZP hardening and to improve porcine IVF productivity. The objectives of this study were to investigate i) how DSP affects pre-fertilization ZP hardening and IVF in cattle, ii) if a non-permeable amine-reactive cross-linker such as bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) affects ZP hardening and IVF in cattle and pigs, and iii) whether DSP or BS3, if improvement in IVF productivity was demonstrated in either species, affects in vitro embryo development. Bovine and porcine in vitro matured oocytes were incubated with the cross-linkers (0.06, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) for 30 min. Then they were subjected to ZP digestion or IVF. In cattle, both DSP and BS3 induced ZP hardening and decreased the penetration rate, although monospermy, penetration, or male pronuclear formation was not affected. In pigs, BS3 treatment induced ZP hardening, decreased penetration and male pronuclear formation, and increased monospermy. IVF productivity only improved when porcine oocytes were exposed to DSP. When porcine zygotes derived from this treatment were further cultured in vitro, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates increased. These results support the idea that mechanisms involved in the prevention of polyspermic fertilization in cattle and pigs have different efficiencies, and ZP hardening induced by DSP cross-linker may be useful for improving porcine embryo production.

  16. Romance without responsibilities: the use of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida to manage free-ranging bison (Bison bison) on Catalina Island, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Calvin L; King, Julie L; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Prior to 2010, the introduced population of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California, was managed through the shipment of surplus bison to private ranches, Native American reservations, and livestock auctions on the mainland. In response to escalating costs, transport-induced stress to the animals, and ecologic impacts associated with high bison numbers on-island between shipments, the use of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP) as a fertility control option for managing the population was investigated. Between 2009 and 2012, a total of 64 bison cows (> or =1 yr old) received primer inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's modified adjuvant (FMA) delivered through a combination of intramuscular injections by hand (50 bison cows) during roundups and via field darting (14 bison cows). Pre-rut booster inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) were administered exclusively via field darting in 2010, 2011, and 2012 to 45, 48, and 61 bison cows (> or =1 yr old), respectively. During the present study, 38 adult cows (marked and unmarked) received one or more PZP inoculations during their first, second, or third trimesters of pregnancy, and of these individuals, 35 successfully produced calves. Low pregnancy values detected in the remaining three cows have been attributed to residual progesterone associated with unsuccessful fertilization. The 2010 pretreatment calving rate (calves born per cow) determined via direct observation was 67.4% (29 calves from 43 cows). Through the use of PZP, the calving rate was reduced to 10.4% by 2011 and to 3.3% by 2012. Considering the annual mortality rate of 2-5% documented during this study, the results demonstrate the potential of PZP use as an effective nonlethal tool for controlling population growth in free-ranging bison.

  17. Processing, localization and binding activity of zonadhesin suggest a function in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida during exocytosis of the acrosome.

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ming; Hickox, John R; Winfrey, Virginia P; Olson, Gary E; Hardy, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    Zonadhesin is a sperm protein that binds in a species-specific manner to the extracellular matrix ZP (zona pellucida) of the mammalian oocyte. The pig zonadhesin precursor is a 267000-Da mosaic protein with a Type I membrane topology and a large extracellular region comprising meprin/A5 antigen/mu receptor tyrosine phosphatase, mucin and five tandem von Willebrand D (VWD) domains. Multiple mature forms of zonadhesin in the sperm head differ in their avidities for the ZP. To determine the potential functions of zonadhesin forms in gamete adhesion, we characterized the processing, activation and localization of protein in pig spermatozoa. The predominant polypeptides of processed zonadhesin were M(r) 300000 (p300), 105000 (p105) and 45000 (p45). p45 and p105, comprised primarily the D1, D2-D3 domains respectively, and were N-glycosylated. p300 was heavily O-glycosylated, and spanned the meprin/A5 antigen/mu receptor tyrosine phosphatase, mucin and D0 domains. Hydrolysis of the precursor polypeptide occurred in the testis, and N-terminal sequencing of p45 and p105 identified Asp806-Pro and Asp1191-Pro in the D1 and D2 domains respectively as bonds cleaved in the protein's functional maturation. Testicular zonadhesin was extractable with non-ionic detergents, and localized to the developing outer acrosomal membrane of round and elongating spermatids. As spermatozoa transited the epididymis, most of the protein became incorporated into an extraction-resistant fraction, and the proportions of active and of multimeric zonadhesins in the cells increased. Zonadhesin localized to the perimeter of the acrosome in intact ejaculated spermatozoa and to the leading edge of acrosomal matrix overlying cells with disrupted acrosomal membranes. We conclude that the zonadhesin precursor is specifically proteolysed, glycosylated and assembled into particulate structures in the distal parts of the acrosome where it may mediate specific adhesion to the ZP during the initial stages of

  18. Romance without responsibilities: the use of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida to manage free-ranging bison (Bison bison) on Catalina Island, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Calvin L; King, Julie L; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Prior to 2010, the introduced population of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California, was managed through the shipment of surplus bison to private ranches, Native American reservations, and livestock auctions on the mainland. In response to escalating costs, transport-induced stress to the animals, and ecologic impacts associated with high bison numbers on-island between shipments, the use of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP) as a fertility control option for managing the population was investigated. Between 2009 and 2012, a total of 64 bison cows (> or =1 yr old) received primer inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's modified adjuvant (FMA) delivered through a combination of intramuscular injections by hand (50 bison cows) during roundups and via field darting (14 bison cows). Pre-rut booster inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) were administered exclusively via field darting in 2010, 2011, and 2012 to 45, 48, and 61 bison cows (> or =1 yr old), respectively. During the present study, 38 adult cows (marked and unmarked) received one or more PZP inoculations during their first, second, or third trimesters of pregnancy, and of these individuals, 35 successfully produced calves. Low pregnancy values detected in the remaining three cows have been attributed to residual progesterone associated with unsuccessful fertilization. The 2010 pretreatment calving rate (calves born per cow) determined via direct observation was 67.4% (29 calves from 43 cows). Through the use of PZP, the calving rate was reduced to 10.4% by 2011 and to 3.3% by 2012. Considering the annual mortality rate of 2-5% documented during this study, the results demonstrate the potential of PZP use as an effective nonlethal tool for controlling population growth in free-ranging bison. PMID:24437092

  19. Oviduct-specific glycoprotein and heparin modulate sperm–zona pellucida interaction during fertilization and contribute to the control of polyspermy

    PubMed Central

    Coy, Pilar; Cánovas, Sebastián; Mondéjar, Irene; Saavedra, Maria Dolores; Romar, Raquel; Grullón, Luis; Matás, Carmen; Avilés, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Polyspermy is an important anomaly of fertilization in placental mammals, causing premature death of the embryo. It is especially frequent under in vitro conditions, complicating the successful generation of viable embryos. A block to polyspermy develops as a result of changes after sperm entry (i.e., cortical granule exocytosis). However, additional factors may play an important role in regulating polyspermy by acting on gametes before sperm–oocyte interaction. Most studies have used rodents as models, but ungulates may differ in mechanisms preventing polyspermy. We hypothesize that zona pellucida (ZP) changes during transit of the oocyte along the oviductal ampulla modulate the interaction with spermatozoa, contributing to the regulation of polyspermy. We report here that periovulatory oviductal fluid (OF) from sows and heifers increases (both, con- and heterospecifically) ZP resistance to digestion with pronase (a parameter commonly used to measure the block to polyspermy), changing from digestion times of ≈1 min (pig) or 2 min (cattle) to 45 min (pig) or several hours (cattle). Exposure of oocytes to OF increases monospermy after in vitro fertilization in both species, and in pigs, sperm–ZP binding decreases. The resistance of OF-exposed oocytes to pronase was abolished by exposure to heparin-depleted medium; in a medium with heparin it was not altered. Proteomic analysis of the content released in the heparin-depleted medium after removal of OF-exposed oocytes allowed the isolation and identification of oviduct-specific glycoprotein. Thus, an oviduct-specific glycoprotein–heparin protein complex seems to be responsible for ZP changes in the oviduct before fertilization, affecting sperm binding and contributing to the regulation of polyspermy. PMID:18838686

  20. Does women’s age influence zona pellucida birefringence of metaphase ΙΙ oocytes in in-vitro maturation program?

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Marjan; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nahangi, Hossein; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Rahimipour, Marzieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) is a promising treatment option for certain infertile women. Nowadays, with the aid of PolScope, it has become possible to evaluate zona pellucida (ZP) characteristics as a parameter of oocyte quality. Moreover, quality of oocytes can be influenced by many factors, such as patient’s age. The PolScope system is a non-invasive technique to assess birefringent structures such as the meiotic spindle and ZP in living oocytes. Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of the woman's age on ZP birefringence, a sign of oocyte quality, and morphology of in-vitro matured human oocytes using non-invasive polarized light (PolScope) microscopy. Materials and Methods: ZP birefringence and morphology were determined in 105 retrieved oocytes from 58 women undergoing ICSI in two age groups (≥30 years and <30 years). The immature oocytes were selected and after IVM, the quality of metaphase ΙΙ (MII) oocytes was assessed. The oocytes abnormalities were classified as intracytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic abnormalities. Results: Oocyte maturation rates were significantly reduced in ≥30 year’s women (56%) in comparison with other age group (80.7%). In addition, the ZP birefringence was significantly higher in MII oocytes in the younger group compared with the older group (76.2% vs. 38.1%; p=0.00). Following morphologic assessment, the rates of oocytes with extracytoplasmic (p=0.02) and both abnormalities (extra- and intracytoplasmic) (p=0.01) were higher in aged versus the younger women. Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between advanced maternal age with decreased ZP birefringence and oocyte morphological quality in in-vitro matured human oocytes. PMID:24639703

  1. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  2. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax

  3. Ca2+ and K+ channels of normal human adrenal zona fasciculata cells: Properties and modulation by ACTH and AngII

    PubMed Central

    Enyeart, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    In whole cell patch clamp recordings, we found that normal human adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express voltage-gated, rapidly inactivating Ca2+ and K+ currents and a noninactivating, leak-type K+ current. Characterization of these currents with respect to voltage-dependent gating and kinetic properties, pharmacology, and modulation by the peptide hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and AngII, in conjunction with Northern blot analysis, identified these channels as Cav3.2 (encoded by CACNA1H), Kv1.4 (KCNA4), and TREK-1 (KCNK2). In particular, the low voltage–activated, rapidly inactivating and slowly deactivating Ca2+ current (Cav3.2) was potently blocked by Ni2+ with an IC50 of 3 µM. The voltage-gated, rapidly inactivating K+ current (Kv1.4) was robustly expressed in nearly every cell, with a current density of 95.0 ± 7.2 pA/pF (n = 64). The noninactivating, outwardly rectifying K+ current (TREK-1) grew to a stable maximum over a period of minutes when recording at a holding potential of −80 mV. This noninactivating K+ current was markedly activated by cinnamyl 1-3,4-dihydroxy-α-cyanocinnamate (CDC) and arachidonic acid (AA) and inhibited almost completely by forskolin, properties which are specific to TREK-1 among the K2P family of K+ channels. The activation of TREK-1 by AA and inhibition by forskolin were closely linked to membrane hyperpolarization and depolarization, respectively. ACTH and AngII selectively inhibited the noninactivating K+ current in human AZF cells at concentrations that stimulated cortisol secretion. Accordingly, mibefradil and CDC at concentrations that, respectively, blocked Cav3.2 and activated TREK-1, each inhibited both ACTH- and AngII-stimulated cortisol secretion. These results characterize the major Ca2+ and K+ channels expressed by normal human AZF cells and identify TREK-1 as the primary leak-type channel involved in establishing the membrane potential. These findings also suggest a model for cortisol

  4. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  5. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  9. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  10. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  11. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  12. Instantánea del linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el linfoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Instantánea del melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Instantánea del sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Instantánea del mieloma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el mieloma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Observación y registro fotográfico del cometa HYAKUTAKE C/1996 B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arquiola, A. P.; Arquiola, F. E.

    Desde el momento en que nos llega la información del descubrimiento, comenzamos la observación de forma detallada a fin de apreciar y seguir su creciente actividad. La primera observación se realizó el 17 de febrero de 1996 a las 4h20m UT con nuestro telescopio de 300mm newtoniano de f/6.5, con una muy buena transparencia atmosférica, estimando una magnitud de 8.5. Realizábamos observaciones casi todas las noches, mientras nos lo permitían las condiciones climáticas. Ya el 26 de febrero el cometa presentaba un aspecto muy particular, ligeramente distinto a las primeras observaciones, ya que comenzamos a notar su gran actividad. En primer lugar se destacaba la cola de iones mucho mas extensa que la cola de polvo. Magnitud estimada 7.5. El 19 de marzo ya era visible a simple vista y en especial su cola muy abierta y extensa (3 grados) y no quedaba duda alguna que la última noche de observación del cometa en el horizonte de la Ciudad de Funes, que fue el 24 de marzo de 1996, un día antes del acercamiento a la Tierra, tendríamos una apreciación del cometa en su máximo esplendor. El 24 de marzo de 1996 a las 4hs UT, asomó el cometa por el horizonte NE, con su cola espectacular, llegando a medir 23 grados de longitud, muy recta y brillante, y su cabellera muy estelar. A este marco de observación se sumaron mas de 600 personas que participaron usando instrumentos, siendo la mayoría de los concurrentes de la vecina Ciudad de Rosario, ya que su observación era a muy baja atura sobre el horizonte norte. Instrumentos utilizados : Telescopio Newtoniano 300mm f/6.5, Telescopio Schmidt-Cassegrain 200mm , Binoculares 10 x 50, 7 x 50, Lente normal 50mm a f/1.8, Película 100 - 400 ASA Lugar de Observación : Ciudad de Funes, zona rural, ``Estancia La Polola" Latitud: - 32o 55' Longitud: 60o 40' Oeste

  17. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  18. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  19. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  1. A novel seminal plasma glycoprotein of a teleost, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), contains a partial von Willebrand factor type D domain and a zona pellucida-like domain.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Takahiro; Andoh, Tadashi; Ura, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Shinji; Yamauchi, Kohei

    2002-05-01

    Our previous study shows that seminal plasma of a teleost, the Nile tilapia, contains a glycoprotein Mr = 120,000 named as SPP (Seminal plasma glycoprotein)120 which forms a homopolymer that has sperm immobilizing activity. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of the formation of the homopolymer and the immobilization of sperm, molecular cloning of SPP120 was conducted. The cDNA for SPP120 contains a complete open reading frame encoding 797 amino acid residues with 14 potential N-glycosylation sites. The predicted amino acid sequence of SPP120 contains a partial von Willebrand factor type D domain and a zona pellucida domain, that are involved in protein-protein adhesion that form filamentous structures in various kinds of cells. This result suggests that SPP120 forms a homopolymer via these domains in seminal plasma and probably interacts with spermatozoa. Northern blotting reveals that the gene is also expressed in ovary, even in ovulated eggs. The results of in situ hybridization indicate that in testis the gene is expressed in Sertoli cells and epithelial cells of sperm ducts, and the localization corresponds to that of the protein analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In the ovary, the gene is expressed at the perinucleolus stage of oocytes; however, the protein is not detected in any cells other than oocytes. PMID:11933161

  2. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements. PMID

  3. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  4. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  5. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  6. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  7. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  8. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  9. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  10. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions?

  11. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    We continued to follow Nova Del 2013 during the period from 31.15 August 2013 UT through 25.18 September 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) is used as the standard star.

  12. del and Gödel-type universes in Brans-Dicke theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, J. A.; Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Porfírio, P. J.; Santos, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, conditions for existence of Gödel and Gödel-type solutions in Brans-Dicke (BD) scalar-tensor theory and their main features are studied. The consistency of equations of motion, causality violation and existence of CTCs (closed time-like curves) are investigated. The role which cosmological constant and Mach principle play to achieve the consistency of this model is studied.

  13. Vascular Endothelial Tight Junctions and Barrier Function Are Disrupted by 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Partly via Protein Kinase Cϵ-mediated Zona Occludens-1 Phosphorylation at Threonine 770/772*

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Rima; Dyukova, Elena; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Ohba, Motoi; Mobley, James A.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of tight junctions (TJs) perturbs endothelial barrier function and promotes inflammation. Previously, we have shown that 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LO1) metabolite of arachidonic acid, by stimulating zona occludens (ZO)-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its dissociation from claudins 1/5, induces endothelial TJ disruption and its barrier dysfunction. Here, we have studied the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation of TJ proteins in 15(S)-HETE-induced endothelial TJ disruption and its barrier dysfunction. We found that 15(S)-HETE enhances ZO-1 phosphorylation at Thr-770/772 residues via PKCϵ-mediated MEK1-ERK1/2 activation, causing ZO-1 dissociation from occludin, disrupting endothelial TJs and its barrier function, and promoting monocyte transmigration; these effects were reversed by T770A/T772A mutations. In the arteries of WT mice ex vivo, 15(S)-HETE also induced ZO-1 phosphorylation and endothelial TJ disruption in a PKCϵ and MEK1-ERK1/2-dependent manner. In line with these observations, in WT mice high fat diet feeding induced 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) expression in the endothelium and caused disruption of its TJs and barrier function. However, in 12/15-LO−/− mice, high fat diet feeding did not cause disruption of endothelial TJs and barrier function. These observations suggest that the 12/15-LO-12/15(S)-HETE axis, in addition to tyrosine phosphorylation of ZO-2, also stimulates threonine phosphorylation of ZO-1 in the mediation of endothelial TJ disruption and its barrier dysfunction. PMID:24338688

  14. Angiotensin II Triggers Expression of the Adrenal Gland Zona Glomerulosa-Specific 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme through De Novo Protein Synthesis of the Orphan Nuclear Receptors NGFIB and NURR1

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Takumi; Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Yarimizu, Daisuke; Okada, Kazuki; Murai, Iori; Hayashi, Hida; Kunisue, Sumihiro; Nakagawa, Yuuki; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme crucial for steroid synthesis. Two different 3β-HSD isoforms exist in humans. Classically, HSD3B2 was considered the principal isoform present in the adrenal. However, we recently showed that the alternative isoform, HSD3B1, is expressed specifically within the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), where aldosterone is produced, raising the question of why this isozyme needs to be expressed in this cell type. Here we show that in both human and mouse, expression of the ZG isoform 3β-HSD is rapidly induced upon angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. AngII is the key peptide hormone regulating the capacity of aldosterone synthesis. Using the human adrenocortical H295R cells as a model system, we show that the ZG isoform HSD3B1 differs from HSD3B2 in the ability to respond to AngII. Mechanistically, the induction of HSD3B1 involves de novo protein synthesis of the nuclear orphan receptors NGFIB and NURR1. The HSD3B1 promoter contains a functional NGFIB/NURR1-responsive element to which these proteins bind in response to AngII. Knockdown of these proteins and overexpression of a dominant negative NGFIB both reduce the AngII responsiveness of HSD3B1. Thus, the AngII-NGFIB/NURR1 pathway controls HSD3B1. Our work reveals HSD3B1 as a new regulatory target of AngII. PMID:25092869

  15. The Punta del Cobre Formation, Punta del Cobre Candelaria area, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontboté, Lluís.

    2001-09-01

    The Punta del Cobre Formation hosts the iron oxide-rich Cu-Au(-Zn-Ag) deposits of the Punta del Cobre belt, Chile. Hydrothermal alteration associated with mineralization and/or contact metamorphism caused by the Coastal Batholith exposed in the west resulted in new mineral assemblages and significant changes in the geochemical composition of its rocks. This paper presents a redefinition of the Punta del Cobre Formation and discusses its geologic context. The Punta del Cobre Formation is subdivided, from bottom to top, into: (1) the 'Geraldo-Negro Member', composed mainly of massive andesitic volcanic rocks (>300 m) and locally dacitic rocks (up to 200 m) that overlie the latter, and (2) the 'Algarrobos Member' (up to >800 m) comprising mainly volcaniclastic rocks, basalt andesitic and basaltic flows, and volcanic breccias. The Punta del Cobre Formation is overlain by the Chañarcillo Group, the lowest part of which is represented by alternating carbonate and volcaniclastic beds of the Abundancia Formation, which pass vertically and laterally into limestones of the Nantoco Formation. The contact between the Punta del Cobre Formation and the overlying Abundancia Formation is transitional and defined by the first continuous bed of massive limestone or its metamorphosed equivalent. A pre-upper Valanginian age for the Punta del Cobre Formation is suggested by ammonites of Berriasian age found in the upper part of the Algarrobos Member and Late Valanginian-Early Hauterivian fauna in the overlying Abundancia Formation. Despite the intense alteration, immobile element compositions of the volcanic rocks of the Punta del Cobre Formation enable the recognition of a calc-alkaline suite with a trend to more primitive, less differentiated magmas towards the top of the stratigraphic sequence, reflecting initial stages of basin development. The transgressive nature of the sedimentary part of the Punta del Cobre Formation marks the onset of increased subsidence that eventually

  16. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  17. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  18. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  19. Visualization of the Gödel universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buser, M.; Kajari, E.; Schleich, W. P.

