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Sample records for zonas urbanas marginadas

  1. Mechanics of sperm-egg interaction at the zona pellucida.

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, J M; Katz, D F; Cone, R A

    1988-01-01

    Mammalian sperm traverse several layers of egg vestments before fertilization can occur. The innermost vestment, the zona pellucida, is a glycoprotein shell, which captures and tethers the sperm before they penetrate it. We report here direct measurements of the force required to tether a motile human sperm as well as independent calculations of this force using flagellar beat parameters observed for sperm of several species on their homologous zonae. We have compared these sperm-generated forces with the calculated tensile strength of sperm-zona bonds, and found that a motile sperm can be tethered, at least temporarily, by a single bond. Therefore, sperm can be captured by the first bond formed and tethered permanently by a few. The sperm cannot subsequently penetrate the zona unless the bonds are first eliminated. However, premature elimination would simply allow the sperm to escape. Therefore, not only must the bonds be eliminated, but the timing of this must be regulated so that the sperm is already oriented toward the egg and beginning to penetrate as the bonds are broken. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:3224150

  2. Scintigraphy of normal mouse ovaries with monoclonal antibodies to ZP-2, the major zona pellucida protein

    SciTech Connect

    East, I.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Larson, S.M.

    1984-08-31

    The zona pellucida is an extracellular glycocalyx, made of three sulfated glycoproteins, that surrounds mammalian oocytes. Parenterally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for ZP-2, the most abundant zona protein, localize in the zona pellucida. When labeled with iodine-125, these monoclonal antibodies demonstrate a remarkably high target-to-nontarget tissue ratio and provide clear external radioimaging of ovarian tissue.

  3. The practical side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Rowan, A; Lamberski, N; Wallace, R; Frank, K; Lyda, R

    2009-12-01

    With shrinking habitat, the humane control of certain wildlife populations is relevant. The contraceptive vaccine based on native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) has been applied to various wildlife populations for 20 years. Prominent efforts include wild horses, urban deer, zoo animals and African elephants, among others. This approach has been successful in managing entire populations and to date, no significant debilitating short- or long-term health effects have been documented.

  4. Transfer of bovine demi-embryos with and without the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S J; Seidel, G E; Elsden, R P

    1987-09-01

    Bisected bovine embryos with or without the zona pellucida were transferred to recipients nonsurgically in five field trials. Embryos were collected from superovulated donors 6.5 to 7.5 d after estrus; only embryos of good and excellent quality were bisected. Demi-embryos were transferred either within a zona pellucida, without a zona pellucida, without a zona pellucida, or in the third and fourth trials, without a zona but embedded in 7% gelatin. Pregnancies were diagnosed at 44 to 68 d of gestation. In a preliminary trial, 9/29 zona pellucida-intact demi-embryos developed into fetuses compared with 1/10 zona pellucida-free demi-embryos (P greater than .1). The proportion of zona-free demi-embryos developing to fetuses was not significantly different from the zona-intact group in the second trial either, 24/49 and 5/19, respectively. In trial 3, the proportion of zona pellucida-free demi-embryos developing was 8/25; of zona-enclosed embryos, 29/88; and of zona-free demi-embryos embedded in gelatin, 8/22 (P greater than .1). Similarly, in the fourth trial the rate of development of zona-free demi-embryos to fetuses was 5/12, that of zona-enclosed embryos was 32/81, and that of zona-free demi-embryos embedded in gelatin was 3/12 (P greater than .1). In trial 5, survival of zona-enclosed demi-embryos to fetuses was 40/105, and of zona-free demi-embryos, 46/109 (P greater than .1). Except for trial 2, half of the demi-embryos were twinned, one to each uterine horn; twinning did not significantly affect the proportion developing to fetuses for any of the demi-embryo groups. It is concluded that placing post-compaction demi-embryos into the zona pellucida for transfer does not improve pregnancy rates significantly.

