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Sample records for zonas remotas con

  1. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    PubMed

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  2. Molecular genetic diversity in populations of the stingless bee Plebeia remota: A case study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Francisco, Flávio; Santiago, Leandro Rodrigues; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Genetic diversity is a major component of the biological diversity of an ecosystem. The survival of a population may be seriously threatened if its genetic diversity values are low. In this work, we measured the genetic diversity of the stingless bee Plebeia remota based on molecular data obtained by analyzing 15 microsatellite loci and sequencing two mitochondrial genes. Population structure and genetic diversity differed depending on the molecular marker analyzed: microsatellites showed low population structure and moderate to high genetic diversity, while mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed high population structure and low diversity in three populations. Queen philopatry and male dispersal behavior are discussed as the main reasons for these findings.

  3. Molecular genetic diversity in populations of the stingless bee Plebeia remota: A case study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Francisco, Flávio; Santiago, Leandro Rodrigues; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is a major component of the biological diversity of an ecosystem. The survival of a population may be seriously threatened if its genetic diversity values are low. In this work, we measured the genetic diversity of the stingless bee Plebeia remota based on molecular data obtained by analyzing 15 microsatellite loci and sequencing two mitochondrial genes. Population structure and genetic diversity differed depending on the molecular marker analyzed: microsatellites showed low population structure and moderate to high genetic diversity, while mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed high population structure and low diversity in three populations. Queen philopatry and male dispersal behavior are discussed as the main reasons for these findings. PMID:23569417

  4. Antimalarial activity of Ajuga remota Benth (Labiatae) and Caesalpinia volkensii Harms (Caesalpiniaceae): in vitro confirmation of ethnopharmacological use.

    PubMed

    Kuria, K A; De Coster, S; Muriuki, G; Masengo, W; Kibwage, I; Hoogmartens, J; Laekeman, G M

    2001-02-01

    Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

  5. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The medium lethal doses (LD 50 ) of both extracts were higher than 5000 mg/kg, indicating the extracts are not toxic under the observable condition. Aqueous extracts of A.remota (300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight) reduced elevated blood glucose levels by 27.83 ± 2.96% and 38.98 ± 0.67% (P < 0.0001), respectively while the 70% ethanol extract caused a reduction of 27.94 ± 1.92% (300 mg/kg) & 28.26 ± 1.82% (500 mg/kg). Treatment with the antidiabetic drug, Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose level by 51.06% (p < 0.05). Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  6. Targeting the zona pellucida for immunocontraception: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J

    1995-12-01

    This minireview summarizes the main data relevant to the development of contraceptive vaccines based on zona pellucida (ZP) antigens, as well as the pros and the cons of this immunocontraceptive strategy. Even though the antifertility efficacy of anti-ZP antibodies in humans is not corroborated by a clear relationship between spontaneous autoimmunization against the ZP and infertility, passive and active immunization studies in laboratory animals have provided convincing results. The contraceptive action of anti-ZP antibodies, targeting events situated upstream of gamete fusion, is devoid of potential ethical concerns related to the destruction of early embryos. The high protein content of the mammalian ZP, knowledge of the complete amino acid sequence of the major ZP proteins, and the high degree of sequence homology between individual species all favour the rapid advancement of anti-ZP vaccine projects. However, certain sequences of ZP proteins, when incorporated into the vaccine construct, activate CD4+ T cells of the recipient organism to direct a cellular immune attack (autoimmune oophoritis) to other functionally relevant ovarian components (primordial follicles, steroidogenic cells). The search for the optimal combination of B cell and T cell epitopes in the vaccine construct will hopefully overcome this problem.

  7. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  8. Mechanics of sperm-egg interaction at the zona pellucida.

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, J M; Katz, D F; Cone, R A

    1988-01-01

    Mammalian sperm traverse several layers of egg vestments before fertilization can occur. The innermost vestment, the zona pellucida, is a glycoprotein shell, which captures and tethers the sperm before they penetrate it. We report here direct measurements of the force required to tether a motile human sperm as well as independent calculations of this force using flagellar beat parameters observed for sperm of several species on their homologous zonae. We have compared these sperm-generated forces with the calculated tensile strength of sperm-zona bonds, and found that a motile sperm can be tethered, at least temporarily, by a single bond. Therefore, sperm can be captured by the first bond formed and tethered permanently by a few. The sperm cannot subsequently penetrate the zona unless the bonds are first eliminated. However, premature elimination would simply allow the sperm to escape. Therefore, not only must the bonds be eliminated, but the timing of this must be regulated so that the sperm is already oriented toward the egg and beginning to penetrate as the bonds are broken. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:3224150

  9. Scintigraphy of normal mouse ovaries with monoclonal antibodies to ZP-2, the major zona pellucida protein

    SciT

    East, I.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Larson, S.M.

    1984-08-31

    The zona pellucida is an extracellular glycocalyx, made of three sulfated glycoproteins, that surrounds mammalian oocytes. Parenterally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for ZP-2, the most abundant zona protein, localize in the zona pellucida. When labeled with iodine-125, these monoclonal antibodies demonstrate a remarkably high target-to-nontarget tissue ratio and provide clear external radioimaging of ovarian tissue.

  10. Capital social de los padres de escolares de una zona vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Susana; Herrera, Ariel; Hilas, Elena; Gigena, Y Pablo

    2018-01-01

    El capital social supone importantes inversiones materiales, simbólicas y de esfuerzos. Conocer el capital social de una comunidad puede facilitar la comprensión del beneficio de las relaciones comunitarias para la promoción de salud. Con el objetivo de reconocer los componentes del capital social de padres de escolares atendiendo una escuela en una zona vulnerable de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, indagamos a través de grupos focales acerca de elementos esenciales del capital social. La asintonía socio-cultural entre los pobladores originarios y los reubicados, la estigmatización policial y el clientelismo político han generado desconfianza del uno hacia el otro en diferentes aspectos convivenciales, siendo la familia la única red de apoyo. La escuela se reconoce como espacio adonde la gente espontáneamente se organiza para invertir en redes sociales, presentándose así con potencialidad para la promoción de conductas saludables, por el lugar simbólico que ocupa para los padres.

  11. The practical side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Rowan, A; Lamberski, N; Wallace, R; Frank, K; Lyda, R

    2009-12-01

    With shrinking habitat, the humane control of certain wildlife populations is relevant. The contraceptive vaccine based on native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) has been applied to various wildlife populations for 20 years. Prominent efforts include wild horses, urban deer, zoo animals and African elephants, among others. This approach has been successful in managing entire populations and to date, no significant debilitating short- or long-term health effects have been documented.

  12. Transfer of bovine demi-embryos with and without the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S J; Seidel, G E; Elsden, R P

    1987-09-01

    Bisected bovine embryos with or without the zona pellucida were transferred to recipients nonsurgically in five field trials. Embryos were collected from superovulated donors 6.5 to 7.5 d after estrus; only embryos of good and excellent quality were bisected. Demi-embryos were transferred either within a zona pellucida, without a zona pellucida, without a zona pellucida, or in the third and fourth trials, without a zona but embedded in 7% gelatin. Pregnancies were diagnosed at 44 to 68 d of gestation. In a preliminary trial, 9/29 zona pellucida-intact demi-embryos developed into fetuses compared with 1/10 zona pellucida-free demi-embryos (P greater than .1). The proportion of zona-free demi-embryos developing to fetuses was not significantly different from the zona-intact group in the second trial either, 24/49 and 5/19, respectively. In trial 3, the proportion of zona pellucida-free demi-embryos developing was 8/25; of zona-enclosed embryos, 29/88; and of zona-free demi-embryos embedded in gelatin, 8/22 (P greater than .1). Similarly, in the fourth trial the rate of development of zona-free demi-embryos to fetuses was 5/12, that of zona-enclosed embryos was 32/81, and that of zona-free demi-embryos embedded in gelatin was 3/12 (P greater than .1). In trial 5, survival of zona-enclosed demi-embryos to fetuses was 40/105, and of zona-free demi-embryos, 46/109 (P greater than .1). Except for trial 2, half of the demi-embryos were twinned, one to each uterine horn; twinning did not significantly affect the proportion developing to fetuses for any of the demi-embryo groups. It is concluded that placing post-compaction demi-embryos into the zona pellucida for transfer does not improve pregnancy rates significantly.

  13. Viscous forces are predominant in the zona pellucida mechanical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Maiorana, Alessandro; Douet, Cécile; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Goudet, Ghylène; De Spirito, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a multilayer glycoprotein spherical shell surrounding mammalian eggs. The ZP's mechanical response plays a crucial role in mammalian fertilization and is a parameter commonly adopted in "in vitro fertilization" to characterize the oocytes quality. While it is assumed that ZP mechanical response is purely elastic, here we prove that dissipative forces cannot be neglected. Physiologically, this evidence implies that an increase in the spermatozoa motility can induce dramatic changes on the ZP reaction force turning ZP shell in an impenetrable barrier leading to fertility impairments.

  14. Characterization of oocyte retrieval cycles with empty zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Hara, Tomomi; Ohta, Hiroko; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    To identify the factors that characterize cycles with empty zona pellucida (EZP). Thirty-six oocyte retrieval cycles from which EZP were collected and another 36 cycles from which no EZP was collected were compared. The patients were divided into three groups: those with no EZP collected during any cycle, those with EZP collected during all cycles, and those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP. The mean number of oocytes collected per cycle was higher in the cycles with EZP than without EZP. The fertilization rate of the collected oocytes and the rate of good embryo formation were significantly lower in the cycles with EZP. No significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of age, number of oocytes collected, or hormone levels before and after the oocyte retrieval. The fertilization and pregnancy rates were highest in the patients with no EZP being collected during any cycle, followed by those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP, and then by those with EZP collected during all cycles. The observation of lower fertilization, poor embryo formation, and a low pregnancy rate in the patients with EZP suggests the poor quality of oocytes that were collected with EZP in the same cycle.

  15. Microanatomical diversification of the zona pellucida in aplochelioid killifishes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A W; Furness, A I; Stone, C; Rade, C M; Ortí, G

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates zona pellucida (ZP) ultrastructure in fertilized eggs of annual killifishes (suborder Aplocheiloidei), a group of highly specialized fishes that are able to survive desiccation for several weeks to months before they hatch. Little is known about ZP or chorionic ultrastructure sustaining these life-history modes, so scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe this trait in a large number of aplocheiloids with a focus on the family Rivulidae and the genus Hypsolebias. New images of ZP ultrastructure for 52 aplocheiloid species are provided, more than doubling the number characterized thus far. The evolution of chorionic structure within this group is studied using these new data. Characters were coded into a morphological matrix and optimized onto a consensus phylogeny to assess phylogenetic signal and reconstruct ancestral character states. Although ZP characters seem highly homoplastic and exhibit a large amount of structural convergence among lineages, aplocheiloid killifishes have evolved a number of unique structures associated with the chorion. Some annual species seem to have lost long filaments because eggs are deposited in the soil instead of being adhered to aquatic plants. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  17. Zona-free oocyte fertilized with intracytoplasmic sperm injection and underwent further division: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y Y; Chang, C C; Tsai, H D

    2001-09-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) plays a protective role during fertilization and early embryonic development. It is related to sperm binding, the acrosome reaction, prevention of polyspermic fertilization, and holding blastomeres together before the morular stage. Zona-free oocytes are accidentally encountered. If these oocytes are healthy, they can be fertilized normally by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We reported on a couple with male infertility undergoing oocyte retrieval after ovarian hyperstimulation. Before the ICSI procedure, cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes were removed, which resulted in one oocyte escaping from its ZP. The zona-free oocyte was fertilized normally with ICSI and developed to the 8-cell stage. We observed that the zona-free zygote had the ability to further divide, despite its loose contact. The zona-free embryo was transferred with other zona-intact embryos, but the implantation failed. We conclude that zona-free oocytes can be rescued, fertilized with ICSI, and cultured for further transfer or cryopreservation.

  18. The anatomy of the caudal zona incerta in rodents and primates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Charles; Lind, Christopher R P; Thomas, Meghan G

    2014-01-01

    The caudal zona incerta is the target of a recent modification of established procedures for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and tremor. The caudal zona incerta contains a number of neuronal populations that are distinct in terms of their cytoarchitecture, connections, and pattern of immunomarkers and is located at a position where a number of major tracts converge before turning toward their final destination in the forebrain. However, it is not clear which of the anatomical features of the region are related to its value as a target for DBS. This paper has tried to identify features that distinguish the caudal zona incerta of rodents (mouse and rat) and primates (marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human) from the remainder of the zona incerta. We studied cytoarchitecture, anatomical relationships, the pattern of immunomarkers, and gene expression in both of these areas. We found that the caudal zona incerta has a number of histological and gene expression characteristics that distinguish it from the other subdivisions of the zona incerta. Of particular note are the sparse population of GABA neurons and the small but distinctive population of calbindin neurons. We hope that a clearer appreciation of the anatomy of the region will in the end assist the interpretation of cases in which DBS is used in human patients. PMID:24138151

  19. Human sperm degradation of zona pellucida proteins contributes to fertilization.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.

  20. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs.

  1. Medición de posiciones astrométricas con CCD en la zona de Rup 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    It is shown the utilization of the block adjustment method for the measurement of astrometric positions from a mosaic of sixteen CCD images with partial overlap, which were taken with the Telescope Jorge Sahade of CASLEO. The observations cover an area of 25' x 25' around the open cluster Rup21. The source of reference positions was ACT Reference Catalog. The internal error of the measured positions is analyzed, and the external error is estimated from the comparison with the catalog USNO-A. In this comparison it is found that the direct CCD images taken with focal reducer could be distorted by severe field curvature. The effect of the distortion presumably introduced by the optics is eliminated with the suitable corrections of the stellar positions measured on every frame, but a new systematic effect on scales of the entire field is observed, which could be due to the distribution of the reference stars.

  2. Differences between antigenic determinants of pig and cat zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Rohleder, M; Wegner, I

    2000-05-01

    Despite many efforts, the control of reproduction in feral cat populations is still a problem in urban regions around the world. Immunocontraception is a promising approach; thus the present study examined the suitability of the widely used pig zona pellucida proteins (pZP) for contraception in feral domestic cats. Purified zona pellucida proteins obtained from pig and cat ovaries were used to produce highly specific antisera in rabbits. Antibodies against pZP raised in rabbits or lions were not effective inhibitors of either in vitro sperm binding (cat spermatozoa to cat oocytes) or in vitro fertilization in cats, whereas antibodies against feline zona pellucida proteins (fZP) raised in rabbits showed a dose-dependent inhibition of in vitro fertilization. Immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA and immunohistology of ovaries confirmed these results, showing crossreactivity of anti-fZP sera to fZP and to a lesser extent to pZP, but no interaction of anti-pZP sera with fZP. It is concluded that cat and pig zonae pellucidae express a very small number of shared antigenic determinants, making the use of pZP vaccine in cats questionable. A contraceptive vaccine based on feline zona pellucida determinants will be a better choice for the control of reproduction in feral cats if immunogenity can be achieved.

  3. The formation of zona radiata in Pseudosciaena crocea revealed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The egg envelope is an essential structure occurring during oogenesis. It plays an important role during the process of fertilization in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. Elucidation of egg envelope formation helps us to understand fertilization mechanisms in teleosts. In the present work, we studied the formation of egg envelope in P. crocea by light microscopy, as well as by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Four layers exist outside the oocyte plasmalemma, i.e., theca cell layer, basal membrane, granulosa cell layer and zona radiata. According to our observation, zona radiata is a multilaminar structure just like the same structure reported in teleosts, but the origin of this structure is a little different. Before it is formed, a peripheral space filled with different density of vesicles is the place where zona radiata is formed. Zona radiata (Z1) is secreted only by oocyte itself, it belongs to the primary envelope; zona radiata 2 (Z2) and zona radiata 3 (Z3) belong to the secondary envelope, because the two layers are formed after granulosa cells appear, and microvilli participate this process. It is very interesting that Z2 and Z3 are situated between Z1 and the granulosa cell first, but they translocate to the other side of Z1. This microanatomy difference may due to the participation of microvilli. The new finding about egg envelope formation in P. crocea will help us to do further investigation on fertilization mechanisms and will make artificial breeding possible which may contribute to the resource recovery of this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser assisted zona hatching does not lead to immediate impairment in human embryo quality and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Pudakalakatti, Shivanand; Atreya, Hanudatta S; Raval, Keyur; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Laser assisted zona hatching (LAH) is a routinely used therapeutic intervention in assisted reproductive technology for patients with poor prognosis. However, results are not conclusive in demonstrating the benefits of zona hatching in improving the pregnancy rate. Recent observations on LAH induced genetic instability in animal embryos prompted us to look into the effects of laser assisted zona hatching on the human preimplantation embryo quality and metabolic uptake using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. This experimental prospective study included fifty embryos from twenty-five patients undergoing intra cytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryo quality assessment followed by profiling of spent media for the non-invasive evaluation of metabolites was performed using NMR spectroscopy 24 hours after laser treatment and compared with that of non-treated sibling embryos. Both cell number and embryo quality on day 3 of development did not vary significantly between the two groups at 24 hours post laser treatment interval. Time lapse monitoring of the embryos for 24 hours did not reveal blastomere fragmentation adjacent to the point of laser treatment. Similarly, principal component analysis of metabolites did not demonstrate any variation across the groups. These results suggest that laser assisted zona hatching does not affect human preimplantation embryo morphology and metabolism at least until 24 hours post laser assisted zona hatching. However, studies are required to elucidate laser induced metabolic and developmental changes at extended time periods. AH: assisted hatching; ART: assisted reproductive technology; DNA: deoxy-ribo nucleic acid; LAH: laser assisted hatching; MHz: megahertz; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; PCA: principal component analysis; PGD: preimplantation genetic diagnosis; TLM: time lapse monitoring.

  5. Most fertilizing mouse spermatozoa begin their acrosome reaction before contact with the zona pellucida during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mayuko; Fujiwara, Eiji; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Okabe, Masaru; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Baba, Shoji A.; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-01-01

    To fuse with oocytes, spermatozoa of eutherian mammals must pass through extracellular coats, the cumulus cell layer, and the zona pellucida (ZP). It is generally believed that the acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa, essential for zona penetration and fusion with oocytes, is triggered by sperm contact with the zona pellucida. Therefore, in most previous studies of sperm–oocyte interactions in the mouse, the cumulus has been removed before insemination to facilitate the examination of sperm–zona interactions. We used transgenic mouse spermatozoa, which enabled us to detect the onset of the acrosome reaction using fluorescence microscopy. We found that the spermatozoa that began the acrosome reaction before reaching the zona were able to penetrate the zona and fused with the oocyte's plasma membrane. In fact, most fertilizing spermatozoa underwent the acrosome reaction before reaching the zona pellucida of cumulus-enclosed oocytes, at least under the experimental conditions we used. The incidence of in vitro fertilization of cumulus-free oocytes was increased by coincubating oocytes with cumulus cells, suggesting an important role for cumulus cells and their matrix in natural fertilization. PMID:21383182

  6. Fine structure and morphogenesis of spironolactone bodies in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, K.; Horvath, E.; Singer, W.

    1973-01-01

    Numerous spironolactone bodies have been detected in the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex of a 36-year-old spironolactone-treated woman whose non-tumorous right adrenal gland was removed surgically because of primary hyperaldosteronism. Electron microscopy revealed spherical laminated whorls which consisted of a central core composed of an amorphous electron-dense material surrounded by numerous smooth-walled concentric membranes. Continuous with and deriving from the endoplasmic reticulum, they were present in viable cells and were not associated with ultrastructural features indicating cellular injury. Cytoplasmic inclusions similar to spironolactone bodies can be detected in other organs after the administration of various compounds. Thus, they can be regarded as neither specific to spironolactone treatment nor exclusively inducible in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Images PMID:4131694

  7. Body mass index is not associated with sperm-zona pellucida binding ability in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Sermondade, Nathalie; Dupont, Charlotte; Faure, Céline; Boubaya, Marouane; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Sifer, Christophe; Lévy, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as weight and nutritional status may affect male fertility, including sperm fertilization ability. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sperm-zona pellucida binding ability assessed according to the zona binding (ZB) test, which has been described to be a relevant diagnostic tool for the prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability. Three hundred and six male patients from couples diagnosed with primary idiopathic or mild male factor infertility were included. Correlations between BMI and semen parameters according to ZB test indices were assessed, together with frequencies of positive and negative tests across the BMI categories. In this selected population, BMI was not related to conventional semen parameters or sperm quality assessed according to the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. The previously described poor outcomes of IVF procedures in cases of male obesity could be due to other sperm defects, such as alterations of sperm capacitation or acrosome reaction. The link between male BMI and biological outcomes during IVF procedures, such as fertilization rates, should be further evaluated.

  8. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    DOE PAGES

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.; ...

    2017-01-19

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  9. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    SciT

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  10. Thermal effects in laser-assisted pre-embryo zona drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2001-04-01

    Diode lasers ((lambda) equals 1480 nm) are used with in vitro fertilization to dissect the zone pellucida (shell) of pre- embryos. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel or trench in the zona pellucida. The procedure is used to facilitate biopsy or as a promoter of embryo hatching. We present examples and measurements of zona pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g., by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed- beam experiment a HeNe laser probe is used to detect the temperature-induced change in the refractive index of an aqueous solution, and estimate local thermal gradient. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 degree(s)C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  11. Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Kim, Juhyun; Kim, Dong Won; Zhang, Yi Stephanie; Bao, Hechen; Denaxa, Myrto; Lim, Szu-Aun; Kim, Eileen; Liu, Chang; Wickersham, Ian R.; Pachnis, Vassilis; Hattar, Samer; Song, Juan; Brown, Solange P.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple populations of wake-promoting neurons have been characterized in mammals, but few sleep-promoting neurons have been identified1. Wake-promoting cell types include hypocretin and GABA (γ-aminobutyric-acid)-releasing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, which promote the transition to wakefulness from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep2,3. Here we show that a subset of GABAergic neurons in the mouse ventral zona incerta, which express the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx6 and are activated by sleep pressure, both directly inhibit wake-active hypocretin and GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus and receive inputs from multiple sleep–wake-regulating neurons. Conditional deletion of Lhx6 from the developing diencephalon leads to decreases in both NREM and REM sleep. Furthermore, selective activation and inhibition of Lhx6-positive neurons in the ventral zona incerta bidirectionally regulate sleep time in adult mice, in part through hypocretin-dependent mechanisms. These studies identify a GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the ventral zona incerta that promote sleep. PMID:28847002

  12. Laser-assisted zona pellucida thinning does not facilitate hatching and may disrupt the in vitro hatching process: a morphokinetic study in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Tim; Cohen, Jacques; Saunders, Helen; Alikani, Mina

    2014-12-01

    Does laser-assisted zona thinning of cleavage stage mouse embryos facilitate hatching in vitro? No, unlike laser zona opening, zona thinning does not facilitate embryo hatching. Artificial opening of the zona pellucida facilitates hatching of mouse and human embryos. Laser-assisted zona thinning has also been used for the purpose of assisted hatching of human embryos but it has not been properly investigated in an animal model; thinning methods have produced inconsistent clinical results. Time-lapse microscopy was used to study the hatching process in the mouse after zona opening and zona thinning; a control group of embryos was not zona-manipulated but exposed to the same laser energy. Eight-cell CB6F1/J mouse embryos were pooled and allocated to three groups (n = 56 per group): A control group of embryos that were exposed to a dose of laser energy focused outside the zona pellucida (zona intact); one experimental group of embryos in which the zona pellucida was opened by complete ablation using the same total number of pulses as the control group; a second experimental group of embryos in which the zona pellucida was thinned to establish a smooth lased area using the same number of pulses as used in the other two groups. The width of the zona opening was 25 μm and width of the thinned area was 35 μm. Development was monitored by time-lapse microscopy. Overall treatment differences for continuous variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons using the Student t-test allowing for unequal variances, while for categorical data, a standard chi-squared test was utilized for all pairwise comparisons. The frequency of complete hatching was 33.9% in the control group, 94.4% after zona opening, and 39.3% after zona thinning (overall group comparison, P < 0.0001). Overall, 60.7% of the zona-thinned embryos did not complete the hatching process and remained trapped within the zona; when they did hatch, they did not necessarily hatch from the zona

  13. Sperm Proteasomes Degrade Sperm Receptor on the Egg Zona Pellucida during Mammalian Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Shawn W.; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Yi, Young-Joo; Gupta, Satish K.; Sutovsky, Miriam; Odhiambo, John F.; Powell, Michael D.; Miller, David J.; Sutovsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP) remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP) solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL), a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and significantly reduced

  14. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiye; Wang, Lishan; Endoh, Akira; Hummelke, Geoffrey; Hawks, Christina L; Hornsby, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish whether there are differences in DNA-binding proteins between zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) cells of the human adrenal cortex, we prepared nuclear extracts from separated ZF and ZR cells. The formation of DNA-protein complexes was studied using an element in the first intron of the type I and type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes (HSD3B1 and HSD3B2). Using the element in the HSD3B2 gene as a probe, a complex (C1) was formed with extracts from ZF cells but was formed only at a low level with ZR cell extracts. Another pair of complexes (C2/C3) was formed with both ZF and ZR cell extracts. The ZF-specific protein forming C1 was enriched by column chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose. Oligonucleotide competition analysis on the enriched fraction gave results consistent with those obtained on the unfractionated material. A further enrichment was brought about by passing the protein over an oligonucleotide affinity column based on the HSD3B2 element. The protein bound to the column was identified as alpha-enolase by mass spectrometry. Although alpha-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme, it binds to specific DNA sequences and has been found to be present in nuclei of various cell types. We performed immunohistochemistry on sections of adult human adrenal cortex and found alpha-enolase to be located in nuclei of ZF cells but to be predominantly cytoplasmic in ZR cells. Transfection of an alpha-enolase expression vector into NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells increased HSD3B2 promoter activity, suggesting a possible functional role for this protein in regulation of HSD3B2 expression.

  15. Pentoxifylline increases sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes without increasing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Llanos, M; Yovich, J L; Cummins, J M; Vigil, P

    1993-01-01

    Several drugs have been used to stimulate human sperm motility, including 3-deoxy-adenosine, caffeine, and pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase and may stimulate sperm motility by increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP. In this study we have evaluated the effect of pentoxifylline in the outcome of the sperm penetration assay into zona-free hamster oocytes. Twenty-seven semen samples, obtained for diagnostic purposes, were used. After the motile sperm were selected by the swim-up technique, the samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was incubated with 1 mg ml-1 of pentoxifylline at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 for 30 min. The control aliquot was incubated with culture medium. The samples were then washed and resuspended in fresh, pentoxifylline-free medium, at a sperm concentration of 10 x 10(6) cells ml-1. One hundred microlitres of each sperm suspension was then deposited under oil and 30-40 zona-free hamster oocytes were added. After 6 h of gamete coincubation, the percentage of penetrated oocytes and the number of decondensed sperm heads were evaluated. The percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm was evaluated using the Pisum sativum lectin. The percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated was increased after pentoxifylline-treatment. The percentage of acrosome reacted sperm and the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg were not different between the control and the pentoxifylline-treated groups. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of pentoxifylline upon the sperm cells is not mediated by stimulation of the acrosome reaction.

  16. Human sperm bind to the N-terminal domain of ZP2 in humanized zonae pellucidae in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baibakov, Boris; Boggs, Nathan A.; Yauger, Belinda; Baibakov, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization requires taxon-specific gamete recognition, and human sperm do not bind to zonae pellucidae (ZP1–3) surrounding mouse eggs. Using transgenesis to replace endogenous mouse proteins with human homologues, gain-of-function sperm-binding assays were established to evaluate human gamete recognition. Human sperm bound only to zonae pellucidae containing human ZP2, either alone or coexpressed with other human zona proteins. Binding to the humanized matrix was a dominant effect that resulted in human sperm penetration of the zona pellucida and accumulation in the perivitelline space, where they were unable to fuse with mouse eggs. Using recombinant peptides, the site of gamete recognition was located to a defined domain in the N terminus of ZP2. These results provide experimental evidence for the role of ZP2 in mediating sperm binding to the zona pellucida and support a model in which human sperm–egg recognition is dependent on an N-terminal domain of ZP2, which is degraded after fertilization to provide a definitive block to polyspermy. PMID:22734000

  17. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.

  18. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  19. Functional TASK-3-Like Channels in Mitochondria of Aldosterone-Producing Zona Glomerulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junlan; McHedlishvili, David; McIntire, William E; Guagliardo, Nick A; Erisir, Alev; Coburn, Craig A; Santarelli, Vincent P; Bayliss, Douglas A; Barrett, Paula Q

    2017-08-01

    Ca 2+ drives aldosterone synthesis in the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of the adrenal zona glomerulosa cell. Membrane potential across each of these compartments regulates the amplitude of the Ca 2+ signal; yet, only plasma membrane ion channels and their role in regulating cell membrane potential have garnered investigative attention as pathological causes of human hyperaldosteronism. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of TASK-3 channels (tandem pore domain acid-sensitive K + channels) from mice produces aldosterone excess in the absence of a change in the cell membrane potential of zona glomerulosa cells. Here, we report using yeast 2-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and electron microscopic analyses that TASK-3 channels are resident in mitochondria, where they regulate mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, and aldosterone production. This study provides proof of principle that mitochondrial K + channels, by modulating inner mitochondrial membrane morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential, have the ability to play a pathological role in aldosterone dysregulation in steroidogenic cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Zona pellucida gene mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer retardance and fertilization competence.

    PubMed

    Canosa, S; Adriaenssens, T; Coucke, W; Dalmasso, P; Revelli, A; Benedetto, C; Smitz, J

    2017-05-01

    Do the mRNA expression levels of zona pellucida (ZP) genes, ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in oocyte and cumulus cells (CC) reveal relevant information on the oocyte? The ZP mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer (IL) retardance and fertilization capacity. ZP structure and birefringence provide useful information on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, developmental competence for embryonic growth, blastocyst formation and pregnancy. In order to understand the molecular basis of morphological changes in the ZP, in the current study, the polarized light microscopy (PLM) approach was combined with analysis of the expression of the genes encoding ZP1, 2, 3 and 4, both in the oocytes and in the surrounding CC. This is a retrospective study comprising 98 supernumerary human cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) [80 Metaphase II (MII), 10 Metaphase I (MI) and 8 germinal vesicle (GV)] obtained from 39 patients (median age 33.4 years, range 22-42) after controlled ovarian stimulation. Single oocytes and their corresponding CC were analysed. Oocytes were examined using PLM, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed for ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in these individual oocytes and their CC. Ephrin-B2 (EFNB2) mRNA was measured in CC as a control. Presence of ZP3 protein in CC and oocytes was investigated using immunocytochemistry. Data were analysed using one-parametric and multivariate analysis and were corrected for the potential impact of patient and cycle characteristics. Oocytes contained ZP1/2/3 and 4 mRNA while in CC only ZP3 was quantifiable. Also ZP3 protein was detected in human CC. When comparing mature (MII) and immature oocytes (MI/GV) or their corresponding CC, ZP1/2 and 4 expression was lower in mature oocytes compared to the expression in immature oocytes (all P < 0.05) and ZP3 expression was lower in the CC of mature oocytes compared to the expression in CC of immature oocytes (P < 0.05). This coincided with a significantly smaller IL-ZP area and thickness in

  1. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    SciT

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.

    1984-02-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodiesmore » in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.« less

  3. Structural Analysis of Peptide-Analogues of Human Zona Pellucida ZP1 Protein with Amyloidogenic Properties: Insights into Mammalian Zona Pellucida Formation

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Nikolaos N.; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A.; Giannelou, Polina; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

    2013-01-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix surrounding and protecting mammalian and fish oocytes, which is responsible for sperm binding. Mammalian ZP consists of three to four glycoproteins, called ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4. These proteins polymerize into long interconnected filaments, through a common structural unit, known as the ZP domain, which consists of two domains, ZP-N and ZP-C. ZP is related in function to silkmoth chorion and in an evolutionary fashion to the teleostean fish chorion, also fibrous structures protecting the oocyte and embryo, that both have been proven to be functional amyloids. Two peptides were predicted as ‘aggregation-prone’ by our prediction tool, AMYLPRED, from the sequence of the human ZP1-N domain. Here, we present results from transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Congo red staining and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), of two synthetic peptide-analogues of these predicted ‘aggregation-prone’ parts of the human ZP1-N domain, that we consider crucial for ZP protein polymerization, showing that they both self-assemble into amyloid-like fibrils. Based on our experimental data, we propose that human ZP (hZP) might be considered as a novel, putative, natural protective amyloid, in close analogy to silkmoth and teleostean fish chorions. Experiments are in progress to verify this proposal. We also attempt to provide insights into ZP formation, proposing a possible model for hZP1-N domain polymerization. PMID:24069181

  4. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  6. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  7. The pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation in human sperm in response to binding to zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny; Huszar, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP.

  8. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  9. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Körschgen, Hagen; Kuske, Michael; Karmilin, Konstantin; Yiallouros, Irene; Balbach, Melanie; Floehr, Julia; Wachten, Dagmar; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Stöcker, Walter

    2017-09-01

    How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH. Female mice deficient in the extracellular circulating ovastacin-inhibitor fetuin-B are infertile due to pre-mature ZPH. We isolated oocytes from wild-type and ovastacin-deficient (Astlnull) FVB mice before and after fertilization (in vitro and in vivo) and quantified ovastacin activity and cleavage of ZP2 by immunoblot. We assessed ZPH by measuring ZP digestion time using α-chymotrypsin and by determining ZP2 cleavage. We determined cellular distribution of ovastacin by immunofluorescence using domain-specific ovastacin antibodies. Experiments were performed at least in triplicate with a minimum of 20 oocytes. Data were pre-analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of normal distribution, significance was determined via two-sided Student's t-test, whereas in case of non-normal distribution via Mann-Whitney U-test. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes contained both inactive pro-ovastacin and activated ovastacin. Immunoblot and ZP digestion assays revealed a partial cleavage of ZP2 even before fertilization in wild-type mice. Partial cleavage coincided with germinal-vesicle breakdown and MII, despite the presence of fetuin-B protein, an endogenous ovastacin inhibitor, in the follicular and oviductal fluid. Upon exocytosis, part of the C-terminal domain of ovastacin remained attached to the plasmalemma, while the N-terminal active ovastacin domain was secreted. This finding may resolve previously conflicting data showing that ovastacin acts both as an oolemmal receptor termed SAS1B (sperm acrosomal SLLP1 binding protein; SLLP, sperm lysozyme like

  10. Mapping the potential beverage quality of coffee produced in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Samuel de Assis; de Queiroz, Daniel Marçal; Ferreira, Williams Pinto Marques; Corrêa, Paulo Cesar; Rufino, José Luis Dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of coffee production systems enables optimization of crop management, harvesting and post-harvest techniques. In this study, coffee quality is mapped as a function of coffee variety, altitude and terrain aspect attributes. The work was performed in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A large range of coffee quality grades was observed for the Red Catuai variety. For the Yellow Catuai variety, no quality grades lower than 70 were observed. Regarding the terrain aspect, samples from the southeast-facing slope (SEFS) and the northwest-facing slope (NWFS) exhibited distinct behaviors. The SEFS samples had a greater range of quality grades than did the NWFS samples. The highest grade was obtained from an NWFS point. The lowest quality values and the largest range of grades were observed at lower altitudes. The extracts from the highest-altitude samples did not produce any low-quality coffee. The production site's position and altitude are the primary variables that influenced the coffee quality. The study area has micro-regions with grades ranging from 80 to 94. These areas have the potential for producing specialty coffees. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  12. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties. PMID:19828504

  13. Detection of angiotensin II binding to single adrenal zona glomerulosa cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Michael J.; Habermann, Timothy J.; Hanke, Craig J.; Adar, Fran; Campbell, William B.; Nithipatikom, Kasem

    1999-04-01

    We developed a confocal Raman microspectroscopic technique to study ligand-receptor bindings in single cells using Raman-labeled ligands and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were used as a model in this study. ZG cells have a high density of angiotensin II (AII) receptors on the cellular membrane. There are two identified subtypes of AII receptors,namely AT1 and AT2 receptors. AII is a peptidic hormone, which upon binding to its receptors, stimulates the release of aldosterone from ZG cells. The cellular localization of these receptors subtypes was detected in single ZG cells by using immunocomplexation of receptors with specific antibodies and confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In the binding study, we used biotin-labeled AII to bind to its receptors in ZG cells. Then, avidin and Raman-labeled AII. The binding was measure directly on the single ZG cells. The results showed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled AII and specific AII antagonists. This is a rapid and sensitive technique for detection of cellular ligand bindings as well as antagonists screening in drug discovery.

  14. Phosphorylation of zona occludens-2 by protein kinase C epsilon regulates its nuclear exportation.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, David; Alarcón, Lourdes; Ponce, Arturo; Tapia, Rocio; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Robles-Flores, Martha; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Segovia, José; Bandala, Yamir; Juaristi, Eusebio; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-09-01

    Here, we have analyzed the subcellular destiny of newly synthesized tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2. After transfection in sparse cells, 74% of cells exhibit ZO-2 at the nucleus, and after 18 h the value decreases to 17%. The mutation S369A located within the nuclear exportation signal 1 of ZO-2 impairs the nuclear export of the protein. Because Ser369 represents a putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, we tested the effect of PKC inhibition and stimulation on the nuclear export of ZO-2. Our results strongly suggest that the departure of ZO-2 from the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser369 by novel PKCepsilon. To test the route taken by ZO-2 from synthesis to the plasma membrane, we devised a novel nuclear microinjection assay in which the nucleus served as a reservoir for anti-ZO-2 antibody. Through this assay, we demonstrate that a significant amount of newly synthesized ZO-2 goes into the nucleus and is later relocated to the plasma membrane. These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2.

  15. Demi-embryo production from hatching of zona-drilled bovine and rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Skrzyszowska, M; Smorag, Z; Katska, L

    1997-09-01

    It is known that the pregnancy rate resulting after transfer of bisected embryos is lower than after transfer of whole embryos. The main reason is the reduced cell number in the demi-embryo which is less than 1 2 of that in the intact embryo, since a number of blastomeres is damaged as a result of the procedure used in conventional embryo splitting. The aim of our experiment was to develop a non-invasive procedure which would limit cell losses during microsurgery. The experiment was carried out on bovine IVM-IVF embryos at middle, late and expanded blastocyst stage and rabbit embryos at late blastocyst stage cultured in vitro from in vivo produced zygotes. The zona pellucida of these embryos was drilled on the line between the inner cell mass and the trophoblast using a glass microneedle (

  16. A Flexure-Guided Piezo Drill for Penetrating the Zona Pellucida of Mammalian Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.

  17. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2018-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.

  18. Orexin Gene Transfer into Zona Incerta Neurons Suppresses Muscle Paralysis in Narcoleptic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Konadhode, RodaRani; Begum, Suraiya; Pelluru, Dheeraj; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2011-01-01

    Cataplexy, a sudden unexpected muscle paralysis, is a debilitating symptom of the neurodegenerative sleep disorder, narcolepsy. During these attacks, the person is paralyzed, but fully conscious and aware of their surroundings. To identify potential neurons that might serve as surrogate orexin neurons to suppress such attacks, the gene for orexin (hypocretin), a peptide lost in most human narcoleptics, was delivered into the brains of the orexin-ataxin-3 transgenic mouse model of human narcolepsy. Three weeks after the recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV)-mediated orexin gene transfer, sleep–wake behavior was assessed. rAAV-orexin gene delivery into neurons of the zona incerta (ZI), or the lateral hypothalamus (LH) blocked cataplexy. Orexin gene transfer into the striatum or in the melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the ZI or LH had no such effect, indicating site specificity. In transgenic mice lacking orexin neurons but given rAAV-orexin, detectable levels of orexin-A were evident in the CSF, indicating release of the peptide from the surrogate neurons. Retrograde tracer studies showed that the amygdala innervates the ZI consistent with evidence that strong emotions trigger cataplexy. In turn, the ZI projects to the locus ceruleus, indicating that the ZI is part of a circuit that stabilizes motor tone. Our results indicate that these neurons might also be recruited to block the muscle paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:21508228

  19. Glycoprotein from the liver constitutes the inner layer of the egg envelope (zona pellucida interna) of the fish, Oryzias latipes

    SciT

    Hamazaki, T.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Iuchi, I.

    1989-05-01

    A glycoprotein from the liver, which shares epitopes with chorion (egg envelope or zona pellucida) glycoproteins, is present only in the spawning female fish, Oryzias latipes, under natural conditions. This spawning female-specific (SF) substance is distinct from vitellogenin but closely resembles a major glycoprotein component, ZI-3, of the inner layer (zona radiata interna) of the ovarian egg envelope with respect to some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics. Here we report that the (/sup 125/I)SF substance, injected into the abdominal cavity of the spawning female fish, was rapidly transported by the blood circulation into the ovary and incorporated into the inner layermore » of egg envelope of the growing oocytes. The result strongly suggests that the SF substance from the liver is a precursor substance of the major component, ZI-3, of the inner layer of egg envelope in the fish.« less

  20. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  1. Sperm Mitochondrial Integrity Is Not Required for Hyperactivated Motility, Zona Binding, or Acrosome Reaction in the Rhesus Macaque1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Miller, Marion G.; Meyers, Stuart A.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Whether the main energy source for sperm motility is from oxidative phosphorylation or glycolysis has been long-debated in the field of reproductive biology. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we examined the role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in sperm function by using alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH), a glycolysis inhibitor, and pentachlorophenol (PCP), an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler. Sperm treated with ACH showed no change in percentage of motile sperm, although sperm motion was impaired. The ACH-treated sperm did not display either hyperactivity- or hyperactivation-associated changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. When treated with PCP, sperm motion parameters were affected by the highest level of PCP (200 μM); however, PCP did not cause motility impairments even after chemical activation. Sperm treated with PCP were able to display hyperactivity and tyrosine phosphorylation after chemical activation. In contrast with motility measurements, treatment with either the glycolytic inhibitor or the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor did not affect sperm-zona binding and zona-induced acrosome reaction. The results suggest glycolysis is essential to support sperm motility, hyperactivity, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, while energy from oxidative phosphorylation is not necessary for hyperactivated sperm motility, tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm-zona binding, and acrosome reaction in the rhesus macaque. PMID:18480469

  2. Outcomes from stimulation of the caudal zona incerta and pedunculopontine nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaquate; Mooney, Lucy; Plaha, Puneet; Javed, Shazia; White, Paul; Whone, Alan L; Gill, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    Axial symptoms including postural instability, falls and failure of gait initiation are some of the most disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in combination with the caudal zona incerta (cZi) in order to determine their efficacy in alleviating these symptoms. Seven patients with predominant axial symptoms in both the 'on' and 'off' medication states underwent bilateral cZi and PPN DBS. Motor outcomes were assessed using the motor component of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS 3) and a composite axial subscore was derived from items 27, 28, 29 and 30 (arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability). Quality of life was measured using the PDQ39. Comparisons were made between scores obtained at baseline and those at a mean follow-up of 12 months. In both the off and on medication states, a statistically significant improvement in the UPDRS part 3 score was achieved by stimulation of the PPN, cZi and both in combination. In the off medication state, our composite axial subscore of the UPDRS part 3 improved with stimulation of the PPN, cZi and both in combination. The composite axial subscore, in the 'on' medication state, however, only showed a statistically significant improvement when a combination of cZi and PPN stimulation was used. This study provides evidence that a combination of PPN and cZi stimulation can achieve a significant improvement in the hitherto untreatable 'on' medication axial symptoms of PD.

  3. Vitrification of zona-free rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts: a possible model for human blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Garcia-Ximénez, F

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of one two-step (A) and two one-step (B1 and B2) vitrification procedures on denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts held in standard sealed plastic straws as a possible model for human blastocysts. The effect of blastocyst size was also studied on the basis of three size categories (I: diameter <200 micro m; II: diameter 200-299 micro m; III: diameter >/==" BORDER="0">300 micro m). Rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts were vitrified at day 4 or 5. Before vitrification, the zona pellucida was removed using acidic phosphate buffered saline. For the two-step procedure, prior to vitrification, blastocysts were pre- equilibrated in a solution containing 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 1 min. Different final vitrification solutions were compared: 20% DMSO and 20% EG with (A and B1) or without (B2) 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Of 198 vitrified blastocysts, 181 (91%) survived, regardless of the vitrification procedure applied. Vitrification procedure A showed significantly higher re-expansion (88%), attachment (86%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (80%) rates than the two one-step vitrification procedures, B1 and B2 (46 and 21%, 20 and 33%, and 18 and 23%, respectively). After warming, blastocysts of greater size (II and III) showed significantly higher attachment (54 and 64%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (44 and 58%) rates than smaller blastocysts (I, attachment: 29%; trophectoderm outgrowth: 25%). These result demonstrate that denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts of greater size can be satisfactorily vitrified by use of a two-step procedure. The similarity of vitrification solutions used in humans could make it feasible to test such a procedure on human denuded blastocysts of different sizes.

  4. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. [Molecules involved in sperm-zona pellucida interaction in mammals. Role in human fertility].