    2013-01-01

    The standard model of modern cosmology, which is based on the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric, allows the definition of an absolute time. However, there exist (cosmological) models consistent with the theory of general relativity for which such a definition cannot be given since they offer the possibility for time travel. The simplest of these models is the cosmological solution discovered by Kurt Gödel, which describes a homogeneous, rotating universe. Disregarding the paradoxes that come along with the abolishment of causality in such space-times, we are interested in the purely academic question of how an observer would visually perceive the time travel of an object in Gödel's universe. For this purpose, we employ the technique of ray tracing, a standard tool in computer graphics, and visualize various scenarios to bring out the optical effects experienced by an observer located in this universe. In this way, we provide a new perspective on the space-time structure of Gödel's model.

  20. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  1. Postovulatory effect of intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (E. coli, O55:B5) on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport, binding of accessory spermatozoa to the zona pellucida and embryo development in sows.

    PubMed

    Mwanza, A M; Rodríguez-Martínez, H; Kindahl, H; Einarsson, S

    2002-10-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli, O55:B5), administered 18 h after ovulation in the second oestrus after weaning, on the contractile activity of the oviduct, ova transport, sperm binding to zona pellucida (ZP) and embryo development, was studied in 14 Swedish crossbred (Landrace Yorkshire) multiparous sows. The endotoxin group (E-group) sows were administered with 300 ng/kg of LPS while the control group (C-group) sows were administered with 5 ml of saline i.v. via an indwelling jugular cannula. Immediately after evidence of standing oestrus, a Millar pressure transducer was placed intraluminally about 3 cm into the mid-isthmus, via laparotomy. Pressure recordings of the oviduct were collected from all conscious sows until slaughter. After slaughter, the genital tract opposite to the side with the transducer was retrieved, and three equal isthmic segments and the first third of the uterine horn part adjacent to the utero-tubal-junction (UTJ) were flushed separately to recover the ova. The intervals (mean+/-SD) from ovulation to slaughter (OS) and insemination to ovulation (IO) were not different between the E-group (44.5 +/- 5.7 h; 13.3 +/- 6.5 h) and the C-group (42.7 +/- 5.9 h; 14.8 +/- 4.1 h), respectively. Ova recovery rate (RR) in the E-group (80.2 +/- 22.9%) did not differ from that in the C-group (85.2 +/- 4.5%). The frequency distribution of ova recovered in the different segments did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the groups. The E-group showed higher cleavage rate than controls. A higher proportion of spermatozoa bound to the ZP was also found in the E-group compared with controls. The isthmic intraluminal pressure slightly increased (p = 0.07) 18 h after ovulation and immediately following LPS in the E-group, compared with the C-group. The frequencies of phasic pressure fluctuations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower at 30 and 38 h after ovulation in the E- than in the C-group. It can be concluded from the present study that

  2. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  3. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  4. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  5. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, C. A.; Carlon, L. R.; Corgan, T. D.; Dykhoff, A. D.; Gehrz, D. R.; Shenoy, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    Subjects: Infra-Red, Nova We report RIJHKLM photometry of Nova Del 2013 taken on August 28.13 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) was used as the standard star. On this date we find: R = 5.6 +/- 0.1, I = 5.2 +/- 0.1, J = 4.5 +/- 0.1, H = 4.7 +/- 0.1, K = 4.7 +/- 0.1, L = 3.3 +/- 0.2, M = +1.8 +/- 0.3.

  6. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  7. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  8. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  9. Instantánea del cáncer colorrectal

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer colorrectal; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization promotes…

  11. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point bearing... State highway bridge across Indian River Inlet; thence 174°, 600 feet; thence 264°, 800 feet; thence...

  12. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  13. Instantánea del sarcoma de Kaposi

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma de Kaposi; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  14. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  15. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  16. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function. PMID:26098522

  17. Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

    El estudio teórico de perfiles Hα y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles Hα en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea Hα permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

  18. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  19. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  20. 394delTT: a Nordic cystic fibrosis mutation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M; Anvret, M; Claustres, M; Eiken, H G; Eiklid, K; Schaedel, C; Stolpe, L; Tranebjaerg, L

    1994-02-01

    In a systematic screening for mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator among Danish cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we identified a mutation in exon 3 (394delTT); this mutation was found to be relatively common in Denmark. We therefore screened for 394delTT in Sweden and Norway, where it turned out to be the second most frequent mutation, accounting for 4% of all CF mutations. It also occurs with a high frequency in Finland, but has not been found in larger surveys of mutations in the CFTR gene. Thus, 394delTT seems to be a specific Nordic CF mutation.

  1. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  2. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  3. Del Pueblo: A School That's "Customade" for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Terry Touff

    1975-01-01

    The contributions made by Hispanic people to the development of the United States were emphasized through the use of a model bilingual/bicultural program produced by the Del Pueblo Elementary School in Denver, Colorado. (Author/RK)

  4. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  5. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  6. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  7. V339 Del (Nova Del 2013) is a weak non-super-soft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Beardmore, A. P.

    2013-09-01

    V339 Del (Nova Del 2013) is currently being monitored approximately daily by Swift-XRT. X-ray analysis has been complicated due to optical loading caused by photons from the very bright optical source. (For a discussion of optical loading in the XRT, see our help page.) At early times, the data were collected mainly in Windowed Timing mode to mitigate this issue, and no X-ray source was detected (ATel #5283, #5305, #5318).

  8. Alloimmunization of patients by blood units harboring distinct DEL variants.

    PubMed

    St-Louis, Maryse; Lebrun, André; Goldman, Mindy; Lavoie, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The alloimmunization potential of many RHD variants is unknown, and it can be explored by lookback and traceback studies. Hema-Quebec (HQ) investigated the RHD status of 3980 D- repeat blood donors. Thirteen were found to be RHD positive: 4 RHD*1p, and 1 RHD*487delACAG, which show a Dphenotype;and 1 RHD*885T and 7 RHD*(93-94insT) causing a DEL phenotype when C antigen is present. Look back studies were done to verify the alloimmunization potential of these eight DEL donors. Coincidentally, Canadian Blood Services (CBS)performed a trace back study by investigating the RHD status of donors after aD- recipient developed anti-Dafter transfusion of two D- red blood cell (RBC) units. Donor genotyping was done either manually (HQ) or using the Progenika Bloodchip platform(CBS). Donations were traced through computer records. Letters were sent to hospital blood bank physicians to verify the presence of anti-Din recipients and to donors to request repeat samples.A total of 118 RBC units were transfused, 82 to D- recipients.Anti-D was found in three patients transfused with RHD*(93-94insT) DEL red blood cells. One donor presenting the same DEL variant was involved in the trace back study. Even without strong evidence clearly demonstrating the alloimmunization potential of DEL variants, whenever HQ or CBS identifies a donor harboring a DEL phenotype, his or her D status will be changed from DtoD+ to protect against the potential alloimmunization risk. PMID:24689683

  9. May Gödel's Ideas Be Addressed Philosophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, Miloš

    2007-11-01

    del emphasised philosophy as an important tool in science. Much less is known about his religious background. We should bear in mind that our evaluational perspective differs very much from the one in which Gödel lived. He was personally sure that there must be another existence after death-an afterlife (''of unlimited life span''). As a ''Baptized Lutheran'' he did not include ''Trinity'' in his creed. He was also certain that mind is separate from matter. This text tries to include Libet's ''readiness potential'' into the debate concerning the specificity of the mind. Neither Gödel's identification of materialism with mechanism nor his vision of the ''spirit'' are a viable solution of the problem.

  10. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  11. Photometric study of the binary system NN Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Sánchez-Bajo, F.; Corbera-Subirana, M.; GarcÍa-Melendo, E.; Vidal-Sainz, J.

    We present the results of the differential V light curve analysis of NN Del. We show that NN Del is an EA eclipsing binary system with a period of 99.27 days and a highly eccentric orbit. Photometric solutions obtained using the Russell and the Wilson-Devinney models seem to indicate that both components are very similar in radii and luminosities (assuming a F5 spectral type). Constraints imposed on the V luminosity of the system by the HIPPARCOS data suggest that the components of the system could be subgiants instead of main sequence stars.

  12. Outcome following haematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplasia and del (5q) karyotypes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B; Verdugo, M; Guthrie, K A; Appelbaum, F; Deeg, H J

    2003-12-01

    The deletion (5q) karyotype [del (5q)] in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is considered a good risk feature, while the impact of del (5q) combined with other karyotypic abnormalities [del (5q)+] is less well defined. We analysed the outcome of haematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) in patients with MDS with del (5q) or del (5q)+. Fifty-seven patients, aged 6-72 years, with MDS and del (5q) abnormalities received HCT from related (n = 32) or unrelated (n = 25) donors. By French-American-British (FAB) criteria, 27 patients had refractory anaemia (RA), 10 RA with excess blasts (RAEB), eight RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T) and 12 acute myeloid leukaemia evolving from MDS (tAML). Non-relapse mortality at 1-year post-transplantation was 30% for del (5q) and 38% for del (5q)+ patients. Relapse occurred in one of 20 del (5q) patients and 15 of 37 del (5q)+ patients (P = 0.001). After adjusting for del (5q) status, blast count (<5%) was the only factor significantly associated with relapse-free survival. Patients with del (5q), either as a '5q- syndrome' or with MDS in general, had better outcomes than did patients with del (5q)+. The indication for transplantation in patients with del (5q) was generally severe cytopenias, compared with disease progression to a more advanced FAB stage in patients with del (5q)+. Conceivably, outcome for patients with del (5q)+ would be improved with transplantation earlier in the disease course. PMID:14632779

  13. Síntesis: Resultados iniciales del Estudio Nacional de Ex

    Cancer.gov

    El 4 de noviembre de 2010, el Estudio Nacional de Exámenes de Pulmóndio a conocer resultados iniciales que indican que hubo 20% menos muertes por cáncer de pulmón entre los participantes del estudio evaluados con tomografía computarizada espiral de baja d

  14. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. 75 FR 21220 - Del Norte Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples of documents #0;appearing in this section...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Del Norte Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service... Rivers National Forest, 1330 Bayshore Way, Eureka, CA 95503 (707) 441-3673; e-mail...

  16. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor. PMID:22617112

  17. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  18. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  19. 78 FR 50025 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...The Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Crescent City, California on the dates listed below. The Committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Act) (Pub. L. 112-141) and operates in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92- 463). The purpose of the Committee is to improve collaborative......

  20. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math computation, map…

  1. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  2. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  3. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  4. Genomic Copy Number Variations in the Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Kim, Young-Mi; Wang, Xianfu; Li, Yan; Lu, Xianglan; Sternenberger, Andrea R; Li, Shibo; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The most common chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q). When -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q) coexist in patients, a poor prognosis is typically associated. Given that -5/del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) often are accompanied with additional recurrent chromosomal alterations, genetic change(s) on the accompanying chromosome(s) other than chromosomes 5 and 7 may be important factor(s) affecting leukemogenesis and disease prognosis. Using an integrated analysis of karyotype, FISH and array CGH results in this study, we evaluated the smallest region of overlap (SRO) of chromosomes 5 and 7 as well as copy number alterations (CNAs) on the other chromosomes. Moreover, the relationship between the CNAs and del(5q) and -7/del(7q) was investigated by categorizing the cases into three groups based on the abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 7 [group I: cases only with del(5q), group II: cases only with -7/del(7q) and group III: concurrent del(5q) and del(7q) cases]. The overlapping SRO of chromosome 5 from groups I and III was 5q31.1-33.1 and of chromosome 7 from groups II and III was 7q31.31-q36.1. A total of 318 CNAs were observed; ~ 78.3% of them were identified on chromosomes other than chromosomes 5 and 7, which were defined as 'other CNAs'. Group III was a distinctive group carrying the most high number (HN) CNAs, cryptic CNAs and 'other CNAs'. The loss of TP53 was highly associated with del(5q). The loss of ETV6 was specifically associated with group III. These CNAs or genes may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be further evaluated for their clinical significance and influence on therapeutic approaches in patients with MDS/AML carrying del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) in large-scale, patient population study. PMID:26392809

  5. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  6. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  7. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  8. A model of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stanley N.; Meyer, Hansjürgen

    A workshop was held at the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia in Manizales, Colombia, March 28 to April 1, 1988, to review the accumulated data on the disastrous November 13, 1985, eruption and related activity of Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Figure 1). Approximately 30 scientists from eight countries presented data, developed a preliminary model, and addressed the future problems of Ruiz. The volcano (see Figure 2) erupted just prior to the meeting, covering the meeting site with 1-2 mm of ash.The workshop was convened by Stanley N. Williams (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge) and Hansjürgen Meyer (Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia). A special volume of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research is planned for the papers and letters presented at the workshop, with some additional contributions. Publication is expected in mid-1989.

  9. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  10. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY RECENT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  13. Field Measurements of Respiratory Del13CO2 and Photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Asperen, H.; Sabbatini, S.; Nicolini, G.; Warneke, T.; Papale, D.; Notholt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon decomposition dynamics have been studied in a variety of ecosystems and its variation can mostly be explained in terms of environmental variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation). However, carbon dynamics in arid, water limited regions have shown to be very different and are still largely unknown. Several studies have indicated the importance of photodegradation, the direct breakdown of organic matter by sunlight, in these arid regions. A FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer) was set up to continuously measure concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, CO as well as del13C in CO2. The FTIR was connected to 2 different flux measurement systems: a Flux Gradient system and 2 flux chambers, providing a continuous data set of gas concentrations and biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes at different heights and scales. Field measurements showed photodegradation induced carbon fluxes. Also, respiratory del13CO2 was determined by use of Keeling plots, and was determined to vary between -25‰ and -21‰. A clear diurnal pattern in respiratory del13CO2 was found, suggesting either different (dominant) respiratory processes between day and night or the effect of diffusive fractionation.

  14. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  15. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  16. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  17. Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del) is now a bright super-soft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Julian P.; Page, Kim; Beardmore, Andrew; Woodward, Chick; Schwarz, Greg; Bode, Mike; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Shore, Steve; Starrfield, Sumner; Wagner, Mark; Walter, Fred

    2013-10-01

    Regular Swift XRT monitoring of nova Del 2013 since our report in ATEL #5470 has revealed a decrease in the high absorbing column affecting the optically thin harder X-ray emission above 1 keV; spectral fits suggest N_H ~ 5x10^22 cm^-2 around day 45 and N_H ~ 1.8x10^22 around day 65 after discovery on Aug 14, 2013.

  18. The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma

  19. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  20. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D’Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner. PMID:27095827

  1. Screening for 185delAG in the Ashkenazim.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C S; Ward, P A; Roa, B B; Friedman, L C; Boyd, A A; Kuenzli, G; Dunn, J K; Plon, S E

    1997-01-01

    A study was initiated to assess interest, educational effectiveness, and implications of genetic testing for the common BRCA1 mutation, 185delAG, in the Ashkenazim. Of 333 individuals who attended group sessions, 309 (92%) participated in the study. Participants were categorized as having negative family history (67%), positive family history (defined, by a relaxed criterion, as one first-degree relative or two second-degree relatives with breast [premenopausal] or ovarian cancer) (22%), positive personal history (7%), and both positive personal history and positive family history (4%). Group education was effective, as shown by the improvement in participant scores from pre- to posteducation tests. For the 289 individuals (94%) who requested testing, the major reasons included concern for their own risk, concern for the risk of their children, and desire to learn about surveillance options. The most common reason given by participants who declined testing was concern about health insurance. Six participants found to be heterozygous for the 185delAG mutation received results and were offered genetic counseling. Participants had consented for additional testing without receiving results and were screened for the 6174delT mutation in BRCA2, and seven were found to be positive. All identified carriers reported at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of breast or ovarian cancer, although they did not all meet our study criteria for positive family history. Given these outcomes, we conclude that screening for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility is most appropriate for individuals with a positive personal or positive family cancer history. We propose a guideline for future studies designed to identify individuals who may benefit from genetic testing for inherited breast and ovarian cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:9150156

  2. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  3. Gynandromorphs in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María E; Barreto, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Gynandromorphs of Culex nigripalpus Theobald (2), Cx. pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin (1) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (2) are described. Two individuals of the latter species were reared in the laboratory, while the remaining three specimens were wild-caught with different traps in rural areas in Valle del Cauca department, southwestern Colombia. All of the individuals were mounted on microscopic slides with Canada balsam. From each mosquito, main morphological characteristics are described and illustrated. Due to the paucity of information about this subject, these findings as well as other relevant cases are discussed.

  4. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  5. 66. Photographer unknown March 1920'S DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photographer unknown March 1920'S DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1. 1-DN 1-B #9, CORDUROY DETOUR INTO CRESCENT CITY, 2-2 (3?). Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  6. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  7. Instantánea del cáncer de páncreas

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de páncreas; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Instantánea del cáncer de pulmón

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de pulmón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Elaphopsocoides, a new genus of Psocidae (Psocodea: ´Psocoptera´) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Román-P, Cristian; García Aldrete, Alfonso N; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-10-14

    Two new species of Elaphopsocoides n. gen. from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. The new genus is related to Elaphopsocus Roesler, but differs from it mostly in the hypandrial projections and in phallosome structure. The female subgenital plate has a distinct, median, posterior projection. The types are deposited in the Entomology Museum, Universidad del Valle (MUSENUV), Santiago de Cali, Colombia.

  11. Instantánea del cáncer de tiroides

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de tiroides; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Instantánea del cáncer de cuello uterino

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de cuello uterino; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Instantánea del cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Instantánea del cáncer de estómago

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de estómago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  15. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  17. Instantánea del cáncer de esófago

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de esófago; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  18. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  19. Instantánea del cáncer de ovario

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de ovario; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  20. 60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #538, KLAMATH RIVER BR. FROM SO. END, 12/23/55, C.J.T. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  1. 63. G.F.H., photographer July 30, 1932 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. G.F.H., photographer July 30, 1932 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-DN A #124, STA. 164=00 SHOWING DRAINAGE CONDITIONS, G.F.H., 7-30-32. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. Instantánea del cáncer de endometrio

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de endometrio; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  3. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal. PMID:26820191

  4. Instantánea del cáncer de vejiga

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de vejiga; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Instantánea del cáncer de riñón

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  6. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section in 33 CFR part 207. ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal). 162.40 Section 162.40 Navigation... Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal). (a) Applicability. The regulations in this...

  7. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  8. Disruption of cytokeratin-8 interaction with F508del-CFTR corrects its functional defect

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Julien; Faure, Grazyna; Saussereau, Emilie; Trudel, Stéphanie; Rabeh, Wael M.; Bitam, Sara; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Fritsch, Janine; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Davezac, Noëlie; Brouillard, Franck; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Herrmann, Harald; Ollero, Mario; Edelman, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported an increased expression of cytokeratins 8/18 (K8/K18) in cells expressing the F508del mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This is associated with increased colocalization of CFTR and K18 in the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum, although this is reversed by treating cells with curcumin, resulting in the rescue of F508del-CFTR. In the present work, we hypothesized that (i) the K8/K18 network may interact physically with CFTR, and that (ii) this interaction may modify CFTR function. CFTR was immunoprecipitated from HeLa cells transfected with either wild-type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR. Precipitates were subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis and differential spots identified by mass spectrometry. K8 and K18 were found significantly increased in F508del-CFTR precipitates. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrate that K8, but not K18, binds directly and preferentially to the F508del over the WT human NBD1 (nucleotide-binding domain-1). In vivo K8 interaction with F508del-CFTR was confirmed by proximity ligation assay in HeLa cells and in primary cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells. Ablation of K8 expression by siRNA in F508del-expressing HeLa cells led to the recovery of CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. Moreover, F508del-expressing mice topically treated with K8-siRNA showed restored nasal potential difference, equivalent to that of WT mice. These results show that disruption of F508del-CFTR and K8 interaction leads to the correction of the F508del-CFTR processing defect, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic target in CF. PMID:22038833

  9. Instantánea de los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de cerebro y del sistema nervioso central; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.

  10. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point...

  11. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point...

  12. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point...

  13. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  14. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  15. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  16. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities. PMID:22858781

  17. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  18. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  19. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  20. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  1. Near-IR Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, C. A.; Carlon, L. R.; Corgan, T. D.; Dykhoff, A. D.; Gehrz, D. R.; Shenoy, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    Subjects: Infra-Red, Nova We report Near-IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 taken with the 0.76-m infrared telescope at the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). RIJHKLM photometry were obtained on August 21.17 and 23.13 UT using an AsSi bolometer. Vega (alpha Lyrae) was used as the standard star. Our photometry show: August 21.17 UT: R = 5.1 +/- 0.1, I = 4.6 +/- 0.1, J = 4.6 +/- 0.1, H = 4.1 +/- 0.1, K = 3.9 +/- 0.1, L = 2.7 +/- 0.2, M = +2.2 +/- 0.2.