  5. Viscous forces are predominant in the zona pellucida mechanical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Maiorana, Alessandro; Douet, Cécile; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Goudet, Ghylène; De Spirito, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a multilayer glycoprotein spherical shell surrounding mammalian eggs. The ZP's mechanical response plays a crucial role in mammalian fertilization and is a parameter commonly adopted in "in vitro fertilization" to characterize the oocytes quality. While it is assumed that ZP mechanical response is purely elastic, here we prove that dissipative forces cannot be neglected. Physiologically, this evidence implies that an increase in the spermatozoa motility can induce dramatic changes on the ZP reaction force turning ZP shell in an impenetrable barrier leading to fertility impairments.

  6. Targeting the zona pellucida for immunocontraception: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J

    1995-12-01

    This minireview summarizes the main data relevant to the development of contraceptive vaccines based on zona pellucida (ZP) antigens, as well as the pros and the cons of this immunocontraceptive strategy. Even though the antifertility efficacy of anti-ZP antibodies in humans is not corroborated by a clear relationship between spontaneous autoimmunization against the ZP and infertility, passive and active immunization studies in laboratory animals have provided convincing results. The contraceptive action of anti-ZP antibodies, targeting events situated upstream of gamete fusion, is devoid of potential ethical concerns related to the destruction of early embryos. The high protein content of the mammalian ZP, knowledge of the complete amino acid sequence of the major ZP proteins, and the high degree of sequence homology between individual species all favour the rapid advancement of anti-ZP vaccine projects. However, certain sequences of ZP proteins, when incorporated into the vaccine construct, activate CD4+ T cells of the recipient organism to direct a cellular immune attack (autoimmune oophoritis) to other functionally relevant ovarian components (primordial follicles, steroidogenic cells). The search for the optimal combination of B cell and T cell epitopes in the vaccine construct will hopefully overcome this problem.

  7. Characterization of oocyte retrieval cycles with empty zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Hara, Tomomi; Ohta, Hiroko; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    To identify the factors that characterize cycles with empty zona pellucida (EZP). Thirty-six oocyte retrieval cycles from which EZP were collected and another 36 cycles from which no EZP was collected were compared. The patients were divided into three groups: those with no EZP collected during any cycle, those with EZP collected during all cycles, and those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP. The mean number of oocytes collected per cycle was higher in the cycles with EZP than without EZP. The fertilization rate of the collected oocytes and the rate of good embryo formation were significantly lower in the cycles with EZP. No significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of age, number of oocytes collected, or hormone levels before and after the oocyte retrieval. The fertilization and pregnancy rates were highest in the patients with no EZP being collected during any cycle, followed by those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP, and then by those with EZP collected during all cycles. The observation of lower fertilization, poor embryo formation, and a low pregnancy rate in the patients with EZP suggests the poor quality of oocytes that were collected with EZP in the same cycle.

  8. Microanatomical diversification of the zona pellucida in aplochelioid killifishes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A W; Furness, A I; Stone, C; Rade, C M; Ortí, G

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates zona pellucida (ZP) ultrastructure in fertilized eggs of annual killifishes (suborder Aplocheiloidei), a group of highly specialized fishes that are able to survive desiccation for several weeks to months before they hatch. Little is known about ZP or chorionic ultrastructure sustaining these life-history modes, so scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe this trait in a large number of aplocheiloids with a focus on the family Rivulidae and the genus Hypsolebias. New images of ZP ultrastructure for 52 aplocheiloid species are provided, more than doubling the number characterized thus far. The evolution of chorionic structure within this group is studied using these new data. Characters were coded into a morphological matrix and optimized onto a consensus phylogeny to assess phylogenetic signal and reconstruct ancestral character states. Although ZP characters seem highly homoplastic and exhibit a large amount of structural convergence among lineages, aplocheiloid killifishes have evolved a number of unique structures associated with the chorion. Some annual species seem to have lost long filaments because eggs are deposited in the soil instead of being adhered to aquatic plants. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  10. Zona-free oocyte fertilized with intracytoplasmic sperm injection and underwent further division: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y Y; Chang, C C; Tsai, H D

    2001-09-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) plays a protective role during fertilization and early embryonic development. It is related to sperm binding, the acrosome reaction, prevention of polyspermic fertilization, and holding blastomeres together before the morular stage. Zona-free oocytes are accidentally encountered. If these oocytes are healthy, they can be fertilized normally by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We reported on a couple with male infertility undergoing oocyte retrieval after ovarian hyperstimulation. Before the ICSI procedure, cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes were removed, which resulted in one oocyte escaping from its ZP. The zona-free oocyte was fertilized normally with ICSI and developed to the 8-cell stage. We observed that the zona-free zygote had the ability to further divide, despite its loose contact. The zona-free embryo was transferred with other zona-intact embryos, but the implantation failed. We conclude that zona-free oocytes can be rescued, fertilized with ICSI, and cultured for further transfer or cryopreservation.