    PubMed

    Serres, Catherine; Auer, Jana; Petit, François; Patrat, Catherine; Jouannet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Fertilization in mammals requires an initial interaction of sperm with the oocyte envelope, the zona pellucida (ZP), before it reaches the oocyte. ZP is a highly glycosylated structure, composed of three (mouse) or four (rabbit, boar, bovine, humans...) glycoproteins. The presence of ZP around the oocyte does not allow heterospecific fertilization. This barrier is principally due to the presence of species-specific glycosylations on ZP proteins. Sperm bind ZP by means of membrane receptors which recognize carbohydrate moieties on ZP glycoproteins according to a well-precised sequential process. Upon initial attachment, spermatozoa bind ZP3/ZP4 which induces the sperm acrosome exocytosis followed by a secondary binding of acrosome reacted spermatozoa to ZP2 and by ZP penetration. The sperm receptors are adhesive proteins or integral plasma membrane proteins linked to intraspermatic signalling pathways activating the acrosome reaction. Over the last twenty years, numerous studies have been carried out to identify sperm receptors to ZP in several species, but the data in humans are still incomplete. Work initiated in our research group has identified several proteins interacting with recombinant human ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4, among which are glycolytic enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the gamete interaction by means of their affinity to sugars and not by their catalytic properties. From a clinical point of view, an observed lack or weak expression of some sperm receptors to ZP3 in cases of idiopathic infertility associated with in vitro fertilization failure suggests that knowing the molecular mechanism driving the gamete recognition can be important at the diagnostic level. Furthermore, it has been shown that proteins that mediate gamete recognition diverge rapidly, as a result of positive darwinian selection. A sexual conflict can drive co-evolution of reproductive molecules in both sexes resulting in reproductive isolation and species emergence.

  6. Effects of acrolein on aldosterone release from zona glomerulosa cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Lee; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lai, Wei-Ho; Idova, Galina; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    A positive correlation between smoking and hypertension has been well established. Acrolein is a major toxic volatile compound found in cigarette smoke. Human exposure to low levels of acrolein is unavoidable due to its production in daily activities, such as smoke from industrial, hot oil cooking vapors, and exhaust fumes from vehicles. The toxicity and the action mechanism of acrolein to induce apoptosis have been extensively studied, but the effects of acrolein on hypertension are still unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acrolein on aldosterone release both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were divided into three groups, and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, or acrolein (2mg/kg) for 1 (group A-1) or 3 (group A-3) days, respectively. After sacrificing, rat blood samples were obtained to measure plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were prepared from rat adrenal cortex, and were incubated with or without stimulants. We found that the serum aldosterone was increased by 1.2-fold (p<0.05) in A-3 group as compared to control group. Basal aldosterone release from ZG cells in A-3 group was also increased significantly. Moreover, acrolein enhanced the stimulatory effects of Ang II and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells prepared in both A-1 and A-3 groups. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of P450scc, the rate-limiting step of aldosterone synthesis, was elevated after acrolein injection. Plasma level of Ang II was increased in both A-1 and A-3 groups. These results suggested that acrolein exposure increased aldosterone production, at least in part, through elevating the level of plasma Ang II and stimulating steroidogenesis pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced contraception of canine zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine via targeting DEC-205 in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Jinyao; Aipire, Adila; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun

    2018-06-01

    Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a potential antigen for the development of contraceptive vaccines to control animal population. In this study, we designed a canine ZP3 (CZP3) DNA vaccine through targeting DEC-205 (named as pcD-scFv-CZP3c) and investigated its contraceptive effect in mice. Female BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized 3 times at 2 weeks intervals. After immunization, humoral and cellular immune responses were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry. The results showed that pcD-CZP3 and pcD-scFv-CZP3c induced CZP3-specific antibody (Ab) responses both in serum and vaginal secretions compared to pcDNA3.1. Additionally, compared to pcD-CZP3, pcD-scFv-CZP3c increased the levels of CZP3-specific Abs after a third immunization. Abs induced by these two DNA vaccines could bind with mice and dogs oocytes. Moreover, pcD-scFv-CZP3c enhanced the activation of CD4 + T cells characterized by the increased frequencies of CD4 + CD44 + T cells. Finally, the contraceptive effect was evaluated in the immunized mice. These two DNA vaccines significantly decreased a mean litter size of mice compared to pcDNA3.1, but pcD-scFv-CZP3c group showed the smallest mean litter size. The mean litter size of pcD-scFv-CZP3 were 3.2 ± 0.742 and 4.6 ± 1.118 in two mating tests, which were significantly lower than pcDNA3.1(P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the CZP3 DNA vaccine targeted with DEC-205 may be a potential strategy for developing a contraceptive DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein Supplements: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Samal, Jay Rabindra Kumar; Samal, Indira R

    2018-05-04

    To provide a comprehensive analysis of the literature examining the pros and cons of protein supplementation, various articles on protein supplementation were obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, and National Center for Biotechnology Information. Over the past few years, protein supplementation has become commonplace for gym-goers as well as for the public. A large segment of the general population relies on protein supplementation for meal replacement, weight reduction, and purported health benefits. These protein supplements have varying pros and cons associated with them, which are often overlooked by the public. This review aims to assimilate existing studies and form a consensus regarding the benefits and disadvantages of protein supplementation. The purported health benefits of protein supplementation have led to overuse by both adults and adolescents. Although the pros and cons of protein supplementation is a widely debated topic, not many studies have been conducted regarding the same. The few studies that exist either provide insufficient evidence or have not employed proper conditions for the conduct of the tests. It should be considered that protein supplements are processed materials and often do not contain other essential nutrients required for the sustenance of a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that the required protein intake should be obtained from natural food sources and protein supplementation should be resorted to only if sufficient protein is not available in the normal diet.

  9. Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Claudia G; Vagnini, Laura D; Mauri, Ana L; Massaro, Fabiana C; Silva, Liliane F I; Cavagna, Mario; Baruffi, Ricardo L R; Oliveira, Joao B A; Franco, José G

    2011-04-23

    This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF) intensity and the nuclear (NM) and cytoplasmic (CM) in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence) or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence). CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs) throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9%) reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081). Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6%) showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2%) presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3%) with incomplete CM, 18 (50%) presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11). The current study demonstrated an absence of

  10. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pichardo, J E; Ducolomb, Y; Romo, S; Kjelland, M E; Fierro, R; Casillas, F; Betancourt, M

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU) or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP) binding. Experiment 1, 4-20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN). Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively) but statistically differents ( P  < 0.05) than mechanical activated oocytes in sham, ICSI and sham injection (13, 25, 32 %, respectively) (10-17 replicates; n  = 429). Experiment 2: Twelve ejaculates and 28 straws of semen were used (11-19 replicates). Sperm were selected by SU in BSA-TCM 199-H medium. A total of 2,294 fresh sperm and 2,760 from frozen-thawed semen were analyzed after SU or SU + ZP binding. Fresh sperm selected by SU showed acrosome reaction (AR) of 59 %, the sperm selected by SU + ZP binding increased AR to 91 %. In comparison, the AR of frozen-thawed sperm using SU or SU + ZP binding was 77 and 86 %, respectively ( P  < 0.05). Experiment 3: fertilization in 200 mechanical activativated oocytes (17 replicates) was 4 %, but fertilization increased in ethanol activated oocytes after ICSI (12-28 %) (5-6 replicates). When fresh sperm only selected by SU were injected to 123 oocytes, a fertilization rate (28 %) was achieved; in sperm selected by SU + ZP was 25 % (73 oocytes). In comparison, in frozen-thawed sperm selected by SU, fertilization was 13 % (70 oocytes), whereas sperm from SU + ZP binding displayed 12 % (51 oocytes) ( P  > 0.05). Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU

  11. Two subunits of the 55 K porcine zona pellucida glycoprotein family are immunologically distinct

    SciT

    Subramanian, M.G.; Yurewicz, E.C.; Sacco, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The 55K glycoprotein family (ZP3) of the porcine zona pellucida is comprised of two subunits of 46 K and 45 K which can be resolved by endo-..beta..-galactosidase digestion of ZP3 followed by reversed phase HPLC on Vydac C4 resin. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the 46 K component (EBDG..cap alpha..) is approx. 95% pure and the 45 K component (EBGD..beta..) is 100% pure. In the present study, these two subunits were evaluated immunologically by RIA. Under similar reaction protocols (chloramine-T iodination procedure) comparable specific activities were obtained for EBGD..cap alpha.. (33.06 +/- 7.5 ..mu..ci/..mu..gm), EBGD..beta.. (30.45 +/- 1.6) and ZP3 (26.3more » +/- 1.3). Antibody (Ab) titration studies revealed that EBGD..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. are potent immunogens and /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. showed minimal cross reactivity to EBGD..beta..-Ab (8% bound at 1:500 dilution), whereas, /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. showed a greater degree of cross reactivity to EBGD..cap alpha..-Ab (23% bound at 1:500 dilution). Maximum binding for the two labeled antigens against homologous Abs (1:500) was > 60%. Dose response studies revealed that in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. vs EBGD..cap alpha.. -Ab system, the 50% intercept was 3.25 +/- 0.32 ng for EBGD..cap alpha.. and 472.43 +/- 30.26 ng for EBGD..beta.. (p < 0.01), whereas, in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. vs EBGD..beta..-Ab system the 50% intercept was 3.51 +/- 0.58 for EBGD..beta.. and 166.77 +/- 49.20 for EBGD..cap alpha.. (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the slopes of the dose response curves. It is concluded that the two subunits of ZP3 possess distinct immunologic characteristics as evaluated by RIA.« less

  12. Surface alterations of the mouse zona pellucida and ovum following in vivo fertilization: correlation with the cell cycle

    SciT

    Jackowski, S.; Dumont, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    The zona pellucida and cell surface of in vivo fertilized mouse ova exhibit time dependent changes which can be detected with the scanning electron microscope. The periods of ovulation, fertilization and first cleavage in superovulated C3D2/F/sub 1/ hybrids were determined and times corresponding to G/sub 1/, S, G/sub 2/, and M were calculated. The zona of a mature unfertilized ovum has a rough texture with deep furrows; at fertilization and thereafter the zona develops a smoother, ropy and seemingly porous surface. The cell surface of the unfertilized ovum is characterized by uniform microvilli, small blebs and rounded, mound-like elevations. Aftermore » fertilization and development to G/sub 1/, the ovum loses its blebs but retains the mound-like elevations and microvilli which are now less uniform. As the ovum progresses toward S, it loses the mound-like elevations but retains microvilli in the same density as found in G/sub 1/. The ovum in G/sub 2/ exhibits smaller but more numerous microvilli which vary considerably in length. Some appear to bifurcate. The fertilized ovum developing through M and G/sub 1/ of the 2 cell stage exhibits a less dense population of relatively uniform microvilli, periodic blebs and, again, rounded elevations. The data are reminiscent of surface changes associated with the cell cycle in tissue culture cells and indicate a cyclic progression of the in vivo fertilized mouse ovum through the first cleavage division to the 2 cell stage.« less

  13. Assessment of Mouse Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocyte Quality by Evaluating the Cumulus Layer, Zona Pellucida, and Perivitelline Space

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Lei; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for patients with ovulation problems, it is necessary to retrieve and select germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes with high developmental potential. Oocytes with high developmental potential are characterized by their ability to undergo proper maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. In this study, we analyzed morphological traits of GV stage mouse oocytes, including cumulus cell layer thickness, zona pellucida thickness, and perivitelline space width. Then, we assessed the corresponding developmental potential of each of these oocytes and found that it varies across the range measured for each morphological trait. Furthermore, by manipulating these morphological traits in vitro, we were able to determine the influence of morphological variation on oocyte developmental potential. Manually altering the thickness of the cumulus layer showed strong effects on the fertilization and embryo development potentials of oocytes, whereas manipulation of zona pellucida thickness effected the oocyte maturation potential. Our results provide a systematic detailed method for selecting GV stage oocytes based on a morphological assessment approach that would benefit for several downstream ART applications. PMID:25144310

  14. GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, K M; Hinton, M R; Baldwin, B A

    1991-05-31

    In order to establish which neurotransmitters may influence the activity of zona incerta neurones in the sheep which respond selectively to the sight or ingestion of food, we have measured the release of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters from this region using microdialysis sampling. Co-ordinates for the placement of microdialysis probes in regions of the zona incerta where cells respond to the sight or ingestion of food were first established by making single-unit extracellular recordings. When animals were food-deprived results showed that release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased in response to the sight and ingestion of food but not of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. This release of GABA was absent when the animals were shown non-food objects or saw or ingested salt solutions. When the same animals were physiologically sodium-depleted GABA release was evoked by the sight and ingestion of salt solutions and release following the sight and ingestion of food was significantly reduced. These results provide further evidence that GABA is an important neurotransmitter in neural circuits controlling the regulation of food intake.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of rat sperm surface antigen 2B1, a glycoprotein implicated in sperm-zona binding.

    PubMed

    Hou, S T; Ma, A; Jones, R; Hall, L

    1996-10-01

    The rat sperm surface antigen, 2B1, that has been proposed to play a key role in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida, has been cloned and its entire cDNA sequenced. Northern blot analysis indicates that 2B1 is encoded by a 2.2-kb RNA transcript that is abundantly expressed in the testis. The deduced protein sequence contains 512 amino-acid residues with a strong candidate signal sequence and C-terminal transmembrane domain. Data base searches reveal a high degree of sequence similarity to guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, and human PH20 sperm surface antigens, and a lower degree of similarity to honey bee and whiteface hornet venom hyaluronidases. Rat 2B1 antigen also possesses hyaluronidase activity, suggesting that it is a bifunctional protein with putative roles in the dispersion of cumulus oophorus cells as well as zona adhesion. However, while it would appear that 2B1 is the rat homologue of the guinea pig PH20 antigen, they differ in a number of important biochemical respects (including their mode of attachment to the sperm membrane and distribution between soluble and membrane-bound fractions), as well as in their localization on the sperm membrane. Expression of regions of the 2B1 protein in recombinant bacterial cells has allowed a preliminary mapping of the 2B1 epitope, and has provided more definitive information on the endoproteolytic processing of 2B1 during epididymal transit.

  16. The Pros and Cons of Army Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-13

    The Pros and Cons of Army Automation 1 Running Head: THE PROS AND CONS OF ARMY AUTOMATION The Pros and Cons of Army Automation SGM...TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pros and Cons of Army Automation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The Pros and Cons of Army Automation 2 Outline I. Introduction (MSG (P) Dostie) II. Manual skills (MSG (P

  17. Resveratrol reverses the adverse effects of a diet-induced obese murine model on oocyte quality and zona pellucida softening.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zeyang; Wang, Lining; Li, Hao; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Dingqi; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Daofu; Feng, Xizeng

    2018-05-23

    Reproductive dysfunction associated with obesity is increasing among women of reproductive age, including infertility and increasing risk of miscarriage. In females, reproductive disorders are linked to declining quality of oocytes. Using a model of diet-induced obesity, we have investigated the possible effects of obesity on oocyte quality, including metabolism, lipid accumulation, ROS levels, meiosis and changes in spindle structure in Metaphase II. Our study showed that obesity induced by a high fat diet can impair oocyte meiosis, destroy spindle assembly, and promote oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial distribution. With the addition of resveratrol, the negative impact of diet-induced obesity on the quality of oocytes was alleviated to some extent. In addition, we found that obesity causes mouse oocytes to soften, and resveratrol can restore the zona pellucida of oocytes to the same state as the control group. In conclusion, resveratrol can reverse the adverse effects of obesity on oocytes, which is beneficial for subsequent embryonic development.

  18. A common 'aggregation-prone' interface possibly participates in the self-assembly of human zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Louros, Nikolaos N; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Baltatzis, Georgios E; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A

    2016-03-01

    Human zona pellucida (ZP) is composed of four glycoproteins, namely ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. ZP proteins form heterodimers, which are incorporated into filaments through a common bipartite polymerizing component, designated as the ZP domain. The latter is composed of two individually folded subdomains, named ZP-N and ZP-C. Here, we have synthesized six 'aggregation-prone' peptides, corresponding to a common interface of human ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. Experimental results utilizing electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and polarizing microscopy indicate that these peptides self-assemble forming fibrils with distinct amyloid-like features. Finally, by performing detailed modeling and docking, we attempt to shed some light in the self-assembly mechanism of human ZP proteins. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Zona pellucida from fertilised human oocytes induces a voltage-dependent calcium influx and the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa, but cannot be penetrated by sperm

    PubMed Central

    Patrat, Catherine; Auer, Jana; Fauque, Patricia; Leandri, Roger L; Jouannet, Pierre; Serres, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background The functions of three zona glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 during the sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction are now well established in mice. The expression of an additional zona glycoprotein, ZPB/4, in humans, led us to reconsider the classical mouse model of gamete interaction. We investigated the various functions of human ZP (hZP) during the interaction of spermatozoa with fertilised and unfertilised oocytes. Results The hZP of fertilised oocytes retained their ability to bind sperm (albeit less strongly than that from unfertilised oocytes), to induce an intraspermatic calcium influx through voltage-dependent channels similar to that observed with hZP from unfertilised oocytes and to promote the acrosome reaction at a rate similar to that induced by the ZP of unfertilised oocytes (61.6 ± 6.2% vs60.7 ± 9.1% respectively). Conversely, the rate of hZP penetrated by sperm was much lower for fertilised than for unfertilised oocytes (19% vs 57% respectively, p < 0.01). We investigated the status of ZP2 in the oocytes used in the functional tests, and demonstrated that sperm binding and acrosome reaction induction, but not ZP penetration, occurred whether or not ZP2 was cleaved. Conclusion The change in ZP function induced by fertilisation could be different in human and mouse species. Our results suggest a zona blocking to polyspermy based at the sperm penetration level in humans. PMID:17147816

  20. Regulation of acrosomal exocytosis. II. The zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction of bovine spermatozoa is controlled by extrinsic positive regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Florman, H M; First, N L

    1988-08-01

    The effects of accessory sex gland secretions on the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction of bovine spermatozoa were investigated. Soluble extracts of zonae pellucidae initiated exocytosis in ejaculated spermatozoa. This process had an ED50 of 20 ng/microliter zona pellucida protein and saturated at 50 ng/microliter (Florman and First, 1988. Dev. Biol. 128, 453-463). In epididymal sperm this dose-response relationship was shifted toward greater agonist concentrations by at least a factor of 10(3). Reconstitution of high potency agonist response was achieved in vitro by incubation of epididymal sperm with bovine seminal plasma. Reconstitution was dependent on the seminal plasma protein concentration. The ED50 of this process was 62 micrograms protein/10(8) sperm and saturation was observed with 124 micrograms protein/10(8) sperm. Agonist responses in reconstituted epididymal sperm and in ejaculated sperm were indistinguishable with regard to dependence on the zona pellucida protein concentration and the kinetics of induced acrosome reactions. Kinetic studies suggest that reconstitution is due to adsorption of regulatory factors from seminal plasma. In addition to the positive regulatory elements responsible for reconstituting activity, seminal plasma also contains negative regulatory elements which inhibit agonist response. These negative factors are inactivated during sperm capacitation, permitting the expression of positive regulators. Acting together, these regulatory elements could coordinate high affinity agonist response with the availability of eggs in vivo.

  1. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  2. [Effects of infrasound on activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase of polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate in mice].

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei-min; Wang, Sheng; Tian, Shi-xiu; Chen, Bing; Sun, Fei; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yan; He, Li-hua

    2007-02-01

    To explore the biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation in mice. The biological effects of infrasound on the activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-betaHSDH) and acid phosphatase(ACP) of the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate were observed when exposure to 8 and 16 Hz infrasound at 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130 dB for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days or 14 days after the exposure. When exposure to 8 Hz infrasound, the enzyme activities of 3-betaHSDH increase as the sound pressure levels increase. Only when the sound pressure levels reach 130 dB, the enzyme activities began to decrease exceptionally. When exposure to 16 Hz, 80 dB infrasound, no significant difference between the treatment and control group in the activities of 3-betaHSDH could be observed, but the injury of the polygonal cells had appeared. When exposure to 16 Hz, 100 dB infrasound, the activities of 3-betaHSDH started to increase. The cell injury still existed. When exposed to 16 Hz, 120 dB infrasound, the local tissue damage represented. Fourteen days after the mice exposure to 8 Hz, 90 dB and 130 dB infrasound for 14 days continuously, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation began to recover at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the poorer the tissue recovery. The biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation response to the frequency of the infrasound are found at certain action strength range, but this characteristic usually is covered by the severe tissue injury. When exposure to infrasound is stopped for a period of time, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation could recovers at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the more poorer the tissue recovery.

  3. Involvement of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase in interleukin-6 regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme in the bovine zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Matharage S I; Dayton, Adam W; Rhoten, Lance R; Mallett, John W; Reese, Jared C; Squires, Mathieu D; Dalley, Andrew P; Porter, James P; Judd, Allan M

    2018-06-01

    In bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and NCI-H295R cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases cortisol release, increases expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) (increases steroidogenic proteins), and decreases the expression of adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1) (inhibits steroidogenic proteins). In contrast, IL-6 decreases bovine adrenal zona reticularis (ZR) androgen release, StAR, P450scc, and SF-1 expression, and increases DAX-1 expression. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated kinase (AMPK) regulates steroidogenesis, but its role in IL-6 regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis is unknown. In the present study, an AMPK activator (AICAR) increased (P < 0.01) NCI-H295R StAR promoter activity, StAR and P450scc expression, and the phosphorylation of AMPK (PAMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (PACC) (indexes of AMPK activity). In ZR (decreased StAR, P450scc, SF-1, increased DAX-1) (P < 0.01) and ZF tissues (increased StAR, P450scc, SF-1, decreased DAX-1) (P < 0.01), AICAR modified StAR, P450scc, SF-1 and DAX-1 mRNAs/proteins similar to the effects of IL-6. The activity (increased PAMPK and PACC) (P < 0.01) of AMPK in the ZF and ZR was increased by AICAR and IL-6. In support of an AMPK role in IL-6 ZF and ZR effects, the AMPK inhibitor compound C blocked (P < 0.01) the effects of IL-6 on the expression of StAR, P450scc, SF-1, and DAX-1. Therefore, IL-6 modification of the expression of StAR and P450scc in the ZF and ZR may involve activation of AMPK and these changes may be related to changes in the expression of SF-1 and DAX-1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct embryo tagging and identification system by attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Santaló, Josep; Durán, Sara; Gómez-Matínez, Rodrigo; Samitier, Josep; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of cultured embryos? The results achieved provide a proof of concept for a direct embryo tagging system using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes, which could help to minimize the risk of mismatching errors (mix-ups) in human assisted reproduction technologies. Even though the occurrence of mix-ups is rare, several cases have been reported in fertility clinics around the world. Measures to prevent the risk of mix-ups in human assisted reproduction technologies are therefore required. Mouse embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and the effectiveness of the tagging system was tested during fresh in vitro culture (n=140) and after embryo cryopreservation (n = 84). Finally, the full-term development of tagged embryos was evaluated (n =105). Mouse pronuclear embryos were individually rolled over wheat germ agglutinin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to distribute them uniformly around the ZONA PELLUCIDA surface. Embryo viability and retention of barcodes were determined during 96 h of culture. The identification of tagged embryos was performed every 24 h in an inverted microscope and without embryo manipulation to simulate an automatic reading procedure. Full-term development of the tagged embryos was assessed after their transfer to pseudo-pregnant females. To test the validity of the embryo tagging system after a cryopreservation process, tagged embryos were frozen at the 2-cell stage using a slow freezing protocol, and followed in culture for 72 h after thawing. Neither the in vitro or in vivo development of tagged embryos was adversely affected. The tagging system also proved effective during an embryo cryopreservation process. Global identification rates higher than 96 and 92% in fresh and frozen-thawed tagged embryos, respectively, were obtained when simulating an automatic barcode reading

  5. Capacitation in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in enhanced zona pellucida-binding ability of stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Aitken, R John; Gibb, Zamira; Lambourne, Sarah R; Nixon, Brett

    2014-02-01

    While IVF has been widely successful in many domesticated species, the development of a robust IVF system for the horse remains an elusive and highly valued goal. A major impediment to the development of equine IVF is the fact that optimised conditions for the capacitation of equine spermatozoa are yet to be developed. Conversely, it is known that stallion spermatozoa are particularly susceptible to damage arising as a consequence of capacitation-like changes induced prematurely in response to semen handling and transport conditions. To address these limitations, this study sought to develop an effective system to both suppress and promote the in vitro capacitation of stallion spermatozoa. Our data indicated that the latter could be achieved in a bicarbonate-rich medium supplemented with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a cyclic AMP analogue, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin, an efficient cholesterol-withdrawing agent. The populations of spermatozoa generated under these conditions displayed a number of hallmarks of capacitation, including elevated levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, a reorganisation of the plasma membrane leading to lipid raft coalescence in the peri-acrosomal region of the sperm head, and a dramatic increase in their ability to interact with heterologous bovine zona pellucida (ZP) and undergo agonist-induced acrosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, this functional transformation was effectively suppressed in media devoid of bicarbonate. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of efficient cholesterol removal in priming stallion spermatozoa for ZP binding in vitro.

  6. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  7. Conserved developmental expression of Fezf in chordates and Drosophila and the origin of the Zona Limitans Intrathalamica (ZLI) brain organizer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) and the isthmus organizer (IsO) are two major secondary organizers of vertebrate brain development. These organizers are located at the interface of the expression domains of key patterning genes (Fezf-Irx and Otx-Gbx, respectively). To gain insights into the evolutionary origin of the ZLI, we studied Fezf in bilaterians. Results In this paper, we identified a conserved sequence motif (Fezf box) in all bilaterians. We report the expression pattern of Fezf in amphioxus and Drosophila and compare it with those of Gbx, Otx and Irx. We found that the relative expression patterns of these genes in vertebrates are fully conserved in amphioxus and flies, indicating that the genetic subdivisions defining the location of both secondary organizers in early vertebrate brain development were probably present in the last common ancestor of extant bilaterians. However, in contrast to vertebrates, we found that Irx-defective flies do not show an affected Fezf expression pattern. Conclusions The absence of expression of the corresponding morphogens from cells at these conserved genetic boundaries in invertebrates suggests that the organizing properties might have evolved specifically in the vertebrate lineage by the recruitment of key morphogens to these conserved genetic locations. PMID:20849572

  8. Inhibition of endothelin- and phorbol ester-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity by corticotrophin in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kapas, S; Hinson, J P

    1996-01-01

    1. The experiments described in this study were carried out to investigate the role of tyrosine kinase in the acute adrenal response to peptide hormone stimulation, and to determine whether the activity of this kinase may be subject to regulation by other intracellular signalling mechanisms in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. 2. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that angiotensin II stimulates tyrosine kinase activity in the rat adrenal cortex. This study has shown, for the first time, that endothelin-1 also stimulates tyrosine kinase activity in this tissue. 3. Using the specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, Ro 31-8220, we have shown that stimulation of tyrosine kinase activity, in response to endothelin-1, angiotensin II or the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, is at least partly dependent on increased PKC activity. 4. The data presented also provide further evidence of cross-talk between signalling systems in the adrenal cortex. Corticotrophin and its intracellular second messenger, cyclic AMP, significantly attenuate the increment in tyrosine kinase activity seen in response to each of the effectors used. 5. The results of this study provide important new evidence for the regulation of protein kinases by other intracellular second messenger systems. PMID:8611168

  9. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciT

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levelsmore » of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.« less

  10. Human spermatozoa selected by Percoll gradient or swim-up are equally capable of binding to the human zona pellucida and undergoing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Vantman, D; Barros, C; Vigil, P

    1991-03-01

    Several techniques have been used for selecting motile spermatozoa including Percoll and albumin gradients, swim-up, and glass wool filtration. A high yield of motile spermatozoa as well as an enhancement of motility are the most desirable features of a practical method. An equally important consideration is whether or not these techniques select functionally normal spermatozoa. In this study we have compared two methods for separation of motile cells, swim-up and Percoll gradient. Normal semen samples from 12 different men were used in this study. Each sample was simultaneously processed by swim-up and Percoll gradient using modified Tyrode's medium. After the sperm concentration was adjusted to 1 x 10(7) spermatozoa/ml, the suspensions were incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 in air. In each suspension the percentage of sperm recovery, percentage of motile spermatozoa, percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa (either spontaneously or stimulated with human follicular fluid), percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated, and number of spermatozoa bound to the human zona pellucida were determined. The results obtained indicated that the percentage of sperm recovery was higher with the Percoll gradient than with the swim-up procedure (P less than 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between these two sperm populations in the percentage of motile cells, in the percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa, and in the percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated. In addition, the number of spermatozoa bound per zona pellucida was similar for spermatozoa selected by Percoll or swim-up. We conclude that there were no functional differences between the spermatozoa selected by either method.

  11. Time-lapse monitoring of zona pellucida-free embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Bodri, Daniel; Kato, Ryutaro; Kondo, Masae; Hosomi, Naoko; Katsumata, Yoshinari; Kawachiya, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsunekazu

    2015-05-01

    To report time-lapse monitoring of human oocytes in which the damaged zona pellucida was removed, producing zona-free (ZF) oocytes that were cultured until the blastocyst stage in time-lapse incubators. Retrospective case series. Private infertility clinic. Infertile patients (n = 32) undergoing minimal ovarian stimulation or natural cycle IVF treatment between October 2012 and June 2014. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) fertilization of ZF oocytes, prolonged embryo culture in time-lapse incubators, elective vitrification, and subsequent single vitrified-thawed blastocyst transfer (SVBT). Rate of fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development, live-birth rate per SVBT cycle. In spite of advanced maternal age (39 ± 4.2; range, 30-46 years), good fertilization (94%), cleavage (94%), and blastocyst development rates (38%) were reached after fertilization and culturing of ZF oocytes/embryos. All thawed ZF blastocysts survived, and up to this date seven SVBT transfers were performed, yielding three (43%) term live births with healthy newborns. Time-lapse imagery gives a unique insight into the dynamics of embryo development in ZF embryos. Moreover, our case series demonstrate that an oocyte with a damaged zona pellucida that has been removed could be successfully fertilized with ICSI, cultured until blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator and vitrified electively for subsequent use. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  13. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida during oligozoospermia induced with testosterone during a male contraceptive trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, D Y; Johnston, R; Baker, H W

    1995-06-01

    To determine the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP) in testosterone-induced oligozoospermia, previously fertile men participating in the World Heath Organization (WHO) male contraceptive trial in Melbourne were studied while oligozoospermic to various degrees. Semen analysis were performed according to WHO methods. One or two ejaculates from each subject were cryopreserved before commencing weekly intramuscular injections of 200 mg testosterone enanthate. The frozen spermatozoa were used as controls for ZP-binding tests of spermatozoa obtained during testosterone-induced oligozoospermia (< 10 x 10(6)/ml) in either the suppression or efficacy (n = 6) and recovery (n = 3) phases. Two other subjects in the recovery phase with normozoospermia were also tested. Human oocytes that failed to fertilized in vitro from infertile patients were used for the sperm-ZP binding test. Control (frozen) spermatozoa were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and test (oligozoospermic semen) spermatozoa were labelled with tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate. A mixture of equal numbers of labelled motile control and test spermatozoa were incubated with 4-6 ZP. There was a significantly (p < 0.01) lower number of spermatozoa bound per ZP in oligozoospermic samples (65 +/- 7, mean +/- SEM) than in controls (80 +/- 7). However, there were still large numbers of spermatozoa bound to the ZP for all the oligozoospermic samples. Five subjects had similar numbers of spermatozoa bound to the ZP for both control and oligozoospermic samples. Overall, the ZP-binding ratio of test and control spermatozoa averaged 0.82 (range 0.51-1.13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  16. Effects of milk proteins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Coutinho da Silva, Marco A; Seidel, George E; Squires, Edward L; Graham, James K; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2014-11-10

    Objectives were to determine the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) and milk proteins on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in stallion sperm; and to determine the effects of single caseins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). In Experiment I, sperm were incubated in media containing 2 or 4mM Ca(2+) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was determined after ionomycin treatment and long-term incubation (3h). Extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (2 compared with 4mM) did not affect baseline intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of sperm. However, incubating sperm in a medium containing 4 compared with 2mM Ca(2+) resulted in greater (P<0.05) influx of Ca(2+) into sperm. In Experiment II, sperm incubated in media containing 1mg/mL of native phosphocaseinate (NP) or sodium caseinate (SC) showed similar baseline intracellular Ca(2+) and influx of Ca(2+) than control (TALP). In Experiment III, sperm-ZP binding assays were performed in TALP medium containing: no additions (TALP); 1mg/mL SC; 1 or 3mg/mL of α-casein; 1 or 3mg/mL of β-casein; and 1 or 3mg/mL of κ-casein. The number of stallion sperm bound to bovine ZP was greatest (P<0.05) when SC was used. Co-incubation in media containing single caseins (α-, β- or κ-casein) resulted in similar results to TALP; however, a dose effect (P<0.05) was observed for β- and κ-caseins. In conclusion, extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and milk proteins did not affect baseline intracellular calcium in stallion sperm. It appears that β- and κ-caseins may be responsible for enhancing sperm binding to ZP, but the mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  18. Voice Tremor Outcomes of Subthalamic Nucleus and Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Malinova, Elin; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik

    2018-01-17

    We aimed to study the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on level of perceived voice tremor in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). This is a prospective nonrandomized design with consecutive patients. Perceived voice tremor was assessed in patients with PD having received either STN-DBS (8 patients, 5 bilateral and 3 unilateral, aged 43.1-73.6 years; median = 61.2 years) or cZi-DBS (14 bilateral patients, aged 39.0-71.9 years; median = 56.6 years) 12 months before the assessment. Sustained vowels that were produced OFF and ON stimulation (with simultaneous l-DOPA medication) were assessed perceptually in terms of voice tremor by two raters on a four-point rating scale. The assessments were repeated five times per sample and rated in a blinded and randomized procedure. Three out of the 22 patients (13%) were concluded to have voice tremor OFF stimulation. Patients with PD with STN-DBS showed mild levels of perceived voice tremor OFF stimulation and a group level improvement. Patients with moderate/severe perceived voice tremor and cZi-DBS showed marked improvements, but there was no overall group effect. Six patients with cZi-DBS showed small increases in perceived voice tremor severity. STN-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor on a group level. cZi-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor in patients with PD with moderate to severe preoperative levels of the symptom. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Women in Combat Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    and Cons . Major Thomas H. Cecil 88-0490 "--"insights into tomorrou,"’ ..v- A A 0 PtY-i f(.> i’I,-:::x:’~ --pcr~ j.~ ~~* --. -- iiV • DISCLAIMER The...k. r- r,’ I’. REPORT NUMBER 88-0490 TITLE WOMEN IN COMBAT-PROS AND CONS AUTHOR(S) MAJOR THOMAS H. CEC-IL, USAF -% FACULTY ADVISOR CH, LT COL DAVID W...NUMBERS 11 TITLE (include Security Classification) WOMEN IN COMBAT--PROS AND CONS 12. PERSON4AL AUTHOR(S) Cecil, Thomas H1., Major, USAF 9a YýOF REPORT

  20. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  1. InterCon Travel Health: Case B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Gregory E.; Pachamanova, Dessislava A.; Goldstein, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    InterCon provides services to health insurers of foreign tourists who travel to the United States and Canada. Management wants to implement a new information system that will deal with several operational problems, but it is having difficulty securing the capital resources to fund the system's development. After an initial failure, the chief…

  2. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  3. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  4. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  5. Do age and extended culture affect the architecture of the zona pellucida of human oocytes and embryos?

    PubMed

    Kilani, Suha S; Cooke, Simon; Kan, Andrew K; Chapman, Michael G

    2006-02-01

    Advanced female age and extended in vitro culture have both been implicated in zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and thickening. This study aimed to determine the influence of (i) the woman's age and (ii) prolonged in vitro culture of embryos on ZP thickness and density using non-invasive polarized light (LC-PolScope) microscopy. ZP thickness and density (measured as retardance) were determined in oocytes, embryos and blastocysts in women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in two age groups (older, > 38 years; younger, < or = 38 years). A total of 193 oocytes from 29 patients were studied. The younger group contained 100 oocytes and the older group 93 oocytes. The ZP was significantly thicker in metaphase II oocytes in the older group compared with the younger group (mean +/- SD: 24.1 +/- 2.5 microm vs 23.1 +/- 3.3 microm; p = 0.01) but ZP density was equal (2.8 +/- 0.7 nm). By day 2 of culture, embryos from the two groups had similar ZP thickness (22.2 +/- 2.2 microm vs 21.7 +/- 1.6 microm; p = 0.28) and density (2.9 +/- 0.7 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm; p = 0.57). For the embryos cultured to blastocyst (older: n = 20; younger: n = 18) ZP thickness was similar in the two groups (19.2 +/- 2.7 microm vs 19.1 +/- 5.0 microm; p = 0.8) but thinner than on day 2. The older group had significantly denser ZP than the younger group (4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm, p < 0.01). Blastocysts from both groups had significantly denser ZP than their corresponding day 2 embryos (older: 4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 2.9 +/- 0.7 nm, p < 0.001; younger: 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm, p = 0.013). It is concluded that there is little relationship between ZP thickness and its density as measured by polarized light microscopy. While ZP thickness decreases with extended embryo culturing, the density of the ZP increases. ZP density increases in both age groups with extended culture and, interestingly, more in embryos from older compared with younger women.

  6. The preclinical evaluation of immunocontraceptive vaccines based on canine zona pellucida 3 (cZP3) in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Fuchun

    2018-05-11

    Stray dogs are the reservoirs and carriers of rabies and are definitive hosts of echinococcosis. To control the overpopulation of stray dogs, zona pellucida 3 (ZP3), a primary receptor for sperm, is a potential antigen for developing contraceptive vaccines. To enhance the immune responses and contraceptive effects of canine ZP3 (cZP3), dog gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and a T cell epitope of chicken ovalbumin (OVA) were selected to construct two fusion proteins with cZP3, ovalbumin-GnRH-ZP3 (OGZ) and ovalbumin-ZP3 (OZ), and their contraceptive effects were evaluated in mice. The synthesized DNA sequences of OGZ and OZ were cloned into plasmid pET-28a respectively. The fusion proteins OGZ and OZ were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Mice were immunized with OGZ, OZ and cZP3, and the infertility rates were monitored. Mice immunized with mouse ZP3 (mZP3) or adjuvant alone were used as positive control and negative control, respectively. cZP3- and GnRH-specific antibodies (Abs) were detected by ELISA. The bindings of the Abs to oocytes were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The paraffin sections of mice ovaries were observed under microscope for analyzing pathological characteristics. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the two fusion proteins OGZ and OZ were correctly expressed. ELISA results showed that OGZ vaccine induced both cZP3- and GnRH-specific Abs, and OZ vaccine induced cZP3-specific Ab, which lasted for up to 168 days. The levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) in sera were significantly decreased in OGZ immunized mice. Indirect immunofluorescence results showed that Abs induced by cZP3 and mZP3 could bind to the mouse ZP and dog ZP each other. Compared with the adjuvant group, all vaccine immunized groups significantly decreased the fertility rate and mean litter size. Interestingly, the fertility rate in OGZ-immunized group is the lowest, and only 1 mouse out of 10 mice is fertile

  7. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  8. Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental

  9. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Tat, Pollyanna; Heffernan, Corey; Jones, Karen L; Verma, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Even though the technique of mammalian SCNT is just over a decade old it has already resulted in numerous significant advances. Despite the recent advances in the reprogramming field, SCNT remains the bench-mark for the generation of both genetically unmodified autologous pluripotent stem cells for transplantation and for the production of cloned animals. In this review we will discuss the pros and cons of SCNT, drawing comparisons with other reprogramming methods.

  10. Conserva a Puerto Rico con bosques maderables

    Frank H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    [article in Spanish] Puerto Rico consume muchos productos forestales costosos de importar. También tiene bosques extensos con maderas explotables. Además, existen condiciones físicas favorables para la producción de madera útil. No obstante, hoy día no se utiliza la madera de los bosques actuales ocurre la deforestación para cualquier fin. Los Bosques productivos de...

  11. Análisis de los determinantes socioeconómicos del gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos en seis zonas geográficas de Panamá.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ballesteros, Victor H; Castro, Franz; Gómez, Beatriz

    2018-04-27

    Caracterizar el gasto de bolsillo privado en medicamentos en función de los determinantes sociodemográficos y socioeconómicos. MATERIALES Y MéTODOS: La fuente de datos es la Encuesta de Gasto de Bolsillo en Medicamentos de 2014. Se caracterizó el gasto de bolsillo privado mediante variables explicativas sociodemográficas (SOD) y socioeconómicas (SES). Se hizo análisis factorial por componentes principales, regresión logística y lineal simple. Los Odds Ratio demuestran que la educación y la zona geográfica son determinantes fundamentales que inciden en el gasto de bolsillo. Los medicamentos son productos necesarios, en adición a que el gasto de bolsillo aumenta a un promedio del 2% por cada año de vida cronológica adicional. Existe mayor vulnerabilidad en las zonas más pauperizadas respecto del acceso a medicamentos, en especial en las indígenas e implica un mayor riesgo de gasto catastrófico a menor ingreso ante la mayor prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Observacion y anatisis de la varlacton de parametros geofisicos de un pozo ubicado en el piedemonte lIanero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano Mejia, Felix Humberto

    2001-12-01

    Este articulo presenta el desarrollo de instrumentacion especializada que se diseiio y se puso en funcionamiento con el fin de real izar la observacion y el anal isis de la variacion de parametres geofisicos de un pozo ubicado en el piedemonte llanero. La instrumentacion esta compuesta por una estacion remota para el registro multipararnetro y una estacion local en la cual se analizan los registros bajados de la estacion remota mediante la interrogacion periodica.

  13. Experimental and Computational Studies of Carbonyl Diazide (CON6) as a Precursor to Diazirinone (CON2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Amberger, Brent K.; Nolan, Alex M.; Woods, R. Claude; McMahon, R. J.

    2011-10-01

    Intrigued by the reported 2005 synthesis of diazirinone (1), we carried out further experimental and theoretical studies aimed at the detailed matrix-isolation and millimeter-wave spectroscopic characterizations of 1. Diazirinone (1) is a peculiar isoconjugate of two very stable molecules and may be of astrochemical interest. Unfortunately, the original reported methods of diazirinone (1) generation did not yield this species, rather its decomposition products. Inspired by a more recent gas phase pyrolysis of CON6 (2) to yield CON2 (1), we proposed a new method of generating CON6 (2) in solution as a precursor of diazirinone (1). This new synthesis may allow us to generate larger quantities of both CON6 and CON2 for investigation by millimeter-wave spectroscopy. We are able to safely generate carbonyl diazide (2) in sufficient yield from the reaction of triphosgene (3) and tetrabutylammonium azide in diethyl ether. This has allowed us to obtain both matrix-isolation and gas phase IR spectra of carbonyl diazide (2). After purification, it has a gas-phase lifetime that allows samples to be useable for up to several weeks. However, it is a shock-sensitive material that must be handled with care to prevent violent decomposition. In order to provide better mechanistic insight into the decomposition of carbonyl diazide (2) to diazirinone (1), we have engaged in a DFT and ab initio computational study. We have found a pathway between the two species via the triplet acylnitrene, CON4, and an oxaziridine CON2 species, but not at sufficiently low energies to allow for the trapping and detection of diazirinone (1). Preliminary millimeter-wave spectra have been obtained from several synthesized and purified samples of CON6 (2). However, the assignment of the spectra lines has been unexpectedly problematic. We have placed several CON6 (2) samples, confirmed by IR spectroscopy at the time of sample loading, into our instrument and obtained two different sets of rotational lines

  14. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  15. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Products § 319.300 Chili con carne. “Chili con carne” shall contain not less than 40 percent of meat...