  2. Deglacial palaeoclimate at Puerto del Hambre, subantarctic Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Calvin J.; Heusser, Linda E.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Moreira M., Andrés; Moreira M., Simón

    2000-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to further substantiate multistep climatic forcing of late-glacial vegetation in southern South America. A secondary objective is to establish the age of deglaciation in Estrecho de Magallanes-Bahía Inútil. Pollen assemblages at 2-cm intervals in a core of the mire at Puerto del Hambre (53°3621S, 70°5553W) provide the basis for reconstructing the vegetation and a detailed account of palaeoclimate in subantarctic Patagonia. Chronology over the 262-cm length of core is regulated by 20 AMS radiocarbon dates between 14 455 and 10 089 14C yr BP. Of 13 pollen assemblage zones, the earliest representing the Oldest Dryas chronozone (14 455-13 000 14C yr BP) records impoverished steppe with decreasing frequencies and loss of southern beech (Nothofagus). Successive 100-yr-long episodes of grass/herbs and of heath (Empetrum/Ericaceae) before 14 000 14C yr BP infer deglacial successional communities under a climate of increased continentality prior to the establishment of grass-dominated steppe. The Bølling-Allerød (13 000-11 000 14C yr BP) is characterised by mesic grassland under moderating climate that with abrupt change to heath dominance after 12 000 14C yr BP was warmer and not as humid. At the time of the Younger Dryas (11 000-10 000 14C yr BP), grass steppe expanded with a return of colder, more humid climate. Later, with gradual warming, communities were invaded by southern beech. The Puerto del Hambre record parallels multistep, deglacial palaeoclimatic sequences reported elsewhere in the Southern Andes and at Taylor Dome in Antarctica. Deglaciation of Estrecho de Magallanes-Bahía Inútil is dated close to 14 455 14C yr BP, invalidating earlier dates of between 15 800 and 16 590 14C yr BP.

  3. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  4. DEL-1 restrains osteoclastogenesis and inhibits inflammatory bone loss in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jieun; Maekawa, Tomoki; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Hosur, Kavita; Pyaram, Kalyani; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hajishengallis, George

    2015-09-30

    DEL-1 (developmental endothelial locus-1) is an endothelial cell-secreted protein that regulates LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1) integrin-dependent leukocyte recruitment and inflammation in various tissues. We identified a novel regulatory mechanism of DEL-1 in osteoclast biology. Specifically, we showed that DEL-1 is expressed by human and mouse osteoclasts and regulates their differentiation and resorptive function. Mechanistically, DEL-1 inhibited the expression of NFATc1, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, in a Mac-1 integrin-dependent manner. In vivo mechanistic analysis has dissociated the anti-inflammatory from the anti-bone-resorptive action of DEL-1 and identified structural components thereof mediating these distinct functions. Locally administered human DEL-1 blocked inflammatory periodontal bone loss in nonhuman primates-a relevant model of human periodontitis. The ability of DEL-1 to regulate both upstream (inflammatory cell recruitment) and downstream (osteoclastogenesis) events that lead to inflammatory bone loss paves the way to a new class of endogenous therapeutics for treating periodontitis and perhaps other inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424570

  5. DEL-1 restrains osteoclastogenesis and inhibits inflammatory bone loss in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jieun; Maekawa, Tomoki; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Hosur, Kavita; Pyaram, Kalyani; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hajishengallis, George

    2015-01-01

    DEL-1 is an endothelial cell-secreted protein that regulates LFA-1-integrin–dependent leukocyte recruitment and inflammation in various tissues. Here we identified a novel regulatory mechanism of DEL-1 in osteoclast biology. Specifically, we showed that DEL-1 is expressed by human and mouse osteoclasts and regulates their differentiation and resorptive function. Mechanistically, DEL-1 inhibited the expression of NFATc1, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, in a Mac-1-integrin–dependent manner. In vivo mechanistic analysis has dissociated the anti-inflammatory from the anti-bone resorptive action of DEL-1 and identified structural components thereof mediating these distinct functions. Importantly, locally administered human DEL-1 blocked inflammatory periodontal bone loss in nonhuman primates—a relevant model of human periodontitis. The ability of DEL-1 to regulate both upstream (inflammatory cell recruitment) and downstream (osteoclastogenesis) events that lead to inflammatory bone loss paves the way to a new class of endogenous therapeutics for treating periodontitis and perhaps other inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424570

  6. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  7. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  8. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  9. General nonextremal rotating charged Gödel black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2008-03-28

    I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Gödel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Gödel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Gödel black hole backgrounds. PMID:18517852

  10. General Nonextremal Rotating Charged Gödel Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2008-03-01

    I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Gödel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Gödel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Gödel black hole backgrounds.

  11. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 1 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 1 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  12. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 2 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 2 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  13. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 3 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 3 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  14. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 4 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 4 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  15. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  16. New genera of Lachesillidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    García Aldrete, Alfonso N; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Two new related Colombian genera of Lachesillidae, including three new species, from the Department of Valle del Cauca, are here described and illustrated. They belong in the tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The new genera differ from the other genera in the tribe lacking ocelli, by characters of the male clunium, phallosome, endophallus, paraprocts, and female subgenital plate, gonapophyses and IX sternum. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle (MUSENUV), in Santiago de Cali, Colombia.

  17. Defining the defect in F508 del CFTR: a soluble problem?

    PubMed

    Deber, Charles M; Cheung, Joanne C; Rath, Arianna

    2008-01-01

    Previously reported crystal structures of CFTR F508 del-NBD1 were determined in the presence of solubilizing mutations. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Pissarra et al. (2008) show that partial rescue of the trafficking and gating defects of full-length CFTR occurs in vivo upon recapitulation of the solubilizing F494N/Q637R or F428S/F494N/Q637R substitutions in cis with F508 del. PMID:18215767

  18. Large amplitude super-soft X-ray intensity variations and a 54 sec QPO in Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardmore, A. P.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.

    2013-11-01

    In ATEL #5505 we reported the rise of the super-soft X-ray source in Nova Del 2013 (V339 Del) seen by the Swift XRT. Since the last observation reported there, at 1.5 c/s on day 70.8 after outburst, the soft X-ray count rate has risen to a peak count rate of ~100 c/s on day 87.9 (10 Nov). All count rates are from grade 0 events only. The rising count rate was interspersed by a few large dips, one of which reached down to <1% of the count rate one day earlier.

  19. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10365.001 PMID:26701908

  20. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. PMID:26701908

  1. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-12-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect.

  2. 77 FR 51616 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...: INMOBILIARIA DATEUS; Linked To: WALNUTHILL; Linked To: CABOMARZO; Linked To: GRUPO MPV; Linked To: DELPSA... 135027 . 22. INMOBILIARIA DATEUS, 1era Avenida 7-60, Zona 14, Apartamento 1602 Del Edificio...

  3. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  4. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  5. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  6. [Guideline for the assessment of clinical research proposals. Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cruz-López, Miguel; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio Abdiel

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la investigación médica es una herramienta fundamental para lograr el avance de la ciencia al mejorar las acciones encaminadas a proteger, promover y restaurar la salud del individuo y de la sociedad en general. Las tres características imprescindibles para que un protocolo de investigación sea autorizado son: relevancia científica, calidad técnica y el cumplimiento de los aspectos éticos. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado con base en la búsqueda específica en Pubmed, Medline, Ovid y Google Scholar con los términos: peer review, research proposals, review and protocols and reviewers. Debido a que no se identificó ningún artículo que refiriera específicamente los criterios para evaluar protocolos de investigación clínica, se hizo un consenso entre los vocales de la Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, que está integrada por investigadores titulares de la institución, todos pertenecientes al Sistema Nacional de Investigadores. Se discutieron los criterios que debieran componer una revisión adecuada y cuáles debieran ser los rubros que deben incluirse en el análisis. Resultados: se integraron los criterios específicos que le permitirán al revisor de un protocolo de investigación realizar una crítica con bases metodológicas aceptadas por un consenso de investigadores. Conclusiones: un revisor debe ser considerado como un promotor del avance del conocimiento científico que, mediante sus comentarios y su dictamen, permite que los investigadores incrementen la calidad de sus protocolos de investigación.

  7. Resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2015-12-01

    In March of 2015 we mapped the resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep in the inner California borderlands using a deep towed electromagnetic (EM) source and receiver array. Located in the San Diego trough at a depth of 1km, the seep site is on the flank of a mound associated with a transpressive step in the San Diego trough fault. The seep site has previously been associated with seafloor pockmarks, acoustic wipeouts, chemosynthetic communities, and active methane bubble venting. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed receivers. This transmitted signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Compared to seismic methods, EM methods are largely insensitive to free gas, making it an especially useful tool for detecting electrically resistive methane hydrate in areas of active gas venting. We used a 50m dipole transmitting 100A, with 3-axis electric field receivers spaced at 130m, 230m, 330m, and 430m behind the transmitter dipole center. The receiver data are inverted using MARE2DEM, a finite element 2D inversion routine. The inversion results show the background resistivity of the trough sediments to be about 1-2 ohmm, and are largely featureless outside of the seep site. However at the seep site we see a decanter-shaped 100 ohmm resistor whose base is 100m below the seafloor, and 1km wide at its widest. This feature narrows at the top to form a pipe structure about 200m wide that extends to the seafloor. These resistive structures are interpreted to be methane hydrate resulting from methane rich fluid flow along faults associated with the transpressional system that brackets the seep site.

  8. Predicting Nonspecific Ion Binding Using DelPhi

    PubMed Central

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhenirovskyy, Maxim; Li, Chuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Ions are an important component of the cell and affect the corresponding biological macromolecules either via direct binding or as a screening ion cloud. Although some ion binding is highly specific and frequently associated with the function of the macromolecule, other ions bind to the protein surface nonspecifically, presumably because the electrostatic attraction is strong enough to immobilize them. Here, we test such a scenario and demonstrate that experimentally identified surface-bound ions are located at a potential that facilitates binding, which indicates that the major driving force is the electrostatics. Without taking into consideration geometrical factors and structural fluctuations, we show that ions tend to be bound onto the protein surface at positions with strong potential but with polarity opposite to that of the ion. This observation is used to develop a method that uses a DelPhi-calculated potential map in conjunction with an in-house-developed clustering algorithm to predict nonspecific ion-binding sites. Although this approach distinguishes only the polarity of the ions, and not their chemical nature, it can predict nonspecific binding of positively or negatively charged ions with acceptable accuracy. One can use the predictions in the Poisson-Boltzmann approach by placing explicit ions in the predicted positions, which in turn will reduce the magnitude of the local potential and extend the limits of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In addition, one can use this approach to place the desired number of ions before conducting molecular-dynamics simulations to neutralize the net charge of the protein, because it was shown to perform better than standard screened Coulomb canned routines, or to predict ion-binding sites in proteins. This latter is especially true for proteins that are involved in ion transport, because such ions are loosely bound and very difficult to detect experimentally. PMID:22735539

  9. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  10. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  11. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  12. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.

  13. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  14. Del1 Knockout Mice Developed More Severe Osteoarthritis Associated with Increased Susceptibility of Chondrocytes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Tran, Misha C.; Bhatia, Namrata J.; Hsing, Alexander W.; Chen, Carol; LaRussa, Marie F.; Fattakhov, Ernst; Rashidi, Vania; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choo, Kevin J.; Nie, Xingju; Mathy, Jonathan A.; Longaker, Michael T.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Helms, Jill A.; Yang, George P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identified significant expression of the matricellular protein, DEL1, in hypertrophic and mature cartilage during development. We hypothesized that this tissue-specific expression indicated a biological role for DEL1 in cartilage biology. Methods Del1 KO and WT mice had cartilage thickness evaluated by histomorphometry. Additional mice underwent medial meniscectomy to induce osteoarthritis, and were assayed at 1 week for apoptosis by TUNEL staining and at 8 weeks for histology and OA scoring. In vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed on primary chondrocytes. Results Deletion of the Del1 gene led to decreased amounts of cartilage in the ears and knee joints in mice with otherwise normal skeletal morphology. Destabilization of the knee led to more severe OA compared to controls. In vitro, DEL1 blocked apoptosis in chondrocytes. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and increasing in incidence as our population ages. Initiation begins with an injury resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators. Excessive production of inflammatory mediators results in apoptosis of chondrocytes. Because of the limited ability of chondrocytes to regenerate, articular cartilage deteriorates leading to the clinical symptoms including severe pain and decreased mobility. No treatments effectively block the progression of OA. We propose that direct modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis is a key variable in the etiology of OA, and therapies aimed at preventing this important step represent a new class of regenerative medicine targets. PMID:27505251

  15. High mountain soils and periglacial features at the Torres del Paine, National Park Torres del Paine, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra, Eduardo; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Gjorup, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The Torres del Paine National Park (TPNP) is located on the southern limit of the Andean Southern Ice Field, part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena region, in the province of Ultima Esperanza. The TPNP has a very heterogeneous climate due to orographic influence and wet air masses from the Pacific. The geology is basically Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and Miocene granitic plutons and batholiths. We studied the main soils and geoenvironments of Mt Ferrier mountain and its surroundings, based on soils , landforms and vegetation aspects. The geoenvironmental stratification was based on the combined variation and integration of pedo-litho-geomorphological features with the vegetation. WE used detailed geological maps, a DEM and slope maps and WorlView II satellite images. Fifteen soils profiles were sampled and classified according to Soil Taxonomy (2010) at all genovironments, ranging from 50 m a.s.l to the at high plateau just below the permanent snowline, under periglacial conditions (~1004m asl). Three soil temperature and moisture monitoring sites were set, allowing for 24 consecutive months (2011 to 2013). Seven geoenvironments were identified with distinct soil and landform characteristics, all with a similar geological substrate. The landform and vegetation have a strong connection with the landscape dynamic, controlling erosional and depositional processes, resulting from glacier advances and retreats in the Late Quaternary. Wind blown materials is widespread, in the form of loess material, accumulating in the higher parts of the landscape. On the other hand, accumulation of organic matter in the water-saturated depressions is common in all altitudes. Generally the soils are acidic and dystrophic, with little exceptions. The following geoenvironments were identified: Periglacial Tundra, Loess slopes, Talus and scarpmentd, Fluvio-glacial terraces, Fluvio-lacustrine plains, Moraines and Paleodunes. The regional pedology show the occurrence of five soil

  16. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se están eliminando los motores de calar, de guía y mecánica asociada. Para ésto, se están diseñando dos electrónicas que gobernarán, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizarán las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento será programado y por lo tanto, más suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a través de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveerá los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y guía.

  17. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  18. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  19. La relatività debole. La fisica dello spazio e del tempo senza paradossi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, Franco

    2011-06-01

    Secondo Einstein e Poincaré la simultaneità di eventi che hanno luogo in punti diversi dello spazio può essere definita solo per convenzione. Dal punto di vista matematico si dimostra, quindi, che due diverse definizioni di simultaneità corrispondono a due diversi valori del coefficiente e1 della variabile spaziale x presente nelle trasformazioni di Lorentz. A partire da premesse normalmente accettate otterremo diverse dimostrazioni della necessità di reintrodurre il concetto di simultaneità assoluta. Le conseguenze cosmologiche della nuova struttura dello spazio e del tempo andranno contro la cosmologia del Big Bang. Inoltre, dopo questi risultati, il relativismo sopravviverà in una forma meno aspra ("relatività debole") perché risulter privo di quel campionario di paradossi portato dalla teoria della Relatività Speciale.

  20. Integrated global background monitoring network. Preliminary results from Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, G.B.; Kohler, A.; Boelcke, C.; Baker, G.; Harmon, M.; Weber, C.; Gonzales, J.

    1985-10-01

    During 1984, a pilot project was initiated for monitoring pollution at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile and Olympic National Park in the United States. These are two of three initial sites that are to be established as part of an integrated global backgound monitoring network. Eventually, the plan is to establish a world-wide system of such sites. We collected and analyzed samples of the soil, water, air, and two species of plants (moss and lichen). We also collected and analyzed samples of the forest litter. We compared the samples of soil and vegetation against reference samples. We also compared samples of soil, vegetation, and of organic material from Torres del Paine against similar samples from Olympic and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks in the United States. Although the data is preliminary, it is in agreement with out initial hypothesis that Torres del Paine and Olympic National Parks are not a polluted sites.

  1. CASE REPORT: Phenotypic presentation of the Ser63Del MPZ mutation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lindsey J.; Patzko, Agnes; Lewis, Richard A.; Shy, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in MPZ cause CMT1B, the second most frequent cause of CMT1. Elegant studies with Ser63del mice suggest that Ser63del MPZ is retained in the ER where it activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) that contributes to the neuropathy. Clinical information about patients with this mutation is limited. We present clinical and electrophysiological data on a large multigenerational family with CMT1B caused by Ser63del MPZ. The patients have a classical CMT1 phenotype that is much less severe than that of patients with Arg98Cys MPZ that also activates the UPR. These results suggest that clinical presentation along cannot predict which MPZ mutations will be retained in the ER and activate the UPR. PMID:22734905

  2. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  3. Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects of Misiones and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Lastra, Claudia C; Scorsetti, Ana C; Marti, Gerardo A; Coscarón, Sixto

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen species of Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects are reported from two provinces of Argentina, Misiones and Tierra del Fuego. Twelve of the species belong to the Harpellales and two are Amoebidiales. Five harpellid species are reported from Misiones in the extreme northeast of the country (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella tica, Smittium culisetae, Smittium sp., Stachylina sp.) and seven are from Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America (H. meridianalis, Glotzia sp., S. culicis, S. cellaspora, S. imitatum, Stachylina minima, Penella simulii). Insect hosts all were immature stages of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae (Insecta: Diptera), and Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. The lower diversity of Trichomycetes found at Misiones, which has a subtropical climate and rainforest vegetation, was due possibly to the warmer temperatures of the water (15-24 C), compared to the colder streams of Tierra del Fuego (9-15 C), with forests and steppes as typical vegetation.

  4. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-01-01

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV). PMID:24869552

  5. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations.

  6. Origin and distribution of the BRCA2-8765delAG mutation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Grazia; Cossu, Antonio; Friedman, Eitan; Budroni, Mario; Farris, Antonio; Contu, Antonio; Pisano, Marina; Baldinu, Paola; Sini, Maria C; Tanda, Francesco; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Background The BRCA2-8765delAG mutation was firstly described in breast cancer families from French-Canadian and Jewish-Yemenite populations; it was then reported as a founder mutation in Sardinian families. We evaluated both the prevalence of the BRCA2-8765delAG variant in Sardinia and the putative existence of a common ancestral origin through a haplotype analysis of breast cancer family members carrying such a mutation. Methods Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers (D13S1250, centromeric, to D13S267, telomeric) spanning the BRCA2 gene locus were used for the haplotype analysis. Screening for the 8765delAG mutation was performed by PCR-based amplification of BRCA2-exon 20, followed by automated sequencing. Results Among families with high recurrence of breast cancer (≥ 3 cases in first-degree relatives), those from North Sardinia shared the same haplotype whereas the families from French Canadian and Jewish-Yemenite populations presented distinct genetic assets at the BRCA2 locus. Screening for the BRCA2-8765delAG variant among unselected and consecutively-collected breast cancer patients originating from the entire Sardinia revealed that such a mutation is present in the northern part of the island only [9/648 (1.4%) among cases from North Sardinia versus 0/493 among cases from South Sardinia]. Conclusion The BRCA2-8765delAG has an independent origin in geographically and ethnically distinct populations, acting as a founder mutation in North but not in South Sardinia. Since BRCA2-8765delAG occurs within a triplet repeat sequence of AGAGAG, our study further confirmed the existence of a mutational hot-spot at this genomic position (additional genetic factors within each single population might be involved in generating such a mutation). PMID:17640379

  7. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  8. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  9. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity

    PubMed Central

    Chothani, Daya L.; Vaghasiya, H. U.

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae), known as ‘desert date,’ is spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m tall, widely distributed in dry land areas of Africa and South Asia. It is traditionally used in treatment of various ailments i.e. jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. It contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, and organic acid. Present review summarizes the traditional claims, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca Del reported in scientific literature. PMID:22096319

  10. Detection of filaggrin gene mutation (2282del4) in Pakistani Ichthyosis vulgaris families.

    PubMed

    Naz, Naghma; Samdani, Azam Jah

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to detect an 811 bp filaggrin (FLG) gene fragment known to carry a mutation 2282del4 which causes ichthyosis vulgaris. Seven clinically examined ichthyosis vulgaris families were included in this study. An 811 bp FLG gene fragment was targeted in the genomic DNA of all the members of the seven families by PCR amplification using known primers RPT1P7 and RPT2P1. Successful amplification of an 811 bp FLG gene fragment in all the families suggested the possible role of the 2282del4 mutation in causing ichthyosis vulgaris in Pakistani population.