  11. The anatomy of the caudal zona incerta in rodents and primates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Charles; Lind, Christopher R P; Thomas, Meghan G

    2014-01-01

    The caudal zona incerta is the target of a recent modification of established procedures for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and tremor. The caudal zona incerta contains a number of neuronal populations that are distinct in terms of their cytoarchitecture, connections, and pattern of immunomarkers and is located at a position where a number of major tracts converge before turning toward their final destination in the forebrain. However, it is not clear which of the anatomical features of the region are related to its value as a target for DBS. This paper has tried to identify features that distinguish the caudal zona incerta of rodents (mouse and rat) and primates (marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human) from the remainder of the zona incerta. We studied cytoarchitecture, anatomical relationships, the pattern of immunomarkers, and gene expression in both of these areas. We found that the caudal zona incerta has a number of histological and gene expression characteristics that distinguish it from the other subdivisions of the zona incerta. Of particular note are the sparse population of GABA neurons and the small but distinctive population of calbindin neurons. We hope that a clearer appreciation of the anatomy of the region will in the end assist the interpretation of cases in which DBS is used in human patients. PMID:24138151

  12. Human sperm degradation of zona pellucida proteins contributes to fertilization.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.

  13. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs.

  14. The English Placement Test at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sun Joo; Haider, Iftikhar; Boyd, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), the English Placement Test (EPT) is the institutional placement test that is used to place students into appropriate English as a second language (ESL) writing and/or pronunciation service courses. The EPT is used to assess the English ability of newly admitted international undergraduate…

  15. Building Preservation: The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Stacks Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Thomas H.; Atkins, Stephanie S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the results of two collection assessments conducted 13 years apart at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Both assessments focused on the central stacks collection, a repository collection serving the institution's 42 branch and departmental libraries. Findings provide insight into the results of deferred collections care and…

  16. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  17. Differences between antigenic determinants of pig and cat zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Rohleder, M; Wegner, I

    2000-05-01

    Despite many efforts, the control of reproduction in feral cat populations is still a problem in urban regions around the world. Immunocontraception is a promising approach; thus the present study examined the suitability of the widely used pig zona pellucida proteins (pZP) for contraception in feral domestic cats. Purified zona pellucida proteins obtained from pig and cat ovaries were used to produce highly specific antisera in rabbits. Antibodies against pZP raised in rabbits or lions were not effective inhibitors of either in vitro sperm binding (cat spermatozoa to cat oocytes) or in vitro fertilization in cats, whereas antibodies against feline zona pellucida proteins (fZP) raised in rabbits showed a dose-dependent inhibition of in vitro fertilization. Immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA and immunohistology of ovaries confirmed these results, showing crossreactivity of anti-fZP sera to fZP and to a lesser extent to pZP, but no interaction of anti-pZP sera with fZP. It is concluded that cat and pig zonae pellucidae express a very small number of shared antigenic determinants, making the use of pZP vaccine in cats questionable. A contraceptive vaccine based on feline zona pellucida determinants will be a better choice for the control of reproduction in feral cats if immunogenity can be achieved.