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  17. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  18. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  19. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  20. Inhibitors of serine proteases decrease sperm penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro by inhibiting sperm binding to the zona pellucida and acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-11-01

    Serine proteases are involved in mammalian fertilization. Inhibitors of serine proteases can be applied to investigate at which point these enzymes exert their action. We selected two serine protease inhibitors, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, 100 μM) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 5 μM) from Glycine max, via previous dose-response IVF experiments and sperm toxicity tests. In the present study, we evaluated how these inhibitors affect porcine fertilization in vitro as calculated on total fertilization rate, polyspermy rate, and the sperm number per fertilized oocyte of cumulus-intact, cumulus-free, and zona-free oocytes. In the control group (no inhibitor), these parameters were 86%, 49%, and 2.2 for cumulus-intact oocytes and 77%, 43%, and 2.2 for cumulus-free oocytes (6-hour gamete incubation period, 1.25 × 10(5) spermatozoa/mL). 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and STI significantly reduced total fertilization and polyspermy rate in cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes (P < 0.05). Total fertilization rates were respectively 65% and 53% (AEBSF) and 36% and 17% (STI). Inhibition rates were higher in cumulus-free oocytes than in cumulus-intact oocytes, indicating that inhibitors exerted their action after sperm passage through the cumulus. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not STI reduced sperm binding to the ZP. The acrosome reaction was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Only 40.4% (AEBSF) and 11.4% (STI) of spermatozoa completed a calcium-induced acrosome reaction compared to 86.7% of spermatozoa in the control group. There was no effect on sperm binding or fertilization parameters in zona-free oocytes. In conclusion, sperm-zona binding and acrosome reaction were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors during porcine IVF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy Star program benefits Con Edison

    SciT

    NONE

    Impressed with savings in energy costs achieved after upgrading the lighting and air conditioning systems at its Manhattan headquarters, Home Box Office (HBO) wanted to do more, James Flock, vice president for computer and office systems, contacted Con Edison Co. of New York in March 1991 to determine what the company could do to save money by reducing energy consumed by personal computers. Arthur Kressner, Con Edison Research and Development manager contacted industry organizations and manufacturers for advice, but was told only to shut off computers at night and on weekends. Kressner arranged a series of meetings with IBM andmore » the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to discuss the issue, then approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which was designing a program to promote the introduction and use of energy-efficient office equipment. In 1992, the EPA announced the Energy Star program for PCs, enabling manufacturers to display the Energy Star logo on machines meeting program criteria, including the ability to enter a sleep mode in which neither the computer nor monitor consume more than 30 W or electricity. Industry experts estimate national energy consumption by office equipment could double by the year 2000, but Energy Star equipment is expected to improve efficiency and help maintain electric loads.« less

  2. MMP2 and acrosin are major proteinases associated with the inner acrosomal membrane and may cooperate in sperm penetration of the zona pellucida during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Marvin; Rodriguez, Hilma; Zara, Lindsay; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wei; Oko, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration during fertilization is a process that most likely involves enzymatic digestion of this extracellular coat by spermatozoa. Since the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) is the leading edge of spermatozoa during penetration and proteins required for secondary binding of sperm to the zona are present on it, the IAM is the likely location of these enzymes. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize proteinases present on the IAM, confirm their localization and provide evidence for their role in fertilization. Gelatin zymography of detergent extracts of the IAM revealed bands of enzymatic activity identified as serine and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs). Specific inhibitors to MMPs revealed that MMP activity was due to MMP2. Immunoblotting determined that the serine protease activity on the zymogram was due to acrosin and also confirmed the MMP2 activity. Immunogold labeling of spermatozoa at the electron microscope level showed that acrosin and MMP2 were confined to the apical and principal segments of the acrosome in association with the IAM, confirming our IAM isolation technique. Immunohistochemical examination of acrosin and MMP2 during spermiogenesis showed that both proteins originate in the acrosomic granule during the Golgi phase and later redistribute to the acrosomal membrane. Anti-MMP2 antibodies and inhibitors incorporated into in vitro fertilization media significantly decreased fertilization rates. This is the first study to demonstrate that MMP2 and acrosin are associated with the IAM and introduces the possibility of their cooperation in enzymatic digestion of the ZP during penetration.

  3. Identification of a Novel TGF-β-Binding Site in the Zona Pellucida C-terminal (ZP-C) Domain of TGF-β-Receptor-3 (TGFR-3)

    PubMed Central

    Diestel, Uschi; Resch, Marcus; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Weiler, Sigrid; Hellmann, Tina V.; Mueller, Thomas D.; Nickel, Joachim; Eichler, Jutta; Muller, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is present in extracellular proteins such as the zona pellucida proteins and tectorins and participates in the formation of polymeric protein networks. However, the ZP domain also occurs in the cytokine signaling co-receptor transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor type 3 (TGFR-3, also known as betaglycan) where it contributes to cytokine ligand recognition. Currently it is unclear how the ZP domain architecture enables this dual functionality. Here, we identify a novel major TGF-β-binding site in the FG loop of the C-terminal subdomain of the murine TGFR-3 ZP domain (ZP-C) using protein crystallography, limited proteolysis experiments, surface plasmon resonance measurements and synthetic peptides. In the murine 2.7 Å crystal structure that we are presenting here, the FG-loop is disordered, however, well-ordered in a recently reported homologous rat ZP-C structure. Surprisingly, the adjacent external hydrophobic patch (EHP) segment is registered differently in the rat and murine structures suggesting that this segment only loosely associates with the remaining ZP-C fold. Such a flexible and temporarily-modulated association of the EHP segment with the ZP domain has been proposed to control the polymerization of ZP domain-containing proteins. Our findings suggest that this flexibility also extends to the ZP domain of TGFR-3 and might facilitate co-receptor ligand interaction and presentation via the adjacent FG-loop. This hints that a similar C-terminal region of the ZP domain architecture possibly regulates both the polymerization of extracellular matrix proteins and cytokine ligand recognition of TGFR-3. PMID:23826237

  4. NEFM (Neurofilament Medium) Polypeptide, a Marker for Zona Glomerulosa Cells in Human Adrenal, Inhibits D1R (Dopamine D1 Receptor)-Mediated Secretion of Aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Maniero, Carmela; Garg, Sumedha; Zhao, Wanfeng; Johnson, Timothy Isaac; Zhou, Junhua; Gurnell, Mark; Brown, Morris J

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneity among aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has been highlighted by the discovery of somatic mutations. KCNJ5 mutations predominate in large zona fasciculata (ZF)-like APAs; mutations in CACNA1D , ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CTNNB1 are more likely to be found in small zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs. Microarray comparison of KCNJ5 mutant versus wild-type APAs revealed significant differences in transcriptomes. NEFM , encoding a neurofilament subunit which is a D1R (dopamine D1 receptor)-interacting protein, was 4-fold upregulated in ZG-like versus ZF-like APAs and 14-fold more highly expressed in normal ZG versus ZF. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of NEFM (neurofilament medium) polypeptide in ZG and in ZG-like APAs. Silencing NEFM in adrenocortical H295R cells increased basal aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation; silencing also amplified aldosterone stimulation by the D1R agonist, fenoldopam, and inhibition by the D1R antagonist, SCH23390. NEFM coimmunoprecipitated with D1R, and its expression was stimulated by fenoldopam. Immunohistochemistry for D1R was mainly intracellular in ZG-like APAs but membranous in ZF-like APAs. Aldosterone secretion in response to fenoldopam in primary cells from ZF-like APAs was higher than in cells from ZG-like APAs. Transfection of mutant KCNJ5 caused a large reduction in NEFM expression in H295R cells. We conclude that NEFM is a negative regulator of aldosterone production and cell proliferation, in part by facilitating D1R internalization from the plasma membrane. Downregulation of NEFM in ZF-like APAs may contribute to a D1R/D2R imbalance underlying variable pharmacological responses to dopaminergic drugs among patients with APAs. Finally, taken together, our data point to the possibility that ZF-like APAs are in fact ZG in origin. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

  6. Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P Justin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing.

  7. Pros and Cons of International Weapons Procurement Collaboration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    ad- vanced U.S. industry. Greater risk of cost growth and schedule slippage. Pro: U.S. and partners share common equip- ment. Con : U.S. require...Mark A., 1947- Pros and cons of international weapons procurement collaboration / Mark Lorell, Julia Lowell, p. cm "Prepared for the Office...one/ Cons of International Weapons Procurement Collaboration Mark Lorell Julia Lowell National Defense Research Institute Prepared for the

  8. The Procurement of Non Developmental Items: Pros and Cons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    commercial way of procurement will bring more advantages than disadvantages to DOD. The list of the pros greatly outweighs the cons . There is practically...AD-A285 009 MH PROCUREMENT OF NON DEVELOPMENTAL ITEMS: PROS AND CONS THES IS Giorgio Scappaticci. Lt. Col., Italian Air Force AFIT/GLMILALj94S-3 I...PROS AND CONS U;narmou,.ced 0 Justification THESIS Giorgio Scappaticci, Lt. Col., Italian Air Force Dist’ibution f Availability Codes AFIT/GLM/LAL

  9. Pros and cons of phage therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loc-Carrillo, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Many publications list advantages and disadvantages associated with phage therapy, which is the use of bacterial viruses to combat populations of nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. The goal of this commentary is to discuss many of those issues in a single location. In terms of “Pros,” for example, phages can be bactericidal, can increase in number over the course of treatment, tend to only minimally disrupt normal flora, are equally effective against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, often are easily discovered, seem to be capable of disrupting bacterial biofilms, and can have low inherent toxicities. In addition to these assets, we consider aspects of phage therapy that can contribute to its safety, economics, or convenience, but in ways that are perhaps less essential to the phage potential to combat bacteria. For example, autonomous phage transfer between animals during veterinary application could provide convenience or economic advantages by decreasing the need for repeated phage application, but is not necessarily crucial to therapeutic success. We also consider possible disadvantages to phage use as antibacterial agents. These “Cons,” however, tend to be relatively minor. PMID:22334867

  10. Breath Analysis Science at PittCon 2012, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Breath analysis science was featured in three organized sessions at this year’s Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or ‘PittCon 2012’ (http://www.pittcon.org/). As described in previous meeting reports, PittCon is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chem...

  11. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  12. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  13. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  14. ProCon - PROteomics CONversion tool.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Kohl, Michael; Marcus, Katrin; Eisenacher, Martin

    2015-11-03

    With the growing amount of experimental data produced in proteomics experiments and the requirements/recommendations of journals in the proteomics field to publicly make available data described in papers, a need for long-term storage of proteomics data in public repositories arises. For such an upload one needs proteomics data in a standardized format. Therefore, it is desirable, that the proprietary vendor's software will integrate in the future such an export functionality using the standard formats for proteomics results defined by the HUPO-PSI group. Currently not all search engines and analysis tools support these standard formats. In the meantime there is a need to provide user-friendly free-to-use conversion tools that can convert the data into such standard formats in order to support wet-lab scientists in creating proteomics data files ready for upload into the public repositories. ProCon is such a conversion tool written in Java for conversion of proteomics identification data into standard formats mzIdentML and Pride XML. It allows the conversion of Sequest™/Comet .out files, of search results from the popular and often used ProteomeDiscoverer® 1.x (x=versions 1.1 to1.4) software and search results stored in the LIMS systems ProteinScape® 1.3 and 2.1 into mzIdentML and PRIDE XML. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Study on the zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene sequence and its expression in the ovaries of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, B; Nawrot, R; Nowak, W; Czyzyk, A; Kedzia, H; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, A

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of unknown pathology, involving reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Oocyte-specific genes are a group of genes expressed exclusively in ovarian tissue; therefore, they can play an important role in ovarian pathologies such as PCOS. The zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene encodes glycoprotein which is a part of the extracellular matrix of oocyte. We analyzed 87 patients with PCOS, which were divided into four groups depending on their phenotype. In each patient, we performed profound clinical and biochemical analysis, including the measurement of serum androgens. The ovarian tissue samples were used to perform a real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining using anti-ZP4 monoclonal antibodies. The ZP4 gene was sequenced from peripheral lymphocytes. The expression of ZP4 was present in early antral follicles and was stronger in mature follicles. The subgroup of patients with eumenorrhea and without hyperandrogenism presented the highest expression of ZP4 in ovarian tissue. In one case, we found a mutation of the ZP4 gene. No correlations were found between the ZP4 expression level and biochemical or clinical indices. Data from this and animal studies suggest a possible relationship between androgens and ZP4 expression. ZP4 expression is highest among patients with PCOS and a regular cycle, and this is a consequence of the presence of mature follicles in this group. In some patients with PCOS and infertility, ZP4 mutation can be found.

  16. In-vitro developmental potential of individual mouse blastomeres cultured with and without zona pellucida: future implications for human assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the developmental potential of individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell mouse embryos cultured with and without zona pellucida (ZP). In the first series, one, three, five and seven blastomeres were biopsied from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos respectively, and inserted individually into empty ZP recipients, leaving the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. In the second series, the same protocol was used except that the biopsied blastomeres were cultured without ZP and compared with the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. For the first series, individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos cultured with ZP showed blastocyst development of 82.4, 68.6, 44.4 and 23.1% respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 70.6, 60.0, 25.9 and 7.7%. For the second series, individual blastomeres cultured without ZP progressed with blastocyst development of 73.3, 64.5, 35.7 and 22.7% respectively. Blastocyst multiplication was achieved most efficiently when using individual blastomeres from 4- and 6-cell embryos. This is the first report on comparative in-vitro propagation of single blastomeres derived from various cleavage stages in a mammalian species. Blastomere cloning with its multiple applications may be envisaged for human assisted reproductive technologies.

  17. [Sexuality and STD/AIDS prevention: social representations by rural men in a county in the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria de Fátima Paz

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes the concepts displayed by rural men in the Zona da Mata region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, concerning their sexual practices and STD/AIDS prevention. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, having interviewed 22 men According to the interviews, their first sexual intercourse is characterized as a learning experience and is sometimes marked by violence. They make a distinction between the "woman at home" and "street women"; they acknowledge women's sexual desire and value reciprocity in sexual relations, differentiating between the kinds of sex they have with different categories of women. Seven men report homoerotic experiences during adolescence, which they ascribe to immaturity, not affecting their heterosexual identity. Condom use, perceived in a negative light, is inconstant and irregular, inversely proportional to knowing the female partner. STDs in general inspire little fear, while AIDS is associated with death; the interviewees do not see themselves at risk of acquiring HIV. Ambiguities in the men's discourse, together with a basically ineffective approach by health services and preventive campaigns, reveal a high level of exposure to the risk of contracting STDs/AIDS among the interviewees and their female or male partners.

  18. Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Production of tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 for contraceptive vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Affinity tags can interfere in various physicochemical properties and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. In the present study, tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) (TT-KK-ZP3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs), was purified by isolation of IBs, processed to remove host cell proteins, followed by solubilization and refolding. A specific 39 kDa protein including ZP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE. CD spectra showed the presence of α-helices and β-sheets, and fluorescent spectroscopy revealed emission maxima of 265 A.U. at 339 nm for refolded protein and showed red shift in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Immunization of inbred FvB/J female mice with purified recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 (25 μg/animal) led to generation of high antibody titers against the recombinant protein. The antibodies reacted specifically with ZP matrix surrounding mouse oocytes. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility as compared to the control group. The studies described herein provide a simple method to produce and purify tag-free recombinant protein for the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  20. Caudal Zona Incerta/VOP Radiofrequency Lesioning Guided by Combined Stereotactic MRI and Microelectrode Recording for Posttraumatic Midbrain Resting-Kinetic Tremor.

    PubMed

    Contreras Lopez, William Omar; Azevedo, Angelo R; Cury, Rubens G; Alencar, Francisco; Neville, Iuri S; Reis, Paul R; Navarro, Jessie; Monaco, Bernardo; da Silva, Fabio E Fernandes; Teixeira, Manoel J; Fonoff, Erich T

    2016-02-01

    Reporting the outcome of two patients who underwent unilateral ablative stereotactic surgery to treat pharmacologic resistant posttraumatic tremor (PTT). We present two patients (31 and 47 years old) with refractory PTT severely affecting their quality of life. Under stereotactic guidance, refined by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and double-channel multiunit microelectrode recording (MER), three sequential radiofrequency lesions were performed in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) up to the base of thalamus (VOP). Effects of cZi/VOP lesion were prospectively rated with a tremor rating scale. Both patients demonstrated intraoperative tremor suppression with sustained results up to 18 months follow-up, with improvement of 92% and 84%, respectively, on the tremor rating scale. Tremor improvement was associated with enhancement functionality and quality of life for the patients. The patients returned to their work after the procedure. No adverse effects were observed up to the last follow-up. Radiofrequency lesion of the cZi/VOP target was effective for posttraumatic tremor in both cases. The use of T2-weighted images and MER was found helpful in increasing the precision and safety of the procedure, because it leads the RF probe by relying on neighbor structures based on thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Reconstrucción ósea de defectos craneales secundarios a traumatismo con implantes personalizados].

    PubMed

    Cienfuegos, Ricardo; Fernández, Gerardo; Cruz, Aída; Sierra, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Los defectos craneales secundarios a traumatismos son frecuentes. Por lo común se reparan de forma secundaria por sintomatología como el síndrome del paciente trepanado, por protección cerebral y por el aspecto cosmético. Históricamente se han utilizado diversos materiales para la reconstrucción. Se presentan cinco casos de pacientes reconstruidos con implantes personalizados de polieteretercetona (PEEK) o polimetilmetacrilato poroso (PMMA). Las localizaciones afectaron el frontal, el borde orbitario superior y el techo orbitario en cuatro casos, y la porción lateral del frontal, la zona temporoparietal y el borde del occipital en un caso. La reconstrucción en cuatro pacientes fue entre 6 y 12 meses después de la lesión, y en un caso después de 25 años. En dos casos se requirió expansión tisular antes de colocar el implante. Cuatro pacientes evolucionaron favorablemente, con mejoría de los síntomas neurológicos, forma y contorno adecuados, así como un proceso de cicatrización adecuada de los colgajos de piel cabelluda. Un paciente presentó infección por Staphylococcus aureus, atribuida a la presencia de un mucocele y una fístula de la vía aérea a la cavidad craneal, lo que hizo necesario retirar el implante. Los implantes personalizados son un recurso útil para defectos óseos craneales. Brindan resultados satisfactorios desde el punto de vista funcional y cosmético. Deben tomarse precauciones respecto al tratamiento de las lesiones que afecten el seno frontal, para evitar la comunicación entre la vía aérea y la cavidad craneal. Cranial defects due to trauma are frequent. They are usually repaired in a secondary fashion due to features such as syndrome of the trephined, for brain protection and for cosmetic purposes. Historically, various materials have been used for reconstruction. Five cases of patients reconstructed with customized polyetheretherketone (PEEK) o polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) implants are presented. Defects involved

  2. Comparison of the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction between subfertile men with normal and abnormal semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, De Yi; Liu, Ming Li; Garrett, Claire; Baker, H W Gordon

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding (DSZPB) and defective ZP-induced acrosome reaction (DZPIAR) in subfertile men (i.e. male partners of infertile couples) with normal and abnormal semen analyses. A total of 1030 subfertile men with normal semen analysis (n=255), oligozoospermia (count<20x10(6)/ml, n=136), severe teratozoospermia (strict normal morphology

  3. Evaluation of tight junction protein 1 encoding zona occludens 1 as a candidate gene for albuminuria in a Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, D M; Leach, R J; Johnson-Pais, T; Hamlington, J; Fowler, S; Almasy, L; Duggirala, R; Stern, M P; Abboud, H E

    2006-09-01

    Albuminuria, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to be significantly heritable in multiple studies. Therefore, the identification of genes that affect susceptibility to albuminuria may lead to novel avenues of intervention. Current evidence suggests that the podocyte and slit diaphragm play a key role in controlling the selective sieve of the glomerular filtration barrier, and podocyte-specific genes have been identified that are necessary for maintaining its integrity. We therefore investigated the role of gene variants of tight junction protein (TJP1) which encodes another slit diaphragm-associated protein zona occludens 1 as risk factors for albuminuria in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS), which consists of extended Mexican-American families with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Albuminuria, defined as an albumin (mg/dl) to creatinine (mg/dl) ratio (ACR) of 0.03, which is approximately equivalent to a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) >30 mg/day, was present in a total of 14.9% of participants, and 31% had type 2 diabetes. The TJP1 exons, flanking intronic sequence, and putative proximal promoter regions were investigated in this population. Twentynine polymorphisms, including 7 nonsynonymous SNPs, were identified and genotyped in all subjects of this study for association analysis. Three sets of correlated SNPs, which include 3 exonic SNPs, were nominally associated with ACR (p value range 0.007-0.049); however, the association with the discrete trait albuminuria was not significant (p value range 0.094-0.338). We conclude that these variants in TJP1 do not appear to be major determinants for albuminuria in the SAFDGS; however, they may play a minor role in its severity in this Mexican-American population. Further examination of the TJP1 gene region in this and other cohorts will be useful to determine whether ZO-1 plays a significant role in glomerular permselectivity.

  4. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor in the zona pellucida of developing ovarian follicles in the rat: a possible role in destiny of follicles.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Kayisli, Umit Ali; Arici, Aydin; Demir, Ramazan

    2003-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that in many species angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may have important roles in folliculogenesis. The aim of this study is to determine the localization of VEGF and its receptors, Flt-1 and KDR, and bFGF expression in the rat ovary and to evaluate their distributions throughout the different follicular stages. Out of 20 virginal female rats, 10 were studied during the natural ovarian cycle without any ovulation induction. The other 10 were superovulated and their ovaries were studied by western analysis and immunohistochemistry. Granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes of primordial follicles were negative for VEGF. In early primary follicles, VEGF was present in the oocyte but its immunoreactivity was weak, while newly developing zona pellucida (ZP) of primary follicles was negative for VEGF. Subsequently, with the commencement of antral spaces between GC of the secondary follicle, ZP of some secondary follicles became strongly positive for VEGF, forming a continuous ring around the oocyte. In preovulatory mature follicles granulosa and theca interna (TI) cells showed a weak immunoreactivity for VEGF. Western blot analyses have also demonstrated that VEGF, a 26-kDa protein, was present in follicles. Moreover, in ovulated cumulus-oocyte complex we observed a halo-like immunoreactivity of VEGF around the fully mature oocyte. The immunoreactivity for Flt-1 and KDR receptors in growing follicles was mostly limited to GC and TI cells. Anti-bFGF did not exhibit any immunoreactivity in ZP of follicles at any stage. Its expression was weak in GC of the follicles at different stages, whereas, it could be localized to some extent in the blood capillaries of TI of antral follicles and in blood vessels localized in the stroma. Interestingly, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ZP of some secondary follicles is very striking. Accordingly, the possibility that VEGF may be an

  5. Planificación Neuroquirúrgica con Software Osirix

    PubMed Central

    Jaimovich, Sebastián Gastón; Guevara, Martin; Pampin, Sergio; Jaimovich, Roberto; Gardella, Javier Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La individualidad anatómica es clave para reducir el trauma quirúrgico y obtener un mejor resultado. Actualmente, el avance en las neuroimágenes ha permitido objetivar esa individualidad anatómica, permitiendo planificar la intervención quirúrgica. Con este objetivo, presentamos nuestra experiencia con el software Osirix. Descripción de la técnica: Se presentan 3 casos ejemplificadores de 40 realizados. Caso 1: Paciente con meningioma de la convexidad parasagital izquierda en área premotora; Caso 2: Paciente con macroadenoma hipofisario, operada previamente por vía transeptoesfenoidal en otra institución con una resección parcial; Caso 3: Paciente con lesiones en pedúnculo cerebeloso medio bilateral. Se realizó la planificación prequirúrgica con el software OsiriX, fusionando y reconstruyendo en 3D las imágenes de TC e IRM, para analizar relaciones anatómicas, medir distancias, coordenadas y trayectorias, entre otras funciones. Discusión: El software OsiriX de acceso libre y gratuito permite al cirujano, mediante la fusión y reconstrucción en 3D de imágenes, analizar la anatomía individual del paciente y planificar de forma rápida, simple, segura y económica cirugías de alta complejidad. En el Caso 1 se pudo analizar las relaciones del tumor con las estructuras adyacentes para minimizar el abordaje. En el Caso 2 permitió comprender la anatomía post-operatoria previa del paciente, para determinar la trayectoria del abordaje transnasal endoscópico y la necesidad de ampliar su exposición, logrando la resección tumoral completa. En el Caso 3 permitió obtener las coordenadas estereotáxicas y trayectoria de una lesión sin representación tomográfica. Conclusión: En casos de no contar con costosos sistemas de neuronavegación o estereotáxia el software OsiriX es una alternativa a la hora de planificar la cirugía, con el objetivo de disminuir el trauma y la morbilidad operatoria. PMID:25165617

  6. ConKit: a python interface to contact predictions.

    PubMed

    Simkovic, Felix; Thomas, Jens M H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2017-07-15

    Recent advances in protein residue contact prediction algorithms have led to the emergence of many new methods and a variety of file formats. We present ConKit , an open source, modular and extensible Python interface which allows facile conversion between formats and provides an interface to analyses of sequence alignments and sets of contact predictions. ConKit is available via the Python Package Index. The documentation can be found at http://www.conkit.org . ConKit is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause. hlfsimko@liverpool.ac.uk or drigden@liverpool.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax

  8. Sequías Hidrológicas en la República Argentina y su relación con Variables Macroclimáticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Erica Betiana

    2016-07-01

    Una adecuada planificación y gestión requiere un conocimiento de la distribución temporal y espacial de los recursos hídricos. Una amenaza que afecta al desarrollo y aprovechamiento de los recursos hídricos, y para las cuales la ingeniería debe dar soluciones, son las situaciones de extremos hidrológicos como inundaciones o sequías. Siendo estas últimas un fenómeno hidrológico extremo de gran complejidad del cual aún se conoce poco. Con el objetivo de identificar y caracterizar temporal y espacialmente las sequías hidrológicas en Argentina, esta tesis abordó en primera instancia, la identificación y caracterización de sequías desde el punto de vista hidrológico, abarcando el mayor período de tiempo y espacio, en función de los datos de caudales disponibles. Con el fin de predecir eventos plurianuales de sequías hidrológicas en el mediano y largo plazo se generaron, a través del análisis espectral y armónico de las series históricas de caudales observados, series sintéticas que reproducen las componentes periódicas plurianuales más significativas de las series observadas. Además, para lograr un avance en el conocimiento de los fenómenos climáticos que conducen a las sequías hidrológicas, se identificaron las variables macroclimáticas que tienen una mayor correlación con los caudales escurridos en las distintas cuencas. Esta tesis comprende el estudio de 14 cuencas hidrográficas argentinas, pertenecientes a los ríos Colorado, Mendoza, San Juan, Atuel, Ctalamochita, Anizacate, Xanaes, Suquía, Dulce, Juramento, Salado, Paraná, Bermejo y Pilcomayo. Los resultados a los que se abordaron en esta tesis son de relevancia para la gestión de los recursos hídricos ya que usos tales como el abastecimiento humano, el riego y la producción energética, entre otros, pueden ser seriamente afectados por la ocurrencia de manera simultánea de sequías severas en cuencas que aportan a una región y zonas vecinas.

  9. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  10. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Teaching after Retirement: The Pros and the Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Having enjoyed teaching during my active career, I continued to teach summer school following retirement. Self-observed sensory and cognitive impairments, although not mentioned by students in their evaluations, induced me to consider the pros and cons of continuing to teach. My hope is that this list of benefits and problems will be of assistance…

  12. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  13. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  14. 9 CFR 319.300 - Chili con carne.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne. 319.300 Section 319.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  15. Canceling Some d-CON Mouse and Rat Control Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has reached agreement with the manufacturer, to cancel 12 d-CON products that do not meet our testing protocols that better protect children, pets and non-target wildlife from accidental exposure to the pesticide. These products will be phased out.

  16. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  17. The human is an exception to the evolutionarily-conserved phenomenon of pre-fertilization zona pellucida resistance to proteolysis induced by oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, I; Avilés, M; Coy, P

    2013-03-01

    Is zona pellucida (ZP) resistance to proteolysis, induced by oviductal fluid (OF), a mechanism common to species other than the pig and cow? ZP resistance to proteolysis induced by OF was observed in the mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, sheep, goat, pig and cow, but not in humans. Oviductal ZP resistance to proteolysis occurs in the pig and cow where it influences the incidence of fertilization and polyspermy. The effect is observed after incubation of ZP in OFs from pig (pOF), cow (cOF), rabbit (rOF) and sheep (sOF). Oocytes from nine different species, including ungulates, rodents, lagomorphs and primates were incubated in rOF, sOF, gOF, cOF, pOF and human oviductal fluid (hOF). ZP digestion times for the matured oocytes of these nine species, without any treatment or incubated in 5 (mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, cow, ewe and goat) or 6 (pig and humans) of the OFs collected were compared using three replicates per treatment and at least three oocytes per replicate. In vivo matured oocytes from rat, hamster, mouse, rabbit and humans, in vitro matured oocytes from cow, goat, ewe and pig and rOF, cOF, gOF, sOF, pOF and human (hOF) were collected and processed for the study. Oocytes from each species were incubated in the different OFs for 30 min. The resistance of the ZP of the oocytes to enzymatic digestion in a pronase solution (0.5% in PBS) was measured and registered as ZP digestion time. rOF increased ZP resistance to proteolytic digestion in the range of between 96 and 720 h for any of the species tested, whereas the corresponding increase in human ZP was only 1 min. OFs from the remaining species also had a significant effect, with variations among the cross-species experiments (P < 0.05). hOF, which was only tested on human and porcine oocytes, had no effect on ZP chemical hardening. Measurements of ZP digestion times are not of extreme accuracy and errors of a few seconds can be assumed in the experimental data. However, when differences are in the range of

  18. The roles of protein disulphide isomerase family A, member 3 (ERp57) and surface thiol/disulphide exchange in human spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Wai; Lam, Kevin K W; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Yeung, William S B; Zhao, Wei E; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ou, Jian-Ping; Chiu, Philip C N

    2017-04-01

    Are multimeric sperm plasma membrane protein complexes, ERp57 and sperm surface thiol content involved in human spermatozoa-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction? ERp57 is a component of a multimeric spermatozoa-ZP receptor complex involved in regulation of human spermatozoa-ZP binding via up-regulation of sperm surface thiol content. A spermatozoon acquires its fertilization capacity within the female reproductive tract by capacitation. Spermatozoa-ZP receptor is suggested to be a composite structure that is assembled into a functional complex during capacitation. Sperm surface thiol content is elevated during capacitation. ERp57 is a protein disulphide isomerase that modulates the thiol-disulphide status of proteins. The binding ability and components of protein complexes in extracted membrane protein fractions of spermatozoa were studied. The roles of capacitation, thiol-disulphide reagent treatments and ERp57 on sperm functions and sperm surface thiol content were assessed. Spermatozoa were obtained from semen samples from normozoospermic men. Human oocytes were obtained from an assisted reproduction programme. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western ligand blotting and mass spectrometry were used to identify the components of solubilized ZP/ZP3-binding complexes. The localization and expression of sperm surface thiol and ERp57 were studied by immunostaining and sperm surface protein biotinylation followed by western blotting. Sperm functions were assessed by standard assays. Several ZP-binding complexes were isolated from the cell membrane of capacitated spermatozoa. ERp57 was a component of one of these complexes. Capacitation significantly increased the sperm surface thiol content, acrosomal thiol distribution and ERp57 expression on sperm surface. Sperm surface thiol and ERp57 immunoreactivity were localized to the acrosomal region of spermatozoa, a region responsible for ZP-binding. Up-regulation of the surface thiol content or ERp57 surface

  19. Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) and several proteins containing BX7B motifs in human sperm may have hyaluronic acid binding or recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Torabi, F; Bogle, O A; Estanyol, J M; Oliva, R; Miller, D

    2017-12-01

    Are there novel hyaladherins in human sperm? Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2), containing a Link-like hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding domain, and several other proteins containing BX7B motifs, such as ADAM32 and Midkine, may be novel hyaladherins with HA-binding properties. HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), which can bind HA surrounding the cumulus-oophorus complex, are distinct from hyases such as PH 20 (SPAM1) and are expressed by mature spermatozoa. Although HABP1 and CD44 are reasonably well characterized hyaladherins and the former has been implicated in sperm-oocyte interactions, the overall significance of sperm hyaladherins for male fertility is still poorly understood. This was a laboratory-based investigation into human sperm hyaladherins undertaken as part of a three year PhD programme sponsored by the EU Marie Curie Training network, Reprotrain. Protein homogenates of sperm obtained from young men of unknown fertility (N = 4) were partitioned into HA-binding and non-binding fractions by a protein affinity 'panning' method; their subsequent characterization was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and partitioning behaviour was confirmed by western blotting. Sequences of proteins from both fractions were submitted to PDBsum to look for orthologous entries (PDB codes) and all returned codes were queried against the matching protein using SAS (Sequences Annotated by Structure) looking for structural similarities between them. A systematic search for other common features of hyaladherins was also undertaken. The presence of BX7B sequence motifs found in several well-described hyaladherins including RHAMM was used to assess efficacy of potential hyaladherin partitioning by the HA substrate. The data showed that 50% (14/28) and 34.5% (28/81) of proteins in the bound and unbound fractions, respectively, contained these motifs (one-tailed Z-score = 1.45; P = 0.074), indicating weak discrimination by the substrate. Querying PDBsum

  20. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  1. Tailoring a ConOps for NASA LSP Integrated Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Skip Clark V., III

    2017-01-01

    An integral part of the Systems Engineering process is the creation of a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for a given system, with the ConOps initially established early in the system design process and evolved as the system definition and design matures. As Integration Engineers in NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), our job is to manage the interface requirements for all the robotic space missions that come to our Program for a Launch Service. LSP procures and manages a launch service from one of our many commercial Launch Vehicle Contractors (LVCs) and these commercial companies are then responsible for developing the Interface Control Document (ICD), the verification of the requirements in that document, and all the services pertaining to integrating the spacecraft and launching it into orbit. However, one of the systems engineering tools that have not been employed within LSP to date is a Concept of Operations. The goal of this paper is to research the format and content that goes into these various aerospace industry ConOps and tailor the format and content into template form, so the template may be used as an engineering tool for spacecraft integration with future LSP procured launch services. This tailoring effort was performed as the authors final Masters Project in the Spring of 2016 for the Stevens Institute of Technology and modified for publication with INCOSE (Owens, 2016).

  2. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, concept of operations (ConOps) – Tampa (THEA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-02-01

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Tampa Hillsborough Expressway Authority (THEA) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment. This ConOps describes the current state of operations, establishes the reasons for change, and ...

  3. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, concept of operations (ConOps) - New York City.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-08

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYC) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This ConOps describes the current state of operations, establishes the reasons for ...

  4. Public mental hospital work: pros and cons for psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1984-09-01

    The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.

  5. Apoyo a Estudios Geodinamicos con GPS en Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    El Instituto Geografico Nacional de Guatemala implemento 17 estaciones GNSS en el año 2009, como un proyecto de credito mixto de donacion de equipamiento del Gobierno de Suiza, el cual, este equipamiento de estaciones CORS GNSS es un sistema de recepción y transmisión de datos crudos GPS RInex que utiliza la tecnologia Spider Web de Leica, asi mismo este sistema esta sirviendo para el espablecimiento de un marco geodesico nacional de coordenadas geodesicas oficiales, el cual se calculan u obtienen las velocidades en tiempos temporales programados de las 17 Estaciones CORS. La infraestructura del marco geodesico de Guatemala esta sirviendo de base para las aplicaciones de estudios geodinamicos como el monitoreo de del desplazamiento de las placas tectonicas por medio de un estudio que se inicio en el año de 1999, llamado medicion con GPS el sistema de Fallas de los rios Polochic Motagua de Guatemala, tambien para un estudio que se implemento para deformación de corteza terrestre local en un Volcan Activo de Guatemala llamado Pacaya. Para el estudio de medicion con GPS en el sistema de falla de los Rios del polochic Motagua se implementaron 16 puntos para medir con GPS de dos frecuencias en el año de 1999, el cual, tres puntos son estaciones geodesicas CORS IGS llamados GUAT, ELEN y HUEH, despues en el año de 2003 se hizo otra medicion en un total de 20 puntos, que permitió calcular las velocidades de desplazamieinto de los puntos en mención, usando como referencia el modelo NUVEL 1A de DeMets de la placa de Norteamerica. Este estudio fue en cooperación internacional por la universidad de Nice de Francia y el IGNde Francia. Para el estudio del monitoreo con GPS del volcan activo de Guatemala, se implementaron cuatro puntos al rededor del volcan, el cual, se realizan cuatro mediciones al año, que permiten determinar axialmente la distancias entre los puntos, y rebisar estadisticamente cual es el comportamiento de las distancias en funcion del tiempo, si

  6. Topical Oxygen for Chronic Wounds: A PRO/CON Debate

    PubMed Central

    Mutluoglu, Mesut; Cakkalkurt, Aslican; Uzun, Gunalp; Aktas, Samil

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxygen in wound healing is universally accepted and does not require any further evidence; however the controversy as to whether oxygen delivery systems have the potential to improve wound healing remains to be concluded. Topical oxygen treatment (TOT) involves the delivery of 100% oxygen for a mean of 90 min, once a day at an atmospheric pressure slightly above 1 atm abs. The use of TOT gained increasing interest recently. The current manuscript will summarize the pros and cons of TOT in the view of the available literature. PMID:26199891

  7. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs.

  8. Conning the conmen: Intelligence and female desire in Dedh Ishqiya.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-01-02

    This article investigates the ostensibly paradoxical relationship that exists between the theme of excessive love, as suggested by the title of Abhishek Chaubey's film Dedh Ishqiya (2014), and the actual representation of it in the movie, which is not only restrained and disproportionate, but is also looked at with suspicion and contempt. It examines the logic of this seeming contradiction through the other two related themes that Chaubey's chef-d'œuvre foregrounds, namely that of intelligence and female desire. The quest for financial autonomy that the female protagonists of the movie are involved in-a necessary pre-condition for leading independent lives-is so inextricably intertwined with manipulation, dexterity, and subterfuge, that any overt expression of homoerotic female desire can only jeopardize their existing possibilities of self-aggrandizement. The heteronormative arrangements of Begum Para's palace thus constitute the elaborate mise en scène, behind which female desire is enacted through a politics of intelligence, resourcefulness, discretion, and anonymity. Through this strategic negotiation, which is also a tactical necessity, the female protagonists are not only able to con the con men in the movie, but also imagine alternative subject positions that recognize the need for both pragmatism and expediency as well as deconstructing heteropatriarchal economies of desire.

  9. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Laezza, Chiara; Pisanti, Simona; Gazzerro, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, research has dramatically increased the knowledge of cannabinoids biology and pharmacology. In mammals, compounds with properties similar to active components of Cannabis sativa, the so called ‘endocannabinoids', have been shown to modulate key cell-signalling pathways involved in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis. To date, cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increased evidences showed direct antiproliferative actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumour cells in vitro and in animal models. In this article, we will review the principal molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids on cancer and summarize pros and cons evidence on the possible future use of endocannabinoid-based drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:16501583

  10. Pros and Cons of the Acceleration Scheme (NF-IDS)

    SciT

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir

    The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and beam shaping can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a nonâ scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. Pros and cons of various stages are discussed here in detail. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain acrossmore » the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. Close proximity of strong solenoids and superc« less

  11. Caffe con Troll: Shallow Ideas to Speed Up Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hadjis, Stefan; Abuzaid, Firas; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present Caffe con Troll (CcT), a fully compatible end-to-end version of the popular framework Caffe with rebuilt internals. We built CcT to examine the performance characteristics of training and deploying general-purpose convolutional neural networks across different hardware architectures. We find that, by employing standard batching optimizations for CPU training, we achieve a 4.5× throughput improvement over Caffe on popular networks like CaffeNet. Moreover, with these improvements, the end-to-end training time for CNNs is directly proportional to the FLOPS delivered by the CPU, which enables us to efficiently train hybrid CPU-GPU systems for CNNs. PMID:27314106

  12. Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols - GOAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assémat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    Quantum optimal control becomes a necessary step in a number of studies in the quantum realm. Recent experimental advances showed that superconducting qubits can be controlled with an impressive accuracy. However, most of the standard optimal control algorithms are not designed to manage such high accuracy. To tackle this issue, a novel quantum optimal control algorithm have been introduced: the Gradient Optimization for Analytic conTrols (GOAT). It avoids the piecewise constant approximation of the control pulse used by standard algorithms. This allows an efficient implementation of very high accuracy optimization. It also includes a novel method to compute the gradient that provides many advantages, e.g. the absence of backpropagation or the natural route to optimize the robustness of the control pulses. This talk will present the GOAT algorithm and a few applications to transmons systems.

  13. [Modern tribology in total hip arthroplasty: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F

    2014-01-01

    The wear products and adverse reactions that occur on bearing surfaces represent one of the greatest challenges in prosthetic replacements, as the latter experience increasing demands due to the large number of young and older adult patients that have a long life expectancy and remarkable activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pros and cons of the new advances in the bearing components of the articular surfaces of current total hip arthroplasties. We also discuss the strategies used historically, their problems, results and the surgeon's role in prescribing the tribologic couple that best fits each patient's needs. We conclude with practical recommendations for the prescription and management of the latest articular couples for total hip arthroplasty.

  14. Pros and cons of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Terré, Juan A.; George, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement. PMID:29062739

  15. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  16. Pros and cons of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Terré, Juan A; George, Isaac; Smith, Craig R

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement.

  17. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciT

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in themore » tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.« less

  18. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciT

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in themore » tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.« less

  19. Limits of desiccation tolerance in developing embryos of Pritchardia remota (Arecaceae): the orthodox-recalcitrant seed paradigm

    Orthodox and recalcitrant seeds are distinguished by the ability of embryos to survive desiccation. Seeds of many palm species do not conform to the dichotomous classification and storage physiology is considered intermediate or ambiguous. We studied the acquisition of desiccation tolerance in embr...

  20. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 3: developmental changes in spermatid flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet and interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida and egg plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis constitutes the steps involved in the metamorphosis of spermatids into spermatozoa. It involves modification of several organelles in addition to the formation of several structures including the flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet. The flagellum is composed of a neck region and middle, principal, and end pieces. The axoneme composed of nine outer microtubular doublets circularly arranged to form a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules is present throughout the flagellum. The middle and principal pieces each contain specific components such as the mitochondrial sheath and fibrous sheath, respectively, while outer dense fibers are common to both. A plethora of proteins are constituents of each of these structures, with each playing key roles in functions related to the fertility of spermatozoa. At the end of spermiogenesis, a portion of spermatid cytoplasm remains associated with the released spermatozoa, referred to as the cytoplasmic droplet. The latter has as its main feature Golgi saccules, which appear to modify the plasma membrane of spermatozoa as they move down the epididymal duct and hence may be partly involved in male gamete maturation. The end product of spermatogenesis is highly streamlined and motile spermatozoa having a condensed nucleus equipped with an acrosome. Spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and eventually penetrate the zona pellucida and bind to the egg plasma membrane. Many proteins have been implicated in the process of fertilization as well as a plethora of proteins involved in the development of spermatids and sperm, and these are high lighted in this review. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Pros and cons of vaccination against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel; Domínguez García, Ángela

    2018-02-09

    A vaccine has recently been approved in the EU against meningococcal serogroup B, the main cause of meningococcal disease. There is a fierce debate about the decision regarding a universal vaccination in infants older than 2 months, as recommended by the majority of scientific societies. In western Europe the only country to have included the universal vaccination is the United Kingdom, with a lower incidence of the disease than Ireland. Other countries have also adopted it, such as the Czech Republic, Cuba and certain regions of Italy. Numerous cost-effectiveness studies have been published regarding the vaccination with different assumptions, which have supported the decision not to implant the universal vaccination because it exceeds the will to pay for a health benefit. We discuss the pros and cons of the universal vaccination against meningococcal B, recommended by the Sociedad Española de Pediatría (Spanish Society of Paediatrics), which as yet has not been implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  3. Laparoscopy for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, T C; Wexner, S D

    1998-04-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal malignancies is still under investigation, although it can offer significant benefits to many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the pros and cons of the laparoscopic management of IBD. Data were obtained from a review of the literature published since 1992, when the first report of laparoscopic surgery for IBD appeared in print. From 1992 to 1997 several series of laparoscopic colorectal surgery for the management of IBD have been reported. A close evaluation of these studies revealed that laparoscopy in patients with terminal ileal Crohn's disease or anal Crohn's disease in need of fecal diversion offers significant advantages compared to laparotomy, including decreased pain, length of hospitalization, and disability. An additional bonus is improved cosmesis and a reduction in symptomatic postoperative adhesions. These many benefits can be achieved without any increase in morbidity or expense. Conversely, the use of this technology for restorative proctocolectomy in patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis is associated with a longer operative time and an increased incidence of both intra- and postoperative complications compared to laparotomy. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery can thus be advantageous for treatment of terminal ileal Crohn's disease but cannot be routinely justified for the treatment of mucosal ulcerative colitis.

  4. Meeting Report: Breath Biomarkers Networking Sessions at PittCon 2010, Orlando, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition, or "PittCon" (www.pittcon.org/), is one of the largest international conferences for analytical chemistry and instrumentation typically attracting about 25,000 attendees and 1,000 commercial exhibitors. PittCon began in 1950 as a small sp...

  5. Gestational surrogacy: could be a way to be a way to reproduction? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Peris

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article was to address pros and cons of gestational surrogacy, the social and psychological issues involved in surrogate motherhood triads. Pros and cons of surrogacy, the possible insurgence of a hematologic disease in the fetus, hemolytic disease of the newborn, naturally acquired microchimerism in surrogacy cases, ethical, medical, psychologic, legal and religious issues of a problem are discussed.

  6. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain.

  7. Pros and cons of circumcision: an evidence-based overview.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Khoury, J; Petersiel, N; Yahalomi, T; Paul, M; Neuberger, A

    2016-09-01

    Based on three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in Africa, it can clearly be stated that circumcision lowers the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among males in settings of high HIV and STI endemicity. Similar effects on STI risk may exist for females, although this may result from an indirect effect of decreasing risk of infection among male partners. It is unknown whether circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), although there might be a protective effect for men who engage mainly in insertive anal intercourse. When the effects of adult circumcision on sexual function and satisfaction of men are examined, high-quality evidence strongly supports lack of harm. Whether circumcision alters sexual satisfaction of female partners is not known as fewer and smaller studies reported conflicting results. Circumcision rarely causes serious complications if practiced by trained practitioners, in a sterile setting, and with a proper follow-up. These conclusions are limited by the lack of high-quality data from areas outside of Africa. RCTs have not been conducted to assess the effects of circumcising infants or MSM. Circumcision has well-proven benefits for people residing in areas with high prevalence of STIs, including HIV, and is not unethical for those who choose to be circumcised or have their children circumcised on religious, social, or cultural grounds. For many others, a definite pro or con recommendation, based on a risk-benefit ratio, cannot be made. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [A study on the construction, expression and immunosterility of Lagurus laguru zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3].