  11. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  12. Black hole remnant and quantum tunnelling in three-dimensional Gödel spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the modified Dirac equation in a three-dimensional gravity background, we investigate the quantum correction to tunnelling radiation from a Gödel black hole, and discuss the black hole remnant employing fermion's tunnelling. The corrected tunnelling probability is derived, and the modified Hawking temperature is found as well. It is worth emphasizing that, only when the condition j> αω(3 r -- r +) is satisfied, emitting both a mass particle and a massless particle, the remnant of the Gödel black hole may arise.

  13. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  14. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... regulations and monitor traffic through the canal. (c) Safe navigation required. Clearance for any vessel...

  15. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... conduct a live fire and explosive training event onboard the M/V Del Monte in the vicinity of the...

  16. Resultado negativo de prueba del VPH es mejor predictor de riesgo bajo de cáncer de cuello uterino

    Cancer.gov

    De acuerdo con un estudio en el que participaron más de un millón de mujeres, los investigadores del NCI han determinado que el resultado negativo de una prueba para la detección del VPH proporciona mayor certeza o seguridad frente a riesgos futuros de cá

  17. 78 FR 74008 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Del Rio, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Laughlin AFB (78 FR 52716) Docket No... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  18. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  19. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  20. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dealing with this section in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  1. Dropouts, Stopouts, Optouts at Del Mar College: Spring 1991. Report of a Joint Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Jo Ann I.; Bonham, L. Adrianne

    A research project investigated 2,313 persons who attended Del Mar College (Texas) during fall 1990 but did not enroll for spring 1991. Four sets of data were collected: (1) limited demographic information on the total student body; (2) demographic information drawn from school records to describe all nonreturnees; (3) demographic information…

  2. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  3. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  4. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area. 334.110 Section 334.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS §...

  5. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  6. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  7. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  8. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  9. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel...

  10. New record of Paralomis spinosissima Birstein & Vinogradov (Decapoda: Anomura: Lithodidae) from Mar del Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Nicole; Ocampo, Emiliano H; Farias, Nahuel

    2015-05-14

    The lithodid crab Paralomis spinosissima is previously known only in Sub-Antarctic waters from South Georgia Island to the Drake Passage. Here we recorded a juvenile male obtained off shores of Mar del Plata (~37°S), Argentina. This new occurrence extends the distribution range of the species over 1300 km northwards in the Atlantic Ocean.

  11. Ouabain Mimics Low Temperature Rescue of F508del-CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Anjos, Suzana M.; Carissimo, Annamaria; Liao, Jie; Carlile, Graeme W.; Balghi, Haouaria; Robert, Renaud; Luini, Alberto; Hanrahan, John W.; Thomas, David Y.

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are caused by the deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutant F508del-CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, but can be induced by low temperature incubation (29°C) to traffic to the plasma membrane where it functions as a chloride channel. Here we show that, cardiac glycosides, at nanomolar concentrations, can partially correct the trafficking of F508del-CFTR in human CF bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE41o-) and in an F508del-CFTR mouse model. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles obtained with polarized CFBE41o-cells after treatment with ouabain and by low temperature has revealed a striking similarity between the two corrector treatments that is not shared with other correctors. In summary, our study shows a novel function of ouabain and its analogs in the regulation of F508del-CFTR trafficking and suggests that compounds that mimic this low temperature correction of trafficking will provide new avenues for the development of therapeutics for CF. PMID:23060796

  12. Self-consistent Gödel cosmology with spin-density in Riemann-Cartan spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Larry L.

    1986-01-01

    We show that the Gödel metric for a rotating cosmology is compatible with the self-consistent formulation of the Einstein-Cartan metric-torsion theory for a spinning fluid. Fruitful discussions with J.R. Ray and F.W. Hehl are greatfully acknowledged. I wish to also thank J. Bradas who brought a reference to my attention.

  13. Calcio y la prevención del cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que resume los resultados de estudios sobre el calcio y la prevención del cáncer. Incluye información sobre las recomendaciones dietéticas para calcio y la cantidad de calcio en los alimentos y en complementos de calcio.

  14. Shed Some Light on the Subject: Teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's "Luces de bohemia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jason Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This essay seeks to provide parallel and interchangeable approaches to teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's challenging play "Luces de bohemia". A greater understanding of the cultural and mental frameworks of the early twentieth-century Spanish spectator will permit students to penetrate the dense intertextuality that characterizes Valle's…

  15. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  16. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  17. Se lanza Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) puso en marcha una nueva red de investigación de estudios clínicos con el objetivo de mejorar el tratamiento de más de 1,6 millones de estadounidenses que reciben un diagnóstico de cáncer cada año.

  18. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  19. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  20. Plan Multinacional de Educacion del Adulto (Multinational Plan for Adult Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document contains part of the final report from the first meeting of the Inter-American Council on Education, Science, and Culture, held in Vina del Mar, Chile, in 1970. The report presents general policy and guidelines which should be followed in the establishment of adult elementary education programs. The general discussion covers literacy…

  1. Exploración del Sistema Solar -- Una mirada hacia el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Piensas que ya sabemos todo acerca de nuestro sistema solar? La realidad es que apenas hemos comenzado con lo que hay para conocer. Únete a la NASA, en el envío de misiones a los confines del sist...

  2. A Failed Utopia in Marcela Del Río's "Proceso a Faubritten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manickam, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In Marcela del Río's science fiction novel "Proceso a Faubritten," utopia comes in the form of eternal life for all of humanity, thanks to Dr. Alexander Faubritten's "Bomba L." This polyphonic work includes diaries by Faubritten and his Mexican lover, María Corona. In my analysis of these two diaries, I will show how…

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-01

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p < 0.05) and species richness was higher in central Patagonia (S = 4). No differences in diversity were observed between females and males of central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 139, p < 0.05) and between females of central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  4. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  5. Tratamiento del cáncer sin daño al corazón

    Cancer.gov

    Investigadores de los campos de oncología y de cardiología están trabajando para encontrar formas de impedir, manejar y posiblemente aun revertir los efectos secundarios cardiovasculares de ciertas terapias del cáncer.

  6. Dolores Del Rio, the First "Latin Invasion", and Hollywood's Transition to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The career and promotion of Mexican actress Dolores Del Rio as a case study of how Hollywood's shift to sound film affected Latino and Latina actors is examined. It reveals the way in which the starring opportunities for Latinos dwindled when accent and language increasingly marked them as nonwhite in the 1930s in the talkie films.

  7. Synonymous codon usage affects the expression of wild type and F508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil A; Mueller, David M

    2015-03-27

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508 (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation. This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements was expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady-state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30-fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to nonsense mediated decay independent of exon junction complex. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high-expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels and protein expression, for CFTR, and likely on chaperone-assisted folding pathway, for F508del CFTR.

  8. Synonymous Codon Usage Affects the Expression of Wild Type and F508del CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil; Mueller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508, (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements, were expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30 fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to exon junction complex independent nonsense mediated decay. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped ERAD resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that for CFTR, codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels, protein expression and likely, for F508del CFTR, chaperone assisted folding pathway. PMID:25676312

  9. Toric K3-fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo divisors for string compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Mayrhofer, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    We analyse several explicit toric examples of compact K3-fibred Calabi-Yau three-folds. These manifolds can be used for the study of string dualities and are crucial ingredients for the construction of LARGE Volume type IIB vacua with promising applications to cosmology and particle phenomenology. In order to build a phenomenologically viable model, on top of the two moduli corresponding to the base and the K3 fibre, we demand also the existence of two additional rigid divisors: the first supporting the non-perturbative effects needed to achieve moduli stabilisation, and the second allowing the presence of chiral matter on wrapped D-branes. We clarify the topology of these rigid divisors by discussing the interplay between a diagonal structure of the Calabi-Yau volume and D-terms. Del Pezzo divisors appearing in the volume form in a completely diagonal way are natural candidates for supporting non-perturbative effects and for quiver constructions, while `non-diagonal' del Pezzo and rigid but not del Pezzo divisors are particularly interesting for model building in the geometric regime. Searching through the existing list of four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 158 examples admitting a Calabi-Yau hypersurface with a K3 fibration and four Kähler moduli where at least one of the toric divisors is a `diagonal' del Pezzo. We work out explicitly the topological details of a few examples showing how, in the case of simplicial polytopes, all the del Pezzo divisors are `diagonal', while `non-diagonal' ones appear only in the case of non-simplicial polytopes. A companion paper will use these results in the study of moduli stabilisation for globally consistent explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with the local presence of chirality.

  10. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    El Senado Academico del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico aprobo en el ano academico 2005-2006 la Certificacion 46, que contiene los lineamientos de un nuevo bachillerato. Este nuevo bachillerato introdujo cambios significativos en el curriculo tradicional. Entre ellos se encuentra la reduccion del componente de educacion general y el de Ciencias Biologicas en particular. La reduccion de creditos en el componente de Ciencias Biologicas ha obligado a reevaluar el concepto de cultura cientifica que desarrollan esos cursos. El proposito del estudio consistio en auscultar las percepciones de los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Humanidades, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion y Estudios Generales del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas y la reduccion de creditos en el nuevo bachillerato. Las preguntas que guiaron la investigacion fueron: ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Estudios Generales, Ciencias Naturales, Humanidades y Educacion, en torno al concepto de cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿cuales son las percepciones que tienen los profesores de Ciencias Biologicas en torno al concepto cultura cientifica y los contenidos disciplinares del curso de Ciencias Biologicas? ¿existen diferencias significativas por facultad, genero, experiencia, rango y nombramiento en las percepciones que tienen los profesores del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico sobre los elementos que caracterizan la cultura cientifica y los contenidos biologicos que deben tener los egresados del Recinto? ¿que implicaciones curriculares tienen estos testimonios en el desarrollo del concepto de cultura cientifica en el nuevo bachillerato? Para realizar la

  11. Trimethylangelicin promotes the functional rescue of mutant F508del CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis airway cells.

    PubMed

    Favia, Maria; Mancini, Maria T; Bezzerri, Valentino; Guerra, Lorenzo; Laselva, Onofrio; Abbattiscianni, Anna C; Debellis, Lucantonio; Reshkin, Stephan J; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio; Casavola, Valeria

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) carrying the F508del mutation is retained in endoplasmic reticulum and fails to traffic to the cell surface where it functions as a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated chloride channel. Pharmacological correctors that rescue the trafficking of F508del CFTR may overcome this defect; however, the rescued F508del CFTR still displays reduced chloride permeability. Therefore, a combined administration of correctors and potentiators of the gating defect is ideal. We recently found that 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), besides inhibiting the expression of the IL-8 gene in airway cells in which the inflammatory response was challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also potentiates the cAMP/PKA-dependent activation of wild-type CFTR or F508del CFTR that has been restored to the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate that long preincubation with nanomolar concentrations of TMA is able to effectively rescue both F508del CFTR-dependent chloride secretion and F508del CFTR cell surface expression in both primary or secondary airway cell monolayers homozygous for F508del mutation. The correction effect of TMA seems to be selective for CFTR and persisted for 24 h after washout. Altogether, the results suggest that TMA, besides its anti-inflammatory and potentiator activities, also displays corrector properties.

  12. Development of InDel markers for Brassica rapa based on whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Wen; Deng, Jie; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide detection of short insertion/deletion length polymorphisms (InDels, <5 bp) in Brassica rapa (named the A genome) was performed by comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two B. rapa accessions, L144 and Z16, to the reference genome sequence of Chiifu-401-42. In total, we identified 108,558 InDel polymorphisms between Chiifu-401-42 and L144, 26,795 InDels between Z16 and Chiifu-401-42, and 26,693 InDels between L144 and Z16. From these, 639 InDel polymorphisms of 3-5 bp in length between L144 and Z16 were selected for experimental validation; 491 (77%) yielded single PCR fragments and showed polymorphisms, 7 (1%) did not amplify a product, and 141 (22%) showed no polymorphism. For further validation of these intra-specific InDel polymorphisms, 503 candidates, randomly selected from the 639 InDels, were screened across seven accessions representing different B. rapa cultivar groups. Of these assayed markers, 387 (77%) were polymorphic, 111 (22%) were not polymorphic and 5 (1%) did not amplify a PCR product. Furthermore, we randomly selected 518 InDel markers to validate their polymorphism in B. napus (the AC genome) and B. juncea (the AB genome), of which more than 90% amplified a PCR product; 132 (25%) showed polymorphism between the two B. napus accessions and 41 (8%) between the two B. juncea accessions. This set of novel PCR-based InDel markers will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and breeding programs in B. rapa.

  13. CHEK2*1100delC homozygosity in the Netherlands--prevalence and risk of breast and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huijts, Petra E A; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Balliu, Brunilda; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Meijers, Caro M; Blom, Jannet C; Ozturk, Bahar; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M M; Wijnen, Juul; Berns, Els M J J; Martens, John W M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; van der Heijden, Henricus F; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Devilee, Peter; van Asperen, Christi J

    2014-01-01

    The 1100delC mutation in the CHEK2 gene has a carrier frequency of up to 1.5% in individuals from North-West Europe. Women heterozygous for 1100delC have an increased breast cancer risk (odds ratio 2.7). To explore the prevalence and clinical consequences of 1100delC homozygosity in the Netherlands, we genotyped a sporadic breast cancer hospital-based cohort, a group of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families, and breast tumors from a tumor tissue bank. Three 1100delC homozygous patients were found in the cohort of 1434 sporadic breast cancer patients, suggesting an increased breast cancer risk for 1100delC homozygotes (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 0.4-32.6, P=0.3). Another 1100delC homozygote was found in 592 individuals from 108 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families, and two more were found after testing 1706 breast tumors and confirming homozygosity on their wild-type DNA. Follow-up data was available for five homozygous patients, and remarkably, three of them had developed contralateral breast cancer. A possible relationship between 1100delC and lung cancer risk was investigated in 457 unrelated lung cancer patients but could not be confirmed. Due to the small number of 1100delC homozygotes identified, the breast cancer risk estimate associated with this genotype had limited accuracy but is probably higher than the risk in heterozygous females. Screening for CHEK2 1100delC could be beneficial in countries with a relatively high allele frequency.

  14. Development of InDel markers for Brassica rapa based on whole-genome re-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Wen; Deng, Jie; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide detection of short insertion/deletion length polymorphisms (InDels, <5 bp) in Brassica rapa (named the A genome) was performed by comparing whole-genome re-sequencing data from two B. rapa accessions, L144 and Z16, to the reference genome sequence of Chiifu-401-42. In total, we identified 108,558 InDel polymorphisms between Chiifu-401-42 and L144, 26,795 InDels between Z16 and Chiifu-401-42, and 26,693 InDels between L144 and Z16. From these, 639 InDel polymorphisms of 3-5 bp in length between L144 and Z16 were selected for experimental validation; 491 (77%) yielded single PCR fragments and showed polymorphisms, 7 (1%) did not amplify a product, and 141 (22%) showed no polymorphism. For further validation of these intra-specific InDel polymorphisms, 503 candidates, randomly selected from the 639 InDels, were screened across seven accessions representing different B. rapa cultivar groups. Of these assayed markers, 387 (77%) were polymorphic, 111 (22%) were not polymorphic and 5 (1%) did not amplify a PCR product. Furthermore, we randomly selected 518 InDel markers to validate their polymorphism in B. napus (the AC genome) and B. juncea (the AB genome), of which more than 90% amplified a PCR product; 132 (25%) showed polymorphism between the two B. napus accessions and 41 (8%) between the two B. juncea accessions. This set of novel PCR-based InDel markers will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and breeding programs in B. rapa. PMID:22972202

  15. Rescue of F508del-CFTR by RXR motif inactivation triggers proteome modulation associated with the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Couto, Francisco; Pesquita, Cátia; Coelho, Ana V; Penque, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    F508del-CFTR, the most common mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, disrupts intracellular trafficking leading to cystic fibrosis (CF). The trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR can be rescued by simultaneous inactivation of its four RXR motifs (4RK). Proteins involved in the F508del-CFTR trafficking defect and/or rescue are therefore potential CF therapeutic targets. We sought to identify these proteins by investigating differential proteome modulation in BHK cells over-expressing wt-CFTR, F508del-CFTR or the revertant F508del/4RK-CFTR. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics and western blot approaches we demonstrated that over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR modulates the expression of a large number of proteins, many of which are reported interactors of CFTR and/or 14-3-3 with potential roles in CFTR trafficking. GRP78/BiP, a marker of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), is up-regulated in cells over-expressing either F508del-CFTR or F598del/4RK-CFTR. However, over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR induces the up-regulation of many other UPR-associated proteins (e.g. GRP94, PDI, GRP75/mortalin) and, interestingly, the down-regulation of proteasome components associated with CFTR degradation, such as the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2) and COP9 signalosome (COPS5/CSN5). Moreover, the F508del-CFTR-induced proteostasis imbalance, which involves some heat shock chaperones (e.g. HSP72/Hpa2), ER-EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins (calumenin) and the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2), tends to be 'restored', i.e., in BHK cells over-expressing F508del/4RK-CFTR those proteins tend to have expression levels similar to the wild-type ones. These findings indicate that a particular cellular environment orchestrated by the UPR contributes to and/or is compatible with F508del/4RK-CFTR rescue. PMID:20044041

  16. Estudio del Hidrógeno neutro en dirección al remanente de supernova W28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velazquez, P.; Green, A.; Goss, W. M.; Reynoso, E.

    Se presenta un relevamiento del hidrógeno neutro alrededor del remanente de supernova W28 realizado con el radiotelescopio australiano de Parkes. Se analizan rasgos de emisión y absorción. Se muestra la existencia de estructuras anulares asociadas con el remanente. Se compara la distribución del hidrógeno neutro con la ubicación de máseres de OH detectados en la línea de 1720 MHz.

  17. Rescue of F508del-CFTR by RXR motif inactivation triggers proteome modulation associated with the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, Patrícia; Couto, Francisco; Pesquita, Cátia; Coelho, Ana V; Penque, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    F508del-CFTR, the most common mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, disrupts intracellular trafficking leading to cystic fibrosis (CF). The trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR can be rescued by simultaneous inactivation of its four RXR motifs (4RK). Proteins involved in the F508del-CFTR trafficking defect and/or rescue are therefore potential CF therapeutic targets. We sought to identify these proteins by investigating differential proteome modulation in BHK cells over-expressing wt-CFTR, F508del-CFTR or the revertant F508del/4RK-CFTR. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics and western blot approaches we demonstrated that over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR modulates the expression of a large number of proteins, many of which are reported interactors of CFTR and/or 14-3-3 with potential roles in CFTR trafficking. GRP78/BiP, a marker of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), is up-regulated in cells over-expressing either F508del-CFTR or F598del/4RK-CFTR. However, over-expression of F508del/4RK-CFTR induces the up-regulation of many other UPR-associated proteins (e.g. GRP94, PDI, GRP75/mortalin) and, interestingly, the down-regulation of proteasome components associated with CFTR degradation, such as the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2) and COP9 signalosome (COPS5/CSN5). Moreover, the F508del-CFTR-induced proteostasis imbalance, which involves some heat shock chaperones (e.g. HSP72/Hpa2), ER-EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins (calumenin) and the proteasome activator PA28 (PSME2), tends to be 'restored', i.e., in BHK cells over-expressing F508del/4RK-CFTR those proteins tend to have expression levels similar to the wild-type ones. These findings indicate that a particular cellular environment orchestrated by the UPR contributes to and/or is compatible with F508del/4RK-CFTR rescue.

  18. Physiological profile of fighters influences training organisation in combat sports: response to Del Vecchio, Hirata, and Franchini (2011).

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    The article by Del Vecchio, et al. (2011) provides relevant information to trainers about the effort-pause ratio during mixed martial arts matches. Taking into account the physiological profiles of fighters would increase interest in these findings. PMID:22403925

  19. Ground Gravity, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Surveys on a Crater on Basalt of Bajada del Diablo Astrobleme-Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Prezzi, C.; Orgeira, M. J.; Rocca, M.; Martínez, O.; Ponce, J. F.; Corbella, H.; Rabassa, J.; González-Guillot, M.; Subías, I.

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of further investigate the circular structures from Bajada del Diablo, we carried out geophysics surveys and we conclude that the geophysical features could be satisfactorily explained assuming an extra-terrestrial projectile impact.

  20. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  1. Medición de densidades medias de meteoritos: test del método de inmersión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G.

    Se evaluó una técnica simple para medir las densidades medias de meteoritos, basada en el Método de Arquímedes y que utiliza cuentas de vidrio de 40μ en lugar de un fluído esto presenta la ventaja de no ser intrusivo ni químicamente reactivo (D.Britt and G.Consolmagno, 1996, B.A.A.S.28,1106). El estudio, realizado en junio de este año por participantes de la VI Escuela de Verano del Observatorio del Vaticano, empleó 37 muestras de la colección del Observatorio del Vaticano, de las cuales 26 eran Condritas, 1 Pallasita y 1 Howardita; algunas de ellas ya habian sido estudiadas por otras técnicas aunque también se incluyeron muestras no estudiadas anteriormente.

  2. del Nido versus St. Thomas Cardioplegia Solutions: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Post Cross-Clamp Defibrillation Rates.

    PubMed

    Buel, Shane T; Striker, Carrie Whittaker; O'Brien, James E

    2016-06-01

    There are many cardioplegia solutions currently in use for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The most common being del Nido solution. Another common cardioplegia solution used for pediatric CPB is St. Thomas. In October 2014, Children's Mercy Kansas City changed from the use of modified St. Thomas to del Nido. This study compared rates of post cross-clamp fibrillation requiring defibrillation between del Nido solution and modified St. Thomas solution stratified by weight at Children's Mercy Kansas City. This retrospective study consisted of 394 patients who underwent cardiac surgery requiring cardioplegia between January 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015. The outcome measured was defibrillation upon cross-clamp removal. Statistical significance was determined using Fishers exact test with a two-sided significance level of .05. Incidence of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal was 4.4% in the del Nido group and 26.8% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0001). Analysis by weight stratifications displays a reduction in post cross-clamp defibrillation rates in groups using the del Nido solution. The 0- to 6-kg category had an incidence of fibrillation of 1.23% in the del Nido group and 17.5% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0003). The 6- to 15-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 1.82% in the del Nido group and 14% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0198). The 15- to 60-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 8.9% in the del Nido group and 61% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0001). The >60-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 16.7% in the del Nido group and 63% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0623). This study demonstrates a 6-fold decrease in the overall rate of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal between St. Thomas and del Nido cardioplegia solutions. Analyses of weight stratifications demonstrate a decrease in the rate of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal in all categories within the del Nido group. PMID:27578896

  3. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination for cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y H; Strokes, D C; Naren, A P

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity resulting from mutations in the CFTR gene. Phe508del is the most prevalent mutation, with approximately 90% of all CF patients carrying it on at least one allele. Over the past two or three decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of CF, and in the development of effective CF therapies. The approval of Orkambi® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) marks another milestone in CF therapeutics development, which, with the advent of personalized medicine, could potentially revolutionize CF care and management. This article reviews the rationale, progress and future direction in the development of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination to treat CF patients homozygous for the Phe508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:27252987

  4. A Neandertal mandible from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Subirá, M E; Quam, R; Fullola, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    2005-07-01

    A human mandible from the site of Cova del Gegant is described here for the first time and compared with other Middle and Upper Pleistocene representatives of the genus Homo from Europe and Southwest Asia. The specimen was recovered from sediments which also yielded Mousterian stone tools and Pleistocene fauna. The preserved morphology of the mandible, particularly in the region of the mental foramen, clearly aligns it with the Neandertals, making the Cova del Gegant the only known site in Catalonia documenting diagnostic human skeletal remains in association with Middle Paleolithic stone tools. This represents an important new addition to the human fossil record from the Iberian Peninsula and joins the Bañolas mandible in documenting the course of human evolution in the northern Mediterranean region of Spain.

  5. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination for cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y H; Strokes, D C; Naren, A P

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity resulting from mutations in the CFTR gene. Phe508del is the most prevalent mutation, with approximately 90% of all CF patients carrying it on at least one allele. Over the past two or three decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of CF, and in the development of effective CF therapies. The approval of Orkambi® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) marks another milestone in CF therapeutics development, which, with the advent of personalized medicine, could potentially revolutionize CF care and management. This article reviews the rationale, progress and future direction in the development of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination to treat CF patients homozygous for the Phe508del-CFTR mutation.

  6. Highly ordered antigorite from Cerro del Almirez HP-HT serpentinites, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, J. A.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V.; Garrido, C. J.; Gómez-Pugnaire, M. T.; Jabaloy, A.; Capitani, G. C.; Mellini, M.

    2008-11-01

    The Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif offers an example of high pressure and high temperature antigorite serpentinites. A sharp antigorite-out isograd separates them from Chl-harzburgites, consisting of olivine + enstatite + chlorite. Antigorite is characterized by aluminium contents as high as 4 wt.% Al2O3. The microstructural study shows that, prior to the transformation, antigorite is exceptionally ordered and consists of the polysome m = 17. No polysomatic defect occurs in antigorite forming most of the Cerro del Almirez serpentinites. Close to the antigorite-out isograd, limited disorder features may occur, mainly as (001) twins, reaction rims and reduction of m down to 14-15. Here, local recrystallization phenomena lead to sporadic growth of large antigorite and chlorite crystals.

  7. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

  8. Informe trata el descenso del cáncer y los tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad en los Estados Unidos de todos los cánceres en hombres y mujeres siguieron bajando entre 2003 y 2007, que es el período más reciente del que se disponen datos, según el último Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer. El informe encuentra también que el índice general combinado de nuevos diagnósticos de cáncer en hombres y mujeres decreció un promedio un poco menos de 1% por año en el mismo período.

  9. Detection of super-soft emission in nova V339 Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Woodward, C. E.; Schwarz, G. J.; Starrfield, S.; Shore, S. N.; Walter, F. M.

    2013-10-01

    Swift has been regularly observing the fourth LAT-detected classical nova (ATEL #5302) V339 Del (Nova Del 2013; PNV J20233073+2046041) since its outburst on 2013 August 14. Once optical loading had been correctly accounted for (ATel #5429), a real X-ray source was first detected on September 19. The XRT 0.3-10 keV X-ray count rate has been slowly rising since this time, from a value of (1.8 +0.7/-0.6)x10-3 count s-1 on September 19 to (7 +/- 2)x10-3 count s-1 on October 8 [these count rates are from grade 0 (single pixel) events only, to mitigate any residual optical loading effects].

  10. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  11. A new species of Rhadinella (Serpentes: Colubridae) from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Gustavo; Dávila-Galavíz, Luis Fernando; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2016-04-12

    We describe a new species of Rhadinella from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, Mexico, a region where the genus was previously unknown. This diminutive species is a member of a group of snakes previously allocated in the Rhadinaea godmani group, and more recently transferred to the genus Rhadinella. These snakes may have conspicuous dark longitudinal striping on a pale brown to orange background or may have dark brown to blackish dorsal ground coloration, which mostly or completely obfuscates a pattern of longitudinal striping. The new species is mostly dark with barely discernible slightly paler or darker striping (depending on how striping is interpreted). The closest relative of the new species, on the basis of morphological similarities and biogeography, appears to be Rhadinella donaji which occurs to the east in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca about 275 km from the type-locality of the new species.

  12. DEL RBC transfusion should be avoided in particular blood recipient in East Asia due to allosensitization and ineffectiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chao-peng; Wang, Bao-yan; Ye, Shi-hui; Zhang, Wen-li; Xu, Hua; Zhuang, Nai-bao; Wu, Xiao-ying; Xu, Heng-gui

    2012-01-01

    Previously, both primary and secondary anti-D alloimmunizations induced by “Asian type” DEL (RHD1227A allele) were observed in two incidents. We investigated how often these alloimmunization events occur. The transfusions of any D-negative patients were investigated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University Medical College, China, during the entire 2009. The antigens of D, C, c, E, and e were routinely serotyped. The “Asian type” DEL variant was genotyped and the RHD heterozygote was determined through two published methods. The changes in anti-D levels were monitored by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and flow cytometry. Thirty D-negative transfused patients were included in the study. We focused on 11 recipients who were transfused with packed red blood cells (RBCs) from DEL donors at least one time. Of those 11 recipients, seven were anti-D negative before transfusion and four were anti-D positive (one patient with an autoantibody). One of the seven pre-transfusion anti-D negative patients produced a primary-response anti-D after being transfused with 400 ml of DEL blood twice. All four pre-transfusion antibody positive patients were not observed hemoglobin (Hb) levels increased, as expected after transfusions. Two patients had an increase in anti-D from 1:8 to 1:64 by IAT, which was also shown by flow cytometry. None of the patients experienced an acute hemolytic episode. Our data indicated that the primary anti-D induced by DEL transfusion or the secondary anti-D elevated by DEL in a truly D-negative patient might not be unusual. We suggest that a truly D-negative childbearing-aged woman should avoid DEL transfusion to protect her from primary anti-D allosensitization. In addition, anti-D positive recipients should also avoid DEL red cell transfusion due to the delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR). PMID:23125084

  13. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  14. La reconstrucción del seno después de una mastectomía

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la reconstrucción del seno (mama) después de una mastectomía. Contiene información sobre las opciones quirúrgicas, los cuidados de seguimiento y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de seno después de la reconstrucción.

  15. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  16. The birth of oligodendrocytes in the anatomical and neuropathological literature: the seminal contribution of Pio del Rio-Hortega. 1921.

    PubMed

    Lassmann, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Comment on: del Río-Hortega P. Glia with very few processes (oligodendroglia). Clin Neuropathol. 2012; 31: 440-459, originally published in Archivos de Neurobiología. 1921; 2: 16-43 and del Río-Hortega P. Are the glia with very few processes homologous with Schwann cells? Clin Neuropathol. 2012; 31: 460-462, originally published in Bol de la Soc Esp de Biol. 1922; X: 25-28. PMID:22943958

  17. The CHEK2 del5395 is a founder mutation without direct effects for cancer risk in the latvian population

    PubMed Central

    Kalniete, D; Nakazawa-Miklasevica, M; Irmejs, A; Vjaters, E; Gardovskis, J; Miklasevics, E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine: 1) whether the checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) del5395 (g.27417113-27422508 del, NC_000022.11) is a founder mutation in the Latvian population, 2) if there is an association between CHEK2 del5395 mutation and cancer risk, and 3) and whether the CHEK2 del5395 mutation impacts cancer predisposition in Chernobyl disaster liquidators (the civil and military personnel who were called upon to deal with consequences of the 1986 nuclear disaster) as well as geriatric populations. We recruited 438 breast cancer patients, 568 colorectal cancer patients, 399 ovarian cancer patients, 419 prostate cancer patients, 526 healthy blood donors, 480 Chernobyl disaster liquidators and 444 geriatric cancer-free participants. DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The truncation of del5395 was estimated by fragment size of the multiplex PCR.All groups were compared to the healthy blood donors using Fisher’s exact test. All p values were two-sided and the odds ratios (OR) calculated by two-by-two table. In cancer groups, the del5395 mutation was most frequently observed in the ovarian cancer group (1.00%, OR = 1.32). In control groups, the del5395 mutation was most frequent (0.76%) in the healthy donors, which exceeded its frequency in the Chernobyl liquidators group and the geriatric group by 0.01 and 0.08%, respectively. For all groups, the OR appeared to be >1 only in ovarian cancer patients. However, OR rates showed no statistical significance in either cancer or control groups, with the p value fluctuating within the range of 0.39-1.00. The CHEK2 gene del5395 is a founder mutation in the Latvian population, which, however, does not have a direct impact on genetic predisposition toward colorectal, breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. PMID:27785394

  18. [The scientific progress of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" as seen through the contents of the journal "La Medicina del Lavoro". ].

    PubMed

    Foà, V; Camerino, Donatella

    2003-01-01

    On occasion of the Centenary of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto", its researchers suggested that awareness of its historical identity and scientific development should constitute the basis for the future of the Institution. The directors of the Institute who have succeeded one to the other over the years have left a vivid report of the vast amount of work developed in several research fields and also of the original results achieved with significant impact on the scientific community and on society. Content analysis of "La Medicina del Lavoro" allowed us to shed light on strong bonds existing between manufacturing techniques, work organization and health, in the different political and social periods in which they developed. Many actions have been defined and several research subjects have been renewed (according to current demands and new methodological possibilities) between the past and the present, nevertheless many new approaches need to be taken in the fields of epidemiology, indoor air quality, ergophthalmology, muskuloskeletal disorders, environmental and molecular toxicology, and further research will be undertaken thanks to the potential of this discipline for the future. The aim of this report is also to express our thanks to all the medical and non-medical staff who have made their contribution over 100 years of engagement.

  19. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-02-08

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  20. [Registry of myocardial infarction in a tertiary hospital of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    González-Pliego, José Angel; Gudiño-Amezcua, Diego Armando; Celis, Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Díaz, Gonzalo Israel

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: dado que el pronóstico de infarto del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IMCEST) depende de su manejo inmediato y de las medidas de prevención secundaria, el no seguir las recomendaciones actuales impide mejorar las expectativas de la población afectada por este padecimiento. El objetivo es describir el perfil clínico-epidemiológico y el proceso de atención del IMCEST en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: se analiza la información clínica, la estratificación de riesgo, la terapia de revascularización y los hábitos de prescripción al egreso de los casos con IMCEST atendidos en un año. Resultados: se incluyeron 246 pacientes con edad promedio de 61 años; el 76 % fueron varones. La mayoría (37.3 %) de IMCEST ocurrió entre los 60 y los 69 años. El sedentarismo fue el factor de riesgo predominante. El 81.7 % de los casos tuvo score TIMI de riesgo bajo. El 35 % tuvo isquemia/viabilidad y en todos los cateterizados se demostraron obstrucciones coronarias. El 76 % se revascularizó con stent, principalmente farmacológico (77.5 %). Al egreso más del 90 % de los casos recibió estatina y antiplaquetarios, mientras otras drogas se prescribieron al 64-82 % de los casos. Conclusiones: el IMCEST predomina en hombres sedentarios de la séptima década. Estratificar el riesgo, buscar isquemia/viabilidad residual y revascularizar con stent farmacológico son prácticas comunes; el cumplimiento de recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia es mejor que en el pasado, pero todavía no es óptimo.

  1. Pío del Río Hortega and the discovery of the oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; Matute, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Pío del Río Hortega (1882–1945) discovered microglia and oligodendrocytes (OLGs), and after Ramón y Cajal, was the most prominent figure of the Spanish school of neurology. He began his scientific career with Nicolás Achúcarro from whom he learned the use of metallic impregnation techniques suitable to study non-neuronal cells. Later on, he joined Cajal’s laboratory. and Subsequently, he created his own group, where he continued to develop other innovative modifications of silver staining methods that revolutionized the study of glial cells a century ago. He was also interested in neuropathology and became a leading authority on Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors. In parallel to this clinical activity, del Río Hortega rendered the first systematic description of a major polymorphism present in a subtype of macroglial cells that he named as oligodendroglia and later OLGs. He established their ectodermal origin and suggested that they built the myelin sheath of CNS axons, just as Schwann cells did in the periphery. Notably, he also suggested the trophic role of OLGs for neuronal functionality, an idea that has been substantiated in the last few years. Del Río Hortega became internationally recognized and established an important neurohistological school with outstanding pupils from Spain and abroad, which nearly disappeared after his exile due to the Spanish civil war. Yet, the difficulty of metal impregnation methods and their variability in results, delayed for some decades the confirmation of his great insights into oligodendrocyte biology until the development of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. This review aims at summarizing the pioneer and essential contributions of del Río Hortega to the current knowledge of oligodendrocyte structure and function, and to provide a hint of the scientific personality of this extraordinary and insufficiently recognized man. PMID:26217196

  2. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  3. Deep source model for Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, constrained by interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, P.; Samsonov, S. V.; López, C. M.; Ordoñez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nevado del Ruiz (NRV) is part of a large volcano complex in the northern Andes of Colombia with a large glacier that erupted in 1985, generating a lahar killing over 23,000 people in the city of Armero and 2,000 people in the town of Chinchina. NRV is the most active volcano in Colombia and since 2012 has generated small eruptions, with no casualties, and constant gas and ash emissions. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations from ascending and descending track RADARSAT-2 data show a large (>20 km) wide inflation pattern apparently starting in late 2011 to early 2012 and continuing to the time of this study in early 2015 at a LOS rate of over 3-4 cm/yr (Fig. 1). Volcano pressure volume models for both a point source (Mogi) and a spheroidal (Yang) source find solutions over 14 km beneath the surface, or 10 km below sea level, and centered 10 km to the SW of Nevado del Ruiz volcano. The spheroidal source has a roughly horizontal long axis oriented parallel to the Santa Isabel - Nevado del Ruiz volcanic line and perpendicular to the ambient compressive stress direction. Its solution provides a statistically significant improvement in fit compared to the point source, though consideration of spatially correlated noise sources may diminish this significance. Stress change computations do not favor one model over the other but show that propagating dikes would become trapped in sills, leading to a more complex pathway to the surface and possibly explaining the significant lateral distance between the modeled sources and Nevado del Ruiz volcano.

  4. Pío del Río Hortega and the discovery of the oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; Matute, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Pío del Río Hortega (1882-1945) discovered microglia and oligodendrocytes (OLGs), and after Ramón y Cajal, was the most prominent figure of the Spanish school of neurology. He began his scientific career with Nicolás Achúcarro from whom he learned the use of metallic impregnation techniques suitable to study non-neuronal cells. Later on, he joined Cajal's laboratory. and Subsequently, he created his own group, where he continued to develop other innovative modifications of silver staining methods that revolutionized the study of glial cells a century ago. He was also interested in neuropathology and became a leading authority on Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors. In parallel to this clinical activity, del Río Hortega rendered the first systematic description of a major polymorphism present in a subtype of macroglial cells that he named as oligodendroglia and later OLGs. He established their ectodermal origin and suggested that they built the myelin sheath of CNS axons, just as Schwann cells did in the periphery. Notably, he also suggested the trophic role of OLGs for neuronal functionality, an idea that has been substantiated in the last few years. Del Río Hortega became internationally recognized and established an important neurohistological school with outstanding pupils from Spain and abroad, which nearly disappeared after his exile due to the Spanish civil war. Yet, the difficulty of metal impregnation methods and their variability in results, delayed for some decades the confirmation of his great insights into oligodendrocyte biology until the development of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. This review aims at summarizing the pioneer and essential contributions of del Río Hortega to the current knowledge of oligodendrocyte structure and function, and to provide a hint of the scientific personality of this extraordinary and insufficiently recognized man. PMID:26217196

  5. Mach, Thirring & Lense, Gödel getting dizzy in space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embacher, Franz

    2007-11-01

    Contrary to Newton's concept of inertia, general relativity predicts an influence of rotating matter on the structure of space and time. Anticipated by Ernst Mach, effects of this type have first been derived by Hans Thirring and Josef Lense. Almost ninety years later, we face their experimental verification. An even more dramatic scenario is provided by Kurt Gödel's cosmological model, in which nearby observers rotate with respect to each other and are free to travel to their own past.

  6. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and del(22q11) syndrome: a non-random association.

    PubMed Central

    Verloes, A; Curry, C; Jamar, M; Herens, C; O'Lague, P; Marks, J; Sarda, P; Blanchet, P

    1998-01-01

    Del(22q11) is a common microdeletion syndrome with an extremely variable phenotype. Besides classical manifestations, such as velocardiofacial (Shprintzen) or DiGeorge syndromes, del(22q11) syndrome may be associated with unusual but probably causally related anomalies that expand its phenotype and complicate its recognition. We report here three children with the deletion and a chronic, erosive polyarthritis resembling idiopathic cases of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Patient 1, born in 1983, initially presented with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and severe gastro-oesophageal reflux requiring G tube feeding. From the age of 3 years, he developed JRA, which resulted in severe restrictive joint disease, osteopenia, and platyspondyly. Patient 2, born in 1976, had tetralogy of Fallot and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. She developed slowly, had mild dysmorphic facial features, an abnormal voice, and borderline intelligence. JRA was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. The disorder followed a subacute course, with relatively mild inflammatory phenomena, but an extremely severe skeletal involvement with major osteopenia, restrictive joint disease (bilateral hip replacement), and almost complete osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones with phalangeal synostoses, leading to major motor impairment and confinement to a wheelchair. Patient 3, born in 1990, has VSD, right embryo-toxon, bifid uvula, and facial dysmorphism. She developed JRA at the age of 1 year. She is not mentally retarded but has major speech delay secondary to congenital deafness inherited from her mother. In the three patients, a del(22q11) was shown by FISH analysis. These observations, and five other recently published cases, indicate that a JRA-like syndrome is a component of the del(22q11) spectrum. The deletion may be overlooked in those children with severe, chronic inflammatory disorder. Images PMID:9832043

  7. [Programme review of somatropin deficit in pediatrics at the Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Lavaredas, A; de la Puerta, R; Álvarez del Vayo, C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una revisión del programa de déficit de somatropina aplicado en pediatría en el Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, utilizando dos grupos de pacientes, los diagnosticados con déficit de esta hormona y los nacidos pequeños para edad gestacional, con la intención de evaluar su efectividad en el primer año de tratamiento. Método: Realización de un estudio retrospectivo de la cohorte de pacientes en tratamiento con la hormona del crecimiento bajo los diagnósticos mencionados, con metodología observacional y transversal, a los cuales se aplicó un análisis estadístico con el programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences®. Resultados: Tras inicio del tratamiento la velocidad de crecimiento y la talla aumentaron y la edad ósea se aproximó a la edad cronológica. En los dos grupos tratados, en el primer año de tratamiento fueron los pacientes del sexo femenino con edad comprendida entre los 0 a 12 años con déficit de la hormona del crecimiento que respondieron mejor a la terapéutica establecida. Conclusiones: Pudimos observar que el tratamiento instituido se presentó altamente efectivo en ambos grupos de pacientes, permitiendo obtener un aumento favorable de estatura.