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Chen; Yu, Ji-Yun; Jiang, Min; Tu, Yi-Xian; Ma, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2011-09-01

    To enhance the immunocontraceptive effect of Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine, and to achieve the prospect of application through the pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 different immunity pathway. Two adjuvant molecules were constructed into the recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 as DNA vaccine which contains Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and the molecular adjuvant 3 copies of C3d. The results of RT-PCR and western blot showed that the DNA vaccine was expressed in mRNA and protein level. The female C57BL/6 mice were immunized by three ways: intramuscular injection, intranasal or oral route.Antibody levels and types were detected by ELISA. ELISA results showed that recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 immunization induced specific IgG, IgA levels were significantly different comparing with control (P<0.01). Antifertility experiment showed that the experimental group reduced the average fertility significantly different compared with the control group (P<0.01). Restriction analysis, RT-PCR and Western blot showed that the recombinant plasmid constructed correctly and can be the expression of mRNA and protein levels.It resulted that the recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 can induce the specific immune response efficiently and enhance the immunocontraceptive effects.

  9. Melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide EI projections from the lateral hypothalamic area and zona incerta to the medial septal nucleus and spinal cord: a study using multiple neuronal tracers.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, J C; Elias, C F

    1998-09-14

    The projection pathways of neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and neuropeptide EI (NEI), two peptides colocalized in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the rat, were mapped using the retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes, true blue (TB) and diamidino yellow (DY). TB and DY were injected into the medial septum/diagonal band complex (MS/DBC) and the thoracic level of the spinal cord (SpCd), respectively. Brains from rats receiving only one or both tracer injections were immunohistochemically stained for MCH in the spinal cord and NEI in the forebrain. In the MS/DBC, NEI-immunoreactive (-ir) fibers are concentrated in the MS and in the vertical and horizontal limbs of the DBC. In the SpCd, MCH-ir fibers are concentrated primarily in lamina X. Of the diencephalic NEI-ir neurons, 37.15% project to the MS/DBC and reside in the rostromedial zona incerta (ZIm), in the LHAt and LHAp, and in the perifornical region. Of the diencephalic MCH-ir neurons, 20.2% project to the SpCd and reside in the LHAt and LHAp. In addition, 2. 2% of the MCH-ir cells and 8.7% of the NEI-ir cells in the hypothalamus were labeled with both retrograde tracers and thus project to both the MS/DBC and SpCd. These dual projection neurons are located mainly in the LHAt and LHAp. Anterograde injections of the tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into the LHAt and ZIm corroborated our findings in the retrograde studies. Potential autonomic and behavioral roles of the NEI and MCH systems in the MS/DBC and the SpCd are discussed. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B. V.

  10. ComSciCon: The Communicating Science Workshop for Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nathan; Drout, Maria; Kohler, Susanna; Cook, Ben; ComSciCon Leadership Team

    2018-01-01

    ComSciCon (comscicon.com) is a national workshop series organized by graduate students, for graduate students, focused on leadership and training in science communication. Our goal is to empower young scientists to become leaders in their field, propagating appreciation and understanding of research results to broad and diverse audiences. ComSciCon attendees meet and interact with professional communicators, build lasting networks with graduate students in all fields of science and engineering from around the country, and write and publish original works. ComSciCon consists of both a flagship national conference series run annually for future leaders in science communication, and a series of regional and specialized workshops organized by ComSciCon alumni nationwide. We routinely receive over 1000 applications for 50 spots in our national workshop. Since its founding in 2012, over 300 STEM graduate students have participated in the national workshop, and 23 local spin-off workshops have been organized in 10 different locations throughout the country. This year, ComSciCon is working to grow as a self-sustaining organization by launching as an independent 501(c)(3) non-profit. In this poster we will discuss the ComSciCon program and methods, our results to date, potential future collaborations between ComSciCon and AAS, and how you can become involved.

  11. Project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Susanna; Richter, Alexandra; Kunz, Michael; Ruck, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Convectively-driven strong winds usually associated with thunderstorms frequently cause substantial damage to buildings and other structures in many parts of the world. Decisive for the high damage potential are the short-term wind speed maxima with duration of a few seconds, termed as gusts. Several studies have shown that convectively-driven gusts can reach even higher wind speeds compared to turbulent gusts associated with synoptic-scale weather systems. Due to the small-scale and non-stationary nature of convective wind gusts, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding their characteristics and statistics. Furthermore, their interaction with urban structures and their influence on buildings is not yet fully understood. For these two reasons, convective wind events are not included in the present wind load standards of buildings and structures, which so far have been based solely on the characteristics of synoptically-driven wind gusts in the near-surface boundary layer (e. g., DIN EN 1991-1-4:2010-12; ASCE7). However, convective and turbulent gusts differ considerably, e.g. concerning vertical wind-speed profiles, gust factors (i.e., maximum to mean wind speed), or exceedance probability curves. In an effort to remedy this situation, the overarching objective of the DFG-project "Convective Wind Gusts" (ConWinG) is to investigate the characteristics and statistics of convective gusts as well as their interaction with urban structures. Based on a set of 110 climate stations of the German Weather Service (DWD) between 1992 and 2014, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution, intensity, and occurrence probability of convective gusts. Similar to thunderstorm activity, the frequency of convective gusts decreases gradually from South to North Germany. A relation between gust intensity/probability to orography or climate conditions cannot be identified. Rather, high wind speeds, e.g., above 30 m/s, can be expected everywhere in Germany with almost

  12. The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM)

    Cancer.gov

    The International Consortium for the Investigation of Renal Malignancies (I-ConFIRM) was formed to promote international, multidisciplinary collaborations to advance our understanding of the etiology and outcomes of kidney cancer.

  13. ConSpeciFix: Classifying prokaryotic species based on gene flow.

    PubMed

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Ellis, Brian Shin-Hua; Ochman, Howard

    2018-05-16

    Classification of prokaryotic species is usually based on sequence similarity thresholds, which are easy to apply but lack a biologically-relevant foundation. Here, we present ConSpeciFix, a program that classifies prokaryotes into species using criteria set forth by the Biological Species Concept, thereby unifying species definition in all domains of life. ConSpeciFix's webserver is freely available at www.conspecifix.com. The local version of the program can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/Bobay-Ochman/ConSpeciFix. ConSpeciFix is written in Python 2.7 and requires the following dependencies: Usearch, MCL, MAFFT and RAxML. ljbobay@uncg.edu.

  14. Existing con el Lobo, Traversing la Frontera con Mis Nepantla Coyotes, y Buscando la Vida del Zorro: An Autoethnographic Exploration of a Chicano in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ernesto Fidel

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is the experience of my life, an evolution of platicas I have had con mis coyotes, my Nepantlero guides. I am one Chicano navigating through the mechanisms of a coercive and hegemonic system which limits our advancement in the academy. My ontology, epistemology, and axiology stem from my cultural and family foundations which I…

  15. Sport Concussion Management Using Facebook: A Feasibility Study of an Innovative Adjunct "iCon".

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Schneiders, Anthony G; McCrory, Paul R; Sullivan, S John

    2017-04-01

      Sport concussion is currently the focus of much international attention. Innovative methods to assist athletic trainers in facilitating management after this injury need to be investigated.   To investigate the feasibility of using a Facebook concussion-management program termed iCon (interactive concussion management) to facilitate the safe return to play (RTP) of young persons after sport concussion.   Observational study.   Facebook group containing interactive elements, with moderation and support from trained health care professionals.   Eleven participants (n = 9 men, n = 2 women; range, 18 to 28 years old) completed the study.   The study was conducted over a 3-month period, with participant questionnaires administered preintervention and postintervention. The primary focus was on the qualitative experiences of the participants and the effect of iCon on their RTP. Usage data were also collected.   At the completion of the study, all participants (100%) stated that they would recommend an intervention such as iCon to others. Their supporting quotes all indicated that iCon has the potential to improve the management of concussion among this cohort. Most participants (n = 9, 82%) stated they were better informed with regard to their RTP due to participating in iCon.   This interactive adjunct to traditional concussion management was appreciated among this participant group, which indicates the feasibility of a future, larger study of iCon. Athletic trainers should consider the role that multimedia technologies may play in assisting with the management of sport concussion.

  16. B cells as accessory cells in a Con A response of a T cell clone.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Kakiuchi, T; Taira, S; Nariuchi, H

    1987-12-01

    Accessory cell (AC) function of B cells was examined in Con A response of a cloned T cell line, 22-9D, which is Thy 1+,L3T4+,Lyt2-,H-2KbDb+ and I-Ab-.22-9D cells produced IL 2 in the presence of Con A without participation of AC. For the initiation of a proliferative response to Con A, the addition of spleen cells or spleen adherent cells was required. B cells as AC were unable to induce the proliferative response. In the presence of culture supernatant of spleen cells stimulated with Con A (CAS), 22-9D cells showed proliferative response to Con A with B cell AC. The response was inhibited by a relevant monoclonal anti-I-A antibody. Although irradiated spleen cells as AC induced IL 2 receptor expression of 22-9D cells in the presence of Con A, B cells were shown to require the addition of unknown factor(s) in CAS, which was suggested to be different from IL 1, IL 2, IL 3, or IFN-gamma, for the induction of the receptor expression on 22-9D cells.

  17. Virulence, Speciation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Coagualase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Ravindran; Mythili, Arumugam; Singh, Yendremban Randhir Babu; Sreekumar, Haridas; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Kanesan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are common inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes. With the emergence of these organisms as prominent pathogens in patients with ocular infections, investigation has intensified in an effort to identify important virulence factors and to inform new approaches to treatment and prevention. Aim: To isolate CoNS from ocular specimens; to study the possible virulence factors; speciation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) which were isolated from ocular complications; antibiotic susceptibility testing of ocular CoNS. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected from the target patients who attended the Microbiology Laboratory of a tertiary care eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected to tube and slide coagulase tests for the identification of CoNS. All the isolates were subjected to screening for lipase and protease activities. Screening for other virulence factors viz., slime production on Congo red agar medium and haemagglutination assay with use of 96-well microtitre plates. These isolates were identified upto species level by performing biochemical tests such as phosphatase test, arginine test, maltose and trehalose fermentation tests and novobiocin sensitivity test. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility studies, based on the revised standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institutes (CLSI). Results: During the one year of study, among the total 260 individuals who were screened, 100 isolates of CoNS were obtained. Lipolytic activity was seen in all the isolates, whereas 38 isolates showed a positive result for protease. A total of 63 isolates showed slime production. Of 100 isolates, 30 isolates were analyzed for haemagglutination, where 4 isolates showed the capacity to agglutinate the erythrocytes. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed that of the 100 isolates of CoNS, 43% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. The other

  18. ConA-based glucose sensing using the long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Brian; Simpson, Jonathan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Laursen, Bo W.; Graham, Duncan; Birch, David; Coté, Gerard

    2014-02-01

    Fluorescent glucose sensing technologies have been identified as possible alternatives to current continuous glucose monitoring approaches. We have recently introduced a new, smart fluorescent ligand to overcome the traditional problems of ConA-based glucose sensors. For this assay to be translated into a continuous glucose monitoring device where both components are free in solution, the molecular weight of the smart fluorescent ligand must be increased. We have identified ovalbumin as a naturally-occurring glycoprotein that could serve as the core-component of a 2nd generation smart fluorescent ligand. It has a single asparagine residue that is capable of displaying an N-linked glycan and a similar isoelectric point to ConA. Thus, binding between ConA and ovalbumin can potentially be monovalent and sugar specific. This work is the preliminary implementation of fluorescently-labeled ovalbumin in the ConA-based assay. We conjugate the red-emitting, long-lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+) dye to ovalbumin, as ADOTA have many advantageous properties to track the equilibrium binding of the assay. The ADOTA-labeled ovalbumin is paired with Alexa Fluor 647-labeled ConA to create a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that is glucose dependent. The assay responds across the physiologically relevant glucose range (0-500 mg/dL) with increasing intensity from the ADOTA-ovalbumin, showing that the strategy may allow for the translation of the smart fluorescent ligand concept into a continuous glucose monitoring device.

  19. SeleCon: Scalable IoT Device Selection and Control Using Hand Gestures.

    PubMed

    Alanwar, Amr; Alzantot, Moustafa; Ho, Bo-Jhang; Martin, Paul; Srivastava, Mani

    2017-04-01

    Although different interaction modalities have been proposed in the field of human-computer interface (HCI), only a few of these techniques could reach the end users because of scalability and usability issues. Given the popularity and the growing number of IoT devices, selecting one out of many devices becomes a hurdle in a typical smarthome environment. Therefore, an easy-to-learn, scalable, and non-intrusive interaction modality has to be explored. In this paper, we propose a pointing approach to interact with devices, as pointing is arguably a natural way for device selection. We introduce SeleCon for device selection and control which uses an ultra-wideband (UWB) equipped smartwatch. To interact with a device in our system, people can point to the device to select it then draw a hand gesture in the air to specify a control action. To this end, SeleCon employs inertial sensors for pointing gesture detection and a UWB transceiver for identifying the selected device from ranging measurements. Furthermore, SeleCon supports an alphabet of gestures that can be used for controlling the selected devices. We performed our experiment in a 9 m -by-10 m lab space with eight deployed devices. The results demonstrate that SeleCon can achieve 84.5% accuracy for device selection and 97% accuracy for hand gesture recognition. We also show that SeleCon is power efficient to sustain daily use by turning off the UWB transceiver, when a user's wrist is stationary.

  20. Influence of protic ionic liquids on the structure and stability of succinylated Con A.

    PubMed

    Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of ionic liquids (ILs) from various ions having different kosmotropicity including dihydrogen phosphate (H(2)PO(4)(-)), hydrogen sulfate (HSO(4)(-)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) as anions and chaotropic cation such as trialkylammonium cation. To characterize the biomolecular interactions of ILs with protein, we have explored the stability of succinylated Con A (S Con A) in the presence of these aqueous ILs, which are varied combinations of kosmotropic anion with chaotropic cation such as triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3)CH(2))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TEAP), trimethylammonium acetate [(CH(3))(3)NH][CH(3)COO] (TMAA), trimethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate [(CH(3))(3)NH][H(2)PO(4)] (TMAP) and trimethylammonium hydrogen sulfate [(CH(3))(3)NH][HSO(4)] (TMAS). Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence experiments have been used to characterize the stability of S Con A by ILs. Our data distinctly demonstrate that the long alkyl chain IL TEAP is a strong stabilizer for S Con A. Further, our experimental results reveal that TEAP is an effective refolding enhancer for S Con A from a thermally denatured protein structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ConsPred: a rule-based (re-)annotation framework for prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Weinmaier, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Frank, Jeroen; Hellinger, Hans-Jörg; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The rapidly growing number of available prokaryotic genome sequences requires fully automated and high-quality software solutions for their initial and re-annotation. Here we present ConsPred, a prokaryotic genome annotation framework that performs intrinsic gene predictions, homology searches, predictions of non-coding genes as well as CRISPR repeats and integrates all evidence into a consensus annotation. ConsPred achieves comprehensive, high-quality annotations based on rules and priorities, similar to decision-making in manual curation and avoids conflicting predictions. Parameters controlling the annotation process are configurable by the user. ConsPred has been used in the institutions of the authors for longer than 5 years and can easily be extended and adapted to specific needs. The ConsPred algorithm for producing a consensus from the varying scores of multiple gene prediction programs approaches manual curation in accuracy. Its rule-based approach for choosing final predictions avoids overriding previous manual curations. ConsPred is implemented in Java, Perl and Shell and is freely available under the Creative Commons license as a stand-alone in-house pipeline or as an Amazon Machine Image for cloud computing, see https://sourceforge.net/projects/conspred/. thomas.rattei@univie.ac.atSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  3. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    SciT

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to themore » basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.« less

  4. Soluciones analiticas AL problema de jets con velocidad de eyeccion variable EN EL tiempo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, J.; Raga, A. C.; D'Alessio, P.

    1998-11-01

    Se presenta un nuevo metodo que permite resolver de manera exacta y analitica las ecuaciones que describen un jet hipersonico con velocidad de eyeccion variable en el tiempo. El metodo se basa en consideraciones sencillas de conservacion de momento para las superficies de trabajo que se forman en el interior del jet. Como ejemplo, se presentan soluciones para jets con variacion sinusoidal en la velocidad de eyeccion, y tambien para el caso de un incremento lineal en el tiempo. Estas soluciones analiticas tienen una clara aplicacion en la interpretacion de las observaciones de jets asociados a objetos Herbig-Haro.

  5. An Application of Con-Resistant Trust to Improve the Reliability of Special Protection Systems within the Smart Grid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    in an effort to be more reliable and efficient. However, with the benefits of this new technology comes added risk . This research utilizes a con ...AN APPLICATION OF CON -RESISTANT TRUST TO IMPROVE THE RELIABILITY OF SPECIAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS WITHIN THE SMART GRID THESIS Crystal M. Shipman...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States AFIT/GCO/ENG/12-22 AN APPLICATION OF CON -RESISTANT TRUST TO IMPROVE THE

  6. Mandated Mental Health Insurance: A Complex Case of Pros and Cons. Human Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    The pros and cons of state laws mandating mental health insurance are discussed in this report. The history of a 1985 Supreme Court case which held that states could mandate mental health benefits introduces the report. In an overview of the issue, the long-standing argument between the insurance industry and the mental health establishment is…

  7. A National Look at Postmodernism's Pros and Cons in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to take a look at the pros and cons of postmodernism. It is imperative for administrators to closely examine educational theories and practices prior to instituting changes. The ability to read and digest challenging material keeps one informed and prepared to lead effectively. This paper will list the pros and cons…

  8. Pros & Cons of Using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning on Students' Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2017-01-01

    Blackboard Collaborate was introduced to King Khalid University recently in the last decade; instructors and students were trained to use it in an effective way. The objective of this study is to find pros and cons of using Blackboard Collaborate for Blended Learning and its effect on students' learning outcomes. The researcher used the…

  9. End-User Use of Data Base Query Language: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholes, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Man-machine interface, the concept of a computer "query," a review of database technology, and a description of the use of query languages at Brigham Young University are discussed. The pros and cons of end-user use of database query languages are explored. (Author/MLW)

  10. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  11. ConMap: Investigating New Computer-Based Approaches to Assessing Conceptual Knowledge Structure in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    There is a growing consensus among educational researchers that traditional problem-based assessments are not effective tools for diagnosing a student's knowledge state and for guiding pedagogical intervention, and that new tools grounded in the results of cognitive science research are needed. The ConMap ("Conceptual Mapping") project, described…

  12. To Bind or Not To Bind: Pros & Cons of Maintaining Paper Periodicals in the Library's Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Iris W.

    1999-01-01

    Explores controversial questions related to libraries' decision-making on paper journals and electronic journals. Notes that the critical mass of scholarly publishing is still in print. Discusses benefits and drawbacks of electronic journals and paper journals. Presents comments on the pros and cons to binding paper periodicals gathered from an…

  13. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  14. 40 CFR 227.27 - Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion (LPC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Limiting permissible con-cen-tra-tion... scientific literature or accepted by EPA as being reliable test organisms to determine the anticipated impact... for each type they represent, and that are documented in the scientific literature and accepted by EPA...

  15. Enrichment of Glycoproteins using Nano-scale Chelating Con A Monolithic Capillary Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shun; Yang, Na; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Goodison, Steve; Lubman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Immobilized lectin chromatography can be employed for glycoprotein enrichment, but commonly used columns have limitations of yield and resolution. In order to improve efficiency and to make the technique applicable to minimal sample material, we have developed a nano-scale chelating Concanavalin A (Con A) monolithic capillary prepared using GMA-EDMA (glycidyl methacrylate–co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as polymeric support. Con A was immobilized on Cu(II)-charged iminodiacetic acid (IDA) regenerable sorbents by forming a IDA:Cu(II):Con A sandwich affinity structure that has high column capacity as well as stability. When compared with conventional Con A lectin chromatography, the monolithic capillary enabled the better reproducible detection of over double the number of unique N-glycoproteins in human urine samples. Utility for analysis of minimal biological samples was confirmed by the successful elucidation of glycoprotein profiles in mouse urine samples at the microliter scale. The improved efficiency of the nano-scale monolithic capillary will impact the analysis of glycoproteins in complex biological samples, especially where only limited material may be available. PMID:19366252

  16. Wilderness for science: pros and cons of using wilderness areas for biological research

    Diana L. Six; Paul Alaback; Robert A. Winfree; Delia Snyder; Anne Hagele

    2000-01-01

    Research is one of the intended purposes of wilderness. The Wilderness Act states that “wilderness may contain ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value.” This session specifically focuses on the pros and cons of conducting research in wilderness.

  17. NREL, NYSERDA, and Con Edison Partner on Home Energy Management Systems |

    at large scale, the overall impact could be a win-win for both homeowners and utilities, which could sources. Founded in 1823, Con Edison provides electric, gas, and steam service to 10 million people who

  18. The Con Edison Emergency Child Care Plan for Management Employees: Summary Plan Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This summary plan description offers guidelines for participation in a pilot program that provides short-term emergency care for children of Con Edison managers who are under 13 years old. The plan offers professional, in-home child care that can be used when usual arrangements have collapsed. The summary plan description addresses the following…

  19. "Con todo mi corazón": Mentoring Latinas in Educational Leadership Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…

  20. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  1. U.S. Exploration EVA: ConOps, Interfaces and Test Objectives for Airlocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is moving forward on defining the xEVA System Architecture and its implications to the spacecraft that host exploration EVA systems. This presentation provides an overview of the latest information for NASA's Concept of Operations (ConOps), Interfaces and corresponding Test Objectives for Airlocks hosting the xEVA System.

  2. Advocacy in the Public Forum: The Pro/Con Program at Ohio State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegman, John D.

    The Pro/Con Campus Debate and Community Forum program at The Ohio State University serves the educational mission of the department of communication and contributes to the intellectual life of the student body and the larger community by emphasizing the needs of the audience. Eschewing jargon and rhetorical tricks, the program encourages the…

  3. Are You Ready to Go Digital?: The Pros and Cons of Electronic Portfolio Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing need for educators to have professional portfolios, which are considered to be authentic tools for evaluating the knowledge, skill, beliefs and attitudes of prospective educators. Electronic portfolios are gaining in popularity and their relative pros and cons are examined.

  4. Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles.

    PubMed

    Del Rey, Rosario; Casas, José A; Ortega, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results from an evaluation of the ConRed cyberbullying intervention program. The program's impacts were separately determined for the different roles within cyberbullying that students can take, i.e., cyber-victims, cyber-bullies, cyber-bully/victims, and bystanders. The ConRed program is a theory-driven program designed to prevent cyberbullying and improve cyberbullying coping skills. It involves students, teachers, and families. During a 3-month period, external experts conducted eight training sessions with students, two with teachers and one with families. ConRed was evaluated through a quasi-experimental design, in which students from three secondary schools were separated into experimental and control groups. The sample comprised 875 students, aged between 11 and 19 years. More students (n = 586) were allocated to the experimental groups at the specific insistence of the management of all schools; the remainder (n = 289) formed the control. Repeated measures MANOVA showed that cyber victims, cyber aggressors and cyberbully/victims reduced their involvement in cyberbullying. Moreover, cyber-victims and bystanders adjusted their perceptions about their control of personal information on the Internet, and cyber aggressors and bystanders reduced their Internet dependence. The ConRed program had stronger effects on male participants, especially in heightening their affective empathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5 cm long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10–20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90–95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2–3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-tovacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer. PMID:25667060

  6. SeleCon: Scalable IoT Device Selection and Control Using Hand Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Alanwar, Amr; Alzantot, Moustafa; Ho, Bo-Jhang; Martin, Paul; Srivastava, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Although different interaction modalities have been proposed in the field of human-computer interface (HCI), only a few of these techniques could reach the end users because of scalability and usability issues. Given the popularity and the growing number of IoT devices, selecting one out of many devices becomes a hurdle in a typical smarthome environment. Therefore, an easy-to-learn, scalable, and non-intrusive interaction modality has to be explored. In this paper, we propose a pointing approach to interact with devices, as pointing is arguably a natural way for device selection. We introduce SeleCon for device selection and control which uses an ultra-wideband (UWB) equipped smartwatch. To interact with a device in our system, people can point to the device to select it then draw a hand gesture in the air to specify a control action. To this end, SeleCon employs inertial sensors for pointing gesture detection and a UWB transceiver for identifying the selected device from ranging measurements. Furthermore, SeleCon supports an alphabet of gestures that can be used for controlling the selected devices. We performed our experiment in a 9m-by-10m lab space with eight deployed devices. The results demonstrate that SeleCon can achieve 84.5% accuracy for device selection and 97% accuracy for hand gesture recognition. We also show that SeleCon is power efficient to sustain daily use by turning off the UWB transceiver, when a user’s wrist is stationary. PMID:29683151

  7. Optimizing Electrospray Interfaces Using Slowly Diverging Conical Duct (ConDuct) Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that the efficiency of ion transmission from atmosphere to vacuum through stainless steel electrodes that contain slowly divergent conical duct (ConDuct) channels can be close to 100%. Here, we explore the properties of 2.5-cm-long electrodes with angles of divergence of 0°, 1°, 2°, 3°, 5°, 8°, 13°, and 21°, respectively. The ion transmission efficiency was observed to jump from 10-20% for the 0° (straight) channels to 90-95% for channels with an angle of divergence as small as 1°. Furthermore, the 2-3° ConDuct electrodes produced extraordinarily low divergence ion beams that propagated in a laser-like fashion over long distances in vacuum. To take advantage of these newly discovered properties, we constructed a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion interface utilizing a 2° ConDuct as an inlet electrode and compared its ion transmission efficiency with that of the interface used in the commercial (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA, USA) Velos Orbitrap and Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We observed that the ConDuct interface transmitted up to 17 times more ions than the commercial reference interface and also yielded improved signal-to-noise mass spectra of peptides. We infer from these results that the performance of many current atmosphere-to-vacuum interfaces utilizing metal capillaries can be substantially improved by replacing them with 1° or 2° metal ConDuct electrodes, which should preserve the convenience of supplying ion desolvation energy by heating the electrode while greatly increasing the efficiency of ion transmission into the mass spectrometer.

  8. A Review of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Types in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) Species.

    PubMed

    Saber, Huda; Jasni, Azmiza Syawani; Jamaluddin, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku; Ibrahim, Rosni

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered low pathogenic organisms. However, they are progressively causing more serious infections with time because they have adapted well to various antibiotics owing to their ability to form biofilms. Few studies have been conducted on CoNS in both, hospital and community-acquired settings, especially in Malaysia. Thus, it is important to study their species and gene distributions. A mobile genetic element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ), plays an important role in staphylococci pathogenesis. Among CoNS, SCC mec has been studied less frequently than Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive staphylococci). A recent study (8) conducted in Malaysia successfully detected SCC mec type I to VIII as well as several new combination patterns in CoNS species, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis . However, data are still limited, and further research is warranted. This paper provides a review on SCC mec types among CoNS species.

  9. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The operational goal of the ATD-1 ConOps is to enable aircraft, using their onboard FMS capabilities, to fly Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from cruise to the runway threshold at a high-density airport, at a high throughput rate, using primarily speed control to maintain in-trail separation and the arrival schedule. The three technologies in the ATD-1 ConOps achieve this by calculating a precise arrival schedule, using controller decision support tools to provide terminal controllers with speeds for aircraft to fly to meet times at a particular meter points, and onboard software providing flight crews with speeds for the aircraft to fly to achieve a particular spacing behind preceding aircraft.

  10. Catálogo de Radio-Fuentes Opticas con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Usando los datos observados en San Juan con el Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII desde Febrero de 1992 hasta Marzo de 1997, se ha realizado el Catálogo de Radio-Fuentes Opticas de San Juan conteniendo 69 estrellas. Las observaciones de las posiciones de las radio-fuentes están realizadas para la época y equinoccio J2000,0 y en un sistema cercano al del FK5. Las precisiones medias son ± 2,2 ms y ± 0,"035 en ascensión recta y declinación respectivamente. Las magnitudes de las estrellas son desde 0,9 a 10,7 . Las declinaciones son desde --2,5 grados a --60 grados. La época media es 1995,1. Se muestran también los resultados comparados con el Catálogo Hiparcos.

  11. Propiedades biomecánicas de la membrana limitante interna tras recibir tratamiento intravítreo con ocriplasmina.

    PubMed

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la rigidez de la membrana limitante interna (MLI) humana y evaluar los posibles cambios de las propiedades mecánicas tras administrar una inyección intravítrea de ocriplasmina para tratar la tracción vitreomacular. Métodos: Este estudio se compone de una serie de casos intervencionales y comparativos de 12 muestras de MLI extraídas mediante cirugía y obtenidas de forma consecutiva de 9 ojos de 9 pacientes después de someterse sin éxito a vitreólisis farmacológica con ocriplasmina. Durante el mismo periodo de tiempo, 16 muestras de otros 13 ojos sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina se obtuvieron mediante vitrectomía y sirvieron como controles. Todos los pacientes presentaron agujeros maculares o tracción vitreomacular y se sometieron a vitrectomía con disección de la MLI tanto con tinción con azul brillante (AB) como sin ella. Todas las muestras se analizaron con un microscopio de fuerza atómica con imágenes de las regiones de 25 × 25 μm. En todas las muestras, se analizaron tanto la parte de la retina como la del vítreo de la MLI. Resultados: La microscopia de fuerza atómica no reveló diferencias significativas en cuanto a elasticidad de las muestras de MLI extraídas de ojos con o sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina. Las áreas onduladas de la parte de la retina presentaron una mayor rigidez que la parte del vítreo de la MLI. La cartografía topográfica tanto de la parte del vítreo como de la retina de la MLI no mostró ninguna alteración aparente de la morfología en ojos tratados con ocriplasmina en comparación con los ojos no tratados. La tinción con azul brillante conllevó un aumento de la rigidez tisular. Conclusiones: Las inyecciones intravítreas de ocriplasmina no varían las propiedades biomecánicas de la MLI humana. No existen pruebas de un posible efecto enzimático que interfiera con la rigidez de esta membrana basal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  13. NASA KSC/AFRL Reusable Booster System (RBS) Concept of Operations (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeno, Dnany; Mosteller, Ted; McCleskey, Carey; Jhnson, Robert; Hopkins, Jason; Miller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study and findings of the study on the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for Reusable Booster System (RBS) centering on rapid turnaround and launch of a two-stage partially reusable payload delivery system (i.e., 8 hours between launches). The study was to develop rapid ground processing (aircraft like concepts) and identify areas for follow-on study, technology needs, and proof-of-concept demonstrations.

  14. Con Edison power failure of July 13 and 14, 1977. Final staff report

    SciT

    None

    1978-06-01

    On July 13, 1977 the entire electric load of the Con Edison system was lost, plunging New York City and Westchester County into darkness. The collapse resulted from a combination of natural events, equipment malfunctions, questionable system-design features, and operating errors. An attempt is made in this report to answer the following: what were the specific causes of the failure; if equipment malfunctions and operator errors contributed, could they have been prevented; to what extent was Con Edison prepared to handle such an emergency; and did Con Edison plan prudently reserve generation, for reserve transmission capability, for automatic equipment tomore » protect its system, and for proper operator response to a critical situation. Following the introductory and summary section, additional sections include: the Consolidated Edison system; prevention of bulk power-supply interruptions; the sequence of failure and restoration; analysis of the July 1977 power failure; restoration sequence and equipment damage assessment; and other investigations of the blackout. (MCW)« less

  15. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-01-01

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree. PMID:27166375

  16. Salud mental en desastres naturales: estrategias interventivas con adultos mayores en sectores rurales de Chile.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Parraguez, Paulina; Espinoza, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    En el presente artículo se da a conocer una estrategia de intervención llevada a cabo con adultos mayores en la comuna de Paredones, sexta región de Chile, con posterioridad al terremoto y tsunami del 27 de febrero 2010 en Chile, en el contexto de una investigación sobre fortalezas y vulnerabilidades desplegadas por este grupo etario, con posterioridad a un desastre natural. Se presenta una descripción del desarrollo metodológico de la intervención y de los sustentos teóricos y conceptuales en los que se basa. Como resultado de este proceso, se propone una estrategia que trabaje a través de la identificación de las propias experiencias y fortalezas de los sujetos. De tal forma se minimizan los efectos negativos de los determinantes sociales de la salud (como la edad y el lugar de residencia) en contexto de crisis; permitiendo a los adultos mayores fortalecer sus recursos individuales y colectivos, en pro de su bienestar psicosocial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Nuevas observaciones de 3C10 con el VLA*: estudio de la expansión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynoso, E. M.; Moffett, D. A.:; Dubner, G. M.; Giacani, E. B.; Reynolds, S. P.; Goss, W. M.; Dickel, J.

    Se presentan nuevos resultados sobre la expansión del remanente de la supernova de Tycho a lo largo de un intervalo de 10.9 años, comparando nuevas observaciones tomadas con el VLA a 1375 y 1635 MHz durante 1994 y 1995, con observaciones previas realizadas entre 1983 y 1984 (Dickel y col. ~1991 AJ 101, 2151), usando las mismas configuraciones, anchos de banda, calibradores y tiempos de integración. El coeficiente de expansión se calcula para sectores radiales de 4o de ancho cada uno, ajustando la correlación cruzada de las derivadas de los perfiles promedio para cada época. A partir de la expansión medida, se estima el índice (parámetro de expansión) de la ley potencial R∝ tm como m≡ d ln R/d ln t . Este valor se compara con coeficientes teóricos para diferentes fases evolutivas de remanentes de supernova.

  18. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciT

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motionsmore » have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.« less

  19. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciT

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motionsmore » have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.« less

  20. The ConSurf-DB: pre-calculated evolutionary conservation profiles of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Ofir; Erez, Elana; Nimrod, Guy; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-01-01

    ConSurf-DB is a repository for evolutionary conservation analysis of the proteins of known structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Sequence homologues of each of the PDB entries were collected and aligned using standard methods. The evolutionary conservation of each amino acid position in the alignment was calculated using the Rate4Site algorithm, implemented in the ConSurf web server. The algorithm takes into account the phylogenetic relations between the aligned proteins and the stochastic nature of the evolutionary process explicitly. Rate4Site assigns a conservation level for each position in the multiple sequence alignment using an empirical Bayesian inference. Visual inspection of the conservation patterns on the 3D structure often enables the identification of key residues that comprise the functionally important regions of the protein. The repository is updated with the latest PDB entries on a monthly basis and will be rebuilt annually. ConSurf-DB is available online at http://consurfdb.tau.ac.il/

  1. The ConSurf-DB: pre-calculated evolutionary conservation profiles of protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Ofir; Erez, Elana; Nimrod, Guy; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2009-01-01

    ConSurf-DB is a repository for evolutionary conservation analysis of the proteins of known structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Sequence homologues of each of the PDB entries were collected and aligned using standard methods. The evolutionary conservation of each amino acid position in the alignment was calculated using the Rate4Site algorithm, implemented in the ConSurf web server. The algorithm takes into account the phylogenetic relations between the aligned proteins and the stochastic nature of the evolutionary process explicitly. Rate4Site assigns a conservation level for each position in the multiple sequence alignment using an empirical Bayesian inference. Visual inspection of the conservation patterns on the 3D structure often enables the identification of key residues that comprise the functionally important regions of the protein. The repository is updated with the latest PDB entries on a monthly basis and will be rebuilt annually. ConSurf-DB is available online at http://consurfdb.tau.ac.il/ PMID:18971256

  2. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care.

  3. What are the pros and cons of electronically monitoring inhaler use in asthma? A multistakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sam; Lang, Alexandra; Sharples, Sarah; Shaw, Dominick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic monitoring devices (EMDs) are the optimal method for collecting objective data on inhaler use in asthma. Recent research has investigated the attitudes of patients with asthma towards these devices. However, no research to date has formally considered the opinions of stakeholders and decision-makers in asthma care. These individuals have important clinical requirements that need to be taken into account if EMDs are to be successfully provisioned, making collecting their opinions on the key barriers facing these devices a valuable process. Methods Three rounds of surveys in a Delphi format were used to assess the most important pros and cons of EMDs for asthma care in a sample of 31 stakeholders which included healthcare professionals and members of clinical commissioning groups. Results The respondents identified 29 pros and 32 cons. Pros that were rated as most important included new visual evidence to aid clinical discussions with a patient and an increase in patient involvement and motivation. The cons that were rated as most important included a need for more clinical evidence of the effectiveness of EMDs, as well as better clarity over who has responsibilities in managing, interpreting and discussing data with a patient. Conclusions The research provides a guide for EMD developers by highlighting where these devices may provide the most benefit as well as prioritising the key issues that need addressing if they are to be used effectively in everyday asthma care. PMID:27933181

  4. Young women's perspective of the pros and cons to seeking screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Mariam R; von Sternberg, Kirk; Velasquez, Mary M; Wiemann, Constance M; Smith, Peggy B; DiClemente, Ralph

    2008-08-01

    To identify young women's pros and cons (decisional balance) to seeking chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (NGC) screening. Prospective, cross sectional study Community-based reproductive health clinic 192 young women (66% African American; mean age 18.9 years). Content analysis of responses obtained during a decisional balance exercise (pros and cons) promoting CT and NGC screening was conducted. Thematic categories were developed through a coding process, and each response was assigned to one thematic category. The frequency of pros and cons responses for each category and the frequency of participants endorsing each category were calculated. Ten thematic categories in relation to pros and cons of seeking CT and NGC screening were: being healthy; awareness of the body; systemic factors around the clinic visit and testing procedures; benefits and aversions around treatment; partner trust issues; confidentiality; prevention of long term adverse effects, protection of the body; concern for others; fear of results/aversion to testing; and logistical barriers. The three most often cited pros were awareness of the body, being healthy and treatment issues; and the three most often cited cons were logistical barriers (time/transportation), fear/aversion to testing, and systemic factors. A variety of pros and cons to seeking CT and NGC screening were identified at a community-based clinic. Providers in clinical settings can utilize this information when encouraging patients to seek regular STI screening by elucidating and emphasizing those pros and cons that have the most influence on a young woman's decision-making to seek screening.

  5. A Randomized Phase 2 Study of Long-Acting TransCon GH vs Daily GH in Childhood GH Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Pierre; Malievskiy, Oleg; Radziuk, Klaudziya; Senatorova, Ganna; Abdou, Magdy O; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Skorodok, Yulia; Peterkova, Valentina; Leff, Jonathan A; Beckert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    TransCon Growth Hormone (GH) (Ascendis Pharma) is a long-acting recombinant sustained-release human GH prodrug in development for children with GH deficiency (GHD). To compare the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and efficacy of weekly TransCon GH to that of daily GH in prepubertal children with GHD. Randomized, open-label, active-controlled study of three doses of weekly TransCon GH versus daily Genotropin (Pfizer). Thirty-eight centers in 14 European countries and Egypt. Prepubertal male and female treatment-naïve children with GHD (n = 53). Subjects received one of three TransCon GH doses (0.14, 0.21, or 0.30 mg GH/kg/wk) or Genotropin 0.03 mg GH/kg/d for 26 weeks. GH and insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, growth, adverse events, and immunogenicity. Both GH maximum concentration and area under the curve were similar following TransCon GH or Genotropin administration at comparable doses. A dose response was observed, with IGF-1 standard deviation scores increasing into the normal range for all three TransCon GH doses. Annualized mean height velocity for the three TransCon GH doses ranged from 11.9 cm to 13.9 cm, which was not statistically different from 11.6 cm for Genotropin. Adverse events were mild to moderate, and most were unrelated to the study drug. Injection site tolerance was good. One TransCon GH subject developed a low-titer, nonneutralizing antibody response to GH. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH is comparable to daily Genotropin for GH (pharmacokinetics) and IGF-1 (pharmacodynamics) levels, safety, and efficacy and support advancement into phase 3 development. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  6. Thymic lymphocytes. III. Cooperative phenomenon in the proliferation of thymocytes under Con A stimulation.

    PubMed

    Papiernik, M; Jacobson, J B

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper, the response of thymocytes to Con A is analyzed in terms of a cooperative phenomenon between medullary thymocytes, cortical thymocytes, thymic accessory cells, and interleukin 2. Medullary thymocytes respond spontaneously to Con A and produce IL-2. The addition of exogenously produced IL-2 enhances their proliferation. Small numbers of cortical (PNA+) thymocytes do not respond to Con A, even in the presence of IL-2-containing supernatant. By increasing the number of PNA+ cells per well, sensitivity to Con A and IL-2 appears. This response may be linked either to the increase in a minor PNA+-responding population and/or to the enhanced contamination by medullary thymocytes and macrophages in non-responding PNA+ thymocyte population. In this hypothesis, either the contaminating cells respond by themselves and/or cooperate with PNA+ cells to induce their proliferation. Coculture of non-responding low numbers of PNA+ thymocytes with Con A- and IL-2-containing supernatant in the presence of PNA- cells containing thymic medullary thymocytes and macrophages always produces a higher response than that of each individual population. These results show that a cooperative phenomenon occurs in the cocultures of PNA+ and PNA- thymic cells. We can show using PNA+ and PNA- thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and populations participate PNA-thymocytes with different Thy 1 alleles, that indeed both PNA+ and PNA- populations participate in the generation of proliferating cells. We can demonstrate, by lysis experiments with monoclonal antibodies and complement that at the end of coculture, most of the proliferating cells are Lyt 1+, and part are Lyt 2+ or L3T4+. We discuss the fact that the phenotype of the cells after activation does not allow us to deduce the phenotype of their precursors. Lysis of Ia+ cells prior to coculture, reduces the level of the proliferative response but does not modify the percentage of cooperation produced

  7. Wildland Fire Induced Heating of Dome 375 Perma-Con®

    SciT

    Flores, Eugene Michael

    AET-1 was tasked by ADEM with determining the temperature rise in the drum contents of drums stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® at TA-54 given a wildland fire. The wildland fire causes radiative and convective heating on the Perma-Con® exterior. The wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heating environment were provided to AET-1 by EES-16. If the calculated temperature rise results in a drum content temperature over 40 °C, then ADEM desires a design solution to ensure the peak temperature remains below 40 °C. An axi-symmetric FE simulation was completed to determine the peak temperature of themore » contents of a drum stored in the Dome 375 Perma-Con® during a wildland fire event. Three wildland fire time histories for the radiative and convective heat transfer were provided by EES-16 and were inputs for the FE simulation. The maximum drum content temperature reached was found to be 110 °C while using inputs from the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx time history input and not including the SWB in the model. Including the SWB in the results in a peak drum content temperature of 61 °C for the SiteG_2ms_4ign_wind_from_west.xlsx inputs. EES-16 decided that by using fuel mitigation efforts, such as mowing the grass and shrubs near the Perma-Con® they could reduce the shrub/grass fuel loading near the Perma-Con® from 1.46 kg/m 2 to 0.146 kg/m 2 and by using a less conservative fuel loading for the debris field inside the Dome 375 perimeter, reducing it from 0.58 kg/m2 to 0.058 kg/m 2 in their model. They also greatly increased the resolution of their radiation model and increased the accuracy of their model’s required convergence value. Using this refined input the maximum drum content temperature was found to be 28 °C with no SWB present in the model. Additionally, this refined input model was modified to include worst case emissivity values for the concrete, drum and Perma-Con® interior, along with adding a 91 second long

  8. El efecto de la panfotocoagulación con láser en edema macular diabético con el fotocoagulador Pascal® versus el láser de argón convencional.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Mohamed M; Macky, Tamer A

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto de la panfotocoagulación (PFC) en el edema macular diabético (EMD) en pacientes con retinopatía diabética proliferativa (RDP) con el fotocoagulador Pascal® (FP) vs. un fotocoagulador con láser de argón convencional (FLAC). Métodos: Se aleatorizó el uso de FP o FLAC en ochenta ojos con RDP y EMD con afectación central de la mácula. Ambos grupos tuvieron una evaluación de base de mejor agudeza visual corregida y fueron examinados con tomografía de coherencia óptica y angiografía con fluoresceína. Resultados: El número medio de disparos de láser en los grupos de FP y FLAC fue 1.726,10 y 752,00 en la sesión 1 y 1.589,00 y 830,00 (p < 0,001) en la sesión 2, respectivamente. El grosor foveal central (GFC) medio antes de comenzar el estudio fue 306 ± 100 y 314 ± 98 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente. A las 8 semanas, el GFC medio fue 332 ± 116 y 347 ± 111 en los grupos de FP y FLAC, respectivamente (p > 0,05). La MAVC media fue similar durante el periodo de estudio y no hubo ninguna diferencia significativa entre los grupos (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: El FP y el FLAC mostraron efectos similares en el EMD en ojos con RDP y fueron igualmente seguros sin un aumento significativo del GFC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08...

  11. Fairfax County and the Commonwealth of Virginia Public Safety and Transportation Operations Center : concept of cooperation (ConCoop)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-01-01

    The Public Safety and Transportation Operations Centers (PSTOCs) Concept of Cooperation (ConCoop) enables partner agencies to lay out and reach consensus on: : their intentions in co-locating; : joint functions and systems needed to mee...