  8. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Decker, Caroline J.; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Frizzell, Ray A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC50, 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  9. A Precambrian cratonic block in the west-central Chihuahua - The Sierra del Nido cratonic block

    SciTech Connect

    Goodell, P.C. . Dept. of Geological)

    1993-02-01

    Precambrian rocks in west-central Chihuahua have been recognized by Denison (1969) and Mauger et al. (1983), on the basis of radiometric dating. The rocks are rhyolite clasts, and an allucthonous block, respectively, however their source direction and vergence can be measured. They point back to and are on the edge of a large, uniform, negative Bouguer gravity anomaly, having values greater than 200 milligals. The isotopic geochemical character of several Tertiary felsic fields within this anomalous are has been determined, and initial strontium isotopic ratios are all greater than 0.7055. Outside the anomalous area these ratios are lower, and Basin and Range extension tectonism is more evident. It is proposed that a Precambrian cratonic block, the Sierra del Nido, is present in the crust in west-central Chihuahua. It is reasonable to propose that it was decreted from North America during a Precambrian extensional (1.1. By ) event, from somewhere along the Arizona Transition Zone-Texas Linament region. The Sierra del Nido Block is separated form the ATZ-TL by a region of disrupted craton and extended crust, the Basin and Range Province. Implications of the pressure of the Sierra del Nido Block on other regional tectonic events will be discussed.

  10. Proteolytic effect of Cynara cardunculus rennet for use in the elaboration of 'Torta del Casar' cheese.

    PubMed

    Ordiales, Elena; Benito, Maria José; Martin, Alberto; Fernández, Margarita; Hernández, Alejandro; de Guia Córdoba, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyse the influence of rennet from different Cynara cardunculus plants, selected for its clotting and proteolytic activity on caseins, on the characteristics of manufactured 'Torta del Casar' cheeses. After classifying the cardoon according to proteolytic activity into five groups of greater or lesser activity, 16 batches of cheeses were made with rennet derived from different wild cardoon plants. We observed a major development of the proteolysis during ripening leading to the generation of non-protein nitrogen compounds. Especially noteworthy was the relationship of amino acid nitrogen (AN) generation with rennet clotting activity after 24 h of maceration, and the fact that the production of biogenic amines was not related to the proteolytic activity of the rennet. The activities of the rennet observed 'in vitro' were also developed 'in vivo' in the cheeses, with the different rennets used affecting the final sensory characteristics of cheeses. The rennet with high clotting activity after 24 h of maceration was positively correlated with the creaminess, viscosity, and acceptability of the cheese. However, the high proteolytic activity rennet negatively influenced the acidity, bitterness, and creaminess parameters. Therefore the most appropriate cardoons for making this cheese are those with higher clotting activities and moderate proteolytic activities especially on β-casein. The use of controlled and characterised cardoons in the manufacturing process of Torta del Casar is fundamental to obtaining the homogeneous product demanded by the Torta del Casar Registry of the Protected Designation of Origin.

  11. Lenalidomide induces ubiquitination and degradation of CK1α in del(5q) MDS.

    PubMed

    Krönke, Jan; Fink, Emma C; Hollenbach, Paul W; MacBeth, Kyle J; Hurst, Slater N; Udeshi, Namrata D; Chamberlain, Philip P; Mani, D R; Man, Hon Wah; Gandhi, Anita K; Svinkina, Tanya; Schneider, Rebekka K; McConkey, Marie; Järås, Marcus; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Wetzler, Meir; Bullinger, Lars; Cathers, Brian E; Carr, Steven A; Chopra, Rajesh; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2015-07-01

    Lenalidomide is a highly effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)). Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination of casein kinase 1A1 (CK1α) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)), resulting in CK1α degradation. CK1α is encoded by a gene within the common deleted region for del(5q) MDS and haploinsufficient expression sensitizes cells to lenalidomide therapy, providing a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic window of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS. We found that mouse cells are resistant to lenalidomide but that changing a single amino acid in mouse Crbn to the corresponding human residue enables lenalidomide-dependent degradation of CK1α. We further demonstrate that minor side chain modifications in thalidomide and a novel analogue, CC-122, can modulate the spectrum of substrates targeted by CRL4(CRBN). These findings have implications for the clinical activity of lenalidomide and related compounds, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel modulators of E3 ubiquitin ligases. PMID:26131937

  12. Pampa del Palo: an anomalous composite marine terrace on the uprising coast of southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortlieb, L.; Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Dabrio, C.; Macharé, J.

    1996-11-01

    Quaternary sediments along the southern Perúvian coast occur as staircase terraces of coastal and shallow-marine deposits in response to continuous uplift related to the active boundary between the Nazca and South-American plates. However, near ILO (in the same coastal stretch) the emergent Pampa del Palo terrace consists of a relatively-thick, vertical stack of shallow-marine, coastal and lagoonal deposits that indicate a rather different geodynamic behaviour. Coastal deposits are correlatable with the successive marine highstands of isotopic stages 7 (?) and 5 (substages 5e and 5c). Combining aerial photo-interpretation, geomorphological mapping, sedimentological analysis, chronostratigraphical data, and structural observations, the Pampa del Palo feature is interpreted as a faulted block that moved independently of the remaining southern Peruvian coast and, for some time between the end of Middle Pleistocene (before ca. 220 ka) and the early Late Pleistocene (ca. 120 ka), it rose more slowly or was even down-faulted relative to the rest of the southern Peruvian margin. The independent block movements ceased after substage 5e, when the Pampa del Palo "terrace" was incorporated into the regional uplift of the area. Since ca. 100 ka, measured uplift rates in the Ilo area amounted up to {160 mm}/{10 3y } when the area has been affected by a few active, NE-SE trending faults only.

  13. [Seventy years of medicine in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these lines is to remember and refer some of the historical landmarks in the evolution of the medical services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, according to its initials in Spanish) since it was founded, in 1943. We also want to bring to the reader's attention that the dimensions and impacts on health that IMSS has achieved, throughout its history, have strengthened the citizenship, as well as social sustainability. Also, those impacts have determined the creation and the reinforcement of human capital in México. Throughout this concise balance, all the controversy surrounding the foundation of the Institute is being recalled (the protest in the Mexico City Zócalo, or the attack to an hospital in San Ángel -a neighborhood located in the Southwest of Mexico City-), as well as the way the IMSS incorporated several words into the vocabulary of Mexicans. We also remember the previous antecedent of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, as well as the Revista de Enfermería, and the emblematic Archives of Medical Research. The IMSS has 70 years of achievements, seven decades covered.

  14. Filaggrin mutations p.R501X and c.2282del4 in ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Robert; Janecke, Andreas R; Fauth, Christine; Utermann, Gerd; Fritsch, Peter O; Schmuth, Matthias

    2007-02-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is the most common hereditary disorder of cornification in humans, characterized by generalized fine scaling of the skin, palmar hyperlinearity with or without keratosis pilaris and atopy. Recently, the molecular basis of IV was ascribed to loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG), namely p.R501X and c.2282del4. Homozygotes and compound heterozygotes were severely affected whereas heterozygotes showed mild disease or were asymptomatic, suggesting semidominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance in heterozygotes. We report the presence of FLG mutations in 15 out of 21 IV patients with a marked generalized scaling phenotype, including eight affected members of a four-generation family. In this group of patients not only homozygous and compound heterozygous, but also heterozygous patients for p.R501X and c.2282del4 display a pronounced phenotype, whereas in none of six individuals these two mutations were detectable despite decreased filaggrin expression on immunohistochemistry in two patients, indicating that other mutations in FLG and/or in other genes remain to be identified. In contrast, two additional p.R501X heterozygotes from the extended family are asymptomatic. In a control population from west-Austria a combined p.R501X and c.2282del4 carrier frequency of 6/110 (5.45%) was observed. We confirm that these FLG variants are common, but our results point to the existence of additional modifiers.

  15. Traffic circulation study and long-range plan for Del Rio. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, A.J.; Islam, R.

    1996-03-01

    A 1992 report to Congress, pursuant to Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) sections 1089 and 6015, acknowledges that Texas serves a disproportionate share of the U.S.-Mexico international trade, and, accordingly, recommends the development of federal-aid program options to improve transportation infrastructure related to international trade. In order to take advantage of this recommendation, border states must monitor their transborder traffic demand and develop traffic circulation plans for their border cities. This report presents a 25-year traffic circulation plan for the City of Del Rio, Texas. The plan includes recommendations for increasing roadway capacity, adding left-turn lanes, building new routes to relieve congestion, and adding international thoroughfares. It also includes a comprehensive analysis of a transborder traffic in Del Rio, as well as of international thoroughfares between Cuidad Acuna and Del Rio. The recommendations take into account input from TxDOT personnel, City officials, border inspectors, international bridge managers, and several Mexican officials. The recommendations and schedules discussed in this report can assist TxDOT not only in planning land transport infrastructure, but also in alleviating problems associated with additional highway capacity, pavement rehabilitation, signalization, and right-of-way.

  16. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  17. Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en radiación ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J.-C.; Rovira, M.

    Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en el rango de longitudes de onda ultravioleta fueron obtenidas con el instrumento CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrograph) y SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of emitted radiation) a bordo de la sonda SOHO. El propósito es investigar las velocidades macroscópicas de varias especies metálicas que se observan tanto en el disco solar como en el plasma de las protuberancias. Para calcular las velocidades del disco solar aplicamos una técnica mixta para modelar la distribución de estructuras en UV en el Sol quieto. Las velocidades macroscópicas en las protuberancias se calcularon a partir de los corrimientos Doppler en cada línea espectral y luego se tomaron las del disco solar como referencia. Obtuvimos valores absolutos para las velocidades macroscópicas entre 5 y 40 km/seg. También detectamos comportamientos diferentes en las velocidades de las protuberancias en el centro con respecto a los bordes.

  18. Heat flow and thermal processes in the Jornada delMuerto, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, M.

    1985-01-01

    Most heat flow data in rifts are uncertain largely because of hydrologic disturbances in regions of extensive fracturing. Estimates of heat flow in deep petroleum tests within a large basin of the Rio Grande rift, which has suffered little syn-rift fracturing, may begin to provide clearer insight into the relationships between high heat flow and crustal thinning processes. The Jornada del Muerto is a large basin located in the Rio Grande rift of south central New Mexico. The region of interest within the Jornada del Muerto is centered about 30 km east of the town of Truth or Consequences, and is approximately 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west. High heat flows are estimated for the region. Values increase from about 90 mWm(-2) in the northern part of the study area to about 125 mWm(-2) in the southern part. These high heat flows are rather enigmatic because in the immediate vicinities of the sites there is little evidence of Cenozoic volcanism or syn-rift extensional tectonics. It is suggested that the geothermal anomaly in the southern Jornada del Muerto (approx. 125 to approx. 95 mWm(-2) results from some type of mass movement-heat transfer mechanism operating in the crust just below the elastic layer. This conclusion is consistent with the geologic and geophysical data which describe a thin crust, apparently devoid of features indicative of extensional-tectonics in the upper part of the lastic crust.

  19. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  20. Relevamiento total del hemisferio sur celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, J. A.; Colomb, F. R.; Hurrel, E.; Larrarte, J. J.; Sanz, A. J.; Testori, J. C.; Reich, P.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    En el presente artículo se describe el relevamiento del cielo en el Hemisferio Sur Celeste en la frecuencia de 1420 MHz para declinaciones δ<= -19o realizado con la Antena II de 30 metros de diámetro del IAR. Este relevamiento posee igual sensibilidad (3xr.m.s=50 mK) que el realizado en el Hemisferio Norte con el radiotelescopio de 25 metros de Stockert de la Universidad de Bonn, operado por el Max-Planck Institute für Radioastronomie ( Reich W., 1982, A&ASS 48, 219; Reich P. and Reich W., 1986, A&ASS 63, 205). Con los datos obtenidos por ambos radiotelescopios se posee una base de datos de todo el cielo en esta frecuencia. En esta publicación presentamos los detalles del sistema receptor, técnicas de observación y reducción de datos, calibración y discusión de los errores en los resultados.

  1. Lenalidomide for myelodysplastic syndromes with del(5q): how long should it last?

    PubMed

    Vozella, Federico; Latagliata, Roberto; Carmosino, Ida; Volpicelli, Paola; Montagna, Chiara; Romano, Angela; Roberto, Amanda; Finsinger, Paola; Mancini, Marco; Breccia, Massimo; Oliva, Esther; Oliva, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Lenalidomide induces in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and del(5q) erythroid and cytogenetic response rates as high as 75% and 50%, respectively. It is still unclear, however, how long lenalidomide treatment should be continued and whether or not the drug could be interrupted. To assess the feasibility of lenalidomide discontinuation, we revised a cohort of 16 low-risk MDS patients with del(5q) treated at our institute in a phase II multicentric Italian study. Among the 12 responding patients, four discontinued lenalidomide while in complete response. All four patients needed during treatment a permanent lenalidomide reduction from 10 to 5 mg/day because of haematological toxicity (three patients) or grade 3 muscular and bone pain (one patient). At lenalidomide discontinuation after 16, 20, 27 and 20 months from the start, respectively, all four patients were in complete hematologic response and three forth in complete cytogenetic response. Three patients are still in response after 36, 30 and 20 months from lenalidomide discontinuation, respectively: The remaining patient relapsed after 20 months, and she is now receiving a new course of lenalidomide. In conclusion, long-lasting remissions are achievable in MDS patients with del(5q) in complete response after lenalidomide discontinuation. PMID:25950027

  2. Lenalidomide induces ubiquitination and degradation of CK1α in del(5q) MDS

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbach, Paul W.; MacBeth, Kyle J.; Hurst, Slater N.; Udeshi, Namrata D.; Chamberlain, Philip P.; Mani, D.R.; Man, Hon Wah; Gandhi, Anita K.; Svinkina, Tanya; Schneider, Rebekka K.; McConkey, Marie; Järås, Marcus; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Wetzler, Meir; Bullinger, Lars; Cathers, Brian E.; Carr, Steven A.; Chopra, Rajesh; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lenalidomide is a highly effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)). Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination of casein kinase 1A1 (CK1α) by the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in CK1α degradation. CK1α is encoded by a gene within the common deleted region for del(5q) MDS and haploinsufficient expression sensitizes cells to lenalidomide therapy, providing a mechanistic basis for lenalidomide's therapeutic window in del(5q) MDS. We found that mouse cells are resistant to lenalidomide but that changing a single amino acid in mouse Crbn to the corresponding human residue enables lenalidomide-dependent degradation of CK1α. We further demonstrate that minor side chain modifications in thalidomide and a novel analogue, CC-122, can modulate the spectrum of substrates targeted by CRL4CRBN. These findings have implications for the clinical activity of lenalidomide and related compounds and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel modulators of E3 ubiquitin ligases. PMID:26131937

  3. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of feral pigs from Karukinka Natural Park, Tierra del Fuego Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Aravena, P; Skewes, O; Gouin, N

    2015-04-28

    Control or eradication of exotic species is one of the greatest challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were released and became feral in the southern region of Chilean Tierra del Fuego Island in the 1900s. Currently, they inhabit part of Karukinka Natural Park, an area of global conservation concern. To gain insight into the control of this invasive species, we analyzed genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region to determine the origin and population subdivision of feral pigs in Tierra del Fuego. Sequences from a sample of 42 feral pigs, 10 domestic pigs from local farms, and references from other countries and commercial breeds revealed 2 highly differentiated populations, 1 in the western and the other in the eastern area of the park, each harboring a different haplotype, suggesting no connectivity between populations. Comparison of these haplotypes with reference sequences from other countries and commercial breeds indicated that feral pigs from Chilean Tierra del Fuego are of European origin, very likely from 2 separate introduction events. The haplotype found in the western feral population was also identified in domestic pigs from a farm. This raises concerns regarding the possible connectivity between stocks from local farms and the wild population. Based on these results, we recommend the development of strategies for controlling the population of this invasive species in Karukinka Natural Park.

  5. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Daniela; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in Cftr(F508del) homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  6. Rescue of Murine F508del CFTR Activity in Native Intestine by Low Temperature and Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Martina; Bot, Alice; Jorna, Huub; Scholte, Bob J.; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) carry at least one allele with the F508del mutation, resulting in a CFTR chloride channel protein with a processing, gating and stability defect, but with substantial residual activity when correctly sorted to the apical membranes of epithelial cells. New therapies are therefore aimed at improving the folding and trafficking of F508del CFTR, (CFTR correctors) or at enhancing the open probability of the CFTR chloride channel (CFTR potentiators). Preventing premature breakdown of F508del CFTR is an alternative or additional strategy, which is investigated in this study. We established an ex vivo assay for murine F508del CFTR rescue in native intestinal epithelium that can be used as a pre-clinical test for candidate therapeutics. Overnight incubation of muscle stripped ileum in modified William's E medium at low temperature (26°C), and 4 h or 6 h incubation at 37°C with different proteasome inhibitors (PI: ALLN, MG-132, epoxomicin, PS341/bortezomib) resulted in fifty to hundred percent respectively of the wild type CFTR mediated chloride secretion (forskolin induced short-circuit current). The functional rescue was accompanied by enhanced expression of the murine F508del CFTR protein at the apical surface of intestinal crypts and a gain in the amount of complex-glycosylated CFTR (band C) up to 20% of WT levels. Sustained rescue in the presence of brefeldin A shows the involvement of a post-Golgi compartment in murine F508del CFTR degradation, as was shown earlier for its human counterpart. Our data show that proteasome inhibitors are promising candidate compounds for improving rescue of human F508del CFTR function, in combination with available correctors and potentiators. PMID:23284872

  7. Análisis del espectro infrarrojo del polvo interestelar asociado con cúmulos globulares y de su evolución temporal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, L. J.; Forte, J. C.; Carpintero, D.

    El trabajo que se presenta investiga la dinámica de las partículas de polvo interestelar eyectadas por estrellas gigantes rojas en un cúmulo globular utilizando simulaciones numéricas de su interacción con el campo gravitatorio y con la radiación electromagnética de las estrellas. Se pretende con ello determinar la distribución espacial de ese material como una función del tiempo en un sistema similar a NGC 104 (47 Tuc). A partir de la distribución espacial resultante se obtuvo el espectro infrarrojo integrado el cual sugiere que el máximo contraste con la radiación estelar ocurre en longitudes de onda cercanas a 300 μm y que decrece rápidamente hacia longitudes de onda menores, en las que suelen realizarse las observaciones.

  8. 500 days of Stromgren b, y and narrow-band [OIII], H α photometric evolution of gamma-ray Nova Del 2013 (=V339 Del)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, Ulisse; Maitan, Alessandro; Moretti, Stefano; Tomaselli, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We present and discuss highly accurate photometry obtained through medium Stromgren y, b bands and narrow [OIII], Hα bands covering 500 days of the evolution of Nova Del 2013 since its maximum brightness. This is by far the most complete study of any nova observed in such photometric systems. The nova behavior in these photometric bands is very different from that observed with the more conventional broad bands like UBVRC IC or u‧g‧r‧i‧z‧ , providing unique information about extent and ionization of the ejecta, the onset of critical phases like the transition between optically thick and thin conditions, and re-ionization by the central super-soft X-ray source. The actual transmission profiles of the y, b , [OIII] and Hα photometric filters have been accurately measured at different epochs and different illumination angles, to evaluate in detail their performance under exact operating conditions. The extreme smoothness of both the Hα and [OIII] lightcurves argues for absence of large and abrupt discontinuities in the ejecta of Nova Del 2013. Should they exist, glitches in the lightcurves would have appeared when the ionization and/or recombination fronts overtook them. During the period of recorded very large variability (up to 100× over a single day) in the super-soft X-ray emission (from day +69 to +86 past V maximum), no glitch in excess of 1% was observed in the optical photometry, either in the continuum (Stromgren y) or in the lines ([OIII] and Hα filters), or in a combination of the two (Stromgren b, Johnson B and V). Considering that the recombination time scale in the ejecta was one week at that time, this excludes global changes of the white dwarf as the source of the X-ray variability and supports instead clumpy ejecta passing through the line of sight to us as its origin.

  9. The Torres del Paine intrusion as a model for a shallow magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Lukas; Bodner, Robert; Leuthold, Julien; Muntener, Othmar; Putlitz, Benita; Vennemann, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    The shallow magmatic Torres del Paine Intrusive Complex (TPIC) belongs to a series of sub-volcanic and plutonic igneous bodies in Southern Chile and Argentina. This trench-parallel belt is located in a transitional position between the Patagonia Batholith in the West, and the alkaline Cenozoic plateau lavas in the East. While volumetrically small amounts of magmatism started around 28 my ago in the Torres del Paine area, and a second period occurred between 17-16 Ma, it peaked with the TPIC 12.59-12.43 Ma ago. The spectacular cliffs of the Torres del Paine National park provide a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a very shallow magma chamber and the interaction with its host rocks. Intrusion depth can be estimated based on contact metamorphic assemblages and granite solidus thermobarometry to 750±250 bars, corresponding to an intrusion depth of ca. 3km, ca. 500m above the base of the intrusion. Hornblende thermobarometry in mafic rocks agrees well with these estimates (Leuthold et al., 2014). The TPIC is composed of a granitic laccolith emplaced over 90ka (Michel et al., 2008) in 3 major, several 100m thick sheets, forming an overall thickness of nearly 2 km. Contacts are sharp between sheets, with the oldest sheet on the top and the youngest on the bottom (Michel et al., 2008). The granitic laccolith is under-plated by a ca. 400m thick mafic laccolith, built up over ca. 50ka (Leuthold et al. 2012), constructed from the bottom up. Granitic and mafic sheets are themselves composed of multiple metric to decametric pulses, mostly with ductile contacts between them, resulting in outcrop patterns resembling braided stream sediments. The contact of the TPIC with the Cretaceous flysch sediments document intrusion mechanism. Pre-existing sub-horizontal fold axes are rotated in the roof of the TPIC, clearly demonstrating ballooning of the roof; no ballooning was observed in the footwall of the intrusion. Extension during ballooning of the roof is indicated by

  10. Genetic Inhibition Of The Ubiquitin Ligase Rnf5 Attenuates Phenotypes Associated To F508del Cystic Fibrosis Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Tomati, Valeria; Sondo, Elvira; Armirotti, Andrea; Caci, Emanuela; Pesce, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Gianotti, Ambra; Ju Jeon, Young; Cilli, Michele; Pistorio, Angela; Mastracci, Luca; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Scholte, Bob; Ronai, Ze’ev; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Pedemonte, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR chloride channel. Deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del), the most frequent CF mutation, impairs CFTR trafficking and gating. F508del-CFTR mistrafficking may be corrected by acting directly on mutant CFTR itself or by modulating expression/activity of CFTR-interacting proteins, that may thus represent potential drug targets. To evaluate possible candidates for F508del-CFTR rescue, we screened a siRNA library targeting known CFTR interactors. Our analysis identified RNF5 as a protein whose inhibition promoted significant F508del-CFTR rescue and displayed an additive effect with the investigational drug VX-809. Significantly, RNF5 loss in F508del-CFTR transgenic animals ameliorated intestinal malabsorption and concomitantly led to an increase in CFTR activity in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, we found that RNF5 is differentially expressed in human bronchial epithelia from CF vs. control patients. Our results identify RNF5 as a target for therapeutic modalities to antagonize mutant CFTR proteins. PMID:26183966

  11. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M; McClean, Phillip E

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  12. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M.; McClean, Phillip E.

    2013-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate. PMID:24860578

  13. miR-16 rescues F508del-CFTR function in native cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Bhattacharyya, S; Peters, K W; Glover, M L; Sen, A; Cox, R T; Kundu, S; Caohuy, H; Frizzell, R A; Pollard, H B; Biswas, R

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to mutations in the CFTR gene, which prevents correct folding, trafficking and function of the mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The dysfunctional effect of CFTR mutations, principally the F508del-CFTR mutant, is further manifested by hypersecretion of the pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 into the airway lumen, which further contributes to morbidity and mortality. We have hypothesized that microRNA (miR)-based therapeutics could rescue the dysfunctional consequences of mutant CFTR. Here we report that a miR-16 mimic can effectively rescue F508del-CFTR protein function in airway cell lines and primary cultures, of differentiated human bronchial epithelia from F508del homozygotes, which express mutant CFTR endogenously. We also identify two other miRs, miR-1 and miR-302a, which are also active. Although miR-16 is expressed at basal comparable levels in CF and control cells, miR-1 and miR-302a are undetectable. When miR mimics are expressed in CF lung or pancreatic cells, the expression of the F508del-CFTR protein is significantly increased. Importantly, miR-16 promotes functional rescue of the cyclic AMP-activated apical F508del-CFTR chloride channel in primary lung epithelial cells from CF patients. We interpret these findings to suggest that these miRs may constitute novel targets for CF therapy.

  14. Hypothesizing an ancient Greek origin of the GJB2 35delG mutation: can science meet history?

    PubMed

    Kokotas, Haris; Grigoriadou, Maria; Villamar, Manuela; Giannoulia-Karantana, Aglaia; del Castillo, Ignacio; Petersen, Michael B

    2010-04-01

    One specific mutation of the GJB2 gene that encodes the connexin 26 protein, the 35delG mutation, has become a major interest among scientists who focus on the genetics of nonsyndromic hearing loss. The mutation accounts for the majority of GJB2 mutations detected in Caucasian populations and represents one of the most frequent disease mutations identified so far. The debate was so far between the arguments whether or not the 35delG mutation constitutes a mutational hot-spot or a founder effect; however, it was recently clarified that the latter seems the most likely. In an attempt to explore the origin and propagation of the 35delG mutation, several groups have reported the prevalence of the mutation and the carrier rates in different populations worldwide. It is now certain that the theory of a common founder prevails and that the highest carrier frequencies of the 35delG mutation are observed in southern European populations, giving rise to a discussion regarding the origin of the 35delG mutation. In this study, we discuss data previously published by our and other groups and also compare the haplotype distribution of the mutation in southern Europe, trying to understand the pathways of science and history and the conflict between them.

  15. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Song, Qijian; Mamidi, Sujan; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lee, Rian; Cregan, Perry; Osorno, Juan M; McClean, Phillip E

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney) were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6× to 5.1× coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate. PMID:24860578

  16. Towards a systematic construction of realistic D-brane models on a del Pezzo singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Krippendorf, Sven; Quevedo, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    A systematic approach is followed in order to identify realistic D-brane models at toric del Pezzo singularities. Requiring quark and lepton spectrum and Yukawas from D3 branes and massless hypercharge, we are led to Pati-Salam extensions of the Standard Model. Hierarchies of masses, flavour mixings and control of couplings select higher order del Pezzo singularities, minimising the Higgs sector prefers toric del Pezzos with dP 3 providing the most successful compromise. Then a supersymmetric local string model is presented with the following properties at low energies: (i) the MSSM spectrum plus a local B - L gauge field or additional Higgs fields depending on the breaking pattern, (ii) a realistic hierarchy of quark and lepton masses and (iii) realistic flavour mixing between quark and lepton families with computable CKM and PMNS matrices, and CP violation consistent with observations. In this construction, kinetic terms are diagonal and under calculational control suppressing standard FCNC contributions. Proton decay operators of dimension 4, 5, 6 are suppressed, and gauge couplings can unify depending on the breaking scales from string scales at energies in the range 1012-1016 GeV, consistent with TeV soft-masses from moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking. The GUT scale model corresponds to D3 branes at dP 3 with two copies of the Pati-Salam gauge symmetry SU(4) × SU(2) R × SU(2) L . D-brane instantons generate a non-vanishing μ-term. Right handed sneutrinos can break the B - L symmetry and induce a see-saw mechanism of neutrino masses and R-parity violating operators with observable low-energy implications.

  17. F508del-CFTR rescue: a matter of cell stress response.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Erika; Pollarolo, Benedetta; Merello, Luisa; Schenone, Silvia; Mazzei, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited fatal disease affecting 70,000 people worldwide, with a median predicted age of survival of approximately 38 years. The deletion of Phenylalanine in position 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (F508del-CFTR) is the most common mutation in CF patients: the deleted protein, not properly folded, is degraded. To date no commercial drugs are available. Low temperature, some osmolytes and conditions able to induce heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibition result in F508del-CFTR rescue, hence restoring its physiological function: this review sheds light on the correlation between these several evidences. Interestingly, all these approaches have a role in the cell stress response (CSR), a set of cell reactions to stress. In addition, unpredictably, F508del-CFTR rescue has to be considered in the frame of CSR: entities that induce - or are induced during - the CSR are, in general, also able to correct trafficking defect of CFTR. Specifically, the low temperature induces, by definition, a CSR; osmolytes, such as glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), are products of the CSR; pharmacological correctors, such as Matrine and 4-phenylbutirric acid (4PBA), down-regulate the constitutive Hsc70 in favor of an up-regulation of the inducible chaperone Hsp70, another component of the CSR. The identification of a common mechanism of action for different types of correctors could drive the discovery of new active molecules in CF, overcoming methods clinically inapplicable, such as the low temperature. PMID:23331026

  18. [Causes of maternal mortality in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, period 2009-2012].

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la razón de muerte materna (RMM) ha disminuido lentamente, no obstante que la OMS se propuso reducirla en un 75 % en el período de 1990 a 2015. Por esto es necesario continuar con el análisis de las causas para reforzar e innovar líneas de acción y así disminuir las muertes maternas en nuestro país. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron casos de muerte materna que ocurrieron de 2009 a 2012, por causa directa e indirecta. La información se obtuvo del expediente de muerte materna, el cual es un documento oficial del IMSS. La definición de muerte materna utilizada fue la emitida por la OMS. Las muertes indirectas se agruparon según la décima revisión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-10). Se utilizó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: la RMM en el IMSS ha disminuido en forma lenta pero constante, pues en el 2012 se obtuvo la RMM más baja en la institución (26.4). Sin embargo, la preeclampsia severa-eclampsia y la hemorragia obstétrica ocuparon el primero y segundo lugar. Como causa indirecta, las enfermedades del sistema cardiovascular, y las neoplasias malignas ocuparon los primeros lugares sin subestimar las cifras de las patologías respiratorias, digestivas y endocrinas. Conclusiones: es necesario proseguir con los esfuerzos para disminuir la RMM en todos los niveles de atención médica. Es prioritario continuar con la educación y consejería preconcepcional a mujeres en edad fértil y fortalecer las acciones en la planificación familiar.

  19. Biophysical characterisation of calumenin as a charged F508del-CFTR folding modulator.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rashmi; Benz, Nathalie; Culleton, Bridget; Trouvé, Pascal; Férec, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic-AMP dependent chloride channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining various organs such as the respiratory tract. Defective processing and functioning of this protein caused by mutations in the CFTR gene results in loss of ionic balance, defective mucus clearance, increased proliferation of biofilms and inflammation of human airways observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The process by which CFTR folds and matures under the influence of various chaperones in the secretory pathway remains incompletely understood. Recently, calumenin, a secretory protein, belonging to the CREC family of low affinity calcium binding proteins has been identified as a putative CFTR chaperone whose biophysical properties and functions remain uncharacterized. We compared hydropathy, instability, charge, unfoldability, disorder and aggregation propensity of calumenin and other CREC family members with CFTR associated chaperones and calcium binding proteins, wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). We observed that calumenin, along with other CREC proteins, was significantly more charged and less folded compared to CFTR associated chaperones. Moreover like IDPs, calumenin and other CREC proteins were found to be less hydrophobic and aggregation prone. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close link between calumenin and other CREC proteins indicating how evolution might have shaped their similar biophysical properties. Experimentally, calumenin was observed to significantly reduce F508del-CFTR aggregation in a manner similar to AavLEA1, a well-characterized IDP. Fluorescence microscopy based imaging analysis also revealed altered trafficking of calumenin in bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR, indicating its direct role in the pathophysiology of CF. In conclusion, calumenin is characterized as a charged protein exhibiting close similarity with IDPs and is

  20. Oxygen isotope evidence for submarine hydrothermal alteration of the Del Puerto ophiolite, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffman, P.; Williams, A.E.; Evarts, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions and metamorphic mineral assemblages of hydrothermally altered rocks from the Del Puerto ophiolite and overlying volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks at the base of the Great Valley sequence indicate that their alteration occurred in a submarine hydrothermal system. Whole rock ??18O compositions decrease progressively down section (with increasing metamorphic grade): +22.4??? (SMOW) to +13.8 for zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks overlying the ophiolite; +19.6 to +11.6 for pumpellyite-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the upper part of the ophiolite's volcanic member; +12.3 to +8.1 for epidote-bearing metavolcanic rocks in the lower part of the volcanic member; +8.5 to +5.7 for greenschist facies rocks from the ophiolite's plutonic member; +7.6 to +5.8 for amphibolite facies or unmetamorphosed rocks from the plutonic member. Modelling of fluid-rock interaction in the Del Puerto ophiolite indicates that the observed pattern of upward enrichment in whole rock ??18O can be best explained by isotopic exchange with discharging 18O-shifted seawater at fluid/rock mass ratios near 2 and temperatures below 500??C. 18O-depleted plutonic rocks necessarily produced during hydrothermal circulation were later removed as a result of tectonism. Submarine weathering and later burial metamorphism at the base of the Great Valley sequence cannot by itself have produced the zonation of hydrothermal minerals and the corresponding variations in oxygen isotope compositions. The pervasive zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies mineral assemblages found in the Del Puerto ophiolite may reflect its origin near an island arc rather than deep ocean spreading center. ?? 1984.

  1. Biophysical characterisation of calumenin as a charged F508del-CFTR folding modulator.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rashmi; Benz, Nathalie; Culleton, Bridget; Trouvé, Pascal; Férec, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic-AMP dependent chloride channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial cells lining various organs such as the respiratory tract. Defective processing and functioning of this protein caused by mutations in the CFTR gene results in loss of ionic balance, defective mucus clearance, increased proliferation of biofilms and inflammation of human airways observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The process by which CFTR folds and matures under the influence of various chaperones in the secretory pathway remains incompletely understood. Recently, calumenin, a secretory protein, belonging to the CREC family of low affinity calcium binding proteins has been identified as a putative CFTR chaperone whose biophysical properties and functions remain uncharacterized. We compared hydropathy, instability, charge, unfoldability, disorder and aggregation propensity of calumenin and other CREC family members with CFTR associated chaperones and calcium binding proteins, wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). We observed that calumenin, along with other CREC proteins, was significantly more charged and less folded compared to CFTR associated chaperones. Moreover like IDPs, calumenin and other CREC proteins were found to be less hydrophobic and aggregation prone. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close link between calumenin and other CREC proteins indicating how evolution might have shaped their similar biophysical properties. Experimentally, calumenin was observed to significantly reduce F508del-CFTR aggregation in a manner similar to AavLEA1, a well-characterized IDP. Fluorescence microscopy based imaging analysis also revealed altered trafficking of calumenin in bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR, indicating its direct role in the pathophysiology of CF. In conclusion, calumenin is characterized as a charged protein exhibiting close similarity with IDPs and is

  2. F508del-CFTR rescue: a matter of cell stress response.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Erika; Pollarolo, Benedetta; Merello, Luisa; Schenone, Silvia; Mazzei, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited fatal disease affecting 70,000 people worldwide, with a median predicted age of survival of approximately 38 years. The deletion of Phenylalanine in position 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (F508del-CFTR) is the most common mutation in CF patients: the deleted protein, not properly folded, is degraded. To date no commercial drugs are available. Low temperature, some osmolytes and conditions able to induce heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression and heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibition result in F508del-CFTR rescue, hence restoring its physiological function: this review sheds light on the correlation between these several evidences. Interestingly, all these approaches have a role in the cell stress response (CSR), a set of cell reactions to stress. In addition, unpredictably, F508del-CFTR rescue has to be considered in the frame of CSR: entities that induce - or are induced during - the CSR are, in general, also able to correct trafficking defect of CFTR. Specifically, the low temperature induces, by definition, a CSR; osmolytes, such as glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), are products of the CSR; pharmacological correctors, such as Matrine and 4-phenylbutirric acid (4PBA), down-regulate the constitutive Hsc70 in favor of an up-regulation of the inducible chaperone Hsp70, another component of the CSR. The identification of a common mechanism of action for different types of correctors could drive the discovery of new active molecules in CF, overcoming methods clinically inapplicable, such as the low temperature.

  3. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. )

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  4. Multimodal Assessment of Protein Functional Deficiency Supports Pathogenicity of BRCA1 p.V1688del

    PubMed Central

    De Nicolo, Arcangela; Parisini, Emilio; Zhong, Quan; Palma, Maurizia Dalla; Stoeckert, Kathryn A.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Caligo, Maria A.; Vidal, Marc; Cusick, Michael E.; Garber, Judy E.

    2009-01-01

    Unequivocal discrimination between neutral variants and deleterious mutations is crucial for appropriate counseling of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 sequence change. An increasing number of variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) are being identified, whose unclassified biological effect poses clinical concerns. A multifactorial likelihood-based approach recently suggested disease causality for BRCA1 p.V1688del, a VUS recurrent in Italian breast/ovarian cancer families. Whether and how this single amino acid deletion in the BRCA1 BRCT domain affects the function of the mutant protein (ΔValBRCA1) has not been elucidated. We undertook comprehensive functional characterization of ΔValBRCA1, comprising comparative structural modeling, analysis of protein stability and associations, and analysis of DNA repair function. Our model predicted BRCT domain destabilization and folding disruption caused by BRCA1 p.V1688del. Consistently, the recombinant ΔValBRCA1 was less stable than wtBRCA1 and, unlike the latter, failed to associate with BRIP1, CtIP, and Rap80, and to re-localize to sites of DNA damage. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a compromised interaction with FHL2 and with KPNA2, which is likely responsible for improper subcellular localization of ΔValBRCA1. In addition, we found four new breast/ovarian cancer families of Italian ancestry who carried this sequence alteration. These results provide the first evidence of the effect of BRCA1 p.V1688del on protein stability and function, supporting the view that it is a deleterious mutation. Multimodal analyses like ours could advance understanding of tumor suppression by BRCA1, and ultimately contribute to developing efficient strategies for screening and characterization of VUSs. PMID:19706752

  5. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, A.G.; Aubry, M.-P.; Berggren, W.A.; Collins, Luke S.; Kunk, M.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5-18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidities. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  6. Stratigraphic context and direct dating of the Neandertal mandible from Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona).

    PubMed

    Daura, J; Sanz, M; Pike, A W G; Subirà, M E; Fornós, J J; Fullola, J M; Julià, R; Zilhão, J

    2010-07-01

    Stratigraphic study of the Cova del Gegant's sedimentary fill revealed different cycles of accumulation of typical interior cave and delta facies. A precise chronology for these deposits, the faunal remains and stone tools contained therein was obtained by radiocarbon, U-Th and OSL. Our results indicate that the Upper Pleistocene archaeological sequence dates between 49.3 +/- 1.8 ka BP, the U-Th age of the overlying flowstone, and 60.0 +/- 3.9 ka BP, the OSL age of the basal deposits. We have also directly dated the site's Neandertal mandible to 52.3 +/- 2.3 ka by U-Th.

  7. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the del mar and sunnyvale sites, california.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, J L; Rosenbauer, R J

    1981-08-28

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8,300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low.

  8. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the del mar and sunnyvale sites, california.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, J L; Rosenbauer, R J

    1981-08-28

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8,300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low. PMID:17789030

  9. Mortality according to age and burned body surface in the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cía, T; Mallén, J; Márquez, T; Portela, C; Lopez, I

    1999-06-01

    The application of updated clinical protocols for the treatment of burned patients is showing very good results. The mortality curves according to age and the percentage of burned body surface could be of great use for the comparison of clinical results between different burns units. The probability of survival in 1000 consecutive patients admitted to the Burns Unit of the Virgen del Rocio University Hospital between July, 1993 and August, 1997, is compared, by graphic analysis, with the mortality curves of other centers, obtaining similar results. We conclude that the results of medical attendance in our unit are in line with those considered as a reference.

  10. Eruption of the nevado del ruiz volcano, Colombia, on 13 november 1985: tephra fall and lahars.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, J L; Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S N; Fritz, W

    1986-08-29

    A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives.

  11. Descripción del coronógrafo a ser instalado en Argentina (MICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Francile, C.; Schwenn, R.; Epple, A.; Rovira, M.

    El ``Coronógrafo de espejo para Argentina'' es un telescopio solar terrestre a ser colocado en el Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (El Leoncito), antes de finalizar 1996, como parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. Eclipses fotográficos de alta resolución han revelado que la corona solar es altamente estructurada y variable. De hecho, está contínuamente deformada y moldeada por los movimientos convectivos de los extremos de los arcos magnéticos en la fotosfera, estando, en muchas oportunidades, afectada por explosivas liberaciones de energía. MICA, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares espaciales y terrestres, tratará de contribuir al entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Entre ellas: cómo la corona está siendo calentada, dónde y cómo el viento solar es acelerado, qué causa los transitorios coronales, etc. Para ello investigará la distribución de los parámetros del plasma y su evolución con el tiempo, la estructura espacial de la corona en fina y gran escala, procesos que ocurren en los transitorios coronales y factores que los disparan, etc. Para responder a estas cuestiones MICA observará la atmósfera solar por sobre el limbo entre 1.1 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente, usando un nuevo tipo de sistema coronográfico que permite suprimir el brillo del disco solar suficientemente bien, tomando las imágenes con una cámara CCD de 1024x1024 pixels, codificada en 12 bits, pudiendo el mismo ser operado en forma remota. En la presente exposición describiremos las características del instrumento, cómo será controlado y qué esperamos observar basados en las imágenes obtenidas por los telescopios de similares características LASCO C1 a bordo del SOHO y PICO (ubicado en el Observatorio de Pic du Midi, Francia).