  12. ConsDock: A new program for the consensus analysis of protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nicodème; Rognan, Didier

    2002-06-01

    Protein-based virtual screening of chemical libraries is a powerful technique for identifying new molecules that may interact with a macromolecular target of interest. Because of docking and scoring limitations, it is more difficult to apply as a lead optimization method because it requires that the docking/scoring tool is able to propose as few solutions as possible and all of them with a very good accuracy for both the protein-bound orientation and the conformation of the ligand. In the present study, we present a consensus docking approach (ConsDock) that takes advantage of three widely used docking tools (Dock, FlexX, and Gold). The consensus analysis of all possible poses generated by several docking tools is performed sequentially in four steps: (i) hierarchical clustering of all poses generated by a docking tool into families represented by a leader; (ii) definition of all consensus pairs from leaders generated by different docking programs; (iii) clustering of consensus pairs into classes, represented by a mean structure; and (iv) ranking the different means starting from the most populated class of consensus pairs. When applied to a test set of 100 protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank, ConsDock significantly outperforms single docking with respect to the docking accuracy of the top-ranked pose. In 60% of the cases investigated here, ConsDock was able to rank as top solution a pose within 2 A RMSD of the X-ray structure. It can be applied as a postprocessing filter to either single- or multiple-docking programs to prioritize three-dimensional guided lead optimization from the most likely docking solution. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of a new automated microscopy urine sediment analyser - sediMAX conTRUST®.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Laura; Peeters, Bart; Billen, Jaak

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the stand-alone sediMAX conTRUST (77Elektronika, Budapest, Hungary) analyser as an alternative to microscopic analysis of urine. The validation included a precision, carry-over, categorical correlation and diagnostic performance study with manual phase-contrast microscopy as reference method. A total of 260 routine urine samples were assessed. The within-run precision was much better at higher concentrations than at very low concentrations. The precision met our predefined limits for all the elements at the different concentrations, with the exception of the lowest RBC, the WBC, pathological casts and crystals count. There was no sample carry-over. The analyser showed good categorical agreement with manual microscopy for RBC and WBC counts, moderate agreement for yeast cells, crystals and squamous epithelial cells and bad agreement for non-squamous epithelial cells, bacteria and casts. Diagnostic performance was satisfying only for RBC, WBC and yeast cells. The number of false negative results was acceptable (≤4%) for all elements after connecting the sediMAX conTRUST with an automatic strip reader (AutionMAX) and after implementation of review rules. We conclude that the sediMAX conTRUST should be used as a screening tool in combination with an automatic strip reader, for the identification of normal samples. Therefore, adequate review rules should be defined. Manual microscopy is still required in 'flagged' pathological samples. Despite the poor analytical performance on pathological samples, the images on the screen can be used for interpretation without the microscope and can be stored as PDF-documents for archiving the results.

  14. Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur con Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, W. T.; Podestá, R. C.; Alonso, E.; Actis, E. V.; Pacheco, A. M.; Bustos, G.; Lizhi, L.; Zezhi, W.; Fanmiao, Z.; Hongqi, W.; Perdomo, R.

    Recordamos que entre el Observatorio Astronómico ``Félix Aguilar'', el Observatorio Astronómico de Beijing y el Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata, se ha convenido en desarrollar un Proyecto de Investigación conjunto, para la observación sistemática de estrellas en el Hemisferio Sur, con el objeto de la elaboración de un Catálogo Estelar Global utilizando un Astrolabio Fotoeléctrico PAII del Observatorio de Beijing, que ha sido usado con éxito en la República de China. En este trabajo se presenta el Segundo Catálogo Estelar del Hemisferio Sur, derivado de las observaciones realizadas con el PAII instalado en el OAFA, durante el períiodo Febrero de 1992 a Marzo de 1997. En este lapso se han observado mas de 400000 pasajes estelares, obteniéndose las correcciones Δ α y Δ δ de 5241 estrellas del FK4, FK5, FK5 Ext., SRS, CAMC y GC. Las precisiones medias son del orden de ± 3,2 ms en ascensión recta y ±0."057 en declinación. Rango de magnitudes : 2,0 a 11,5 Rango de declinaciones : -3o a -60o Epoca Media : 1994.9 Se analizan los residuos en función de la magnitud y tipo espectral, correcciones de grupo y frecuencia de distribución Δ α y Δ δ.

  15. Changes to perceptions of the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing after APOE genotyping for Alzheimer disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kurt D.; Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.; Green, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions about the pros and cons of genetic susceptibility testing are among the best predictors of test utilization. How actual testing changes such perceptions has yet to be examined. Methods In a clinical trial, first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease received genetic risk assessments for Alzheimer disease including APOE disclosure. Participants rated 11 possible benefits associated with genetic testing (pros) and 10 risks or limitations (cons) before genetic risk disclosure and again 12 months afterward. Results Pros were rated higher than cons at baseline (3.53 vs. 1.83, P < 0.001) and at 12 months after risk disclosure (3.33 vs. 1.88, P < 0.001). Ratings of pros decreased during the 12-month period (3.33 vs. 3.53, P < 0.001). Ratings of cons did not change (1.88 vs. 1.83, P = 0.199) except for a three-item discrimination subscale which increased (2.07 vs. 1.92, P = 0.012). Among specific pros and cons, three items related to prevention and treatment changed the most. Conclusion The process of APOE genetic risk assessment for Alzheimer disease sensitizes some to its limitations and the risks of discrimination; however, 1-year after disclosure, test recipients still consider the pros to strongly outweigh the cons. PMID:21270636

  16. Moderator's view: High-volume plasma exchange: pro, con and consensus.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Andre A

    2017-09-01

    I have been asked to comment on the pro and con opinions regarding high-volume plasma exchange. The authors of both positions have provided cogent arguments and a reasonable approach to choosing the exchange volume for any given therapeutic plasma exchange. The major issue of relevance in this discussion is the nature of the toxins targeted for removal. These parameters include molecular weight, the apparent volume of distribution, the degree of protein binding, the biologic and chemical half-life, and the severity and rapidity of its toxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  17. The pros and cons about the digital recording of Intangible Cultural Heritage and some strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Intangible Cultural Heritage (referred to as ICH), whose fundamental nature different from the tangible cultural heritage is "Intangible", and the related physical presence of the heritage is not the core content. Digital means have irreplaceable advantages in recording intangible and dynamic ICH resources, while it also needs flexible and rigorous recording means as a support, thus striving to maximize resources recording and protection. This article will focus on the pros and cons about the digital recording of ICH, and preliminarily discuss some strategies used in the process of recording.

  18. La interacción de estrellas WN con el medio circundante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Cappa, C.; Rizzo, J. R.; Cichovolski, S.

    Se presentan resultados preliminares de un estudio de la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en los alrededores de estrellas WR de la serie del nitrógeno. Los datos observacionales de la línea de 21 cm provienen de un relevamineto de baja resolución angular (36'), así como de observaciones de resolución angular intermedia (9') tomadas con el radiotelescopio de Effelsberg. Este análisis ha permitido detectar cavidades y envolturas de H I en expansión vinculadas a las estrellas que componen la muestra.

  19. Hable con Ella (Talk to Her) through the lens of gender.

    PubMed

    Yanof, Judith A

    2008-04-01

    In the 2002 film Hable con Ella (Talk to Her), Spanish writer-director Pedro Almodóvar plays with the ambiguity of gender, transcending conventional assumptions about "masculinity" and "femininity." Each of the four main characters holds complex, varied, and, in some cases, gender-bending gender identifications. The theme of gender plasticity is a prominent motif in this film. However, underlying the narrative, there is also a perverse subtext that relies on rigidly binary gender stereotypes to define relationships between men and women. Both these views of gender which operate dialectically, create a complex tapestry through which Almodóvar explores his characters' problems in attaining intimacy.

  20. Confrontando teorías físicas con la Cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetich, H.

    Hay numerosas teorías físicas que no pueden contrastarse con el experimento en laboratorio y eso las hace poco interesantes como descripción de la naturaleza. Sin embargo, algunas de estas teorías tienen consecuencias cosmológicas observables y se abre la posibilidad de contrastación a través de la observación. Se discuten las observaciones capaces de poner a prueba tales teorías y se examinan ejemplos de teorías limitadas por la observación.

  1. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  2. Lesbian (in)visibility in Italian Renaissance culture: Diana and other cases of donna con donna.

    PubMed

    Simons, P

    1994-01-01

    Current conceptualizations of sexual identity in the West are not necessarily useful to an historian investigating "lesbianism" in the social history and visual representations of different periods. After an overview of Renaissance documents treating donna con donna relations which examines the potentially positive effects of condemnation and silence, the paper focuses on Diana, the goddess of chastity, who bathed with her nymphs as an exemplar of female bodies preserved for heterosexual, reproductive pleasures. Yet the self-sufficiency and bodily contact sometimes represented in images of this secluded all-female gathering might suggest "deviant" responses from their viewers.

  3. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  4. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  5. To share or not to share? Expected pros and cons of data sharing in radiological research.

    PubMed

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Alì, Marco; Hunink, Myriam G; Houssami, Nehmat; Sconfienza, Luca M; Di Leo, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this paper are to illustrate the trend towards data sharing, i.e. the regulated availability of the original patient-level data obtained during a study, and to discuss the expected advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons) of data sharing in radiological research. Expected pros include the potential for verification of original results with alternative or supplementary analyses (including estimation of reproducibility), advancement of knowledge by providing new results by testing new hypotheses (not explored by the original authors) on pre-existing databases, larger scale analyses based on individual-patient data, enhanced multidisciplinary cooperation, reduced publication of false studies, improved clinical practice, and reduced cost and time for clinical research. Expected cons are outlined as the risk that the original authors could not exploit the entire potential of the data they obtained, possible failures in patients' privacy protection, technical barriers such as the lack of standard formats, and possible data misinterpretation. Finally, open issues regarding data ownership, the role of individual patients, advocacy groups and funding institutions in decision making about sharing of data and images are discussed. • Regulated availability of patient-level data of published clinical studies (data-sharing) is expected. • Expected benefits include verification/advancement of knowledge, reduced cost/time of research, clinical improvement. • Potential drawbacks include faults in patients' identity protection and data misinterpretation.

  6. Preparation of stimulus responsive multiple emulsions by membrane emulsification using con a as biochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Emma; Drioli, Enrico; Giorno, Lidietta

    2011-04-01

    In this work, a novel strategy for the controlled fabrication of biomolecular stimulus responsive water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion using the membrane emulsification process was investigated. The emulsions interface was functionalized with a biomolecule able to function as a receptor for a target compound. The interaction between the biomolecular receptor and target stimulus activated the release of bioactive molecules contained within the structured emulsion. A glucose sensitive emulsion was investigated as a model study case. Concanavalin A (Con A) was used as the biomolecular glucose sensor. Various physicochemical strategies for stimulus responsive materials formulation are available in literature, but the preparation of biomolecule-responsive emulsions has been explored for the first time in this paper. The development of novel drug delivery systems requires advanced and highly precise techniques to obtain their particular properties and targeting requirements. The present study has proven the flexibility and suitability of membrane emulsification for the preparation of stable and functional multiple emulsions containing Con A as interfacial biomolecular receptor able to activate the release of a bioactive molecule as a consequence of interaction with the glucose target molecule. The influence of emulsion interfacial composition and membrane emulsification operating conditions on droplets stability and functional properties have been investigated. The release of the bioactive molecule as a function of glucose stimulus and its concentration has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  8. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  9. Establishing confidence in the output of qualitative research synthesis: the ConQual approach.

    PubMed

    Munn, Zachary; Porritt, Kylie; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Pearson, Alan

    2014-09-20

    The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled ConQual. The development and use of the ConQual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.

  10. Quick fix or long-term cure? Pros and cons of bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Madura, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy. Operations based on these mechanisms include the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (considered primarily restrictive operations), the laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with or without a duodenal switch (primarily malabsorptive operation), and the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (considered a combination restrictive and selective malabsorptive procedure). Each operation has pros and cons. Important considerations, for the patient and surgeon alike, in the decision to proceed with bariatric surgery include the technical aspects of the operation, postoperative complications including long-term nutritional problems, magnitude of initial and sustained weight loss desired, and correction of obesity-related comorbidities. Herein, the pros and cons of the contemporary laparoscopic bariatric operations are reviewed and ongoing controversies relating to bariatric surgery are discussed: appropriate patient selection, appropriate operation selection for an individual patient, surgeon selection, and how to measure success after surgery. PMID:23091563

  11. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical, Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, along the Ituxi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    enfermedades infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil. II. Epidemiologia de las infecciones por arbovirus. Bol. Of...F.P. 1981. Programa multidisciplinario de vigilancia de las enfermedades , infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil

  12. YOUNG WOMEN’S PERSPECTIVE OF THE PROS AND CONS TO SEEKING SCREENING FOR CHLAMYDIA AND GONORRHEA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Mariam R.; von Sternberg, Kirk; Velasquez, Mary M.; Wiemann, Constance M.; Smith, Peggy B.; DiClemente, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective To identify young women’s pros and cons (decisional balance) to seeking chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (NGC) screening. Design Prospective, cross sectional study Setting Community-based reproductive health clinic Participants 192 young women (66% African American; mean age 18.9 years). Main Outcome Measure(s) Content analysis of responses obtained during a decisional balance exercise (pros and cons) promoting CT and NGC screening was conducted. Thematic categories were developed through a coding process, and each response was assigned to one thematic category. The frequency of pros and cons responses for each category and the frequency of participants endorsing each category were calculated. Results Ten thematic categories in relation to pros and cons of seeking CT and NGC screening were: being healthy; awareness of knowing the body; systemic factors around the clinic visit and testing procedures; benefits and aversions around treatment; partner relationship issues; confidentiality; prevention of long term adverse effects, protection of the body; concern for others; fear of results/aversion to testing; and logistical barriers. The three most often cited pros were awareness, healthy and treatment issues; and the three most often cited cons were logistical barriers (time/transportation), fear/aversion to testing, and systemic issues. Conclusions A variety of pros and cons to seeking CT and NGC screening were identified at a community-based clinic. Providers in clinical settings can utilize this information when encouraging patients to seek regular STI screening by elucidating and emphasizing those pros and cons that have the most influence on a young woman’s decision-making to seek screening. PMID:18656072

  13. Cue-based assertion classification for Swedish clinical text – developing a lexicon for pyConTextSwe

    PubMed Central

    Velupillai, Sumithra; Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Mowery, Danielle; Chapman, Brian E.; Dalianis, Hercules; Chapman, Wendy W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ability of a cue-based system to accurately assert whether a disorder is affirmed, negated, or uncertain is dependent, in part, on its cue lexicon. In this paper, we continue our study of porting an assertion system (pyConTextNLP) from English to Swedish (pyConTextSwe) by creating an optimized assertion lexicon for clinical Swedish. Methods and material We integrated cues from four external lexicons, along with generated inflections and combinations. We used subsets of a clinical corpus in Swedish. We applied four assertion classes (definite existence, probable existence, probable negated existence and definite negated existence) and two binary classes (existence yes/no and uncertainty yes/no) to pyConTextSwe. We compared pyConTextSwe’s performance with and without the added cues on a development set, and improved the lexicon further after an error analysis. On a separate evaluation set, we calculated the system’s final performance. Results Following integration steps, we added 454 cues to pyConTextSwe. The optimized lexicon developed after an error analysis resulted in statistically significant improvements on the development set (83% F-score, overall). The system’s final F-scores on an evaluation set were 81% (overall). For the individual assertion classes, F-score results were 88% (definite existence), 81% (probable existence), 55% (probable negated existence), and 63% (definite negated existence). For the binary classifications existence yes/no and uncertainty yes/no, final system performance was 97%/87% and 78%/86% F-score, respectively. Conclusions We have successfully ported pyConTextNLP to Swedish (pyConTextSwe). We have created an extensive and useful assertion lexicon for Swedish clinical text, which could form a valuable resource for similar studies, and which is publicly available. PMID:24556644

  14. A con-focal setup for micro-XRF experiments using diamond anvil cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Max; Rickers, Karen; Vincze, Laszlo; Schmidt, Christian; Borchert, Manuela; Pascarelli, Sakura

    2010-05-01

    In this contribution we introduce an experimental setup to perform con-focal micro X-ray fluorescence measurements in situ in samples at high temperatures and pressures in diamond anvil cells (DAC) (e.g. Schmidt et al. 2007). The con-focal arrangement is used to suppress the background in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra that stems from elastic and inelastic scattering of the diamond anvils. The setup is based on a focusing optic in the incident beam that reaches a spot of 5-10 μm and a focusing poly-capillary in front of an energy-dispersive solid-state detector. The detector poly-capillary is designed to work at a very long working distance of 50 mm in order to collect the radiation from the center of the DAC at 90° to the incident beam. The probing volume is defined by the two foci and has a size of ca. 300 μm at 8 keV and 150 μm at 19 keV as measured by scans through thin metal foils. Comparison of XRF spectra acquired with a usual detector collimator and spectra recorded with the detector capillary shows a strong suppression of XRF signal generated outside the probed volume, i.e. XRF from the gasket material and signal from elastic and Compton scattering by the diamond anvils. The ratio of the Zr K-alpha fluorescence peak to the peak of the Compton scattering changes from 0.5 (collimator) to 1.26 (detector capillary) for a ca. 1000 ppm Zr standard solution and an incident beam energy of 20 keV. For a standard solution containing ca. 1000 ppm Hf, the ratio of the L-alpha to the Compton signal increases to 6 using the detector capillary and an incident beam energy of 9.7 keV. Thus, the con-focal setup substantially improves the fluorescence to background ratio. This will result in higher sensitivities for dilute elements in the sample chamber of the DAC. Furthermore, the possibilities of interference of the sample's signal with signal from the sample environment are greatly reduced. In a broader sense, the setup can also be applied to other confined samples

  15. The SubCons webserver: A user friendly web interface for state-of-the-art subcellular localization prediction.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, M; Shu, N; Elofsson, A

    2018-01-01

    SubCons is a recently developed method that predicts the subcellular localization of a protein. It combines predictions from four predictors using a Random Forest classifier. Here, we present the user-friendly web-interface implementation of SubCons. Starting from a protein sequence, the server rapidly predicts the subcellular localizations of an individual protein. In addition, the server accepts the submission of sets of proteins either by uploading the files or programmatically by using command line WSDL API scripts. This makes SubCons ideal for proteome wide analyses allowing the user to scan a whole proteome in few days. From the web page, it is also possible to download precalculated predictions for several eukaryotic organisms. To evaluate the performance of SubCons we present a benchmark of LocTree3 and SubCons using two recent mass-spectrometry based datasets of mouse and drosophila proteins. The server is available at http://subcons.bioinfo.se/. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  16. Pros and cons of prognostic disclosure to Japanese cancer patients and their families from the family's point of view.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saran; Shiozaki, Mariko; Sanjo, Makiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of this analysis were to explore the pros and cons of prognostic disclosure to patients and their families from the bereaved family's point of view. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 60 bereaved family members of patients with cancer in Japan. There were eight categories of influence related to the disclosure of prognosis to the family, including pros (e.g., "Enabling mental preparedness for the patient's death") and cons (e.g., "Being distressed by acknowledging the patient's prognosis"); and seven categories of influence of not disclosing the prognosis to family, including pros (e.g., "Being able to maintain hope") and cons (e.g., "Being prevented from providing adequate care for the patient"). There were also nine categories of influence related to the disclosure of prognosis to patients (e.g., "Enabling various discussions regarding death with the patient"), and eight categories of influence related to not disclosing the prognosis to patients (e.g., "Maintaining the patient's hope"). Although prognostic disclosure to family members can contribute to psychological distress and hopelessness, at the same time, it has the potential to prepare them for the future both emotionally and practically, and also to make the time until the patient's death as meaningful as possible. It is useful for physicians to introduce pros and cons of prognostic disclosure to family members at the time of decision making, to understand the family members' psychological state, and to provide support considering pros and cons whether or not they disclosed prognosis.

  17. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. Methods We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Results Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Conclusions Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the ‘Distorted Mirror Hypothesis’. PMID:24548463

  18. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients.

  19. What to consider when regulating electronic cigarettes: Pros, cons and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Saitta, Daniela; Sweanor, David; Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    Many public health experts, medical research societies, large health organizations and policy makers have expressed concerns about the increased popularity of electronic cigarettes and have pushed for more restrictive measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products either as medicines or as tobacco products. But these concerns have never been adequately qualified nor quantified. Without judicious assessment and thorough evaluation, regulations may have unintended consequences that can do more damage than good in public health terms. In this article, we will appraise the existing prominent regulatory frameworks for e-cigarettes, namely, general consumer product, medicinal product and tobacco product regulation, to highlight their pros and cons. Moreover, we provide concrete examples of the unintended consequences which may arise from inappropriate regulatory action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Is ACPA positivity the main driver for rheumatoid arthritis treatment? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Alivernini, Stefano; Galeazzi, Mauro; Peleg, Hagit; Tolusso, Barbara; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Naparstek, Yaakov

    2017-11-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune chronic disease that is characterized by the positivity of various antibodies, the most specific being autoantibodies against citrullinated antigens (ACPA). Despite ACPA are not arthritogenic by themselves, ACPA positive individuals have high risk of RA development and ACPA positivity is associated with severe erosive phenotype and higher mortality rate compared to seronegative RA. Moreover, ACPA status is associated with favorable response to biologics targeting pathways involving autoantibody producing cells as B lymphocytes. In the current review we have discussed the pros and cons on the available scientific evidences, regarding the diagnostic, prognostic and management implications of ACPAs in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachael C; Feeney, William E; Hauber, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Following nest destruction, the laying of physiologically committed eggs (eggs that are ovulated, yolked, and making their way through the oviduct) in the nests of other birds is considered a viable pathway for the evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism. While intraspecific brood parasitism in response to nest predation has been experimentally demonstrated, this pathway has yet to be evaluated in an interspecific context. We studied patterns of egg laying following experimental nest destruction in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a frequent intraspecific brood parasite. We found that zebra finches laid physiologically committed eggs indiscriminately between nests containing conspecific eggs and nests containing heterospecific eggs (of Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata vars. domestica), despite the con- and heterospecific eggs differing in both size and coloration. This is the first experimental evidence that nest destruction may provide a pathway for the evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds.

  2. Pros and cons of healthcare information technology implementation: the pros win.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roxana

    2006-01-01

    Countless studies and investigations have been performed siding either for or against the implementation of technology in the healthcare setting. This article presents both sides of this debate, with an obvious conclusion that the pros of this debate win. The practice of information technology in the medical domain lags behind its knowledge and discovery by at least 7 years. The key to closing this gap is to show, through various studies, how information technology systems provide decision support to users at the point in time when decisions are needed. What the reader will obtain from this article is that the pros for information technology implementation in healthcare settings weigh much more and have a greater effect than the cons.

  3. DESAFÍOS ÉTICOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CON ANIMALES, MANIPULACIÓN GENÉTICA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en el uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y requisito previo para ensayos en humanos como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos son: no representar exactamente la condición humana como modelos, realizar pruebas de toxicidad con grave daño para los animales, alterar su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas, riesgos de la introducción de organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano, impone al ser humano la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, al estar trabajando con seres vivientes y sentientes. PMID:23338641

  4. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  5. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  6. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  7. Future of clip-on weapon sights: pros and cons from an applications perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C. Reed; Greenslade, Ken; Francisco, Glen

    2015-05-01

    US Domestic, International, allied Foreign National Warfighters and Para-Military First Responders (Police, SWAT, Special Operations, Law Enforcement, Government, Security and more) are put in harm's way all the time. To successfully complete their missions and return home safely are the primary goals of these professionals. Tactical product improvements that affect mission effectiveness and solider survivability are pivotal to understanding the past, present and future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights. Clip-On Weapon Sight (WS) technology was deemed an interim solution by the US Government for use until integrated and fused (day/night multi-sensor) Weapon Sights (WSs) were developed/fielded. Clip-On has now become the solution of choice by Users, Warriors, Soldiers and the US Government. SWaP-C (size, weight and power -cost) has been improved through progressive advances in Clip-On Image Intensified (I2), passive thermal, LL-CMOS and fused technology. Clip-On Weapon Sights are now no longer mounting position sensitive. Now they maintain aim point boresight, so they can be used for longer ranges with increased capabilities while utilizing the existing zeroed weapon and daysight optic. Active illuminated low-light level (both analog I2 and digital LL-CMOS) imaging is rightfully a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime and low-light level identification confidence. Passive thermal imaging is also a real-world technology, proven to deliver daytime, nighttime and all-weather (including dirty battlefield) target detection confidence. Image processing detection algorithms with intelligent analytics provide documented promise to improve confidence by reducing Users, Warriors and Soldiers' work-loads and improving overall system engagement solution outcomes. In order to understand the future of Clip-On in-line weapon sights, addressing pros and cons, this paper starts with an overview of historical weapon sight applications, technologies and stakeholder decisions

  8. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Scardina, John; Shay, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the goals, benefits, technologies, and procedures of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1), and provides an update to the previous versions of the document [ref 1 and ref 2].

  9. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  10. Autophagic Mechanism in Anti-Cancer Immunity: Its Pros and Cons for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Feun, Lynn G.; Thongkum, Angkana; Tu, Chiao-Hui; Chen, Shu-Mei; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Wu, Chunjing; Kuo, Macus T.; Savaraj, Niramol

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy, a self-eating machinery, has been reported as an adaptive response to maintain metabolic homeostasis when cancer cells encounter stress. It has been appreciated that autophagy acts as a double-edge sword to decide the fate of cancer cells upon stress factors, molecular subtypes, and microenvironmental conditions. Currently, the majority of evidence support that autophagy in cancer cells is a vital mechanism bringing on resistance to current and prospective treatments, yet whether autophagy affects the anticancer immune response remains unclear and controversial. Accumulated studies have demonstrated that triggering autophagy is able to facilitate anticancer immunity due to an increase in immunogenicity, whereas other studies suggested that autophagy is likely to disarm anticancer immunity mediated by cytotoxic T cells and nature killer (NK) cells. Hence, this contradiction needs to be elucidated. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy in cancer cells per se and in cancer microenvironment as well as its dual regulatory roles in immune surveillance through modulating presentation of tumor antigens, development of immune cells, and expression of immune checkpoints. We further focus on emerging roles of autophagy induced by current treatments and its impact on anticancer immune response, and illustrate the pros and cons of utilizing autophagy in cancer immunotherapy based on preclinical references. PMID:28629173

  11. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  12. Pros and cons of BCG vaccination in countries with low incidence of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tala, E O; Tala-Heikkilä, M M

    1994-07-01

    Preventive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, together with case finding and effective chemotherapy, has formed an integral part of the tuberculosis (TB) control program in most countries. In some low-incidence countries the balance of prevention has been more on the side of chemoprophylaxis than of BCG vaccination. The time clearly has come when the strategy of mass BCG vaccination no longer is indicated medically, nor is it cost-effective. The pros and cons of the programs need to be critically evaluated against the present epidemiological background, taking into account the facts that TB, the killer disease, is recovering strength, human immunodeficiency virus infection is on the increase, and multidrug-resistant TB has changed the outcome of this previously fully curable disease. Although no longer appropriate for mass programs, BCG vaccination still should be considered for the protection of selected risk groups in low-incidence countries. The overall efficacy may be of the order 50% to 80%, but the variation is great. Therefore, further research urgently is needed on the effectiveness of BCG as an intervention in local TB programs.

  13. Leveling data in geochemical mapping: scope of application, pros and cons of existing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Benoît; Vandeuren, Aubry; Sonnet, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical mapping successfully met a range of needs from mineral exploration to environmental management. In Europe and around the world numerous geochemical datasets already exist. These datasets may originate from geochemical mapping projects or from the collection of sample analyses requested by environmental protection regulatory bodies. Combining datasets can be highly beneficial for establishing geochemical maps with increased resolution and/or coverage area. However this practice requires assessing the equivalence between datasets and, if needed, applying data leveling to remove possible biases between datasets. In the literature, several procedures for assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data are proposed. Daneshfar & Cameron (1998) proposed a method for the leveling of two adjacent datasets while Pereira et al. (2016) proposed two methods for the leveling of datasets that contain records located within the same geographical area. Each discussed method requires its own set of assumptions (underlying populations of data, spatial distribution of data, etc.). Here we propose to discuss the scope of application, pros, cons and practical recommendations for each method. This work is illustrated with several case studies in Wallonia (Southern Belgium) and in Europe involving trace element geochemical datasets. References: Daneshfar, B. & Cameron, E. (1998), Leveling geochemical data between map sheets, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 63(3), 189-201. Pereira, B.; Vandeuren, A.; Govaerts, B. B. & Sonnet, P. (2016), Assessing dataset equivalence and leveling data in geochemical mapping, Journal of Geochemical Exploration 168, 36-48.

  14. Arab-American Hookah Smokers: Initiation, and Pros and Cons of Hookah Use.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-09-01

    To examine initiation, pros and cons of hookah tobacco smoking among Arab Americans. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we recruited a community-based convenience sample of 458 adult Arab-American hookah smokers, mean age 28.4 years, who completed self-administered questionnaires. Irrespective of sex, most participants initiated hookah tobacco use by young adulthood in private homes or hookah lounges influenced by friends and family. Women initiated hookah use later than men. Ever dual smokers (hookah smokers who ever smoked a cigarette) initiated hookah use later than cigarettes; however, early hookah initiators < 18 years initiated hookah and cigarettes concurrently. Participants enjoyed the flavors of hookah tobacco, and complained about coughing, dizziness, and headaches. Early and late initiation of hookah tobacco use warrant prevention programs targeting the youth and older adults in communities, colleges, and middle and high schools that include health education campaigns, and encouragement of voluntary smokefree home rules. Tobacco control policies aimed to prevent initiation of hookah use should include regulation of hookah tobacco flavors, and should target the physical environments in neighborhoods, especially around schools and colleges, to reduce the proliferation of hookah lounges. Dual hookah tobacco and cigarette use warrant continuous monitoring.

  15. Shared governance: time to consider the cons as well as the pros.

    PubMed

    Gavin, M; Ash, D; Wakefield, S; Wroe, C

    1999-07-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical appraisal of an approach to the management and organization of nursing work known as shared governance (SG). This approach has its origins in the USA, where, during the past 20 years it has become increasingly influential. The advocates of SG claim that it can, inter alia, improve recruitment and retention rates, boost morale, and help raise clinical skills. Little wonder that SG in now beginning to make significant inroads into the NHS. ORIGIN OF INFORMATION: However, a trawl through the extensive US literature, using printed and online (e.g. BIDS, CINHAL, MEDLINE, etc.) bibliographical sources, suggests that the claimed benefits of SG should be treated with caution. Much of the existing published research appears to be both methodologically flawed and lacking in any critical edge. While many researchers and commentators appear only too willing to highlight what they see as the promise of SG, they shy away from exploring any potential pitfalls. One consequence of this is that many of the putative benefits SG is said to confer, may in fact be more apparent than real. Nurses and nurse managers need to be apprised of and consider seriously, the possible cons as well as the potential pros of SG, if any promise it may have is to be realized.

  16. CON4EI: Evaluation of QSAR models for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Geerts, L; Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Kandarova, H; Drzewiecka, A; Fochtman, P; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritation is a regulatory requirement in safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone assays. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. For three computational models (Toxtree, and Case Ultra EYE_DRAIZE and EYE_IRR) performance parameters were calculated. Coverage ranged from 15 to 58%. Coverage was 2 to 3.4 times higher for liquids than for solids. The lowest number of false positives (5%) was reached with EYE_IRR; this model however also gave a high number of false negatives (46%). The lowest number of false negatives (25%) was seen with Toxtree; for liquids Toxtree predicted the lowest number of false negatives (11%), for solids EYE_DRAIZE did (17%). It can be concluded that the training sets should be enlarged with high quality data. The tested models are not yet sufficiently powerful for stand-alone evaluations, but that they can surely become of value in an integrated weight-of-evidence approach in hazard assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the Arthritis Foundation's Camine Con Gusto Program for Hispanic Adults With Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Leigh F.; Rivadeneira, Alfredo; Altpeter, Mary; Vilen, Leigha; Cleveland, Rebecca J.; Sepulveda, Victoria E.; Hackney, Betsy; Reuland, Daniel S.; Rojas, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Camine Con Gusto (CCG) is the Hispanic version of an evidence-based walking program for people with arthritis. This study examined CCG outcomes, feasibility, tolerability, safety, and acceptability and potential tailoring. Method A pre and post 6-week evaluation was conducted in Hispanic people with arthritis. Outcomes included pain, stiffness, fatigue, functional capacity, helplessness, and self-efficacy. A formative evaluation with program participants and key stakeholders explored program tailoring. Results Participants' mean age was 46.9 years, 44.4% had a high school degree or less, 2.5% were born in United States, 60.1% spoke only Spanish, and 74.7% were female. Moderate effect sizes were found: 0.50 for pain, 0.75 for fatigue, 0.49 for stiffness, 0.33 for function, 0.26 for helplessness, and 0.24 for self-efficacy. There were 285 participants recruited with an 82% 6-week retention (feasibility), no adverse events were reported (safety), and 98% reported program satisfaction (acceptability). Recommended adaptations included simpler language, more pictures and content addressing nutrition and chronic conditions, shortened materials, and inclusion of motivational strategies. Conclusion CCG showed improvement in outcomes in Hispanic individuals comparable to those noted in non-Hispanic White and Black individuals with arthritis. PMID:27553228

  18. Effect of PGE2 on thymocyte proliferation induced by Con A or IL-4 + PMA.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, R; Vaillier, D; Bezian, J H; Gualde, N

    1993-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to inhibit peripheral T-lymphocyte and thymocyte proliferation activated by antigens, mitogens or anti-CD3 antibodies. In this study, we have investigated, the effect of PGE2 on thymocyte proliferation induced by the combination of IL-4 plus PMA. PGE2 inhibits the proliferation of thymocytes activated by ConA, whatever the culture period; in contrast PGE2 shifts the kinetics of thymocyte proliferation after stimulation by IL-4 plus PMA, but does not sustain the proliferation beyond day 3. This effect depends upon cell density, IL-4 concentration and on the time that PGE2 is added to the culture. By use of the cAMP inducer, forskolin, or a cAMP analog, db-cAMP, we observed the same results, PGE2 increases the proliferation of CD8+ corticoresistant thymocytes (CRT) activated by IL-4 plus PMA, but inhibits that of CD4+ CRT. These results suggest that PGE2 can regulate thymocyte proliferation differently according to the activation pathway and the thymic subpopulations.

  19. Con-Text: Text Detection for Fine-grained Object Classification.

    PubMed

    Karaoglu, Sezer; Tao, Ran; van Gemert, Jan C; Gevers, Theo

    2017-05-24

    This work focuses on fine-grained object classification using recognized scene text in natural images. While the state-of-the-art relies on visual cues only, this paper is the first work which proposes to combine textual and visual cues. Another novelty is the textual cue extraction. Unlike the state-of-the-art text detection methods, we focus more on the background instead of text regions. Once text regions are detected, they are further processed by two methods to perform text recognition i.e. ABBYY commercial OCR engine and a state-of-the-art character recognition algorithm. Then, to perform textual cue encoding, bi- and trigrams are formed between the recognized characters by considering the proposed spatial pairwise constraints. Finally, extracted visual and textual cues are combined for fine-grained classification. The proposed method is validated on four publicly available datasets: ICDAR03, ICDAR13, Con-Text and Flickr-logo. We improve the state-of-the-art end-to-end character recognition by a large margin of 15% on ICDAR03. We show that textual cues are useful in addition to visual cues for fine-grained classification. We show that textual cues are also useful for logo retrieval. Adding textual cues outperforms visual- and textual-only in fine-grained classification (70.7% to 60.3%) and logo retrieval (57.4% to 54.8%).

  20. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  1. Pros and cons of condom use among gay and bisexual men as explored via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey utilizing Internet technology related to gay and bisexual men's condom use behavior as an expression of safer sexual practices. A total of 241 self-identified gay and bisexual men responded to the questionnaire in a 3-month period of time. Confidentiality was assured by utilizing an electronic system whereby the respondents e-mail address was eliminated. The study was conceptually guided by the use of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TMC) and the pros and cons of condom of use were explored. Fifty-six percent of the participants reported that one advantage (pro) of using condoms with casual partners was that it would make them safer from disease. About half of the respondents (n = 119, 49%) reported a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases. There were 14 variables found to be significantly associated with using a condom with primary and casual partners among gay and bisexual men. Essentially, findings from this study corresponded to results obtained by more traditional data collection methods. Therefore, the authors conclude that electronic data collection may well be an alternative means for collecting sensitive data such as those collected in this study.

  2. Single step purification of concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production from jack bean using glucosylated magnetic nano matrix.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Cho, Eun Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98.4%. Therefore, this new approach for the production of Con A and bio-sugar is potentially useful for obtaining bio-based products from jack bean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  4. Exploring the pros and cons of mechanistic case diagrams for problem-based learning

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Mechanistic case diagram (MCD) was recommended for increasing the depth of understanding of disease, but with few articles on its specific methods. We address the experience of making MCD in the fullest depth to identify the pros and cons of using MCDs in such ways. Methods During problem-based learning, we gave guidelines of MCD for its mechanistic exploration from subcellular processes to clinical features, being laid out in as much detail as possible. To understand the students’ attitudes and depth of study using MCDs, we analyzed the results of a questionnaire in an open format about experiencing MCDs and examined the resulting products. Results Through the responses to questionnaire, we found several favorable outcomes, major of which was deeper insight and comprehensive understanding of disease facilitated by the process of making well-organized diagram. The main disadvantages of these guidelines were the feeling of too much workload and difficulty of finding mechanisms. Students gave suggestions to overcome these problems: cautious reading of comprehensive texts, additional guidance from staff about depth and focus of mechanisms, and cooperative group work. From the analysis of maps, we recognized there should be allowance of diversities in the appearance of maps and many hypothetical connections, which could be related to an insufficient understanding of mechanisms in nature. Conclusion The more detailed an MCD task is, the better students can become acquainted with deep knowledges. However, this advantage should be balanced by the results that there are many ensuing difficulties for the work and deliberate help plans should be prepared. PMID:28870018

  5. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  6. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  7. Outreach Opportunities for Early Career Scientists at the Phoenix ComiCon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Walker, S. I.; Forrester, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Phoenix ComiCon (PCC) is a rapidly growing annual four-day pop culture event, featuring guests, costuming, exhibits, and discussion panels for popular sci-fi, fantasy, horror, and anime franchises. In 2013, PCC began experimenting with science discussion panels. The popularity of the science programming resulted in an expansion of the track for 2014, which Horodyskyj was responsible for coordinating. Thirty hours of programming were scheduled, including 25 discussion panels, NASA's FameLab, and a Mars room. Panelists included industry specialists, established scientists, STEM outreach enthusiasts, and early career scientists. The majority of the panelists were early career scientists recruited from planetary sciences and biology departments at ASU and UA. Panel topics included cosmology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, space exploration, astrobiology, and the cross-linkages of each with pop culture. Formats consisted of Q&A, presentations, and interactive game shows. Although most panels were aimed at the general audience, some panels were more specialized. PCC 2014 attracted 77,818 attendees. The science programming received rave reviews from the audience, the PCC management, and the panelists themselves. Many panel rooms were filled to capacity and required crowd control to limit attendance. We observed the formation of science "groupies" who sought out the science panels exclusively and requested more information on other science public events in the Phoenix area. We distributed surveys to several select sessions to evaluate audience reasons for attending the science panels and their opinion of the scientists they observed. We will present the results of these surveys. As the PCC continues to grow at an exponential rate, the science programming will continue to expand. We will discuss ideas for continued expansion of the PCC science programming both to serve the public and as a unique public outreach opportunity for early career scientists.

  8. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  9. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  10. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciT

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additionalmore » core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.« less

  11. Perfiles de luminosidad en galaxias con núcleo tipo Seyfert 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N.; Rodriguez-Ardilla, A. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    Presentamos imágenes CCD en los filtros BVI y Hα de una muestra de 10 galaxias Seyfert 1 y Narrow Line Seyfert 1. Recientes observaciones muestran que hay una diferencia significante en el índice espectral óptico entre NLS1s y Sy1 normales, siendo para las primeras del orden de 2. Otra característica importante es que la mayor parte de las NLS1s muestran tasas de FeII/Hβ mayores que las observadas en otras Sy1s. Desde el punto de vista fotométrico, estas galaxias no tienenningún tipo de estudio previo. Presentamos magnitudes totales, perfiles de luminosidad y mapas de color junto con un detallado análisis de la formación estelar en estos objetos. Encontramos que la descomposición en bulbo + disco representa adecuadamente los perfiles de luminosidad de las galaxias de la muestra. Sin embargo, en todos los casos es necesario que el disco tenga un agujero en su centro. El radio de este agujero va desde los 3 a los 9 kpc. Si bien no tenemos aún una explicación para este hecho, los agujeros parecen estar asociados a anillos circumnucleares de alto oscurecimiento E(B-V) ~1. Los perfiles presentan también un fuerte gradiente de color, siendo notablemente más azules hacia la región nuclear. Los objetos de la muestra cubren todo el rango de tipos morfológicos, no obstante, no encontramos regiones de formación estelar en las regiones exteriores de las galaxias. La formación estelar está confinada a la región nuclear y se data en alrededor de 5 x 107 años.

  12. Molecular detection of pathogens in water--the pros and cons of molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Girones, Rosina; Ferrús, Maria Antonia; Alonso, José Luis; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Corrêa, Adriana de Abreu; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Carratala, Anna; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2010-08-01

    Pollution of water by sewage and run-off from farms produces a serious public health problem in many countries. Viruses, along with bacteria and protozoa in the intestine or in urine are shed and transported through the sewer system. Even in highly industrialized countries, pathogens, including viruses, are prevalent throughout the environment. Molecular methods are used to monitor viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens, and to track pathogen- and source-specific markers in the environment. Molecular techniques, specifically polymerase chain reaction-based methods, provide sensitive, rapid, and quantitative analytical tools with which to study such pathogens, including new or emerging strains. These techniques are used to evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water, and to assess the efficiency of virus removal in drinking and wastewater treatment plants. The range of methods available for the application of molecular techniques has increased, and the costs involved have fallen. These developments have allowed the potential standardization and automation of certain techniques. In some cases they facilitate the identification, genotyping, enumeration, viability assessment, and source-tracking of human and animal contamination. Additionally, recent improvements in detection technologies have allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple targets in a single assay. However, the molecular techniques available today and those under development require further refinement in order to be standardized and applicable to a diversity of matrices. Water disinfection treatments may have an effect on the viability of pathogens and the numbers obtained by molecular techniques may overestimate the quantification of infectious microorganisms. The pros and cons of molecular techniques for the detection and quantification of pathogens in water are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the pros and cons of organ donation decision-making: Decisional balance and expressing donation intentions among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Shauna St Clair; Redmond, Nakeva; Williamson, Dana Hz; Thompson, Nancy J; Perryman, Jennie P; Patzer, Rachel E; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob

    2018-04-01

    Increasing public commitment to organ donation is critical to improving donor kidney availability for end-stage renal disease patients desiring transplant. This study surveyed ( N = 1339) African Americans, measuring perceived pros relative to cons of organ donation, to evaluate an existing Transtheoretical Model decisional balance scale and associations between decisional balance and expressing donation intentions. Findings supported the existing scale structure. More positive decisional balance ratios were associated with 1.76 times the odds of expressing intentions (95% confidence interval = 1.52-2.04). Pros were more strongly linked to donation intentions than cons. Greater understanding of organ donation decision-making is valuable for informing interventions that encourage donation.

  14. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K

    2017-02-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  15. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I.; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C.; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D.; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K.

    2017-01-01

    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States’ rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the Con-NECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT’s five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice. PMID:27509892

  16. Violación del Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, S. J.; Sisterna, P. D.; Vucetich, H.

    Se estudian las violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia en Teorías con Dilatón de Cuerdas. En estos modelos, algunas de las constantes fundamentales dependen del espacio y del tiempo. Se muestra que los experimentos de caída libre no tienen aún precisión como para poner límites a los parámetros de la teoría.

  17. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  18. Evaluation of ConPrim: A three-part model for continuing education in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Erika; Strang, Peter; Orrevall, Ylva; Ödlund Olin, Ann; Sandelowsky, Hanna; Törnkvist, Lena

    2016-11-01

    To overcome the gap between existing knowledge and the application of this knowledge in practice, a three-part continuing educational model for primary health care professionals (ConPrim) was developed. It includes a web-based program, a practical exercise and a case seminar. To evaluate professionals' perceptions of the design, pedagogy and adaptation to primary health care of the ConPrim continuing educational model as applied in a subject-specific intervention. A total of 67 professionals (nurses and physicians) completed a computer-based questionnaire evaluating the model's design, pedagogy and adaptation to primary health care one week after the intervention. Descriptive statistics were used. Over 90% found the design of the web-based program and case seminar attractive; 86% found the design of the practical exercise attractive. The professionals agreed that the time spent on two of the three parts was acceptable. The exception was the practical exercise: 32% did not fully agree. Approximately 90% agreed that the contents of all parts were relevant to their work and promoted interactive and interprofessional learning. In response to the statements about the intervention as whole, approximately 90% agreed that the intervention was suitable to primary health care, that it had increased their competence in the subject area, and that they would be able to use what they had learned in their work. ConPrim is a promising model for continuing educational interventions in primary health care. However, the time spent on the practical exercise should be adjusted and the instructions for the exercise clarified. ConPrim should be tested in other subject-specific interventions and its influence on clinical practice should be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  20. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  1. The global regulator of pathogenesis PnCon7 positively regulates Tox3 effector gene expression through direct interaction in the wheat pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao-Yu; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Solomon, Peter S

    2018-05-03

    To investigate effector gene regulation in the wheat pathogenic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum, the promoter and expression of Tox3 was characterised through a series of complementary approaches. Promoter deletion and DNase I footprinting experiments identified a 25 bp region in the Tox3 promoter as being required for transcription. Subsequent yeast one-hybrid analysis using the DNA sequence as bait identified that interacting partner as the C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor PnCon7, a putative master regulator of pathogenesis. Silencing of PnCon7 resulted in the down-regulation of Tox3 demonstrating that the transcription factor has a positive regulatory role on gene expression. Analysis of Tox3 expression in the PnCon7 silenced strains revealed a strong correlation with PnCon7 transcript levels, supportive of a direct regulatory role. Subsequent pathogenicity assays using PnCon7-silenced isolates revealed that the transcription factor was required for Tox3-mediated disease. The expression of two other necrotrophic effectors (ToxA and Tox1) was also affected but in a non-dose dependent manner suggesting that the regulatory role of PnCon7 on these genes was indirect. Collectively, these data have advanced our fundamental understanding of the Con7 master regulator of pathogenesis by demonstrating its positive regulatory role on the Tox3 effector in P. nodorum through direct interaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of gonococcal infection : pros and cons of a rapid test.