  12. Eruption of the nevado del ruiz volcano, Colombia, on 13 november 1985: tephra fall and lahars.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, J L; Sigurdsson, H; Carey, S N; Fritz, W

    1986-08-29

    A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives. PMID:17732038

  13. Holocene paleoclimate characterization in Lago Fagnano (Tierra del Fuego) using sedimentary, physical and geochemical proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizcaino Marti, A.; Dunbar, R. B.; Wahl, D.; Moy, C. M.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Anderson, L.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    Tierra del Fuego is the world's southernmost landmass outside of Antarctica. Two features of ocean circulation control the climate of Tierra del Fuego: the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow and the South Pacific Gyre. Together with Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego is the only terrestrial region directly influenced by the southern hemisphere westerly winds. This region is also a tectonically active area affected by volcanic and seismic activity related to South American and Scotia-Antarctic plate boundaries. Accommodated along the Magallanes-Fagnano fault system, as part of the plate boundary, the Lago Fagnano is the largest lake in Tierra del Fuego. This E-W trending lake is 100 km long and 5-15 km wide. Our investigations were carried out on the upper 4 meters of an 8.4 m long piston core obtained at 69 m water depth in Bahía Grande (LF06-PC8); a southwestern lake sub-basin separated from the main lake by a shallow sill. Our studies are based on the integration of sediment description, physical properties, pollen, and geochemical analyses including C and N isotopes (1cm interval) and XRF scan (1mm interval). The age model for the core is based on radiocarbon ages and tephrochronology. Additionally, a 800 km long grid of high resolution seismic profiles support the sedimentary analyses and allow the correlation with other cores from within the lake basin. LF06-PC8 yields continuous and high accumulation-rate sedimentary sections for Lago Fagnano. The presented sediment record corresponds to a laminated hemipelagite with presence of a single but complex mass transport deposit interval. An accurate sedimentological interpretation of the core together with the radiocarbon ages and tephra dates allow to identify and characterize the main sedimentary processes occurring in the lake over the last 8 kyr. In addition, proxy data (C and N isotopes and XRF scan data) from the laminated hemipelagic interval provide a reliable record of past variability in the westerly wind field as

  14. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1981-08-28

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low.

  15. Anomalous ocean load tide signal observed in lake-level variations in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Dietrich, R.; Perdomo, R.; Fritsche, M.; Del Cogliano, D.; Liebsch, G.; Mendoza, L.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the application of a 100 km long lake as a sensor for studying the tidal effects on Tierra del Fuego main island. The lake-level variations observed in Lago Fagnano reflect both the direct response to the tidal potential and the indirect effect of the ocean tidal loading. Modeling both contributions explains the observed tidal signal in the lake to about 70%. Underestimated model load tide amplitudes are found to be probably responsible for the remaining difference. We interpret this discrepancy as a hint for regional elastic lithosphere properties differing substantially from those represented by currently available global models.

  16. Pliocene Transgression in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Strontium Isotopes from Cuevas Del Almanzora (Se Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel W.

    1993-02-01

    The deposition of marine sediments in the deep Mediterranean basins following the Messinian salinity crisis ("Zanclean Deluge") began at 4.9 Ma and continued until normal marine conditions prevailed at 4.6 Ma. The Betic Strait of southeast Spain, the Rif Strait of northern Morocco, and the Strait of Gibraltar have been postulated as possible entry ways for the marine waters into the Mediterranean. Two possible explanations have been offered for the timing of the deposition of marine hemipelagic marls in the Vera Basin (Cuevas del Almanzora section) within the Betic Strait: (1) early Pliocene, representing the "Zanclean Deluge" (Cita et al., 1980), (2) Messinian (˜5.7 Ma), representing the last marine stage before the Messinian salinity crisis (Benson and Rakic-El Bied, 1991; Benson et al., 1991). The strontium isotopic ratio on mixed assemblages of foraminifers from these marine marls was determined in order to assess their ages. The average 87Sr/86Sr (0.709033±24) of the seven measured samples is, compared to the base of the Miocene/Pliocene boundary stratotype at Capo Rossello, Sicily, higher by 38 × 10-6 and yields an age of 4.6±0.5 Ma when compared to the established open ocean Sr seawater curve. The determined age indicates that (1) the first 3.6 m of marine deposits of the Cuevas del Almanzora section sensu Cita et al. (1980) including the passage zone are Pliocene, (2) the earliest marine Pliocene might not be represented at Cuevas del Almanzora indicating that this marginal basin at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, yet within the former Betic Strait, was filled progressively by a marine transgression originating from the Mediterranean Sea around 4.6 Ma. The absence of lowermost Pliocene sediments could suggest that the Betic Strait did not serve as a conduit for the water masses entering the Mediterranean basins during the early Pliocene; and (3) the presence of an early evolutionary stage of Globorotalia margaritae in the Moroccan Bou Regreg section

  17. Evaluation of the Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure-recording device.

    PubMed

    Sheps, S G; Elveback, L R; Close, E L; Kleven, M K; Bissen, C

    1981-12-01

    We have the opportunity to evaluate a portable ambulatory device for the recording of sequential indirect arterial blood pressure and continuous electrocardiogram (Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure recording device). With careful attention to technique, only 11% of systolic and 5% of diastolic blood pressure readings differed by more than 10 mm Hg as compared with a trained technician's observations simultaneously in the same arm. The device has been useful in the evaluation of borderline (labile) hypertension, hypertensive drug therapy programs, and various episodic cardiovascular phenomena--for example, vasodepressor syncope and pheochromocytoma crises.

  18. Rotating Kaluza-Klein multi-black holes with Gödel parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Ken; Ishihara, Hideki; Nakagawa, Toshiharu; Tomizawa, Shinya

    2008-09-01

    We obtain new five-dimensional supersymmetric rotating multi-Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions with the Gödel parameter in the Einstein-Maxwell system with a Chern-Simons term. These solutions have no closed timelike curve outside the black hole horizons. At infinity, the space-time is effectively four-dimensional. Each horizon admits various lens space topologies L(n;1)=S3/Zn in addition to a round S3. The space-time can have outer ergoregions disjointed from the black hole horizons, as well as inner ergoregions attached to each horizon. We discuss the rich structures of ergoregions.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in litteral sediments from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, O; Ferrer, L; Marcovecchio, J

    1996-07-01

    For the first time the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and total Hg) of sediments from the coastal zone of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, in Southern Argentina) were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized in order to determine the metal contents. The level of metals as observed in the sediments was recognized as the natural background, even though the use of normalization of lead, copper, and zinc to iron allowed the identification of the main sources of metal pollution for this environment. In order to develop future environmental monitoring programmes for the area of Ushuaia city and the Beagle Channel, the present results need to be considered.

  20. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8,300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  1. 2.3-11.6 Micron Measurements of Nova Del 2013 Consistent with Presence of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-11-01

    Our 2.3-11.6 micron measurements of Nova Del 2013 on 24.04 November 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA) yielded the following magnitudes: K = +5.24 +/- 0.15, L = +3.25 +/- 0.38, M = +2.00 +/- 0.26, [10.3] = -0.17 +/- 0.38, and [11.6] = -0.19 +/- 0.21. An additional measurement on 19.08 November 2013 yielded [10.3] = -0.10 +/- 0.36.

  2. L-Band Measurement of Nova Del 2013 Consistent with Presence of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    An L-band measurement of Nova Del 2013 on 29.17 September 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA) yielded a magnitude of L = +2.6 +/- 0.3. Vega (alpha Lyrae) was used as the standard star. This flux level is consistent with a small amount of dust having formed recently as reported in ATEL 5431.

  3. Matuyama-age lithic tools from the Sima del Elefante site, Atapuerca (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Rosas, Antonio; Benito, A; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E; Huguet, R

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the sedimentary fill at the Sima del Elefante site in Atapuerca, Spain, reveal a geomagnetic reversal, interpreted as the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (0.78 Ma). The uppermost lithostratigraphic units (E17 through E19), which contain Mode II and III archaeological assemblages, display normal polarity magnetization, whereas the six lowermost units (E9 through E16) yield negative latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole positions. Units E9 through E13, all of which display reverse magnetic polarity, contain Mode I (Oldowan) lithic tools, testifying to the presence of humans in the early Pleistocene (0.78-1.77 Ma). PMID:16249015

  4. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution. PMID:25673233

  5. Basis for a streamflow forecasting system to Rincón del Bonete and Salto Grande (Uruguay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talento, Stefanie; Terra, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the basis for the design of streamflow prediction systems for the hydroelectric dams of Rincón del Bonete (Uruguay) and Salto Grande (Uruguay-Argentina). The prediction is made, independently, for each reservoir and each month of the year with two methodologies: data-driven statistical models and hybrid downscaling that includes atmospheric predictors. We determine a set of potential predictors and then fit linear models coupled with variable selection techniques, under the hypothesis of perfectly known predictors. The predictive skill of the schemes outperforms the climatological forecast throughout the year in both reservoirs (except August in Rincón del Bonete). This remains the case even when the forecast lead does not allow for the use of preceding flows as predictors. While in Rincón del Bonete it is not possible to distinguish a period of high predictability, in Salto Grande, there is a robust signal in March-May and October-December.

  6. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution.

  7. La meridiana di Egnazio Danti nella Torre dei Venti in Vaticano: un'icona della riforma Gregoriana del calendario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    La Torre dei Venti domina l’angolo Sud Ovest del cortile della Pigna (nell'area dei Musei Vaticani), ed è inclusa negli ambienti dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Non è aperta al pubblico, ma è universalmente nota per la fama che da oltre quattrocento anni la circonda, legata alle vicende della riforma Gregoriana del calendario. La meridiana tracciata da padre Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) nella torre dei Venti, fu visitata anche da Gregorio XIII, probabilmente il 21 marzo 1581 come suppone il padre Stein, per convincersi dell'anticipo ormai arrivato a dieci giorni dell'equinozio di primavera sulla data che il concilio di Nicea aveva fissato al 21 marzo per il computo pasquale. La ricognizione astrometrica del febbraio-marzo 2009 fatta dall'autore viene qui presentata.

  8. [Tierra del Fuego: the scientific-political construction of exclusion and counter-image of the ideal city dweller].

    PubMed

    Nacach, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Due to its late incorporation into the national State, the social, economic and political setting of the Argentine province Tierra del Fuego differed from that of the rest of the national territory. In the construction of dependent otherness, objectifications and representations were imposed by state-related and non-state-related institutions, among other agencies. In this context, the Salesian mission of La Candelaria and Ushuaia's Jail for recidivists stand out as spaces in which biopolitics was concretised. The native population and criminals in Tierra del Fuego were those to be subjugated. The thesis of the extinction of the Indian and the simultaneous exaltation of the criminal as the subject of progress identified the scientific and political mechanisms by which the exclusion of certain social groups (Tierra del Fuego's indigenous population) and the inclusion of others (criminals) were regulated.

  9. The effect of the common c.2299delG mutation in USH2A on RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Lenassi, Eva; Saihan, Zubin; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Webster, Andrew R

    2014-05-01

    Recessive variants in the USH2A gene are an important cause of both Usher syndrome and nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. A single base-pair deletion in exon 13 (c.2299delG, p.Glu767Serfs*21) is considered the most frequent mutation of USH2A. It is predicted to generate a premature termination codon and is presumed to lead to nonsense mediated decay. However the effect of this variant on RNA has not been formally investigated. It is not uncommon for exonic sequence alterations to cause aberrant splicing and the aim of the present report is to evaluate the effect of c.2299delG on USH2A transcripts. Nasal cells represent the simplest available tissue to study splicing defects in USH2A. Nasal brushing, RNA extraction from nasal epithelial cells and reverse transcription PCR were performed in five Usher syndrome patients who were homozygous for c.2299delG, two unaffected c.2299delG heterozygotes and seven control individuals. Primers to amplify between exons 12 and 15 and exons 10 and 14 were utilised. Significant variability was observed between different RT-PCR experiments. Importantly, in controls, PCR product of the expected size were amplified on all occasions (13/13 experiments); for patients this was true in only 4/14 experiments (Fisher exact test p = 0.0002). Bioinformatics tools predict the c.2299delG change to disrupt an exonic splicing enhancer and to create an exonic splicing silencer within exon 13. Here, we report an effect of the common c.2299delG mutation on splicing of exons 12 and 13 of USH2A. Future studies are expected to provide important insights into the contribution of this effect on the phenotype.

  10. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  11. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  12. K7del is a common TPM2 gene mutation associated with nemaline myopathy and raised myofibre calcium sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Nancy; Ilkovski, Biljana; Kreissl, Michaela; Memo, Massimiliano; Jeffries, Cy M; Marttila, Minttu; Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Lemola, Elina; Grönholm, Mikaela; Yang, Nan; Menard, Dominique; Marcorelles, Pascale; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Reimann, Jens; Vainzof, Mariz; Monnier, Nicole; Ravenscroft, Gianina; McNamara, Elyshia; Nowak, Kristen J; Laing, Nigel G; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Trewhella, Jill; Marston, Steve; Ottenheijm, Coen; North, Kathryn N; Clarke, Nigel F

    2013-02-01

    Mutations in the TPM2 gene, which encodes β-tropomyosin, are an established cause of several congenital skeletal myopathies and distal arthrogryposis. We have identified a TPM2 mutation, p.K7del, in five unrelated families with nemaline myopathy and a consistent distinctive clinical phenotype. Patients develop large joint contractures during childhood, followed by slowly progressive skeletal muscle weakness during adulthood. The TPM2 p.K7del mutation results in the loss of a highly conserved lysine residue near the N-terminus of β-tropomyosin, which is predicted to disrupt head-to-tail polymerization of tropomyosin. Recombinant K7del-β-tropomyosin incorporates poorly into sarcomeres in C2C12 myotubes and has a reduced affinity for actin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of patient muscle and primary patient cultured myotubes showed that mutant protein is expressed but incorporates poorly into sarcomeres and likely accumulates in nemaline rods. In vitro studies using recombinant K7del-β-tropomyosin and force measurements from single dissected patient myofibres showed increased myofilament calcium sensitivity. Together these data indicate that p.K7del is a common recurrent TPM2 mutation associated with mild nemaline myopathy. The p.K7del mutation likely disrupts head-to-tail polymerization of tropomyosin, which impairs incorporation into sarcomeres and also affects the equilibrium of the troponin/tropomyosin-dependent calcium switch of muscle. Joint contractures may stem from chronic muscle hypercontraction due to increased myofibrillar calcium sensitivity while declining strength in adulthood likely arises from other mechanisms, such as myofibre decompensation and fatty infiltration. These results suggest that patients may benefit from therapies that reduce skeletal muscle calcium sensitivity, and we highlight late muscle decompensation as an important cause of morbidity. PMID:23378224

  13. Mini-mastoidectomía para anastomosis hipogloso-facial con sección parcial del nervio hipogloso

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Carolina; Rhoton, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La anastomosis hipogloso-facial es la técnica de elección para la reparación de la parálisis facial cuando no se dispone de un cabo proximal sano del nervio facial. La técnica de anastomosis mediante fresado mastoideo y sección parcial del hipogloso minimiza la atrofia lingual sin sacrificar resultados a nivel facial. Método: La porción mastoidea del nervio facial transcurre por la pared anterior de la AM, a un promedio de 18+/-3 mm de profundidad respecto de la pared lateral. Se debe reconocer la cresta supramastoidea, desde la cual se marca una línea vertical paralela al eje mayor de la AM, 1 cm por detrás de la pared posterior del CAE El fresado se comienza desde la línea medio mastoidea hasta la pared posterior del CAE. Una vez encontrado el nervio facial en el tercio medio del canal mastoideo, el mismo es seguido hacia proximal y distal. Resultados: El abordaje descripto permite acceder al nervio facial intratemporal en su porción mastoidea, y efectuar un fresado óseo sin poner en riesgo al nervio o a estructuras vasculares cercanas. Se trata de un procedimiento técnicamente más sencillo que los abordajes amplios habitualmente utilizados al hueso temporal; no obstante su uso debe ser restringido mayormente a la anastomosis hipogloso-facial. Conclusión: Esta es una técnica relativamente sencilla, que puede ser reproducida por cirujanos sin mayor experiencia en el tema, luego de su paso por el laboratorio de anatomía. PMID:23596555

  14. Challenges of modeling current very large lahars at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, M.; Pulgarín, B.

    2012-03-01

    Nevado del Huila, a glacier-covered volcano in the South of Colombia's Cordillera Central, had not experienced any historical eruptions before 2007. In 2007 and 2008, the volcano erupted with phreatic and phreatomagmatic events which produced lahars with flow volumes of up to about 300 million m3 causing severe damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. The magnitude of these lahars and the prevailing potential for similar or even larger events, poses significant hazards to local people and makes appropriate modeling a real challenge. In this study, we analyze the recent lahars to better understand the main processes and then model possible scenarios for future events. We used lahar inundation depths, travel duration, and flow deposits to constrain the dimensions of the 2007 event and applied LAHARZ and FLO-2D for lahar modeling. Measured hydrographs, geophone seismic sensor data and calculated peak discharges served as input data for the reconstruction of flow hydrographs and for calibration of the models. For model validation, results were compared with field data collected along the Páez and Simbola Rivers. Based on the results of the 2007 lahar simulation, we modeled lahar scenarios with volumes between 300 million and 1 billion m3. The approach presented here represents a feasible solution for modeling high-magnitude flows like lahars and allows an assessment of potential future events and related consequences for population centers downstream of Nevado del Huila.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1 Del spectroscopy (Kubat+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubat, J.; Kubatova, B.; Dolezalova, B.; Iliev, L.; Slechta, M.

    2016-02-01

    Visual spectra were observed with the Perek 2-m telescope at the Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic) with the slit spectrograph in coude focus. We obtained medium-resolution spectra, (R~13000) with the 700-mm spectrograph focus, in which the SITe CCD 2030x800 chip of 15um pixels was used. Our spectra of 1 Del were taken on 16 September 2007. The data were reduced (bias subtracted, flat-fielded, and wavelength calibrated) using the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF1). The spectra were normalized to continuum with a straight line to fit the far wings of the Hα line. SINFONI observations were obtained in service mode at the VLT-UT4 (Yepun) telescope at ESO under Programme-ID 093.D-0172(A) during two nights (6 and 10 June 2014). Spectroscopy of 1 Del was carried out with the SINFONI, the AO-assisted integral field spectrograph in all available near-infrared bands (J, H, and K). (2 data files).

  16. Evaporación dinámica del cinturón de asteroides original

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    Hemos integrado numéricamente un enjambre de 3000 partículas en la región del cinturón de asteroides, sujetas a las perturbaciones gravitatorias de Júpiter y Saturno. Al cabo de 107 años, se han formado ya todos los gaps de Kirkwood observados en el cinturón actual. El grupo en la resonancia 3/2 es, aunque en menor grado, también visible. Los tiempos de Lyapunov computados para los asteroides sobrevivientes, nos ha permitido encontrar la fracción de ellos que es capaz de sobrevivir por toda la edad del sistema solar, merced a la aplicacion de la relación empírica que vincula dichos tiempos al tiempo en el cual se manifiestan grandes transiciones orbitales. La fracción de supervivientes es de aproximadamente 1/100. El resto de la masa faltante en el cinturón, es atribuible a colisiones catastróficas con cometas en etapas primordiales.

  17. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  18. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  19. Features of Lactobacillus Sakei Isolated from Italian Sausages: Focus on Strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    PubMed Central

    Amadoro, Carmela; Piccirilli, Michele; Colavita, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L.) sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L.) monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products. PMID:27802352

  20. EU Del: exploring the onset of pulsation-driven winds in giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; Johnson, C. I.; Uttenthaler, S.; Jones, O. C.; Smith, C. L.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the wind-driving mechanism of giant stars through the nearby (117 pc), intermediate-luminosity (L ≈ 1600 L⊙) star EU Del (HIP 101810, HD 196610). Atacama Pathfinder Experiment observations of the CO (3-2) and (2-1) transitions are used to derive a wind velocity of 9.51 ± 0.02 km s-1, a 12C/13C ratio of 14^{+9}_{-4} and a mass-loss rate of a few × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1. Analysis of published spectra show the star has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.27 ± ˜0.30 dex. The star's dusty envelope lacks a clear 10-μm silicate feature, despite the star's oxygen-rich nature. Radiative transfer modelling cannot fit a wind acceleration model which relies solely on radiation pressure on condensing dust. We compare our results to VY Leo (HIP 53449), a star with similar temperature and luminosity, but different pulsation properties. We suggest the much stronger mass-loss from EU Del may be driven by long-period stellar pulsations, due to its potentially lower mass. We explore the implications for the mass-loss rate and wind velocities of other stars.