    PubMed

    Vickerman, Peter; Peeling, Rosanna W; Watts, Charlotte; Mabey, David

    2005-01-01

    populations with high sexual activity and/or low return rates. Unfortunately, however, most of the rapid tests currently available are immunoassays that are quite expensive and involve many steps, which limit their current usefulness. In summary, the pros and cons of using a rapid test are dependent on the setting. Culture or NAATs remain the best choice in an ideal setting. However, in settings where laboratory facilities are not available, or in high-risk populations where return rates are low, rapid tests may be the most effective way of diagnosing gonorrhea. Their optimal use in these settings requires the development of simpler and cheaper rapid tests.

  3. Airspace Technology Demonstration 2 (ATD-2) Phase 1 Concept of Use (ConUse)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon; Engelland, Shawn; Capps, Richard; Coppenbarger, Rich; Hooey, Becky; Sharma, Shivanjli; Stevens, Lindsay; Verma, Savita; Lohr, Gary; Chevalley, Eric; hide

    2018-01-01

    This document presents an operational Concept of Use (ConUse) for the Phase 1 Baseline Integrated Arrival, Departure, and Surface (IADS) prototype system of NASA's Airspace Technology Demonstration 2 (ATD-2) sub-project, which began demonstration in 2017 at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT). NASA is developing the IADS system under the ATD-2 sub-project in coordination with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and aviation industry partners. The primary goal of ATD-2 sub-project is to improve the predictability and the operational efficiency of the air traffic system in metroplex environments, through the enhancement, development, and integration of the nation's most advanced and sophisticated arrival, departure, and surface prediction, scheduling, and management systems. The ATD-2 effort is a five-year research activity through 2020. The initial phase of the ATD-2 sub-project, which is the focus of this document, will demonstrate the Phase 1 Baseline IADS capability at CLT in 2017. The Phase 1 Baseline IADS capabilities of the ATD-2 sub-project consists of: (a) Strategic and tactical surface scheduling to improve efficiency and predictability of airport surface operations, (b) Tactical departure scheduling to enhance merging of departures into overhead traffic streams via accurate predictions of takeoff times and automated coordination between the Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT, or Tower) and the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC, or Center), (c) Improvements in departure surface demand predictions in Time Based Flow Management (TBFM), (d) A prototype Electronic Flight Data (EFD) system provided by the FAA via the Terminal Flight Data Manager (TFDM) early implementation effort, and (e) Improved situational awareness and demand predictions through integration with the Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS), TBFM, and TFDM (3Ts) for electronic data integration and exchange, and an on-screen dashboard displaying pertinent analytics in real

  4. Deformation sequences of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic belt, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, M. W.; Lee, T. Y.; Lo, C. H.; Chung, S. L.; Lan, C. Y.; Lee, J. C.; Lin, T. S.; Lin, Y. J.

    2003-04-01

    The correlation of structure, microstructure and metamorphic assemblages is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the complex tectonic history and kinematics of the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic belt in Vietnam along the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone as it provides constraints on the relative timing of the deformation, kinematics and metamorphism. High-grade metamorphic rocks of amphibolite faces showed consistent deformation sequences of three folding events followed by one brittle deformation through all four cross sections from Lao Cai to Viet Tri indicated the DNCV belt experienced similar deformation condition throughout its length. The first deformation event, D1, produced up-right folds (locally preserved) with sub-vertical, NE-SW striking axial planes with dextral sense of shear probably formed during the early phase of the lowermost Triassic Indosinian orogeny. Followed by this compressional event is a gravitational collapsing event, D2, which is the major deformation and metamorphic event characterized by kyanite grade metamorphism and large scale horizontal folds with NW-SE (320) striking sub-horizontal axial pane showing sinsistral sense of shear most likely formed during the Oligocene-Miocene SE extrusion of Indochina peninsula. The 3rd folding event, D3, is a post-metamorphism doming event with NW-SE (310) striking sub-vertical axial plane that folded/tilted the once sub-horizontal D2 axial planes into shallowly (<30 degrees) NE dipping on the NE limb, and SW dipping on the SW limb possibly due to left-lateral movement of the N-S trending Xian Shui He fault system in Mid-Miocene. The outward decreasing of the metamorphic grade from kyanite to garnet then biotite indicated the D3 occurred post metamorphism. Reactivation of the sub-horizontal D2 fold axial planes showed dextral sense of shear possibly due to Late Miocene-Pliocene right-lateral movement of the ASRR shear zone. This right lateral movement continuously deformed

  5. The role of the 2H4 molecule in the generation of suppressor function in Con A-activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, C; Letvin, N L; Rudd, C E; Hagan, M; Takeuchi, T; Schlossman, S F

    1986-11-15

    The molecular basis for the suppression generated in a concanavalin A (Con A)-activated T cell culture remains unknown. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether the 2H4 and 4B4 molecules on Con A-activated T cells play some role in the generation of suppression by such cells. We have shown that Con A-activated suppressor cells belong to the 2H4+ subset of T cells but not the 4B4+ (2H4-) subset. Con A-activated T cells exerted their optimal suppressor function on day 2 in culture, a time at which the expression of 2H4 on such cells was maximal and 4B4 was minimal. Furthermore, the stimulation of T cells with the higher concentration of Con A generated the stronger suppressor function. At the same time, both 2H4 expression and density were increased and 4B4 expression and density were decreased on such Con A-activated T cells. More importantly, the treatment of Con A-activated T cells with anti-2H4 antibody but not with anti-4B4, anti-TQ1, or anti-T4 antibodies can block the suppressor function of such cells. Taken together, the above results strongly suggest that the 2H4 molecule itself may be involved in the generation of suppressor function in Con A-activated T cells. The 2H4 antigen on such cells was shown to be comprised of 220,000 and 200,000 m.w. glycoproteins. Thus this study indicates that the 220,000 and 200,000 m.w. structure of the 2H4 molecule may itself play a crucial role in the generation of suppressor signals of Con A-activated cells.

  6. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el

  7. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  8. Nanoparticulas basadas en complejos de Fe(II) con transicion de espin: sintesis, caracterizacion y aplicaciones en electronica molecular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrabal Capilla, Maria

    Esta tesis doctoral esta organizada en 5 capitulos y esta destinada al estudio de sistemas de Fe (II) que presentan el fenomeno de la transicion de espin a escala nanometrica. El capitulo 1 contiene una introduccion general sobre materiales moleculares multifuncionales, destacando aquellos ejemplos mas importantes. Por otro lado, se explicara el fenomeno de la transicion de espin, tratando aspectos conceptuales, los antecedentes mas importantes y la situacion actual. En el capitulo 2 se describen los diferentes procesos existentes para la obtencion de diferentes tipos de nanoparticulas. Ademas, se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de nanoparticulas del polimero de coordinacion unidimensional [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4, obtenidas mediante el metodo de micelas inversas. Estas nanoparticulas, con una estrecha distribucion de tamanos centrada alrededor de los 11 nm, presentan una transicion de espin muy abrupta, con un ancho ciclo de histeresis termica de unos 40K. En el capitulo 3 se describe el proceso de modificacion del tamano de las nanoparticulas descritas en el capitulo anterior, llevado a cabo variando la proporcion de surfactante/H2O en el medio. Ademas, con el objetivo de modificar las propiedades magneticas de las nanoparticulas obtenidas en el capitulo 2, se lleva a cabo la sintesis de nanoparticulas de polimeros de la misma familia del [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)]BF4. En concreto se sintetizaron 3 nuevos tipos de nanoparticulas basadas en el polimero [Fe(Htrz)1-x(NH2trz)x](ClO4)2, siendo x = 0.05, 0.15 y 0.3, en cada caso. Estas nanoparticulas siguen presentando una estrecha distribucion de tamanos y una transicion de espin muy abrupta y con un ancho ciclo de histeresis. Ademas, se observa que este ciclo se desplaza a temperaturas mas proximas a la temperatura ambiente a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de 4-amino-1, 2, 4- triazol en la muestra. Pero al mismo tiempo se produce una disminucion de la anchura de este ciclo. Por ultimo, en este capitulo se presenta la

  9. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  10. Assessment of Response to Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder: A Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) Report

    PubMed Central

    Manchia, Mirko; Adli, Mazda; Akula, Nirmala; Ardau, Raffaella; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Backlund, Lena; Banzato, Claudio EM.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bellivier, Frank; Bengesser, Susanne; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Bui, Elise; Calkin, Cynthia V.; Cheng, Andrew Tai Ann; Chillotti, Caterina; Cichon, Sven; Clark, Scott; Czerski, Piotr M.; Dantas, Clarissa; Zompo, Maria Del; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Etain, Bruno; Falkai, Peter; Frisén, Louise; Frye, Mark A.; Fullerton, Jan; Gard, Sébastien; Garnham, Julie; Goes, Fernando S.; Grof, Paul; Gruber, Oliver; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Joanna; Heilbronner, Urs; Hoban, Rebecca; Hou, Liping; Jamain, Stéphane; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kassem, Layla; Kato, Tadafumi; Kelsoe, John R.; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Kliwicki, Sebastian; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kusumi, Ichiro; Laje, Gonzalo; Lavebratt, Catharina; Leboyer, Marion; Leckband, Susan G.; López Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Maj, Mario; Malafosse, Alain; Martinsson, Lina; Masui, Takuya; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mondimore, Frank; Monteleone, Palmiero; Nallet, Audrey; Neuner, Maria; Novák, Tomás; O’Donovan, Claire; Ösby, Urban; Ozaki, Norio; Perlis, Roy H.; Pfennig, Andrea; Potash, James B.; Reich-Erkelenz, Daniela; Reif, Andreas; Reininghaus, Eva; Richardson, Sara; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rybakowski, Janusz K.; Schalling, Martin; Schofield, Peter R.; Schubert, Oliver K.; Schweizer, Barbara; Seemüller, Florian; Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Severino, Giovanni; Seymour, Lisa R.; Slaney, Claire; Smoller, Jordan W.; Squassina, Alessio; Stamm, Thomas; Steele, Jo; Stopkova, Pavla; Tighe, Sarah K.; Tortorella, Alfonso; Turecki, Gustavo; Wray, Naomi R.; Wright, Adam; Zandi, Peter P.; Zilles, David; Bauer, Michael; Rietschel, Marcella; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the “Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder” scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (κ)] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment response scores available for 1,308 patients using mixture modeling. Results Substantial and moderate agreement was shown across sites in the first and second sets of vignettes (κ = 0.66 and κ = 0.54, respectively), without significant improvement from training. However, definition of response using the A score as a quantitative trait and selecting cases with B criteria of 4 or less showed an improvement between the two stages (ICC1 = 0.71 and ICC2 = 0.75, respectively). Mixture modeling of score distribution indicated three subpopulations (full responders, partial responders, non responders). Conclusions We identified two definitions of lithium response, one dichotomous and the other continuous, with moderate to substantial inter-rater agreement and reliability. Accurate phenotypic measurement of lithium response is crucial for the ongoing ConLiGen pharmacogenomic study. PMID:23840348

  11. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.

  12. Overlap corrections for emissivity calculations of H2O-CO2-CO-N2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of total gas emissivities of gas mixtures containing several radiatively active species require corrections for band overlapping. In this paper, we generate such overlap correction charts for H2O-CO2-N2, H2O-CO-N2, and CO2-CO-N2 mixtures. These charts are applicable in the 0.1-40 bar total pressure range and in the 500 K-2500 K temperature range. For H2O-CO2-N2 mixtures, differences between our charts and Hottel's graphs as well as models of Leckner and Modak are highlighted and analyzed.

  13. Cámara CCD Directa con el Telescopio de 2.15 m del CASLEO: algunos diagnósticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    Se efectuaron algunas pruebas con la cámara CCD (+ Reductor Focal) instalada en el foco Cassegrain del Telescopio de 2.15 m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). Las conclusiones más significativas son: Los tiempos de exposición efectivos difieren de los nominales en una fracción apreciable de segundo. En exposiciones de menos de 3 segundos, la iluminación no es pareja en todo el detector. En consecuencia, se recomiendan los pasos a seguir por los astrónomos tanto durante la observación como en la reducción de sus datos.

  14. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  15. CON4EI: Selection of the reference chemicals for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Kandarova, H; Drzewieckac, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. In the past, several prospective and retrospective validation studies have taken place in the area of serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Success in terms of complete replacement of the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test has not yet been achieved. A very important aspect to ensure development of successful alternative test methods and/or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing is the selection of appropriate reference chemicals. A set of 80 reference chemicals was selected for the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project, in collaboration with Cosmetics Europe, from the Draize Reference Database published by Cosmetics Europe based on key criteria that were set in their paper (e.g. balanced by important driver of classification and physical state). The most important goals of the CON4EI project were to identify the performance of eight in vitro alternative tests in terms of driver of classification and to identify similarities/differences between the methods in order the build a successful testing strategy that can discriminate between all UN GHS categories. This paper provides background on selection of the test chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reprint of "CON4EI: Selection of the reference chemicals for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals".

    PubMed

    Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Kandarova, H; Drzewieckac, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. In the past, several prospective and retrospective validation studies have taken place in the area of serious eye damage/eye irritation testing. Success in terms of complete replacement of the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test has not yet been achieved. A very important aspect to ensure development of successful alternative test methods and/or strategies for serious eye damage/eye irritation testing is the selection of appropriate reference chemicals. A set of 80 reference chemicals was selected for the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project, in collaboration with Cosmetics Europe, from the Draize Reference Database published by Cosmetics Europe based on key criteria that were set in their paper (e.g. balanced by important driver of classification and physical state). The most important goals of the CON4EI project were to identify the performance of eight in vitro alternative tests in terms of driver of classification and to identify similarities/differences between the methods in order the build a successful testing strategy that can discriminate between all UN GHS categories. This paper provides background on selection of the test chemicals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Magnetic Phase Transition in Ion-Irradiated Ultrathin CoN Films via Magneto-Optic Faraday Effect.

    PubMed

    Su, Chiung-Wu; Chang, Yen-Chu; Chang, Sheng-Chi

    2013-11-15

    The magnetic properties of 1 nm thick in-plane anisotropic Co ultrathin film on ZnO(0001) were investigated through successive 500 eV nitrogen-ion sputtering. Magneto-optical Faraday effects were used to observe the evolution of the ion-irradiated sample in longitudinal and perpendicular magnetic fields. The ferromagnetic phase of the initial in-plane anisotropic fcc β-Co phase transformation to β-Co(N) phase was terminated at paramagnetic CoN x phase. In-plane anisotropy with weak out-of-plane anisotropy of the Co/ZnO sample was initially observed in the as-grown condition. In the sputtering process, the N⁺ ions induced simultaneous sputtering and doping. An abrupt spin reorientation behavior from in-plane to out-of-plane was found under prolonged sputtering condition. The existence of perpendicular anisotropy measured from the out-of-plane Faraday effect may be attributed to the co-existence of residual β-Co and Co₄N exchange bonding force by the gradual depletion of Co-N thickness.

  18. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  19. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  20. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  1. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  2. Change in Brooklyn and Queens: How New York?s Reforming the Energy Vision Program and Con Edison Are Reshaping Electric Distribution Planning

    SciT

    Coddington, Michael; Sciano, Damian; Fuller, Jason

    In response to this tremendous growth in both population and electricity demand, Con Edison estimates that its cost to expand the “traditional” Brooklyn-Queens grid will be in the neighborhood of US$1.2 billion—a relatively high number, even for New York City and Con Edison. The complexity of the city’s underground electrical system along with the difficulties of construction in a highly congested urban environment with infrastructure both above and below ground mean that the costs for transmission, substations, and secondary networks are significantly higher than those of a typical electric utility. The New York State Public Service Commission (PSC) is inmore » the process revising its approach to acquiring and serving energy throughout the state of New York, and traditional expansion for this rather costly project was not likely to be approved. Instead, the PSC asked Con Edison to evaluate numerous alternatives. The PSC and Con Edison are now considering and adopting strategies that include renewable energy generation, demand response (DR), battery energy storage systems, fuel-cell distributed generation, combined heat and power, volt-volt ampere reactive (VAR) optimization (VVO), and a host of other innovative solutions that would both reduce electricity demand and transform how and when Con Edison’s consumers use electricity.« less

  3. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  4. Contaminación por mercurio de leche materna de madres lactantes de municipios de Antioquia con explotación minera de oro.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos Federico; Arango, Catalina María; Sepúlveda, Hernán

    2018-05-01

    Introducción. La leche materna es esencial para el desarrollo del ser humano, pero puede contener sustancias tóxicas provenientes de la contaminación ambiental, especialmente en las áreas mineras.Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de la contaminación con mercurio de la leche materna de mujeres lactantes residentes en los municipios con explotación minera de oro.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal de 150 madres lactantes de cuatro municipios mineros de Antioquia (El Bagre, Segovia, Remedios y Zaragoza), a quienes se les hizo una encuesta sobre factores sociodemográficos, ocupacionales y ambientales relacionados con el mercurio, y se les tomaron muestras de leche materna, de orina y de cabello. Se calculó el promedio de la concentración de mercurio y las prevalencias municipales de contaminación.Resultados. El promedio de la concentración de mercurio en la leche materna fue de 2,5 (± desviación estándar 9,2) μg/L. La prevalencia de muestras de leche materna con niveles altos de mercurio fue de 11,7 %.Conclusión. En este estudio se evidencia un grave problema en las regiones mineras auríferas de Antioquia por el efecto de la contaminación con mercurio en sectores de la población más vulnerable.

  5. Probabilidad de colisión de cometas periódicos con partículas interplanetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil Hutton, R.

    Se presentan resultados sobre la probabilidad de colisión de cometas de corto período con la población de partículas interplanetarias presentes en la región del cinturón de asteroides. Se encuentra que este proceso colisional afecta la evolución física de los cometas de manera no despreciable y puede ser el responsable de variaciones de brillo de tipo ``outburst". Se presentan resultados para algunos cometas en particular y se obtiene un límite inferior para el tamaño de los núcleos en función de la distribución de radios del cinturón de asteroides.

  6. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies.

    PubMed

    Lipi, Farhana; Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N

    2016-12-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries.

  7. In vitro evolution of chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers: Pros and cons, and comprehensive selection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxiang; Chakravarthy, Madhuri; Rakesh, Shilpa; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotide sequences that bind to a specific target molecule with high affinity and specificity through their ability to adopt 3-dimensional structure in solution. Aptamers have huge potential as targeted therapeutics, diagnostics, delivery agents and as biosensors. However, aptamers composed of natural nucleotide monomers are quickly degraded in vivo and show poor pharmacodynamic properties. To overcome this, chemically-modified nucleic acid aptamers are developed by incorporating modified nucleotides after or during the selection process by Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). This review will discuss the development of chemically-modified aptamers and provide the pros and cons, and new insights on in vitro aptamer selection strategies by using chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries. PMID:27715478

  8. Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures.

    PubMed

    Bílá, Kateřina; Beránková, Jana; Veselý, Petr; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.

  9. Genes del receptor variable beta de células T en células circulantes de pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado y sus familiares sanos.

    PubMed

    Jakez-Ocampo, Juan; Paulín-Vera, Carmen María; Rivadeneyra-Espinoza, Liliana; Gómez-Martín, Diana; Carrillo-Maravilla, Eduardo; Lima, Guadalupe; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Calva-Cevenini, Gabriella; García-Carrasco, Mario; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Llorente, Luis

    Se investigó la proporción de la expresión génica del receptor variable beta de células T (Vβ TCR) en linfocitos periféricos CD3+ en pacientes con lupus eritematoso generalizado (LEG) familiar y no familiar. El repertorio de Vβ TCR se estudió en 14 familias que presentaban más de un miembro con LEG. El uso de Vβ TCR en pacientes con LEG (n = 27) se comparó con el de los miembros sanos de estas familias (n = 47), con 37 pacientes con LEG esporádico y con 15 controles sanos. La expresión del repertorio de Vβ TCR se estudió por citometría de flujo multiparamétrica utilizando un arreglo de 24 diferentes anticuerpos monoclonales específicos de genes familiares para Vβ TCR. Se encontró el mismo perfil de expresión en las comparaciones entre los casos de LEG esporádico y familiar, así como en los consanguíneos sanos de las familias multicasos, que incluía una expresión incrementada de Vβ 5.2, Vβ 11 y Vβ 16, y una menor expresión de Vβ 3, Vβ4, Vβ 7.1 y Vβ 7. De manera interesante, solo Vβ 17 se expresó de modo diferente entre casos familiares y esporádicos de LEG. Igualmente, la expresión incrementada de Vβ 9 fue el distintivo entre los casos de LEG familiar (casos y consanguíneos sanos) y los controles sanos. Estos resultados refuerzan la noción de que el perfil final del repertorio Vβ TCR observado en LEG familiar y no familiar parece surgir de la interacción de factores genéticos, ambientales e inmunorreguladores, además de que pueden explicar las alteraciones inmunitarias que se observan en los consanguíneos sanos de pacientes con LEG. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud

  10. Estudio de la influencia de la refrigeracion con aire de forma natural e inducida en el comportamiento de instalaciones fotovoltaicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon Hernandez, Rocio

    panels are analysed to compare and select the best configuration. The presented research provides a deep knowledge of how they work as well as information and results for an improvement in future designs of building integrated photovoltaic systems. Este estudio se centra en analizar la influencia negativa de la temperatura en la produccion electrica de paneles fotovoltaicos al estar emplazados sobre cubierta de acero, como sucede en naves industriales y sobre un invernadero. Se estudian diferentes configuraciones que permitan refrigerar los paneles, reduciendo su temperatura y mejorar su rendimiento. Para abordar este problema, se han construido dos instalaciones experimentales, fieles a plantas solares en funcionamiento. Una instalacion engloba dos paneles fotovoltaicos sobre estructura fija al suelo. Uno de los paneles esta integrado sobre una superficie paralela y metalica. Entre ambas superficies existe un espacio que posibilita circular aire, permitiendo refrigerar el panel por conveccion natural, o conveccion forzada impulsando el aire con un ventilador. El otro panel, libre por su cara posterior y se ha considerado de referencia. Se ha estudiado el comportamiento del panel integrado sobre cubierta para diferentes secciones de aire y velocidades inducidas, comparandolo con el panel de referencia. Se ha desarrollado un modelo experimental que nos permite determinar la temperatura del panel en funcion de las variables que influyen en su refrigeracion. Adicionalmente, se han analizado los datos de una planta solar en funcionamiento, con paneles de igual caracteristicas, obteniendo correlaciones entre la temperatura del panel y las variables electricas y comparandolos con las obtenidas en la instalacion experimental. La segunda instalacion experimental reproduce parte de una instalacion solar sobre un invernadero, formada por cuatro paneles fotovoltaicos colocados sobre el plastico del invernadero, existiendo un canal divergente entre ambas superficies. Se estudia la

  11. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  12. "Plantas con madre": plants that teach and guide in the shamanic initiation process in the East-Central Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, X; Clavo, Z M; Jovel, E M; Pardo-de-Santayana, M

    2011-04-12

    We present and discuss a particular group of plants used by a diversity of healers in the initiation process and apprenticeship of traditional medicine, as practiced by Amazonian societies in East-Central Peru. Often, these plants are locally called plantas con madre (plants with a mother), and are thought to guide initiates in the process of seeking sacred knowledge, learning about plant usage, and understanding traditional medicine practices. We illustrate the diversity of plants used in the apprenticeship and practice of traditional medicine, and nurture the discussion to better understand the terminology used by Indigenous healers to describe plant uses and their practices. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2008 with the participation of 29 curanderos (healers; 23 men, 6 women), 3 apprentices and 4 herbalists. The participants belonged to four ethnic groups: 17 Mestizos, 15 Shipibo-Konibo, 1 Ashaninka, and 1 Matsiguenga; a Spanish apprentice and an Italian herbalist were also included in the study. The field data were collected using semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and the witnessing of numerous healing sessions. Oral informed consent was obtained from each participant. We identified 55 plant species belonging to 26 botanical families, which are used in initiation processes and apprenticeships of traditional medicine. This group of plants is administered under strict conditions during training and healing sessions called dietas (shamanic diets), with the supervision of one or more maestros curanderos (master healers). We observed that during the shamanic diets, maestros curanderos administered plants depending on the teachings or tools he/she was passing on, and were based on a particular sequence during the initiation process: (I) purification and cleansing species; (II) sensitivity and intuition; (III) strengthening; and (IV) protection and defence. Traditional healers continue to be a primary source of health care for the majority

  13. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.

    PubMed

    Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Information technology as a tool for the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) in the management of social security and civil disability: Pro and cons.

    PubMed

    Sammicheli, Michele; Scaglione, Marcella

    2018-01-01

    We examine, from a medical-legal perspective, the pro and cons of the information technology procedures that the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) has implemented to manage the provision of social disability assistance, meaning that separate from the payment of pension contributions, being welfare, anchored to an administrative requirement by way of the compulsory payment of a minimum social security contribution.

  15. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package.

    PubMed

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Plumley, Joshua A; Martin, Roger I; Merz, Kenneth M; Westerhoff, Lance M

    2014-05-01

    Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM) program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein-ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.

  16. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant. PMID:24031279

  17. Fragilidad y su asociación con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y dependencia funcional en mexicanos de 60 años o más

    PubMed Central

    de León González, Enrique Díaz; Pérez, Héctor Eloy Tamez; Hermosillo, Hugo Gutiérrez; Rodríguez, Javier Armando Cedillo; Torres, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo Determinar la asociación entre fragilidad y mortalidad, dependencia funcional, caídas y hospitalizaciones en el Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM). Sujetos y métodos Estudio prospectivo poblacional en México en el que se seleccionaron sujetos de 60 años o más, que fueron evaluados en las variables de fragilidad durante la primera vuelta del estudio en el año 2001 y que incluyó: dificultad para levantarse de una silla después de haber estado sentado(a) durante largo tiempo, pérdida de peso de 5 kilogramos o más en los últimos dos años y falta de energía. Los sujetos fueron catalogados como robustos, prefrágiles y frágiles cuando tenían cero, una o dos de las características anteriores, respectivamente. La mortalidad, hospitalizaciones, caídas y dependencia funcional fueron evaluadas en la segunda vuelta del estudio en el año 2003. Se calculó el riesgo relativo para cada una de las complicaciones, así como análisis multivariado con regresión de Cox para el caso de mortalidad y regresión logística para el resto. Resultados Los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad se asociaron independientemente con mortalidad, con índices de riesgo ajustados de 1,61 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC 95%] 1,01-2,55) y 1,94 (IC 95% 1,20-3,13), respectivamente. Sólo el estado de fragilidad se asoció independientemente con hospitalización y dependencia funcional, con una razón de momios ajustada de 1,53 (IC 95% 1,13-2,07) y 3,07 (IC 95% 1,76-5,34), respectivamente. No hubo asociación entre los estados de prefragilidad y fragilidad con caídas. Conclusión El estado de fragilidad se asocia independientemente con mortalidad, hospitalizaciones y disfuncionalidad en actividades básicas de la vida diaria en los siguientes dos años en población mexicana. PMID:21612803

  18. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  19. Papiloma invertido sinunasal con invasión intracraneal: Reporte de caso y revisión bibliográfica

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietrantonio, Andrés; Asmus, Humberto; Ingratta, Christian; Brennan, Walter; Schulz, Javier; Carballo, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Resumen IntroducciÓn: El papiloma invertido es una neoplasia benigna de los senos paranasales localmente agresiva con alto potencial de recurrencia y de malignización. La extensión intracraneal es infrecuente y más aún, la penetración dural, asociándose a menudo a la recurrencia de la enfermedad o a su degeneración en carcinoma de células escamosas. Caso clínico: Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 32 años que consultó por lesión exofítica en fosa nasal derecha y exoftalmos, asociada a cefalea, anosmia y disgeusia. Se estudió con TC cerebro, macizo facial y RM de encéfalo que evidencian lesión en fosa nasal derecha con ocupación de senos aéreos, osteólisis de pared medial orbitaria y base de cráneo anterior e invasión intracraneal frontal derecha, con efecto de masa y compresión del parénquima encefálico adyacente. Intervención: Se realizó una nasofibroscopía en primer tiempo con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de papiloma invertido y posteriormente resección de la lesión mediante doble abordaje más reconstrucción de la fosa craneal anterior. Se obtuvo diagnóstico definitivo de papiloma invertido de tipo Schneideriano con áreas de transformación atípica in situ. La paciente evolucionó de forma favorable y sin complicaciones, con permeabilidad de vía aérea superior, sin signos de recidiva lesional luego de 4 años de seguimiento. Conclusión: La invasión intracraneal de esta patología es sumamente infrecuente. Cuando existe, es indicador de agresividad y potencial recidiva, por lo que la exéresis completa de la misma define el pronóstico de la enfermedad. PMID:29430328

  20. Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaCon, for prevention and treatment of adrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Wagner, Robert A; Finkler, Mark

    2013-09-23

    Adrenocortical disease (ACD) is a common problem in surgically sterilized, middle-aged to old ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). The adrenal tissues of these ferrets develop hyperplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas, which produce steroid hormones including estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Major clinical signs attributable to overproduction of these hormones are alopecia (hair loss) in both sexes and a swollen vulva in females. Pruritus, muscle atrophy, hind limb weakness, and sexual activity or aggression are also observed in both sexes. Males can develop prostatic cysts, prostatitis, and urethral obstruction. ACD is thought to be linked to continuous and increased LH secretion, due to lack of gonadal hormone feedback in neutered ferrets. This continuous elevated LH acts on adrenal cortex LH receptors, resulting in adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumor. This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease, could prevent or delay onset of ACD and treat alopecia in ferrets with existing ACD. Results showed that GonaCon provided relief from ACD by causing production of antibodies to GnRH, probably suppressing production and/or release of LH. Treatment caused many ACD symptoms to disappear, allowing the ferrets to return to a normal life. The study also found that the probability of developing ACD was significantly reduced in ferrets treated with GonaCon when young (1-3 years old) compared to untreated control animals. GonaCon caused injection site reaction in some animals when administered as an intramuscular injection but caused few side effects when administered subcutaneously. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccination resulted in similar levels of GnRH antibody titers. Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets. Published

  1. Accurate macromolecular crystallographic refinement: incorporation of the linear scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics program DivCon into the PHENIX refinement package

    SciT

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Plumley, Joshua A.; Martin, Roger I.

    2014-05-01

    Semiempirical quantum-chemical X-ray macromolecular refinement using the program DivCon integrated with PHENIX is described. Macromolecular crystallographic refinement relies on sometimes dubious stereochemical restraints and rudimentary energy functionals to ensure the correct geometry of the model of the macromolecule and any covalently bound ligand(s). The ligand stereochemical restraint file (CIF) requires a priori understanding of the ligand geometry within the active site, and creation of the CIF is often an error-prone process owing to the great variety of potential ligand chemistry and structure. Stereochemical restraints have been replaced with more robust functionals through the integration of the linear-scaling, semiempirical quantum-mechanics (SE-QM)more » program DivCon with the PHENIX X-ray refinement engine. The PHENIX/DivCon package has been thoroughly validated on a population of 50 protein–ligand Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures with a range of resolutions and chemistry. The PDB structures used for the validation were originally refined utilizing various refinement packages and were published within the past five years. PHENIX/DivCon does not utilize CIF(s), link restraints and other parameters for refinement and hence it does not make as many a priori assumptions about the model. Across the entire population, the method results in reasonable ligand geometries and low ligand strains, even when the original refinement exhibited difficulties, indicating that PHENIX/DivCon is applicable to both single-structure and high-throughput crystallography.« less

  2. Document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports based on an extension of the ConText algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brian E; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes' classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes' classifier using bigrams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Document-Level Classification of CT Pulmonary Angiography Reports based on an Extension of the ConText Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Brian E.; Lee, Sean; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Chapman, Wendy W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application called peFinder for document-level classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports. peFinder is based on a generalized version of the ConText algorithm, a simple text processing algorithm for identifying features in clinical report documents. peFinder was used to answer questions about the disease state (pulmonary emboli present or absent), the certainty state of the diagnosis (uncertainty present or absent), the temporal state of an identified pulmonary embolus (acute or chronic), and the technical quality state of the exam (diagnostic or not diagnostic). Gold standard answers for each question were determined from the consensus classifications of three human annotators. peFinder results were compared to naive Bayes’ classifiers using unigrams and bigrams. The sensitivities (and positive predictive values) for peFinder were 0.98(0.83), 0.86(0.96), 0.94(0.93), and 0.60(0.90) for disease state, quality state, certainty state, and temporal state respectively, compared to 0.68(0.77), 0.67(0.87), 0.62(0.82), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes’ classifier using unigrams, and 0.75(0.79), 0.52(0.69), 0.59(0.84), and 0.04(0.25) for the naive Bayes’ classifier using bigrams. PMID:21459155

  4. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  5. Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 Concept of Operations (ATD-1 ConOps), Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Johnson, William C.; Swenson, Harry N.; Robinson, John E.; Prevot, Tom; Callantine, Todd J.; Scardina, John; Greene, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This document is an update to the operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) integrates three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to the Final Approach Fix. These arrival streams are Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and their implantation into an operational environment. The ATD-1 goals include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  6. Expected and Unexpected Consequences of the Affordable Care Act: The Impact on Patients and Surgeons-Pro and Con Arguments.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Marek; Armstrong, John H; Clark, Clancy; Marcus, Stuart G; Sacks, Lee; Moser, A James; Reid-Lombardo, K Marie

    2016-02-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or "ObamaCare" for short, was enacted in 2010. The Public Policy and Advocacy Committee of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT) hosted a debate with an expert panel to discuss the ACA and its impact on surgical care after the first year of patient enrollment. The purpose of this debate was to focus on the impact of ACA on the public and surgeons. At the core of the ACA are insurance industry reforms and expanded coverage, with a goal of improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs of care. We have observed supportive and opposing views on ACA. Nonetheless, we will witness major shifts in health care delivery as well as restructuring of our relationship with payers, institutions, and patients. With the rapidly changing health care landscape, surgeons will become key members of health systems and will likely need to lead transition from solo-practice to integrated care systems. The full effects of the ACA remain unrealized, but its implementation has begun to change the map of the American health care system and will surely impact the practice of surgery. Herein, we provide a synopsis of the "pro" and "con" arguments for the expected and unexpected consequences of the ACA on society and surgeons.

  7. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Implementing a Randomized Controlled Trial through a Community-Academia Partnered Participatory Research: Arte con Salud Research-Informed Intervention.

    PubMed

    Noboa-Ortega, Patricia; Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Miranda-Díaz, Christine

    2017-06-01

    "Arte con Salud" is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention tailored for Puerto Rican women who have sex with men. The intervention curriculum was refined through a community-academic collaboration between Taller Salud, the UPRCayey Campus, and the UCC-School of Medicine, subsided in 2012-13 by PRCTRC. The collaboration has been crucial to validate the impact of using art as a tool to facilitate sexual negotiation skills and safer sexual practices among adult women have sex with men participating in HIV prevention education. This article describes the vision, valley, victory phases endured to establish a community-academia partnership based on the CPPR framework as an effective mean to implement a randomized controlled trial intervention (RCT). We also discuss the barriers, outcomes, and lessons learned from this partnership. Some of the identified solutions include: setting goals to secure funding, regular meetings, and the inclusion of undergraduate level students to assist in the implementation of the intervention. These solutions helped to build trust among the community and academic partners. As a result of this collaboration, a total of 86 participants were enrolled and 5 competitive research grants have been submitted. The community-academic collaboration was essential in order to build a solid research infrastructure that addresses the complexities of HIV prevention education among groups of Puerto Rican women.

  9. CON4EI: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Maglennon, Gareth; Hollanders, Karen; Boonen, Francis; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka; Gruszka, Katarzyna; Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; Guest, Robert; Schofield, Jane; Van Rompay, An R

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of ocular irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. None in vitro ocular irritation assays are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium assessed the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as established a tiered-testing strategy. One of the selected assays was Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP). In this project, the same corneas were used for measurement of opacity using the OP-KIT, the Laser Light-Based Opacitometer (LLBO) and for histopathological analysis. The results show that the accuracy of the BCOP OP-KIT in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 73.8% while the accuracy was 86.3% for No Cat chemicals. BCOP OP-KIT false negative results were often related to an in vivo classification driven by conjunctival effects only. For the BCOP LLBO, the accuracy in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 74.4% versus 88.8% for No Cat chemicals. The BCOP LLBO seems very promising for the identification of No Cat liquids but less so for the identification of solids. Histopathology as an additional endpoint to the BCOP test method does not reduce the false negative rate substantially for in vivo Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing the pros and cons of GMOs: socio-scientific argumentation in pre-service teacher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinici, Ayhan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the role of the discursive process in the act of scientific knowledge building. Specifically, it links scientific knowledge building to risk perception of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). To this end, this study designed and implemented a three-stage argumentation programme giving pre-service teachers (PSTs) the opportunity to consider, discuss and construct shared decisions about GMOs. The study involved 101 third-year PSTs from two different classes, randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The study utilised both quantitative and qualitative methods. During the quantitative phase, researchers administered a pre- and post-intervention scale to measure both groups' risk perception of GMOs. During the qualitative phase, data were collected from the experimental group alone through individual and group reports and an open-ended questionnaire. T-test results showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups' risk perception of GMOs. Qualitative analysis also revealed differences, for example, in PSTs' weighing of the pros and cons of scientific research demonstrating positive results of GMOs. In addition, PSTs' acceptance of GMOs increased. Consequently, this study suggests that developing familiarity with scientific enterprise may play an effective role in adopting a scientific perspective as well as a more balanced risk perception of GMOs.

  11. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  12. Circulating microRNA Biomarkers as Liquid Biopsy for Cancer Patients: Pros and Cons of Current Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shigeshi; Lam, Stella; Nagahara, Makoto; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have focused on circulating microRNAs (cmiRNA) in cancer patients’ blood for their potential as minimally-invasive biomarkers. Studies have reported the utility of assessing specific miRNAs in blood as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers; however, the methodologies are not validated or standardized across laboratories. Unfortunately, there is often minimum limited overlap in techniques between results reported even in similar type studies on the same cancer. This hampers interpretation and reliability of cmiRNA as potential cancer biomarkers. Blood collection and processing, cmiRNA extractions, quality and quantity control of assays, defined patient population assessment, reproducibility, and reference standards all affect the cmiRNA assay results. To date, there is no reported definitive method to assess cmiRNAs. Therefore, appropriate and reliable methodologies are highly necessary in order for cmiRNAs to be used in regulated clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this review, we summarize the developments made over the past decade towards cmiRNA detection and discuss the pros and cons of the assays. PMID:26512704

  13. Could simvastatin be considered as a potential therapy for chronic lung diseases? A debate on the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Tulbah, Alaa S; Ong, Hui Xin; Colombo, Paolo; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Simvastatin (SV) is a drug from the statin class, currently used orally as an anti-cholesterolemic drug. It inhibits the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase to reduce cholesterol synthesis. Recently, it has been found that SV also has several other protective pharmacological actions unrelated to its anti-cholesterol effects that might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. This review summarizes the evidence relating to SV as a potential anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and muco-inhibitory agent, administered both orally and via pulmonary inhalation, and discusses its pro and cons. Evidence could potentially be used to support the delivery of SV as inhaled formulation for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases. The use of SV as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and muco-inhibitory agent for drug delivery to the lung is promising. Inhaled SV formulations could allow the delivery profile to be customized and optimized to take advantage of the rapid onset of action, low systemic side effect and improved physico-chemical stability. This treatment could potentially to be used clinically for the localized treatment of lung diseases where inflammation and oxidative stress production is present.

  14. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flexiplace: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Frank W.

    1983-01-01

    Workers and employers must carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of new "work at home" (flexiplace) arrangements. Discussed are: advantages of flexiplace for workers, such as no commuting; advantages for employers, such as increased productivity; and arguments against, such as supervisory problems. (NW)

  17. Fotodensitometro realizzato con microscopio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, G.

    1989-02-01

    This work describes the chracteristics and use of a microphotometer suitable for the measure of photographic density of photos of stars. The optics is a normal microscope which projects the small photographic image of a star on the plate of a photodiode. This high sensitivity instrument is easy to build up.

  18. Preconstruction Review and Cons

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Statins: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Pinal-Fernandez, Iago; Casal-Dominguez, Maria; Mammen, Andrew L

    2018-05-23

    Statins inhibit the critical step of cholesterol synthesis in which 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMGC) is transformed to mevalonate by the enzyme HMGC reductase. By doing so, they have a potent lipid-lowering effect that reduces cardiovascular risk and decreases mortality. Since the mevalonate pathway also influences endothelial function, the inflammatory response, and coagulation, the effects of statins reach well beyond their cholesterol lowering properties. As with all drugs, statins may have adverse effects; these include musculoskeletal symptoms, increased risk of diabetes, and higher rates of hemorrhagic stroke. However, the frequency of adverse effects is extremely low and, in selected patient populations, the benefits of statins considerably outweigh the potential risks. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Aprendiendo con Veronica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald-O'Brien, Pat

    1996-01-01

    Describes how an elementary school literacy specialist worked with and saw the dilemmas, frustrations, and heartaches of a new student from Puerto Rico. Notes that the literacy specialist learned valuable lessons and gained an appreciation for the need to honor and celebrate, engage and instruct all students from all over the globe. (SR)

  1. Conózcanos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Principal de la EPA: información sobre el Administrador o la Administradora, los altos directivos; ubicaciones y direcciones de las oficinas; presupuesto, la planificación y los resultados de rendimiento

  2. Neo-Conned University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Andee

    2014-01-01

    Censorship, says Australian political theorist John Keane (1991), can "echo within us, take up residence within ourselves, spying on us, a private amanuensis who reminds us never to go too far... It makes us zip our lips, tremble and think twice" (p. 39). It can also make us sick. The author states that this is her argument here: that,…

  3. Impacto metabólico e inflamatorio de una comida rica en grasas saturadas y su relación con la obesidad abdominal.

    PubMed

    Alayón, Alicia Norma; Rivadeneira, Ana Patricia; Herrera, Carlos; Guzmán, Heidy; Arellano, Dioneris; Echeverri, Isabella

    2018-05-01

    Introducción. La etapa posprandial se asocia con el incremento de marcadores relacionados con el riesgo cardiovascular, cuya intensidad depende del estado metabólico.Objetivo. Determinar el impacto de la ingestión de una comida rica en grasas saturadas sobre el perfil metabólico e inflamatorio y su relación con la obesidad abdominal.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un ensayo clínico en 42 individuos (21 con obesidad abdominal). Se midieron, en sangre, la glucosa, la insulina, el perfil lipídico, la proteína C reactiva, los lipopolisacáridos y la interleucina 6, en ayunas y después de la ingestión.Resultados. Además de la obesidad, se registró la presencia de resistencia a la insulina y de niveles elevados de triacilglicéridos y proteína C reactiva en ayunas. Asimismo, se detectaron niveles posprandiales más elevados de glucosa, insulina y triacilglicéridos. La interleucina 6 disminuyó en el grupo de personas sin obesidad y los lipopolisacáridos aumentaron en ambos grupos.Conclusión. La ingestión de una comida rica en grasas saturadas produjo un mayor impacto en las variables glucémicas en el grupo con obesidad y, aunque afectó de forma similar los lípidos en ambos grupos, el incremento de triacilglicéridos fue mayor en presencia de una concentración basal elevada y promovió el aumento de lipopolisacáridos. El estado inflamatorio basal y posprandial afectó en mayor medida al grupo con obesidad. El momento posprandial reflejó el estado más frecuente de los individuos en un día normal y permitió evidenciar la capacidad de respuesta metabólica frente a la ingestión de alimentos, así como los estados tempranos de riesgo metabólico.

  4. The Protective Effect of Intrasplenic Transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 Gene-Modified Fetal Hepatocytes on ConA-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Background Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. Aim To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Methods Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Conclusions Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease. PMID:23516562

  5. The protective effect of intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 gene-modified fetal hepatocytes on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xueting; Qian, Yun; Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease.

  6. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  7. CON4EI: Short Time Exposure (STE) test method for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, E; Willoughby, J A; Meyer, B R; Blakeman, L C; Alépée, N; Fochtman, P; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although many in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, alone they are incapable of fully categorizing chemicals. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium was developed to assess the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and establish an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One assay selected was the Short Time Exposure (STE) assay. This assay measures the viability of SIRC rabbit corneal cells after 5min exposure to 5% and 0.05% solutions of test material, and is capable of categorizing of Category 1 and No Category chemicals. The accuracy of the STE test method to identify Cat 1 chemicals was 61.3% with 23.7% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity. If non-soluble chemicals and unqualified results were excluded, the performance to identify Cat 1 chemicals remained similar (accuracy 62.2% with 22.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The accuracy of the STE test method to identify No Cat chemicals was 72.5% with 66.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Excluding highly volatile chemicals, non-surfactant solids and non-qualified results resulted in an important improvement of the performance of the STE test method (accuracy 96.2% with 81.8% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Furthermore, it seems that solids are more difficult to test in the STE, 71.4% of the solids resulted in unqualified results (solubility issues and/or high variation between independent runs) whereas for liquids 13.2% of the results were not qualified, supporting the restriction of the test method regarding the testing of solids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S

    2014-08-16

    In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians' care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together

  9. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. Discussion PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. Summary In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians’ care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through

  10. La mortalidad en adolescentes con cáncer: características clinicoepidemiológicas de muerte y aspectos éticos emergentes.

    PubMed

    Cicero-Oneto, Carlo Egysto; Mata-Valderrama, Guadalupe; Valdez-Martínez, Edith

    Describir los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y éticos de la mortalidad de los adolescentes con cáncer en -México. Se revisaron 63 expedientes clínicos de adolescentes (de 14 a 18 años de edad) con cáncer, fallecidos entre 2011 y 2014, para obtener información clínica y epidemiológica de su muerte. Los sitios de estudio fueron tres hospitales de concentración en la Ciudad de México. De los 40 adolescentes con criterios de fase terminal, 16 (40%) continuaron recibiendo tratamiento con fines curativos. De los 51 cuyo lugar de muerte era conocido, 45 (88%) murieron en hospital. De los 41 que murieron dentro de los 30 días de su última hospitalización, las muertes fueron principalmente debidas a complicaciones (51%), a progresión de la enfermedad (41%) o bien fueron muertes en tratamiento paliativo (7%, 3/41). La práctica oncológica descansa en lo que es conocido como modelo biomédico. Los resultados del estudio sugieren y apoyan la urgente necesidad de implementar verdaderos servicios de cuidados paliativos, pero más importante que eso, está el ímpetu de poner la ética de la práctica clínica en acción, y de ese modo reforzar la buena práctica de la medicina. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud

  11. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 conR contains a LytR-CpsA-Psr domain, is developmentally regulated, and is essential for diazotrophic growth and heterocyst morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mella-Herrera, Rodrigo A; Neunuebel, M Ramona; Golden, James W

    2011-03-01

    The conR (all0187) gene of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120 is predicted to be part of a family of proteins that contain the LytR-CpsA-Psr domain associated with septum formation and cell wall maintenance. The conR gene was originally misannotated as a transcription regulator. Northern RNA blot analysis showed that conR expression was upregulated 8 h after nitrogen step-down. Fluorescence microscopy of a P(conR)-gfp reporter strain revealed increased GFP fluorescence in proheterocysts and heterocysts beginning 9 h after nitrogen step-down. Insertional inactivation of conR caused a septum-formation defect of vegetative cells grown in nitrate-containing medium. In nitrate-free medium, mutant filaments formed abnormally long heterocysts and were defective for diazotrophic growth. Septum formation between heterocysts and adjacent vegetative cells was abnormal, often with one or both poles of the heterocysts appearing partially open. In a conR mutant, expression of nifH was delayed after nitrogen step-down and nitrogenase activity was approximately 70 % of wild-type activity, indicating that heterocysts of the conR mutant strain are partially functional. We hypothesize that the diazotrophic growth defect is caused by an inability of the heterocysts to transport fixed nitrogen to the neighbouring vegetative cells.

  12. The pros and cons of ecological risk assessment based on data from different levels of biological organization

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; Salice, Christopher J.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) is the process used to evaluate the safety of manufactured chemicals to the environment. Here we review the pros and cons of ERA across levels of biological organization, including suborganismal (e.g. biomarkers), individual, population, community, ecosystem, and landscapes levels. Our review revealed that level of biological organization is often related negatively with ease at assessing cause-effect relationships, ease of high-throughput screening of large numbers of chemicals (it is especially easier for suborganismal endpoints), and uncertainty of the ERA because low levels of biological organization tend to have a large distance between their measurement (what is quantified) and assessment endpoints (what is to be protected). In contrast, level of biological organization is often related positively with sensitivity to important negative and positive feedbacks and context dependencies within biological systems, and ease at capturing recovery from adverse contaminant effects. Some endpoints did not show obvious trends across levels of biological organization, such as the use of vertebrate animals in chemical testing and ease at screening large numbers of species, and other factors lacked sufficient data across levels of biological organization, such as repeatability, variability, cost per study, and cost per species of effects assessment, the latter of which might be a more defensible way to compare costs of ERAs than cost per study. To compensate for weaknesses of ERA at any particular level of biological organization, we also review mathematical modeling approaches commonly used to extrapolate effects across levels of organization. Finally, we provide recommendations for next generation ERA, submitting that if there is an ideal level of biological organization to conduct ERA, it will only emerge if ERA is approached simultaneously from the bottom of biological organization up as well as from the top down, all while employing

  13. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  14. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    Cavallerizzo have been analysed within the frame of a PhD thesis by one of the authors. The present study focuses on the Cavallerizzo case study to discuss a methodological approach useful to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages, aiming at properly considering socio-economic effects in addition to technical issues.

  15. Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-based Operations (STBO): Results of Piloted Simulations and Implications for Concepts of Operation (ConOps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foyle, David C.; Hooey, Becky L.; Bakowski, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The results offour piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic intersection. Under a variety of concept of operations (ConOps) and flight deck information conditions, pilots' ability to taxi in compliance with the required time of arrival (RTA) at the designated airport location was measured. ConOps and flight deck information conditions explored included: Availability of taxi clearance speed and elapsed time information; Intermediate RTAs at intermediate time constraint points (e.g., intersection traffic flow points); STBO taxi clearances via ATC voice speed commands or datal ink; and, Availability of flight deck display algorithms to reduce STBO RTA error. Flight Deck Implications. Pilot RTA conformance for STBO clearances, in the form of ATC taxi clearances with associated speed requirements, was found to be relatively poor, unless the pilot is required to follow a precise speed and acceleration/deceleration profile. However, following such a precise speed profile results in inordinate head-down tracking of current ground speed, leading to potentially unsafe operations. Mitigating these results, and providing good taxi RTA performance without the associated safety issues, is a flight deck avionics or electronic flight bag (EFB) solution. Such a solution enables pilots to meet the taxi route RTA without moment-by-moment tracking of ground speed. An avionics or EFB "error-nulling" algorithm allows the pilot to view the STBO information when the pilot determines it is necessary and when workload alloys, thus enabling the pilot to spread his/her attention appropriately and strategically on aircraft separation airport navigation, and the many other flight deck tasks concurrently required

  16. The beliefs about pros and cons of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ansker, Fredrik G; Helgason, Asgeir R; Ahacic, Kozma

    2014-08-01

    Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and cons of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm's population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and cons of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: 'Drinking could get me addicted' and 'Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense' (pseudo-R2 < 0.1). Among moderate users, there was no uniform pattern in the relationships. Unexpectedly, hazardous users with an intent to change rated pro arguments as more important than those with no intent to change. Of the investigated pros and cons, only a few were independently related to intention to change drinking behaviour. These arguments provide interesting topics in consultations. Little support was found for any rational decision making behind the intention to reduce alcohol intake. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  17. Identification of nucleotides in the 5'UTR and amino acids substitutions that are essential for the infectivity of 5'UTR-NS5A recombinant of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (strain Con1).

    PubMed

    Li, Jinqian; Feng, Shengjun; Liu, Xi; Guo, Mingzhe; Chen, Mingxiao; Chen, Yiyi; Rong, Liang; Xia, Jinyu; Zhou, Yuanping; Zhong, Jin; Li, Yi-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Genotype 1b strain Con1 represents an important reference in the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we aimed to develop an advanced infectious Con1 recombinant. We found that previously identified mutations A1226G/F1464L/A1672S/Q1773H permitted culture adaption of Con1 Core-NS5A (C-5A) recombinant containing 5'UTR and NS5B-3'UTR from JFH1 (genotype 2a), thus acquired additional mutations L725H/F886L/D2415G. C-5A containing all seven mutations (C-5A_7m) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 and Huh7.5.1 cells and had an increased infectivity in SEC14L2-expressing Huh7.5.1 cells. Incorporation of Con1 NS5B was deleterious to C-5A_7m, however Con1 5'UTR was permissive but attenuated the virus. Nucleotides G1, A4, and G35 primarily accounted for the viral attenuation without affecting RNA translation. C-5A_7m was inhibited dose-dependently by simeprevir and daclatasvir, and substitutions at A4, A29, A34, and G35 conferred resistance to miR-122 antagonism. The novel Con1 5'UTR-NS5A recombinant, adaptive mutations, and critical nucleotides described here will facilitate future studies of HCV culture systems and virus-host interaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Pros And Cons Of Various Optical Media For The Soldier's Interfacility Radiographic Record (SIRR) In The Combat Casualty Care System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlin, Barbara D.; Johnson, William P.

    1989-05-01

    Ongoing research and evaluation projects sponsored by the Army Medical Research and Development Command are leading towards filmless radiography in the combat casualty care system of the 1990s. With the elimination of film, the question arises as to the most appropriate medium for archiving and transporting x-ray images and related patient data with the wounded between facilities. This paper considers the pros and cons of the various candidate media in relation to their specifications, availability, and appropriateness under simulated combat casualty care conditions.

  19. Engaging Community With Promotores de Salud to Support Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding Among Latinas Residing in Los Angeles County: Salud con Hyland's.

    PubMed

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena T; Espinoza, Lilia; Galvez, Gino; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    The Salud con Hyland's Project: Comienzo Saludable, Familia Sana [Health With Hyland's Project: Healthy Start, Healthy Family],was developed to provide education and support to Latina mothers regarding healthy infant feeding practices and maternal health. The promotora-delivered intervention was comprised of two charlas (educational sessions) and a supplemental, culturally and linguistically relevant infant feeding and care rolling calendar. Results indicate that the intervention increased intention to breastfeed exclusively, as well as to delay infant initiation of solids by 5 to 6 months. Qualitative feedback identified barriers to maternal and child health education as well as highlighted several benefits of the intervention.

  20. Development of a heptaplex PCR assay for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS with simultaneous detection of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Okolie, Charles Emeka; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P J; Cockayne, Alan; James, Richard

    2015-08-05

    Staphylococcal toxicity and antibiotic resistance (STAAR) have been menacing public health. Although vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is currently not as widespread as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), genome evolution of MRSA into VRSA, including strains engineered within the same patient under anti-staphylococcal therapy, may build up to future public health concern. To further complicate diagnosis, infection control and anti-microbial chemotherapy, non-sterile sites such as the nares and the skin could contain both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), either of which could harbour mecA the gene driving staphylococcal methicillin-resistance and required for MRSA-VRSA evolution. A new heptaplex PCR assay has been developed which simultaneously detects seven markers for: i) eubacteria (16S rRNA), ii) Staphylococcus genus (tuf), iii) Staphylococcus aureus (spa), iv) CoNS (cns), v) Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), vi) methicillin resistance (mecA), and vii) vancomycin resistance (vanA). Following successful validation using 255 reference bacterial strains, applicability to analyse clinical samples was evaluated by direct amplification in spiked blood cultures (n = 89) which returned 100 % specificity, negative and positive predictive values. The new assay has LoD of 1.0x10(3) CFU/mL for the 16S rRNA marker and 1.0x10(4) CFU/mL for six other markers and completes cycling in less than one hour. The speed, sensitivity (100 %), NPV (100 %) and PPV (100 %) suggest the new heptaplex PCR assay could be easily integrated into a routine diagnostic microbiology workflow. Detection of the cns marker allows for unique identification of CoNS in mono-microbial and in poly-microbial samples containing mixtures of CoNS and S. aureus without recourse to the conventional elimination approach which is ambiguous. In addition to the SA-CoNS differential diagnostic essence of the new assay, inclusion of vanA primers will allow

  1. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  3. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  4. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program

    PubMed Central

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. Methods: A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Results: Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs’ over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Conclusion: Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs. PMID:25279381

  5. Potential pros and cons of external healthcare performance evaluation systems: real-life perspectives on Iranian hospital evaluation and accreditation program.

    PubMed

    Jaafaripooyan, Ebrahim

    2014-09-01

    Performance evaluation is essential to quality improvement in healthcare. The current study has identified the potential pros and cons of external healthcare evaluation programs, utilizing them subsequently to look into the merits of a similar case in a developing country. A mixed method study employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques was adopted to achieve the study end. Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and professionals were approached for two-stage process of data collection. Potential advantages included greater attractiveness of high accreditation rank healthcare organizations to their customers/purchasers and boosted morale of their personnel. Downsides, as such, comprised the programs' over-reliance on value judgment of surveyors, routinization and incurring undue cost on the organizations. In addition, the improved, standardized care processes as well as the judgmental nature of program survey were associated, as pros and cons, to the program investigated by the professionals. Besides rendering a tentative assessment of Iranian hospital evaluation program, the study provides those running external performance evaluations with a lens to scrutinize the virtues of their own evaluation systems through identifying the potential advantages and drawbacks of such programs. Moreover, the approach followed could be utilized for performance assessment of similar evaluation programs.

  6. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  7. Ontogeny of con A and PHA responses of chicken blood cells in MHC-compatible lines 6(3) and 7(2).

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, T L; Gilmour, D G

    1983-06-01

    The development of T cell responsiveness to Con A and PHA was examined in two MHC-compatible inbred chicken lines, RPRL 6(3) and 7(2), at ages 2 to 118 days posthatching. These lines are respectively resistant or susceptible to Marek's disease, a naturally occurring, virally induced T cell lymphoma. Between-line comparisons were made of optimal in vitro responses of diluted serum-free blood cells to each mitogen in two groups of chicks tested over ages 2 to 63 and 41 to 118 days. Over 2 to 63 days, Con A responses increased with age at the same rate in each line, but 7(2) responses averaged 2.3 times higher than 6(3). The increase with age was dependent on blood lymphocyte counts, which also increased with age in parallel in both lines. In contrast, the between-line difference in responsiveness was dependent on intrinsic reactivity of cells as well as lymphocyte counts. Covariance analysis was used to estimate that line 7(2) was 1.4 times higher than 6(3) in intrinsic cell reactivity, after accounting for the effect of the twofold higher blood lymphocyte counts in 7(2), and that this intrinsic difference contributed almost one-half the total difference. Over 41 to 118 days Con A responses no longer increased with age, although lymphocyte counts were still increasing, and the line difference (2.6 times) was now almost entirely contributed by a 2.3-fold superiority of 7(2) blood cells in intrinsic reactivity. The line difference in PHA responses was the reverse of the above in young chicks, with 6(3) responses greater than 7(2) in spite of lower lymphocyte counts. In additional chicks tested over 5 to 26 days, intrinsic reactivity of 6(3) cells to PHA averaged 4.5 times higher than 7(2). There was an abrupt decline in intrinsic reactivity of line 6(3) blood cells between 26 and 41 days to a level equal with 7(2). After this age, line 7(2) responses were 1.8 times greater than those of 6(3), and this difference was dependent solely on lymphocyte count differences. The

  8. Lesiones subcutáneas dolorosas en paciente con melanoma metastásico: un caso de paniculitis linfocítica asociado a vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Benavente-Villegas, Felipe; Ferrando-Roca, Francisco; Dolz-Gaitón, Raquel; Royo-Peiró, María

    2017-10-15

    Vemurafenib ha probado ser una herramienta útil en el tratamiento de melanoma metastásico con mutación BRAF-V600E. Los efectos adversos incluyen artralgias, fatiga y toxicidad cutánea, siendo infrecuente la paniculitis. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 43 años con melanoma metastásico que desarrolla lesiones subcutáneas dolorosas en miembros inferiores y superiores, asociadas a clínica sistémica después de 2 semanas de inicio de tratamiento con Vemurafenib + Cobimetinib. La histología demostró paniculitis linfocitaria septal y lobulillar. La paciente tuvo mala tolerancia al tratamiento anti diana a dosis plenas, requiriendo su ajuste, generando una corticodependencia para controlar sintomatología, y que finalmente obligó a la descontinuación de la terapia dirigida contra melanoma.  A la fecha, se han descrito 29 casos en la literatura de paniculitis asociada a vemurafenib, siendo la mayoría paniculitis neutrofílicas con adecuado control de sintomatología asociando antiinflamatorios no esteroidales y/o corticoides orales sin requerir en su mayoría modificación de la terapia contra melanoma; sin embargo hay que tener presente que pueden haber casos con mala evolución que obligan a la reducción de dosis de vemurafenib y descontinuar el tratamiento, como ha ocurrido en nuestro reporte.Vemurafenib has proven to be a useful tool in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF-V600E mutation. Adverse effects include arthralgia, fatigue, and skin toxicity; panniculitis is a rare complication. We present the case of a 43-year-old patient with metastatic melanoma who developed painful subcutaneous nodules of the lower and upper limbs and associated systemic clinical symptoms after 2 weeks of treatment with vemurafenib plus cobimetinib. Histology showed a septal and lobular lymphocytic panniculitis.The patient had poor tolerance of the full-dose treatment, requiring its adjustment. Systemic corticosteroids were required to control symptomatology

  9. The soil-water balance simulations of a grassland in response to CO2, rainfall, and biodiversity manipulations at BioCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinker, R. H.; Cardenas, M.; Caldwell, T. G.; Rich, R.; Reich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and N) experiment has been continuously running since 1997. Operated by the University of Minnesota and located within the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve in Minnesota, USA, BioCON is a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment that investigates plant community response to three key environmental variables: nitrogen, atmospheric CO2 and biodiversity. More recently rainfall exclusion and temperature manipulation were added to the experiment which amounts to 371 plots. The site attempts to replicate predicted average temperature increases and a northern shift of plant species and any associated consequences. FACE experiments have been conducted for a number of years in different countries, but the focus has generally been on how plant communities, soil respiration and microbes respond. Minimal work has been focused on the hydrologic aspects of these experiments which are potentially valuable for investigating global warming effects on local and plot-scale ecohydrology. Thus, the objective of this work is to characterize and model unsaturated flow for different CO2 and rainfall treatments in order to see how they affect soil moisture dynamics and groundwater recharge on grasslands of central Minnesota. Our study focuses on simulating soil moisture dynamics in eighteen of the BioCON plots: six bare plots with regular rainfall regimes (zero plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels), six regular rainfall regimes (nine plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels) and six reduced rainfall regimes (nine plant species, three plots with elevated atmospheric CO2 levels). The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model, which solves the Richards equation for unsaturated zone water flow coupled to a comprehensive energy balance model, was parameterized with a combination of field and lab estimates of soil properties. Field estimates of saturated hydraulic conductivity using tension infiltrometers ranged

  10. First observations of the bigfin squid Magnapinna sp. in the Colombian Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Cantera, Jaime; Puentes, Vladimir; Leon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Herein, first observations are reported of Magnapinna squids in the Colombian Southern Caribbean. Two specimens were observed by Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) during exploratory drilling surveys for hydrocarbons at 1,883 and 2,294 m depth. These are the first observations of specimens of Magnapinna in the Southern Caribbean. Resumen La primera observación del calamar Magnapinna sp. en el caribe sur colombiano. Dos especímenes de calamares de aleta grande fueron observados con submarino de operación remota (ROV) durante un proyecto de perforación exploratoria de hidrocaburos a profundidades de 1,883 y de 2,294 m, respectivamente. Estas son las primeras observaciones de especímenes de Magnapinna en el Caribe Sur. PMID:29765263

  11. First observations of the bigfin squid Magnapinna sp. in the Colombian Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Kommritz, Jurgen; Cantera, Jaime; Puentes, Vladimir; Leon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Herein, first observations are reported of Magnapinna squids in the Colombian Southern Caribbean. Two specimens were observed by Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) during exploratory drilling surveys for hydrocarbons at 1,883 and 2,294 m depth. These are the first observations of specimens of Magnapinna in the Southern Caribbean. Resumen La primera observación del calamar Magnapinna sp. en el caribe sur colombiano. Dos especímenes de calamares de aleta grande fueron observados con submarino de operación remota (ROV) durante un proyecto de perforación exploratoria de hidrocaburos a profundidades de 1,883 y de 2,294 m, respectivamente. Estas son las primeras observaciones de especímenes de Magnapinna en el Caribe Sur.

  12. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 16: Using research evidence in balancing the pros and cons of policies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address the use of evidence to inform judgements about the balance between the pros and cons of policy and programme options. We suggest five questions that can be considered when making these judgements. These are: 1. What are the options that are being compared? 2. What are the most important potential outcomes of the options being compared? 3. What is the best estimate of the impact of the options being compared for each important outcome? 4. How confident can policymakers and others be in the estimated impacts? 5. Is a formal economic model likely to facilitate decision making? PMID:20018106

  13. Experience in managing a large-scale rescreening of Papanicolaou smears and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency with visual and written examinations.

    PubMed

    Rube, I F

    1989-01-01

    Experiences in a large-scale interlaboratory rescreening of Papanicolaou smears are detailed, and the pros and cons of measuring proficiency in cytology are discussed. Despite the additional work of the rescreening project and some psychological and technical problems, it proved to be a useful measure of the laboratory's performance as a whole. One problem to be avoided in future similar studies is the creation of too many diagnostic categories. Individual testing and certification have been shown to be accurate predictors of proficiency. For cytology, such tests require a strong visual component to test interpretation and judgment skills, such as by the use of glass slides or photomicrographs. The potential of interactive videodisc technology for facilitating cytopathologic teaching and assessment is discussed.

  14. Ab initio study of the CO-N2 complex: a new highly accurate intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Hubert; Henriksen, Christian; Dawes, Richard; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Bora, Neha; Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker; Fernández, Berta

    2018-05-09

    A new, highly accurate ab initio ground-state intermolecular potential-energy surface (IPES) for the CO-N2 complex is presented. Thousands of interaction energies calculated with the CCSD(T) method and Dunning's aug-cc-pVQZ basis set extended with midbond functions were fitted to an analytical function. The global minimum of the potential is characterized by an almost T-shaped structure and has an energy of -118.2 cm-1. The symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm was used to compute rovibrational energies (up to J = 20) on the new IPES. The RMSE with respect to experiment was found to be on the order of 0.038 cm-1 which confirms the very high accuracy of the potential. This level of agreement is among the best reported in the literature for weakly bound systems and considerably improves on those of previously published potentials.

  15. Telescopio Solar en Hα (HASTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Francile, C.; Bagala, G.; Bauer, O.; Haerendel, G.; Rieger, E.; Rovira, M.

    El Telescopio Solar en Hα (Hα Solar Telescope for Argentina (-HASTA-) fue recientemente instalado en la Estación Astronómica de Altura Carlos Ulrrico Cesco (OAFA) en El Leoncito. Este instrumento estudiará la evolución de las fulguraciones solares desde tierra con alta resolución temporal y espacial. HASTA es un telescopio refractor de 110 mm con una distancia focal de 165 cm, un filtro Lyot sintonizable (±1Å) con un ancho de banda de 0.3 Å y una cámara CCD de alta resolución (1280×1024 pixels). Todo el conjunto es controlado en forma remota por una PC, la cual además adquiere datos del Sistema de Posicionamiento Global (GPS) y de la estación meteorológica. Diseñado para detectar fulguraciones, el instrumento trabaja en dos modos (patrullaje y fulguración) con una resolución espacial de 1.5 arcseg por pixel y una resolución temporal de 2 seg. HASTA comenzó a operar en Mayo de 1998 y, junto con otros tres instrumentos solares, que se están instalando o se instalaron, harán de El Leoncito un polo de observación solar importante en el Hemisferio Sur.

  16. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  17. Halving the Volume of AnaConDa: Evaluation of a New Small-Volume Anesthetic Reflector in a Test Lung Model.

    PubMed

    Bomberg, Hagen; Meiser, Franziska; Daume, Philipp; Bellgardt, Martin; Volk, Thomas; Sessler, Daniel I; Groesdonk, Heinrich V; Meiser, Andreas

    2018-05-21

    Volatile anesthetics are increasingly used for sedation in intensive care units. The most common administration system is AnaConDa-100 mL (ACD-100; Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden), which reflects volatile anesthetics in open ventilation circuits. AnaConDa-50 mL (ACD-50) is a new device with half the volumetric dead space. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be retained with both devices. We therefore compared the CO2 elimination and isoflurane reflection efficiency of both devices. A test lung constantly insufflated with CO2 was ventilated with a tidal volume of 500 mL at 10 breaths/min. End-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) partial pressure was measured using 3 different devices: a heat-and-moisture exchanger (HME, 35 mL), ACD-100, and ACD-50 under 4 different experimental conditions: ambient temperature pressure (ATP), body temperature pressure saturated (BTPS) conditions, BTPS with 0.4 Vol% isoflurane (ISO-0.4), and BTPS with 1.2 Vol% isoflurane. Fifty breaths were recorded at 3 time points (n = 150) for each device and each condition. To determine device dead space, we adjusted the tidal volume to maintain normocapnia (n = 3), for each device. Thereafter, we determined reflection efficiency by measuring isoflurane concentrations at infusion rates varying from 0.5 to 20 mL/h (n = 3), for each device. EtCO2 was consistently greater with ACD-100 than with ACD-50 and HME (ISO-0.4, mean ± standard deviations: ACD-100, 52.4 ± 0.8; ACD-50, 44.4 ± 0.8; HME, 40.1 ± 0.4 mm Hg; differences of means of EtCO2 [respective 95% confidence intervals]: ACD-100 - ACD-50, 8.0 [7.9-8.1] mm Hg, P < .001; ACD-100 - HME, 12.3 [12.2-12.4] mm Hg, P < .001; ACD-50 - HME, 4.3 [4.2-4.3] mm Hg, P < .001). It was greatest under ATP, less under BTPS, and least with ISO-0.4 and BTPS with 1.2 Vol% isoflurane. In addition to the 100 or 50 mL "volumetric dead space" of each AnaConDa, "reflective dead space" was 40 mL with ACD-100 and 25 mL with ACD-50 when using isoflurane. Isoflurane reflection was highest under ATP

  18. Linking innovative measurement technologies (ConMon and Dataflow© systems) for high-resolution temporal and spatial dissolved oxygen criteria assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C A; Perry, E; Bayard, A; Wainger, L; Boynton, W R

    2015-10-01

    One consequence of nutrient-induced eutrophication in shallow estuarine waters is the occurrence of hypoxia and anoxia that has serious impacts on biota, habitats, and biogeochemical cycles of important elements. Because of the important role of dissolved oxygen (DO) on these ecosystem features, a variety of DO criteria have been established as indicators of system condition. However, DO dynamics are complex and vary on time scales ranging from diel to decadal and spatial scales from meters to multiple kilometers. Because of these complexities, determining DO criteria attainment or failure remains difficult. We propose a method for linking two common measurement technologies for shallow water DO criteria assessment using a Chesapeake Bay tributary as a test case. Dataflow© is a spatially intensive (30-60-m collection intervals) system used to map surface water conditions at the whole estuary scale, and ConMon is a high-frequency (15-min collection intervals) fixed station approach. The former technology is effective with spatial descriptions but poor regarding temporal resolution, while the latter provides excellent temporal but very limited spatial resolution. Our methodology for combining the strengths of these measurement technologies involved a sequence of steps. First, a statistical model of surface water DO dynamics, based on temporally intense ConMon data, was developed. The results of this model were used to calculate daily DO minimum concentrations. Second, this model was then inserted into Dataflow©-generated spatial maps of DO conditions and used to adjust measured DO concentrations to daily minimum concentrations. This information was used to assess DO criteria compliance at the full tributary scale. Model results indicated that it is vital to consider the short-term time scale DO criteria across both space and time concurrently. Large fluctuations in DO occurred within a 24-h time period, and DO dynamics varied across the length and width of the

  19. El Administrador Regional de la EPA Pete López se reúne con el Gobernador de las Islas Vírgenes Estadounidenses, Kenneth Mapp, comprometiéndose a restablecer las comunidades de Puerto Rico y las USVI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comunicado de prensa de la EPA: El Administrador Regional de la EPA Pete López se reúne con el Gobernador de las Islas Vírgenes Estadounidenses, Kenneth Mapp, comprometiéndose a restablecer las comunidades de Puerto Rico y las USVI

  20. Application of the New Propulsion Theory to the Design of Propellers. Comparison with the Lifting Line Theory (Aplicacion de la Nueva Teoria de la Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-07

    obtained with the lifting line theory is very sensitive to the type of radial distribution law of circulation. In the past, especially for theoretical...I. Bacquerizo Briones, "Utilidad de la educacion de Poincare para el proyecto y analisis de propulsores con valores finitos de la circulacion en el

  1. Distribución espacial de órbitas con diferentes grados de caoticidad en modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Mosquera, M.

    En trabajos anteriores (Carpintero et al., Cel. Mech. Dynam. Astron. 85, 247, 2003), mostramos que las órbitas caóticas son muy importantes en los satélites galácticos. Sin embargo, los únicos modelos autoconsistentes de los que se disponía para ellos eran los de Heggie-Ramamani, cuya función de distribución depende sólo de la energía por lo que no mostraban diferencias entre las distribuciones de sus órbitas regulares y caóticas. Ahora, mediante una aproximación cuadrupolar, hemos logrado construir modelos autoconsistentes de satélites galácticos con distribuciones de velocidades anisotrópicas (lo que indica que sus funciones de distribución no dependen sólo de la energía) y hemos logrado revelar las diferencias entre las estructuras espaciales de las órbitas de distinta caoticidad.

  2. Antiviral usage for H1N1 treatment: pros, cons and an argument for broader prescribing guidelines in the United States.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Edward; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-10-29

    Current CDC guidelines for antiviral treatment of people with influenza like illness (ILI) effectively discourage treatment of people with no underlying medical conditions unless they exhibit severe symptoms, such as evidence of lower respiratory tract infection or clinical deterioration. This guidance is unlike that provided by some other countries, which allow for treatment of most moderately symptomatic individuals. We examine evidence for benefits of antiviral usage for influenza treatment, including its relation to severe outcomes for the current pandemic H1N1 strain. We also discuss some of the potential cons of antiviral usage. In the current situation in the US, with an elevated and evidently growing burden of influenza hospitalizations and mortality, a high percentage of individuals infected with influenza (with almost all of those carrying the H1N1pdm strain) among those who exhibit ILI and get tested for influenza virus, very low levels of antiviral resistance and little time left for antiviral resistance to take off before large quantities of vaccine become available, we think it is worthwhile to consider a revision to the current antiviral usage recommendations, such that physicians would be encouraged to consider prescribing antivirals to individuals with moderate to severe symptoms who present for treatment.Note: Very recently CDC has adopted clarifications for its antiviral usage guidelines: http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1flu/antivirals/facts_clinicians.htm.

  3. vConTACT: an iVirus tool to classify double-stranded DNA viruses that infect Archaea and Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Jang, Ho Bin; Doulcier, Guilhem; You, Zhi-Qiang; Roux, Simon; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of archaeal and bacterial viruses is challenging, yet also fundamental for developing a predictive understanding of microbial ecosystems. Recent identification of hundreds of thousands of new viral genomes and genome fragments, whose hosts remain unknown, requires a paradigm shift away from traditional classification approaches and towards the use of genomes for taxonomy. Here we revisited the use of genomes and their protein content as a means for developing a viral taxonomy for bacterial and archaeal viruses. A network-based analytic was evaluated and benchmarked against authority-accepted taxonomic assignments and found to be largely concordant. Exceptions were manually examined and found to represent areas of viral genome 'sequence space' that are under-sampled or prone to excessive genetic exchange. While both cases are poorly resolved by genome-based taxonomic approaches, the former will improve as viral sequence space is better sampled and the latter are uncommon. Finally, given the largely robust taxonomic capabilities of this approach, we sought to enable researchers to easily and systematically classify new viruses. Thus, we established a tool, vConTACT, as an app at iVirus, where it operates as a fast, highly scalable, user-friendly app within the free and powerful CyVerse cyberinfrastructure.

  4. vConTACT: an iVirus tool to classify double-stranded DNA viruses that infect Archaea and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Doulcier, Guilhem; You, Zhi-Qiang; Roux, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of archaeal and bacterial viruses is challenging, yet also fundamental for developing a predictive understanding of microbial ecosystems. Recent identification of hundreds of thousands of new viral genomes and genome fragments, whose hosts remain unknown, requires a paradigm shift away from traditional classification approaches and towards the use of genomes for taxonomy. Here we revisited the use of genomes and their protein content as a means for developing a viral taxonomy for bacterial and archaeal viruses. A network-based analytic was evaluated and benchmarked against authority-accepted taxonomic assignments and found to be largely concordant. Exceptions were manually examined and found to represent areas of viral genome ‘sequence space’ that are under-sampled or prone to excessive genetic exchange. While both cases are poorly resolved by genome-based taxonomic approaches, the former will improve as viral sequence space is better sampled and the latter are uncommon. Finally, given the largely robust taxonomic capabilities of this approach, we sought to enable researchers to easily and systematically classify new viruses. Thus, we established a tool, vConTACT, as an app at iVirus, where it operates as a fast, highly scalable, user-friendly app within the free and powerful CyVerse cyberinfrastructure. PMID:28480138

  5. CON4EI: Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) test method for hazard identification and labelling of serious eye damaging and eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, E; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Fochtman, P; Kandarova, H; Verstraelen, S; Van Rompay, A R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although many in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, alone they are incapable of fully categorizing chemicals. The objective of CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was to develop tiered testing strategies for eye irritation assessment that can lead to complete replacement of the in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD TG 405). A set of 80 reference chemicals was tested with seven test methods, one method was the Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) test method. The method measures the amount of mucus produced (MP) during a single 1-hour contact with a 1% and 10% dilution of the chemical. Based on the total MP, a classification (Cat 1, Cat 2, or No Cat) is predicted. The SMI test method correctly identified 65.8% of the Cat 1 chemicals with a specificity of 90.5% (low over-prediction rate for in vivo Cat 2 and No Cat chemicals). Mispredictions were predominantly unidirectional towards lower classifications with 26.7% of the liquids and 40% of the solids being underpredicted. In general, the performance was better for liquids than for solids with respectively 76.5% vs 57.1% (Cat 1), 61.5% vs 50% (Cat 2), and 87.5% vs 85.7% (No Cat) being identified correctly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CON4EI: EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular™ EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kandarova, H; Letasiova, S; Adriaens, E; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Alépée, Nathalie; Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The objective of the CON4EI project was to develop tiered testing strategies for eye irritation assessment. A set of 80 reference chemicals (38 liquids and 42 solids) was tested with eight different methods. Here, the results obtained with the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT), adopted as OECD TG 492, are shown. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate of the performance of the test method to discriminate between chemicals not requiring classification for serious eye damage/eye irritancy (No Category) and chemicals requiring classification and labelling. In addition, the predictive capacity in terms of in vivo drivers of classification (i.e. corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and persistence at day 21) was investigated. EpiOcular™ EIT achieved a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 87% and accuracy of 95% and also confirmed its excellent reproducibility (100%) from the original validation. The assay was applicable to all chemical categories tested in this project and its performance was not limited to the particular driver of the classification. In addition to the existing prediction model for dichotomous categorization, a new prediction model for Cat 1 is suggested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Is atherosclerosis imaging the most sensitive way to assess patients' risk and the best way to conduct future drug trials? A pros-and-cons debate.

    PubMed

    Nanchen, David; Raggi, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Atherosclerosis imaging has been the focus of intense debate and research for several decades. Among its primary applications are risk stratification of asymptomatic individuals and follow-up of atherosclerosis progression under a variety of treatments designed to retard or regress the development of arterial disease. Although endorsed and supported by many, this approach has been fiercely opposed by several key opinion leaders over the years. Similarly, regulatory agencies have raised a number of objections to resist the approval of new drugs and devices based on surrogate imaging markers. However, there is a large body of evidence in the medical literature that shows that risk stratification is improved with implementation of atherosclerosis imaging. Additionally, numerous lipid-modifying agents have been tested as far as their ability to affect progression of atherosclerosis, and in many cases the information obtained with imaging was in line with the outcome of subsequent clinical trials. This pros-and-cons debate was staged to bring up in a fun and provoking way the main arguments in favour or against the application of atherosclerosis imaging in the main settings described above. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Remisión de aneurisma luego de exéresis de MAV con aparición de síndrome del acento extranjero

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Fidel; Bustamante, Jorge; Rodríguez, Facundo; Argañaraz, Romina; Rubino, Pablo; Lambre, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Introducción: Los aneurismas asociados a malformaciones arteriovenosas (MAV) son lesiones vasculares que suelen encontrarse hasta en el 15% de los casos, incrementando el riesgo global de hemorragia. La conducta frente a los aneurismas asociados es dicotómica en la literatura, mientras existen reportes de la desaparición de los mismos luego de la exéresis de la MAV, otros artículos enfatizan su tratamiento precoz. El síndrome del acento extranjero es un raro trastorno neurológico en el que el paciente habla su lengua materna como lo haría una persona extranjera y suena con “acento” extranjero a oídos de los oyentes nativos. Objetivo: Presentar un paciente que desarrolla el síndrome del acento extranjero posterior a la exéresis de una MAV y la evolución de un aneurisma asociado. Presentación de caso: Paciente pediátrico que luego de la exéresis de una MAV fronto-opercular posterior izquierda remite por completo un aneurisma de hiperflujo asociado, presentando en el postquirúrgico el síndrome del acento extranjero. Conclusión: Queda reportado el caso de este raro síndrome y la resolución espontánea de un aneurisma proximal luego de la exéresis de una MAV. PMID:28480115

  9. Obtención de perfiles teóricos de elementos metálicos con velocidades macroscópicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Costa, A.; Rovira, M.

    El propósito de este trabajo es poder establecer -a partir de la modelización de perfiles de distintas especies- patrones de comparación observacional que permitan caracterizar los fenómenos físicos que están presentes en las estructuras que se observan. Para ello se resuelven las ecuaciones de equilibrio de ionización para un determinado átomo y una atmósfera de parámetros determinados. A partir de ello se definen las poblaciones para los distintos grados de ionización. Considerando distintas configuraciones e intensidades de flujos de masa se deducen la función fuente, el espesor óptico y se calculan los perfiles de las distintas líneas. Se obtuvieron perfiles teóricos de líneas del CII, CIV y del OIV para flujos entrante, saliente y pasante. La forma del perfil, las intensidades relativas entre los distintos flujos y el corrimiento Doppler da cuenta de una caracterización teórica a partir de la cual se comparará con observaciones.

  10. Reprint of "CON4EI: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals".

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Maglennon, Gareth; Hollanders, Karen; Boonen, Francis; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka; Gruszka, Katarzyna; Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; Guest, Robert; Schofield, Jane; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. None in vitro ocular irritation assays are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium assessed the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as established a tiered-testing strategy. One of the selected assays was Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP). In this project, the same corneas were used for measurement of opacity using the OP-KIT, the Laser Light-Based Opacitometer (LLBO) and for histopathological analysis. The results show that the accuracy of the BCOP OP-KIT in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 73.8% while the accuracy was 86.3% for No Cat chemicals. BCOP OP-KIT false negative results were often related to an in vivo classification driven by conjunctival effects only. For the BCOP LLBO, the accuracy in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 74.4% versus 88.8% for No Cat chemicals. The BCOP LLBO seems very promising for the identification of No Cat liquids but less so for the identification of solids. Histopathology as an additional endpoint to the BCOP test method does not reduce the false negative rate substantially for in vivo Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. vConTACT: an iVirus tool to classify double-stranded DNA viruses that infect Archaea and Bacteria

    SciT

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Jang, Ho Bin; Doulcier, Guilhem

    Taxonomic classification of archaeal and bacterial viruses is challenging, yet also fundamental for developing a predictive understanding of microbial ecosystems. Recent identification of hundreds of thousands of new viral genomes and genome fragments, whose hosts remain unknown, requires a paradigm shift away from traditional classification approaches and towards the use of genomes for taxonomy. Here we revisited the use of genomes and their protein content as a means for developing a viral taxonomy for bacterial and archaeal viruses. A network-based analytic was evaluated and benchmarked against authority-accepted taxonomic assignments and found to be largely concordant. Exceptions were manually examined andmore » found to represent areas of viral genome ‘sequence space’ that are under-sampled or prone to excessive genetic exchange. While both cases are poorly resolved by genome-based taxonomic approaches, the former will improve as viral sequence space is better sampled and the latter are uncommon. Finally, given the largely robust taxonomic capabilities of this approach, we sought to enable researchers to easily and systematically classify new viruses. Thus, we established a tool, vConTACT, as an app at iVirus, where it operates as a fast, highly scalable, user-friendly app within the free and powerful CyVerse cyberinfrastructure.« less

  12. Vivir Con Un Corazón Saludable: a Community-Based Educational Program Aimed at Increasing Cardiovascular Health Knowledge in High-Risk Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniela C; Sauris, Aileen; Rodriguez, Fátima; Delgado, Daniela; Reddy, Ankita; Foody, JoAnne M

    2016-03-01

    Hispanic women suffer from high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors and an increasingly disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly, Hispanic women with limited English proficiency suffer from low levels of CVD knowledge associated with adverse CVD health outcomes. Thirty-two predominantly Spanish-speaking Hispanic women completed, Vivir Con un Corazón Saludable (VCUCS), a culturally tailored Spanish language-based 6-week intensive community program targeting CVD health knowledge through weekly interactive health sessions. A 30-question CVD knowledge questionnaire was used to assess mean changes in CVD knowledge at baseline and postintervention across five major knowledge domains including CVD epidemiology, dietary knowledge, medical information, risk factors, and heart attack symptoms. Completion of the program was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in total mean CVD knowledge scores from 39 % (mean 11.7/30.0) to 66 % (mean 19.8/30.0) postintervention consistent with a 68 % increase in overall mean CVD scores. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in mean knowledge scores across all five CVD domains. A culturally tailored Spanish language-based health program is effective in increasing CVD awareness among high CVD risk Hispanic women with low English proficiency and low baseline CVD knowledge.

  13. Spin-orbit coupling effect on structural and magnetic properties of ConRh13-n (n = 0-13) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xi; Lv, Jin; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Jia, Jian-Feng; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2018-04-01

    The effect of spin-orbit interaction on the structures and magnetism of ConRh13-n (n = 0-13) clusters have been systematically investigated by using the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) implementation of the density functional theory (DFT). The results calculated without SOC (NSOC) show that Rh13 prefers the double simple-cubic configuration, and icosahedron is the favorable structure for n = 1-9, while n ≥ 10, clusters favor the hexagonal bilayer structure. The inclusion of SOC in calculation does not change the geometries of clusters. Compared with that in NSOC calculation, although the binding energy per atom in clusters with same composition decreases in SOC calculation, the relative stability of clusters with different compositions does not change. An interesting result is that the spin moments of clusters for n = 1-9 are almost constant (21 μB). Spin-orbit interaction recovers orbital moment and its anisotropy by removing crystal-field effect in calculation. The destruction of bonding symmetry and relaxation of bonding account for high anisotropies of orbital moments in Co11Rh2 and CoRh12 clusters. With atomic composition (Co/Rh) around 4/9-5/8 and 9/4, the Co-Rh clusters exhibit high magnetic anisotropy energies.

  14. Pros, cons, and current indications of open craniotomy versus gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization.

    PubMed

    Surdell, Daniel L; Bhattacharjee, Sumon; Loftus, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    The successful treatment of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation poses both technical and conceptual problems to the neurosurgeon. Treatment decisions are made in light of current understanding of the natural history of these lesions. It is important to understand the pros, cons and current indication of open craniotomy vs. gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization. Surgical removal of an arteriovenous malformation is indicated when the operative risk is less than the morbidity and mortality associated with its natural history. The treatment goal of complete angiographic obliteration of arteriovenous malformations is achieved most effectively by microneurosurgery in low-grade lesions. Large lesions frequently require a combination of embolization and microsurgery. Although recent advances in technology and medical management have allowed previously inoperable arteriovenous malformations to be surgically excised, there is still a small group of arteriovenous malformations that cannot be excised safely due to their size and location. Stereotactic radiosurgery is clearly an important adjunct in the multimodality treatment approach for large arteriovenous malformations. Endovascular embolization can potentially increase safety and efficacy in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations when applied to selective cases with well-defined treatment goals.

  15. vConTACT: an iVirus tool to classify double-stranded DNA viruses that infect Archaea and Bacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Bolduc, Benjamin; Jang, Ho Bin; Doulcier, Guilhem; ...

    2017-05-03

    Taxonomic classification of archaeal and bacterial viruses is challenging, yet also fundamental for developing a predictive understanding of microbial ecosystems. Recent identification of hundreds of thousands of new viral genomes and genome fragments, whose hosts remain unknown, requires a paradigm shift away from traditional classification approaches and towards the use of genomes for taxonomy. Here we revisited the use of genomes and their protein content as a means for developing a viral taxonomy for bacterial and archaeal viruses. A network-based analytic was evaluated and benchmarked against authority-accepted taxonomic assignments and found to be largely concordant. Exceptions were manually examined andmore » found to represent areas of viral genome ‘sequence space’ that are under-sampled or prone to excessive genetic exchange. While both cases are poorly resolved by genome-based taxonomic approaches, the former will improve as viral sequence space is better sampled and the latter are uncommon. Finally, given the largely robust taxonomic capabilities of this approach, we sought to enable researchers to easily and systematically classify new viruses. Thus, we established a tool, vConTACT, as an app at iVirus, where it operates as a fast, highly scalable, user-friendly app within the free and powerful CyVerse cyberinfrastructure.« less

  16. Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive

    Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-related effects of dexamethasone administration in adrenal zona reticularis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Henrique; Matos, Liliana; Ferreira, Jorge; Neves, Delminda

    2006-05-01

    Suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone results in reduced adrenal steroid output, adrenocortical cell atrophy, and apoptosis in young rats. To verify such effects during aging, dexamethasone was injected into rats for 3 days at five different ages; at day 4, adrenals and blood were collected for morphologic and corticosterone assay. Adrenal structure was similar at all ages, but in dexamethasone-injected animals there were ultrastructural features of apoptosis and a higher percentage of TUNEL and caspase-3-labeled nuclei and cytoplasm; their corticosterone decreased significantly. In both groups, there was age-related decrease in the percentage of apoptotic cells, significant only in dexamethasone-injected rats. The data suggest that aged adrenocortical cells are less susceptible to the lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), possibly as a result of their decreased functional ability.

  18. Identification of ZASP, a novel protein associated to Zona occludens-2.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Susana; Alarcón, Lourdes; Solano, Jesús; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2010-11-15

    With the aim of discovering new molecular interactions of the tight junction protein ZO-2, a two-hybrid screen was performed on a human kidney cDNA library using as bait the middle segment of ZO-2. Through this assay we identified a 24-kDa novel protein herein named ZASP for ZO-2 associated speckle protein. ZO-2/ZASP interaction further confirmed by pull down and immunoprecipitation experiments, requires the presence of the intact PDZ binding motif SQV of ZASP and the third PDZ domain of ZO-2. ZASP mRNA and protein are present in the kidney and in several epithelial cell lines. Endogenous ZASP is expressed primarily in nuclear speckles in co-localization with splicing factor SC-35. Nocodazole treatment and wash out reveals that ZASP disappears from the nucleus during mitosis in accordance with speckle disassembly during metaphase. ZASP amino acid sequence exhibits a canonical nuclear exportation signal and in agreement the protein exits the nucleus through a process mediated by exportin/CRM1. ZASP over-expression blocks the inhibitory activity of ZO-2 on cyclin D1 gene transcription and protein expression. The identification of ZASP helps to unfold the complex nuclear molecular arrays that form on ZO-2 scaffolds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Reduces Rotenone Effect on Stallion Sperm-Zona Pellucida Heterologous Binding.

    PubMed

    Plaza Dávila, M; Bucci, D; Galeati, G; Peña, F J; Mari, G; Giaretta, E; Tamanini, C; Spinaci, M

    2015-12-01

    Stallion spermatozoa are highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production to achieve normal sperm function and to fuel the motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of equine sperm under capacitating conditions to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone and to test whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural polyphenol component of green tea, could counteract this effect. After 2-h incubation of stallion spermatozoa in modified Tyrode's medium, rotenone (100 nm, 500 nm and 5 μm) and EGCG (10, 20 and 60 μm), alone or in combination, did not induce any significant difference on the percentage of viable cells, live sperm with active mitochondria and spermatozoa with intact acrosome. The inhibition of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain of stallion sperm with rotenone exerted a negative effect on heterologous ZP binding ability. EGCG at the concentrations of 10 and 20 μm (but not of 60 μm) induced a significant increase in the number of sperm bound to the ZP compared with that for control. Moreover, when stallion sperm were treated with rotenone 100 nm, the presence of EGCG at all the concentrations tested (10, 20 and 60 μm) significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP up to control levels, suggesting that this green tea polyphenol is able to reduce the toxicity of rotenone. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. FloCon 2008 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    anomalous traffic of the node ÷ total anomalous traffic – Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral...A T A U P L O A D F L O W S E N S O R 5. DATA DOWNLOAD FLOW SENSOR 1. RECON SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE...traffic • Make parent nodes by merging child node information. prefix/length coverage/collateral 0.0.0.0/0 100/100 depth=0 non divided 0.0.0.0/1 50/30

  1. Con Drury: philosopher and psychiatrist.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John

    2017-12-01

    Maurice O'Connor Drury (1907-76), an Irish psychiatrist, is best known for his accounts of his close friendship with the eminent twentieth-century philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein. His only book, The Danger of Words (1973), was well received by those who had an interest in the relationship between psychiatry, psychology and philosophy. This article concentrates on Drury's experiences, studies and writings in these fields.

  2. Crossing the Rubric-Con

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This essay engages the prospect and peril of employing rubrics in America. It discusses how institutional independence affects the enterprise, and addresses whether rubrics will be received as salvation or subservience by educational agents. It asks how rubrics can benefit stakeholders while examining their unintended consequences. It concludes by…

  3. FloCon 2006 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    SNORT: KICKASS_PORN DRAGON: PORN HARDCORE SOURCEDEST SOURCE SOURCE SOURCE DEST DEST DEST DEST Stepping stone 51.251.22.183 Username password Sept...possibly initiates more DNS requests for media such as images and video . 7. Browser initiates more HTTP and/or FTP requests for media. Web Surfing in

  4. FloCon 2011 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    and G. Armitage. Dening and evaluating greynets (sparse darknets ). In LCN󈧉: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks 30th...analysis of distributed darknet trac. In IMC󈧉: Proceedings of the USENIX/ACM Internet Measurement Conference, 2005. Indexing Full Packet Capture Data

  5. FloCon 2005 Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    from one subject to another [5, 6]. Since covert com - munication is very difficult to detect, most researchers resort to investigating methods that...situations (unlike our own) where traffic is not filtered (a darknet , for example). To prevent isolated anomalies during the learning pe- riod from...call to the computer running the flow tools. Then, using a standard R data input function, the wrapper function reads in the ASCII output of the com

  6. Metabolites of Glutamate Metabolism Are Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Events in the PREDIMED PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Hu, Frank B; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Clish, Clary B; Dennis, Courtney; Salas-Salvado, Jordi; Hruby, Adela; Liang, Liming; Toledo, Estefania; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-09-15

    Glutamate metabolism may play a role in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic disorders. However, there is limited evidence of an association between glutamate-related metabolites and, moreover, changes in these metabolites, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma levels of glutamate and glutamine were measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up in a case-cohort study including 980 participants (mean age 68 years; 46% male) from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) randomized trial, which assessed a Mediterranean diet intervention in the primary prevention of CVD. During median 4.8 years of follow-up, there were 229 incident CVD events (nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or CVD death). In fully adjusted models, per 1-SD, baseline glutamate was associated with 43% (95% CI: 16% to 76%) and 81% (39% to 137%) increased risk of composite CVD and stroke alone, respectively, and baseline glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with 25% (6% to 40%) and 44% (25% to 58%) decreased risk of composite CVD and stroke alone, respectively. Associations appeared linear for stroke (both Plinear trend≤0.005). Among participants with high baseline glutamate, the interventions lowered CVD risk by 37% compared to the control diet; the intervention effects were not significant when baseline glutamate was low (Pinteraction=0.02). No significant effect of the intervention on year-1 changes in metabolites was observed, and no effect of changes themselves on CVD risk was apparent. Baseline glutamate was associated with increased CVD risk, particularly stroke, and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was associated with decreased risk. Participants with high glutamate levels may obtain greater benefits from the Mediterranean diet than those with low levels. URL: www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 35739639. © 2016 The Authors and The Broad Institute. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Extravirgin olive oil consumption reduces risk of atrial fibrillation: the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel Á; Toledo, Estefanía; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maria I; Fernández-Crehuet, Joaquín; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel A; Fitó, Monserrat; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Sorlí, Jose V; Babio, Nancy; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) randomized primary prevention trial showed that a Mediterranean diet enriched with either extravirgin olive oil or mixed nuts reduces the incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the effect of these diets on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the PREDIMED trial. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extravirgin olive oil, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or advice to follow a low-fat diet (control group). Incident atrial fibrillation was adjudicated during follow-up by an events committee blinded to dietary group allocation. Among 6705 participants without prevalent atrial fibrillation at randomization, we observed 72 new cases of atrial fibrillation in the Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil group, 82 in the Mediterranean diet with mixed nuts group, and 92 in the control group after median follow-up of 4.7 years. The Mediterranean diet with extravirgin olive oil significantly reduced the risk of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.85 compared with the control group). No effect was found for the Mediterranean diet with nuts (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.20). In the absence of proven interventions for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, this post hoc analysis of the PREDIMED trial suggests that extravirgin olive oil in the context of a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. CON4EI: Development of serious eye damage and eye irritation testing strategies with respect to the requirements of the UN GHS/EU CLP hazard categories.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    The main objective of the CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project (2015-2016) was to develop tiered, non-animal testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment in relation to the most important drivers of classification. The serious eye damage and eye irritation potential of a set of 80 chemicals was identified based on existing in vivo Draize eye test data and testing was conducted using the following eight alternative test methods: BCOP (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability)+histopathology, BCOP-LLBO (BCOP Laser Light-Based Opacitometer), ICE (Isolated Chicken Eye)+histopathology, STE (Short Term Exposure), EpiOcular™ EIT (EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test), EpiOcular™ ET-50 (EpiOcular™ Time-to-toxicity), SkinEthic™ HCE EIT (SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelial Eye Irritation Test), and SMI (Slug Mucosal Irritation). Project management decided to not include the ICE data in this project since the execution showed relevant, and not predictable, deviations from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline (TG) 438 and Guidance Document 160. At this stage, the outcome of these deviations has not been fully assessed. In addition to these alternative test methods, the computational models Toxtree and Case Ultra were taken into account. This project assessed the relevance of these test methods, their applicability domains and limitations in terms of 'drivers of classification', and their strengths and weaknesses. In this way, methods were identified that fit into a tiered-testing strategy for serious eye damage/eye irritation assessment to distinguish United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) Category 1 (Cat 1) chemicals from non-Cat 1 chemicals and address the gap namely distinguish between Category 2 (Cat 2) and Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CON4EI: SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, A R; Alépée, N; Nardelli, L; Hollanders, K; Leblanc, V; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Adriaens, E

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement and a necessary step in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as a stand-alone assay. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed with the goal of assessing the reliability of eight in vitro/alternative test methods as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One of the in vitro assays selected was the validated SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test method (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT). The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT has already demonstrated its capacity to correctly identify chemicals (both substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage (No Category). The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method in terms of the important in vivo drivers of classification. For the performance with respect to the drivers all in vivo Cat 1 and No Cat chemicals were 100% correctly identified. For Cat 2 chemicals the liquids and the solids had a sensitivity of 100% and 85.7%, respectively. For the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method, 100% concordance in predictions (No Cat versus No prediction can be made) between the two participating laboratories was obtained. The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT was 97.5% with 100% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity. The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT confirms its excellent results of the validation studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin--phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from 146 ready-to-eat food of animal origin (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes). 58 strains were isolated, they were classified as Staphylococcus xylosus (n = 29), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 16); Staphylococcus lentus (n = 7); Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n = 4); Staphylococcus hyicus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus simulans (n = 1) by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Isolates were tested for resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, trimetoprim, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes encoding: methicillin resistance--mecA; macrolide resistance--erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mrs(A/B); efflux proteins tet(K) and tet(L) and ribosomal protection proteins tet(M). For all the tet(M)-positive isolates the presence of conjugative transposons of the Tn916-Tn1545 family was determined. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (41.3%) followed by clindamycin (36.2%), tigecycline (24.1%), rifampicin (17.2%) and erythromycin (13.8%). 32.2% staphylococcal isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). All methicillin resistant staphylococci harboured mecA gene. Isolates, phenotypic resistant to tetracycline, harboured at least one tetracycline resistance determinant on which tet(M) was most frequent. All of the isolates positive for tet(M) genes were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545 -like integrase family gene. In the erythromycin-resistant isolates, the macrolide resistance genes erm(C) or msr(A/B) were present. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci are not classical food poisoning bacteria, its presence in food could be of public health significance due to the possible spread of

  11. CON4EI: Development of testing strategies for hazard identification and labelling for serious eye damage and eye irritation of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, E; Verstraelen, S; Alépée, N; Kandarova, H; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Van Rompay, A R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for safety testing of chemicals. In the last decades, many efforts have been made in the search for alternative methods to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD TG 405). Success in terms of complete replacement of the regulatory in vivo Draize rabbit eye test has not yet been achieved. The main objective of the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was to develop tiered testing strategies for serious eye damage and eye irritation assessment that can lead to complete replacement of OECD TG 405. A set of 80 reference chemicals (e.g. balanced by important driver of classification and physical state), was tested with seven test methods. Based on the results of this project, three different strategies were suggested. We have provided a standalone (EpiOcular ET-50), a two-tiered and three-tiered strategy, that can be used to distinguish between Cat 1 and Cat 2 chemicals and chemicals that do not require classification (No Cat). The two-tiered and three-tiered strategies use an RhCE test method (EpiOcular EIT or SkinEthic™ EIT) at the bottom (identification No Cat) in combination with the BCOP LLBO (two-tiered strategy) or BCOP OP-KIT and SMI (three-tiered strategy) at the top (identification Cat 1). For our proposed strategies, 71.1% - 82.9% Cat 1, 64.2% - 68.5% Cat 2 and ≥80% No Cat chemicals were correctly identified. Also, similar results were obtained for the Top-Down and Bottom-Up approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TNT removal from culture media by three commonly available wild plants growing in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Correa-Torres, Sandra N; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C; Espinosa-Fuentes, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, Lolita; Souto-Bachiller, Fernando A; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P

    2012-01-01

    Plants growing in the Caribbean, Rubia tinctorum, Lippia dulcis and Spermacoce remota, were used in vitro to remove TNT from culture media. Plants were found to be resistant to high TNT levels. S. remota was able to remove TNT in less than 48 h. Part of the TNT was physically removed from the culture media by evaporation.

  13. Plasma Ceramides, Mediterranean Diet, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Trial (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Toledo, Estefanía; Hruby, Adela; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi; Razquin, Cristina; Zheng, Yan; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Lapetra, José; Fito, Montserrat; Aros, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Luis; Lee, Chih-Hao; Clish, Clary B; Liang, Liming; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Hu, Frank B

    2017-05-23

    Although in vitro studies and investigations in animal models and small clinical populations have suggested that ceramides may represent an intermediate link between overnutrition and certain pathological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD), no prospective studies have investigated the association between plasma ceramides and risk of CVD. The study population consisted of 980 participants from the PREDIMED trial (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea), including 230 incident cases of CVD and 787 randomly selected participants at baseline (including 37 overlapping cases) followed for ≤7.4 years. Participants were randomized to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet. Plasma ceramide concentrations were measured on a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death. Hazard ratios were estimated with weighted Cox regression models using Barlow weights to account for the case-cohort design. The multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the extreme quartiles of plasma concentrations of C16:0, C22:0, C24:0, and C24:1 ceramides were 2.39 (1.49-3.83, P trend <0.001), 1.91 (1.21-3.01, P trend =0.003), 1.97 (1.21-3.20, P trend =0.004), and 1.73 (1.09-2.74, P trend =0.011), respectively. The ceramide score, calculated as a weighted sum of concentrations of four ceramides, was associated with a 2.18-fold higher risk of CVD across extreme quartiles (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.36-3.49; P trend <0.001). The association between baseline ceramide score and incident CVD varied significantly by treatment groups ( P interaction =0.010). Participants with a higher ceramide score and assigned to either of the 2 active intervention arms of the trial showed similar CVD risk to those with a lower ceramide score, whereas

  14. Increases in Plasma Tryptophan Are Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Edward; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Zheng, Yan; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Sorlí, Jose V; Hu, Frank B; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ-mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied. Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern. Methods: We used a case-cohort design nested in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized controlled trial. There were 231 CVD cases (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) among 985 participants over a median of 4.7 y of follow-up [mean ± SD age: 67.6 ± 6.1 y; 53.7% women; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 29.7 ± 3.7]. We assessed plasma tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations at baseline and after 1 y of intervention with a MedDiet. We combined these metabolites in a kynurenine risk score (KRS) by weighting each metabolite by the adjusted coefficient of its associations with CVD. Cox models were used in the primary analysis. Results: Increases in tryptophan after 1 y were associated with a lower risk of composite CVD (HR per SD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98). The baseline kynurenic acid concentration was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease death but not stroke. A higher KRS was more strongly associated with CVD in the control group than in the 2 intervention groups ( P -interaction = 0.003). Adjustment for changes in plasma tryptophan attenuated the inverse association between MedDiet+EVOO and CVD. Conclusions: An increase in the plasma tryptophan concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of

  15. Increases in Plasma Tryptophan Are Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Edward; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Zheng, Yan; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Sorlí, Jose V; Hu, Frank B; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ–mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied. Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern. Methods: We used a case-cohort design nested in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized controlled trial. There were 231 CVD cases (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) among 985 participants over a median of 4.7 y of follow-up [mean ± SD age: 67.6 ± 6.1 y; 53.7% women; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 29.7 ± 3.7]. We assessed plasma tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations at baseline and after 1 y of intervention with a MedDiet. We combined these metabolites in a kynurenine risk score (KRS) by weighting each metabolite by the adjusted coefficient of its associations with CVD. Cox models were used in the primary analysis. Results: Increases in tryptophan after 1 y were associated with a lower risk of composite CVD (HR per SD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98). The baseline kynurenic acid concentration was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease death but not stroke. A higher KRS was more strongly associated with CVD in the control group than in the 2 intervention groups (P-interaction = 0.003). Adjustment for changes in plasma tryptophan attenuated the inverse association between MedDiet+EVOO and CVD. Conclusions: An increase in the plasma tryptophan concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CVD

  16. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes. Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake. Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P- trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P- trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk. Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt

  17. Fiber intake and all-cause mortality in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Zazpe, Itziar; Toledo, Estefanía; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Diez-Espino, Javier; Ros, Emilio; Fernandez-Creuet Navajas, Joaquin; Santos-Lozano, José Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Castañer, Olga; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Marti, Amelia; Basterra-Gortari, F Javier; Sorlí, José V; Verdú-Rotellar, Jose M; Basora, Josep; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Á

    2014-12-01

    Few observational studies have examined the effect of dietary fiber intake and fruit and vegetable consumption on total mortality and have reported inconsistent results. All of the studies have been conducted in the general population and typically used only a single assessment of diet. We investigated the association of fiber intake and whole-grain, fruit, and vegetable consumption with all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by using repeated measurements of dietary information and taking into account the effect of a dietary intervention. We followed up 7216 men (55-75 y old) and women (60-75 y old) at high CVD risk in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial for a mean of 5.9 y. Data were analyzed as an observational cohort. Participants were initially free of CVD. A 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire administered by dietitians was repeated annually to assess dietary exposures (fiber, fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intakes). Deaths were identified through the continuing medical care of participants and the National Death Index. An independent, blinded Event Adjudication Committee adjudicated causes of death. Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs of death during follow-up according to baseline dietary exposures and their yearly updated changes. In up to 8.7 y of follow-up, 425 participants died. Baseline fiber intake and fruit consumption were significantly associated with lower risk of death [HRs for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.86; P = 0.015) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82; P = 0.004), respectively]. When the updated dietary information was considered, participants with fruit consumption >210 g/d had 41% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.78). Associations were strongest for CVD mortality than other causes of death. Fiber and fruit intakes are associated with a reduction in total mortality

  18. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of levetiracetam versus phenytoin for convulsive status epilepticus in children (protocol): Convulsive Status Epilepticus Paediatric Trial (ConSEPT) - a PREDICT study.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Stuart R; Furyk, Jeremy; Bonisch, Megan; Oakley, Ed; Borland, Meredith; Neutze, Jocelyn; Donath, Susan; Sharpe, Cynthia; Harvey, Simon; Davidson, Andrew; Craig, Simon; Phillips, Natalie; George, Shane; Rao, Arjun; Cheng, Nicholas; Zhang, Michael; Sinn, Kam; Kochar, Amit; Brabyn, Christine; Babl, Franz E

    2017-06-22

    benzodiazepines have failed. This study will provide the first high quality evidence for management of paediatric CSE post first-line benzodiazepines. Prospectively registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12615000129583 (11/2/2015). UTN U1111-1144-5272. ConSEPT protocol version 4 (12/12/2014).

  19. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  20. ¿Qué está haciendo la EPA para proteger a los arrecifes de coral?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA protege a los arrecifes de coral mediante la implementación de programas de la Ley de Agua Limpia que protegen la calidad del agua en cuencas y zonas costeras de las áreas con arrecifes de coral.

  1. Modélisation des conséquences possibles de la future demande bioénergétique mondiale pour le bois et les forêts en France

    Joseph Buongiorno; Ronald Raunikar; Shusuai Zhu

    2011-01-01

    L’accroissement de la demande mondiale et du coût correspondant de l’énergie a conduit à de nombreuses propositions pour augmenter l’utilisation de la biomasse renouvelable. Une étude récente (Raunikar et al., 2010) a examiné les conséquences mondiales pour le bois et pour les forêts de la demande en bioénergie impliquée par les scénarios du Groupe d’experts...

  2. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  3. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin.

  4. Experimental Identification of the Active Site in the Heteronuclear Redox Couples [AlVOx ]+. /CO/N2 O (x=3, 4) by Gas-Phase IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sreekanta; Knorke, Harald; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Zhou, Shaodong; Asmis, Knut R; Schwarz, Helmut

    2018-06-18

    Cryogenic ion vibrational spectroscopy was used in combination with electronic structure calculations to identify the active site in the oxygen atom transfer reaction [AlVO 4 ] +. +CO→[AlVO 3 ] +. +CO 2 . Infrared photodissociation spectra of messenger-tagged heteronuclear clusters demonstrate that in contrast to [AlVO 4 ] +. , [AlVO 3 ] +. is devoid of a terminal Al-O t unit while the terminal V=O t group remains intact. Thus it is the Al-O t moiety that forms the active site in the [AlVO x ] +. /CO/N 2 O (x=3, 4) redox couples, which is in line with theoretical predictions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Expansion of antimonato polyoxovanadates with transition metal complexes: (Co(N3C5H15)2)2[{Co(N3C5H15)2}V15Sb6O42(H2O)]·5H2O and (Ni(N3C5H15)2)2[{Ni(N3C5H15)2}V15Sb6O42(H2O)]·8H2O.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Elena; Näther, Christian; Kögerler, Paul; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2012-02-20

    Two new polyoxovanadates (Co(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2))(2)[{Co(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)}V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)]·5H(2)O (1) and (Ni(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2))(2)[{Ni(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)}V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)]·8H(2)O (2) (N(3)C(5)H(15) = N-(2-aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. In both structures the [V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](6-) shell displays the main structural motif, which is strongly related to the {V(18)O(42)} archetype cluster. Both compounds crystallize in the triclinic space group P1 with a = 14.3438(4), b = 16.6471(6), c = 18.9186(6) Å, α = 87.291(3)°, β = 83.340(3)°, γ = 78.890(3)°, and V = 4401.4(2) Å(3) (1) and a = 14.5697(13), b = 15.8523(16), c = 20.2411(18) Å, α = 86.702(11)°, β = 84.957(11)°, γ = 76.941(11)°, and V = 4533.0(7) Å(3) (2). In the structure of 1 the [V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](6-) cluster anion is bound to a [Co(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)](2+) complex via a terminal oxygen atom. In the Co(2+)-centered complex, one of the amine ligands coordinates in tridentate mode and the second one in bidentate mode to form a strongly distorted CoN(5)O octahedron. Similarly, in compound 2 an analogous NiN(5)O complex is joined to the [V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](6-) anion via the same attachment mode. A remarkable difference between the two compounds is the orientation of the noncoordinated propylamine group leading to intermolecular Sb···O contacts in 1 and to Sb···N interactions in 2. In the solid-state lattices of 1 and 2, two additional [M(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)](2+) complexes act as countercations and are located between the [{M(N(3)C(5)H(15))(2)}V(15)Sb(6)O(42)(H(2)O)](4-) anions. Between the anions and cations strong N-H···O hydrogen bonds are observed. In both compounds the clusters are stacked along the b axis in an ABAB fashion with cations and water molecules occupying the space between the clusters. Magnetic characterization demonstrates that the Ni(2+) and Co(2+) cations do not

  6. Alelle number and heterozigosity for microsatellite loci in different stingless bee species (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Francisco, Flávio de O; Brito, Rute M; Arias, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we compare genetic characteristics (allele diversity and observed heterozygosity) of microsatellite loci, from three stingless bee species (Plebeia remota Holmberg, Partamona mulata Moure In Camargo and Partamona helleri Friese), amplified by using heterospecific primers originally designed for Melipona bicolor Lepeletier and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille. We analyzed 360 individuals of P. remota from 72 nests, 58 individuals of R. mulata from 58 nests, and 47 individuals of P. helleri from 47 nests. The three species studied showed low level of polymorphism for the loci amplified with primers derived from M. bicolor. However, for the loci amplified with primers derived from S. postica, only P. remota presented low level of polymorphism.

  7. Birth of piglets from in vitro-produced, zona-intact porcine embryos vitrified in a closed system

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Zhao, Chongbei; Wei, Si; Murphy, Clifton N.; Spate, Lee; Liu, Yang; Walters, Eric M.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Prather, Randall S.; Critser, John K.

    2011-01-01

    As the importance of swine models in biomedical research increases, it is essential to develop low-cost, high-throughput systems to cryopreserve swine germplasm for maintenance of these models. However, porcine embryos are exceedingly sensitive to low temperature and successful cryopreservation is generally limited to the use of vitrification in open systems that allow direct contact of the embryos with liquid nitrogen (LN2). This creates a high risk of pathogen transmission. Therefore, cryopreservation of porcine embryos in a “closed” system is of very high importance. In this study, in vitro-produced (IVP) porcine embryos were used to investigate cryosurvival and developmental potential of embryos cryopreserved in a closed system. Optimal centrifugal forces to completely disassociate intracellular lipids from blastomeres were investigated using Day-4 embryos. Cryosurvival of delipidated embryos was investigated by vitrifying the embryos immediately after centrifugation, or after development to blastocysts. In this study, centrifugation for 30 min at 13,000 g was adequate to completely delipidate the embryos; furthermore, these embryos were able to survive cryopreservation at a rate comparable to those centrifuged for only 12 min. When delipidated embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst stage, there was no difference in survival between embryos vitrified using OPS and 0.25 mL straws. Some embryos vitrified by each method developed to term. These experiments demonstrated that porcine embryos can be cryopreserved in a closed system after externalizing their intracellular lipids. This has important implications for banking swine models of human health and disease. PMID:21458047

  8. Delimitacion de las Zonas Dialectales de Mexico: Objetivos y Problemas (Delimitation of Dialect Zones in Mexico: Objectives and Problems)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Juan M. Lope

    1975-01-01

    Before creating a linguistic map of Mexican dialects, it is necessary to determine the dialect regions of the country. An extensive questionnaire must be written and distributed to collect data from a representative sample of the population for an accurate picture of the language. (CK) (Text in Spanish.)

  9. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  10. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  11. MAÑANA: U.S. EPA, National Econ Corporation demostrarán prácticas seguras de trabajo con plomo para contratistas, se anunciará compromiso para reducir la exposición al plomo en la región

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA News Release: MAÑANA: U.S. EPA, National Econ Corporation demostrarán prácticas seguras de trabajo con plomo para contratistas, se anunciará compromiso para reducir la exposición al plomo en la región

  12. Implantation des sites de soins communautaires en République Démocratique du Congo: consécration d'un double standard dans l'accès aux soins

    PubMed Central

    Dunia, Gisèle Mawazo Binti

    2013-01-01

    Depuis 2005, la République Démocratique du Congo a amorcé l'implantation des sites de soins communautaires. Cette stratégie a pour objectif de rapprocher les services de santé des populations éloignées. Bien que cela parte d'une bonne intention, elle résulte, à notre sens, en une consécration d'un système de santé à deux vitesses. En effet, les populations vivant en ville ont accès à des soins prestés par des agents de santé formés alors que celles vivant en milieu rural reculé ont pour prestataires de soins des relais communautaires. Cette situation marginalise encore plus des populations dont la situation géographique est déjà préoccupante. Pourtant, la population est prête à parcourir des kilomètres en échange d'un service qu'elle estime de qualité. PMID:23785563

  13. Do not disturb the animals! or, how Con Edison saved $300,000 using a trenchless technology to renew 3,000 feet of leaking gas main at the Bronx Zoo

    SciT

    Bufe, M.

    Every leaking gas main presents a challenge. But when that leaking main follows a series of sweeping bends on its route through North America`s largest urban wildlife park, it presents a special challenge. That was the situation Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc. recently faced when numerous leaks were discovered along 3,000 feet of a 95-year-old, 12-inch cast-iron main that winds through New York City`s Bronx Zoo. Con Edison knew it needed a long-term solution to this increasingly common problem. Thanks to the cooperative efforts of the utility`s operations and research departments and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Conmore » Edison also knew about a trenchless technology that could renew the pipe with minimal impact to the environment--while saving the utility a substantial sum of money in the process. In the Paltem system, a woven polyester hose is injected with an epoxy resin and then inverted (turned inside out) into a pipe at an access pit. The liner then bonds to the inside wall of the pipe, forming a smooth, flexible and pressure-resistant lining. The process is environmentally safe, requires very little excavation and can be installed in days, rather than the weeks or months it can take to dig up and replace existing pipe.« less

  14. Multi-analytical approach applied to the provenance study of marbles used as covering slabs in the archaeological submerged site of Baia (Naples, Italy): The case of the "Villa con ingresso a protiro"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricca, Michela; Belfiore, Cristina Maria; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio; Barca, Donatella; De Buergo, Monica Alvarez; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; La Russa, Mauro Francesco

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on archaeometric investigations of white marbles taken from the submerged archaeological site of Baia (Naples). The marine area includes the ruins of this ancient Roman city, whose structures range from luxurious maritime villas and imperial buildings with private thermae and tabernae, to more simple and modest houses. Analyses were carried out on fifty marble fragments of covering slabs, belonging to several pavements of the monumental villa, called the Villa con ingresso a protiro, in order to ascertain their provenance. The most distinctive properties of marbles are their variety of textural property especially regarding grain size (MGS), associated with the Mn content and the variation of stable isotopes. These features, supported by the contribution of other variables and studies, establish the basis for the correct identification of the marbles. For this purpose, minero-petrographic and geochemical techniques were used. Results were compared with literature data of white marbles commonly used in antiquity, especially in the Mediterranean basin and showed that a variety of precious marbles from Carrara, Docimium (Afyon), Thasos-D, Aphrodisias, Proconnesos (Marmara), Paros and Pentelicon were used in the ancient roman city of Baia, confirming the importance of the submerged archaeological site and also allowing researchers to broaden the existing database.

  15. Bridge over troubled proline: assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins using (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H experiments concomitantly with HNCO and i(HCA)CO(CA)NH.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Maarit; Piirainen, Henni; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Permi, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is by far the most versatile and information rich technique to study intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). While NMR is able to offer residue level information on structure and dynamics, assignment of chemical shift resonances in IDPs is not a straightforward process. Consequently, numerous pulse sequences and assignment protocols have been developed during past several years, targeted especially for the assignment of IDPs, including experiments that employ H(N), H(α) or (13)C detection combined with two to six indirectly detected dimensions. Here we propose two new HN-detection based pulse sequences, (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H, that provide correlations with (1)H(N)(i - 1), (13)C'(i - 1) and (15)N(i), and (1)H(N)(i + 1), (13)C'(i) and (15)N(i) frequencies, respectively. Most importantly, they offer sequential links across the proline bridges and enable filling the single proline gaps during the assignment. We show that the novel experiments can efficiently complement the information available from existing HNCO and intraresidual i(HCA)CO(CA)NH pulse sequences and their concomitant usage enabled >95 % assignment of backbone resonances in cytoplasmic tail of adenosine receptor A2A in comparison to 73 % complete assignment using the HNCO/i(HCA)CO(CA)NH data alone.

  16. The office surgical suite: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Simons, R L

    1980-05-01

    Today interest and enthusiasm regarding facial plastic surgery is burgeoning. Office surgery provides a new, more expedient, comfortable method of delivery of health care while directly responding to the growing concern among the public and government for improved cost containment of medical services. Awareness of improved surgical techniques and facilities will help to ensure tomorrow's continued growth and satisfaction for both the surgeon and his patient.

  17. [Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Roemer, V M; Ramb, S

    1996-01-01

    Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially less than 350 deliveries per year. Attention is drawn to some consequences of such a structural reform which will probably have to be initiated by the German Association of Gynecologists and Obstetricians.

  18. THE PROS AND CONS OF ROUTINE CIRCUMCISION

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Deron

    1951-01-01

    The origin of the practice of circumcision is an ancient one having a ritual significance in most cases, but the operation is done primarily for hygienic purposes amongst English-speaking people. Critical evaluation of the indication for circumcision suggests that the hygienic principles are probably overrated. If it were understood that the anatomy of the prepuce and glans has a morphological development which in most cases removes the possibility of phimosis after the third year, less emphasis would be placed on the necessity for the operation. On the other hand, the feeling exists that boys who will require circumcision because of phimosis, balanitis, etc., should not be subjected to the operation at the age when psychological trauma can result. Convention and conformity demand the continuation of the procedure in many areas. The decision to circumcise remains a matter of individual preference as prescribed in the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:14886736

  19. An Electric Preschool: Pros and Cons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marjorie W.

    An electric preschool is a classroom or center for children 3 to 5 years of age in which the curriculum with its supportive activities, materials, and equipment depends more on technology that is powered by electricity than on manually operated objects. Certainly, preschoolers need stimulating and safe environments managed by adults who allow them…

  20. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  1. Distance Education: Pros, Cons, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongmei

    This paper reviews recent publications on distance education and explores its promise and potential from the student's perspective, the faculty's perspective and the administrator's perspective. Findings indicate that only the self-motivated and self-disciplined students are most likely to succeed in distance education. Although the majority of…

  2. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    PubMed

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  3. Eduquemos con Musica (Let's Educate with Music).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiva, Raquel Ojeda

    This elementary and preschool music textbook is designed to reflect Latin America and Caribbean Island cultures and to be useful in both school classrooms and in teacher training courses. Short, easy to learn songs, illustrated pages, and 10 musical games are combined to teach musical forms, rhythm, auditory discrimination, language usage, motor…

  4. Malaria vaccine: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Saleh, J A; Yusuph, H; Zailani, S B; Aji, B

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is an important parasitic disease of humans caused by infection with a parasite of the genus Polasmodium and transmitted by female anopheles. Infection caused by P. falciparum is the most serious of all the other species (P. ovale, P. vivax and P. malariae) especially in terms of morbidity and mortality hence the reason why most of the research has been focussed on this species. The disease affects up to about 40 per cent of the world's population with around 300-500 million people currently infected and mainly in the tropics. It has a high morbidity and mortality especially in resource-poor tropical and subtropical regions with an economic fall of about US$ 12 billion annually in Africa alone. relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source. Other relevant websites like PATH, Malaria Vaccine Initiative and Global Fund were also visited to source for information. The key words employed were: malaria, vaccine, anopheles mosquito, insecticide treated bed-nets, pyrethroids and Plasmodium. several studies have underscored the need to develop an effective human malaria vaccine for the control and possible eradication of malaria across the globe with the view to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, improve on the social and economic losses and also protect those at risk. It is very obvious that the need for effective human malaria vaccine is not only to serve those living in malaria endemic regions but also the non-immune travellers especially those travelling to malaria endemic areas; this would offer cost effective means of preventing the disease, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with it in addition to closing the gap left by other control measures. It is very obvious that there is no single control measure known to be effective in the control of malaria, hence the need for combination of more than one method with the aim of achieving synergy in the total control and possible eradication of the disease. It suffices to say that despite the use of combination of more than one method (e.g., drugs treating patients, breaking the life cycle of the vector mosquito using larvicides, clearing swamps and other mosquito breeding sites), no much progress was made towards achieving this goal, hence the renewed interest especially with regards to vaccine development.

  5. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    MedlinePlus

    ... these complications, including having: Assistance from a certified nurse-midwife Access to a practicing obstetric doctor A ... health care providers to assist. Choose a certified nurse-midwife, a certified midwife, a midwife whose education ...

  6. ConTACT Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2013-09-18

    Senate - 09/18/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. McLuhan: Pro and Con.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Raymond, Ed.

    Twenty-one critical essays on the ideas and works of Marshall McLuhan are offered in this review. In the course of the essays, McLuhan is characterized alternately as a genius, an extrapolator, and an oracle; a defender of the choice of choicelessness; a generalizer who rearranges, misinterprets, and misreads the facts to support his theses; an…

  8. [Subspecialization in gynecology--pro and con].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, H

    1990-01-01

    To discuss the problem of subspecialization in gynecology is very popular at present. Whether or not a complete separation into the three subdisciplines, (1) materno-fetal medicine--obstetrics, (2) surgical gynecology--gynecologic oncology, and (3) gynecologic endocrinology--reproductive medicine, is recommendable remains unclear. Some authors describe forms of supplementary postgraduate education only, a kind of prolongation of the basic gynecologic and obstetric training concentrating on one of the three main fields. The complete separation, i.e. into obstetric medicine, reproductive medicine, and gynecologic pelvic surgery, has the advantage of a more effective concentration on each of the respective subdisciplines in clinical work and in research. On the other hand, the separation will produce several disadvantages: (a) that which falls between the subdisciplines will be difficult to integrate; (b) the principle of the gynecologist functioning as a primary health care physician for women will be weakened, i.e. his competence in family-planning, pregnancy and delivery, cancer screening for genital and breast tumors, cycle disorders, pelvic inflammatory diseases and the care of postmenopausal women; (c) the lectures will become more split or overloaded with details than at present; (d) the need for a cost-effective and widely available general gynecologic care will not be met, and (e) the opportunities for younger colleagues to have an office of their own will be restricted. The disadvantages outweigh the advantages. The solution might be a combination of the two competitive models: the creation of subdisciplines, completely separated from one another but for a minority only (i.e. to candidates for leading posts in clinics of the tertiary care, university hospitals etc).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  10. Pros and Cons of Having a Mentor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opsata, Margaret

    1985-01-01

    Discusses mentoring relationships for women in engineering. Advice and guideline include: (1) advantages (meeting new people, making career decisions, development as an employee); (2) disadvantages (overdependence, ethical disagreements, personal involvement); and (3) finding and using mentors. (DH)

  11. Incentives for organ donation: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Chkhotua, A

    2012-01-01

    Altruism still remains the main principle of organ donation worldwide. However, since the current practices has not met the demand for organs, new strategies should be found to encourage organ donation. Implementation of financial incentives in transplantation is a matter of debate among experts in the fields of transplantation, ethics, law, and economics. It should be acknowledged that donors incur many expenses while participating in the transplant process, which seems unfair. Various forms of incentives have been suggested and are currently used worldwide. This article describes current attitudes toward incentives for in transplantation used in different countries, arguing in favor as well as against them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stepwise versus Hierarchical Regression: Pros and Cons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mitzi

    2007-01-01

    Multiple regression is commonly used in social and behavioral data analysis. In multiple regression contexts, researchers are very often interested in determining the "best" predictors in the analysis. This focus may stem from a need to identify those predictors that are supportive of theory. Alternatively, the researcher may simply be interested…

  13. Erythropoietin in cancer patients: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Dicato, Mario; Plawny, Laurent

    2010-07-01

    Anaemia is a frequent complication of cancer. Recently, some concerns have appeared regarding the safety of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the treatment of anaemia in cancer patients. The current review will analyse the main arguments in favour of erythropoietin (EPO), as well as those against EPO in chemotherapy-induced anaemia and in cancer-related anaemia. The principal concerns are tumour progression, increased mortality and the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). Recent meta-analyses have come to divergent conclusions. Several meta-analyses have reviewed the data regarding VTEs, EPO receptors on tumours and tumour progression as well as mortality. As of now, ESAs should only be used within the indications as given in the various guidelines.

  14. Genes relacionados con microftalmia y anoftalmia hereditarias.

    PubMed

    Matías-Pérez, Diana; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Congenital eye malformations are the second most common cause of childhood blindness and are originated by disruption of the normal process of eye development during embryonic stage. Their etiology is variable, although monogenic causes are of great importance as they have a high risk of familial recurrence. Included among the most severe congenital eye abnormalities are microphthalmia, defined by an abnormally small eye, and anophthalmia, characterized by congenital absence of ocular structures. The currrent knowledge of the genes involved in human microphthalmia and anophthalmia in humans is revised in this work. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  15. The pros and cons of code validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1988-01-01

    Computational and wind tunnel error sources are examined and quantified using specific calculations of experimental data, and a substantial comparison of theoretical and experimental results, or a code validation, is discussed. Wind tunnel error sources considered include wall interference, sting effects, Reynolds number effects, flow quality and transition, and instrumentation such as strain gage balances, electronically scanned pressure systems, hot film gages, hot wire anemometers, and laser velocimeters. Computational error sources include math model equation sets, the solution algorithm, artificial viscosity/dissipation, boundary conditions, the uniqueness of solutions, grid resolution, turbulence modeling, and Reynolds number effects. It is concluded that, although improvements in theory are being made more quickly than in experiments, wind tunnel research has the advantage of the more realistic transition process of a right turbulence model in a free-transition test.

  16. The Foreign Language Teacher as "Con Artist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jean S.

    A teacher's experiences in acquiring realia (mostly food-related) for her junior high school French classes are described. The collection of realistic props proved to be both a small adventure in itself and the source of a rewarding change in classroom instruction. The use of a simulated store, in which students bought and sold the imitation food,…

  17. Endovascular surgery in Marfan syndrome: CON.

    PubMed

    Kouchoukos, Nicholas T

    2017-11-01

    The frequency of endovascular stent grafting procedures to treat various conditions of the thoracic aorta has increased dramatically over the past three decades. Stent grafting has been applied on a limited basis in patients with Marfan syndrome and other connective tissue disorders, despite recommendations from current guidelines and expert consensus statements against its use in this setting. A review of publications reporting outcomes after stent grafting of the descending thoracic aorta in Marfan patients with acute or chronic aortic dissection indicates that these procedures can be accomplished with rates of early mortality, stroke and spinal cord ischemic injury that are comparable to those observed in patients who do not have Marfan syndrome. However, the rates of primary treatment failure (principally endoleak), secondary treatment failure, need for open repair and late death among the Marfan patients are substantially higher than those observed in patients without this condition. In addition, the rates of retrograde aortic dissection and development of stent-graft induced new entry (SINE), are also greater among patients with Marfan syndrome. All of these findings argue strongly against the routine use of endovascular grafts in Marfan patients with type B or residual type A dissection. Few data are available to assess the role of endografting in Marfan patients with aneurysmal disease, but the progressive aortic dilatation noted in these patients argues strongly against its use in this setting as well. At present, the available data indicate that there is no justification for elective stent grafting in Marfan patients with aortic dissection or aneurysm. The only reasonable indications for primary aortic stent grafting are in the setting of acute aortic dissection or rupture, where the intervention is considered life-saving and rarely, considering the relatively young age of these patients, where the risk of open operation is considered to be prohibitive.

  18. Con-nectin axons and dendrites.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Gerard M J

    2006-07-03

    Unlike adherens junctions, synapses are asymmetric connections, usually between axons and dendrites, that rely on various cell adhesion molecules for structural stability and function. Two cell types of adhesion molecules found at adherens junctions, cadherins and nectins, are thought to mediate homophilic interaction between neighboring cells. In this issue, Togashi et al. (see p. 141) demonstrate that the differential localization of two heterophilic interacting nectins mediates the selective attraction of axons and dendrites in cooperation with cadherins.

  19. The pros and cons of phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Jefferson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant derived compounds found in a wide variety of foods, most notably soy. A litany of health benefits including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms, are frequently attributed to phytoestrogens but many are also considered endocrine disruptors, indicating that they have the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently, the question of whether or not phytoestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health remains unresolved. The answer is likely complex and may depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. Clarity on this issue is needed because global consumption is rapidly increasing. Phytoestrogens are present in numerous dietary supplements and widely marketed as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Soy infant formula now constitutes up to a third of the US market, and soy protein is now added to many processed foods. As weak estrogen agonists/antagonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to synthetic endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol A (BPA), the phytoestrogens provide a useful model to comprehensively investigate the biological impact of endocrine disruptors in general. This review weighs the evidence for and against the purported health benefits and adverse effects of phytoestrogens. PMID:20347861

  20. Surveillance imaging for lymphoma: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Ryan C; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Armitage, James O; Carson, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    There is no international consensus on the optimal frequency or duration of computed tomography or positron emission tomography scanning for surveillance in patients who achieve complete remission after initial therapy for lymphoma. Although some clinical practice guidelines suggest periodic imaging is reasonable, others suggest little or no benefit to this practice. From a theoretical perspective, the frequency and duration of surveillance imaging is largely dependent upon the lymphoma subtype. Aggressive lymphomas with a fast growth rate will require surveillance more frequently and for a shorter duration compared to the indolent lymphomas. Historically, relapse has been detected in a majority of patients based upon clinically evident signs and symptoms. Currently, no study has demonstrated an overall survival difference for patients with relapse detected by imaging as opposed to clinical evaluation, although one study did demonstrate a lower second-line International Prognostic Index in patients with relapse detected by surveillance imaging. Enthusiasm for this finding has been tempered by recent studies highlighting the potential long-term risk of secondary malignancies because of ionizing radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. These factors along with the significant costs associated with diagnostic imaging have contributed to an ongoing debate regarding the relative costs, risks, and benefits of radiographic surveillance. Herein we present perspectives for and against routine surveillance imaging in an effort to facilitate a better understanding of the issues relevant to what is ultimately a clinical decision made by an oncologist and his or her patient.