  18. The formation of zona radiata in Pseudosciaena crocea revealed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The egg envelope is an essential structure occurring during oogenesis. It plays an important role during the process of fertilization in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. Elucidation of egg envelope formation helps us to understand fertilization mechanisms in teleosts. In the present work, we studied the formation of egg envelope in P. crocea by light microscopy, as well as by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Four layers exist outside the oocyte plasmalemma, i.e., theca cell layer, basal membrane, granulosa cell layer and zona radiata. According to our observation, zona radiata is a multilaminar structure just like the same structure reported in teleosts, but the origin of this structure is a little different. Before it is formed, a peripheral space filled with different density of vesicles is the place where zona radiata is formed. Zona radiata (Z1) is secreted only by oocyte itself, it belongs to the primary envelope; zona radiata 2 (Z2) and zona radiata 3 (Z3) belong to the secondary envelope, because the two layers are formed after granulosa cells appear, and microvilli participate this process. It is very interesting that Z2 and Z3 are situated between Z1 and the granulosa cell first, but they translocate to the other side of Z1. This microanatomy difference may due to the participation of microvilli. The new finding about egg envelope formation in P. crocea will help us to do further investigation on fertilization mechanisms and will make artificial breeding possible which may contribute to the resource recovery of this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Observations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the urbana coherent-scatter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, L. D.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Urbana coherent-scatter radar was used to observe the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and 134 hours of data were collected. Horizontal wind measurements show good agreement with balloon-measured winds. Gravity waves were frequently observed, and were enhanced during convective activity. Updrafts and downdrafts were observed within thunderstorms. Power returns are related to hydrostatic stability, and changes in echo specularity are shown.

  20. Laser assisted zona hatching does not lead to immediate impairment in human embryo quality and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Pudakalakatti, Shivanand; Atreya, Hanudatta S; Raval, Keyur; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Laser assisted zona hatching (LAH) is a routinely used therapeutic intervention in assisted reproductive technology for patients with poor prognosis. However, results are not conclusive in demonstrating the benefits of zona hatching in improving the pregnancy rate. Recent observations on LAH induced genetic instability in animal embryos prompted us to look into the effects of laser assisted zona hatching on the human preimplantation embryo quality and metabolic uptake using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. This experimental prospective study included fifty embryos from twenty-five patients undergoing intra cytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryo quality assessment followed by profiling of spent media for the non-invasive evaluation of metabolites was performed using NMR spectroscopy 24 hours after laser treatment and compared with that of non-treated sibling embryos. Both cell number and embryo quality on day 3 of development did not vary significantly between the two groups at 24 hours post laser treatment interval. Time lapse monitoring of the embryos for 24 hours did not reveal blastomere fragmentation adjacent to the point of laser treatment. Similarly, principal component analysis of metabolites did not demonstrate any variation across the groups. These results suggest that laser assisted zona hatching does not affect human preimplantation embryo morphology and metabolism at least until 24 hours post laser assisted zona hatching. However, studies are required to elucidate laser induced metabolic and developmental changes at extended time periods. AH: assisted hatching; ART: assisted reproductive technology; DNA: deoxy-ribo nucleic acid; LAH: laser assisted hatching; MHz: megahertz; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; PCA: principal component analysis; PGD: preimplantation genetic diagnosis; TLM: time lapse monitoring.

  1. Most fertilizing mouse spermatozoa begin their acrosome reaction before contact with the zona pellucida during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mayuko; Fujiwara, Eiji; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Okabe, Masaru; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Baba, Shoji A.; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-01-01

    To fuse with oocytes, spermatozoa of eutherian mammals must pass through extracellular coats, the cumulus cell layer, and the zona pellucida (ZP). It is generally believed that the acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa, essential for zona penetration and fusion with oocytes, is triggered by sperm contact with the zona pellucida. Therefore, in most previous studies of sperm–oocyte interactions in the mouse, the cumulus has been removed before insemination to facilitate the examination of sperm–zona interactions. We used transgenic mouse spermatozoa, which enabled us to detect the onset of the acrosome reaction using fluorescence microscopy. We found that the spermatozoa that began the acrosome reaction before reaching the zona were able to penetrate the zona and fused with the oocyte's plasma membrane. In fact, most fertilizing spermatozoa underwent the acrosome reaction before reaching the zona pellucida of cumulus-enclosed oocytes, at least under the experimental conditions we used. The incidence of in vitro fertilization of cumulus-free oocytes was increased by coincubating oocytes with cumulus cells, suggesting an important role for cumulus cells and their matrix in natural fertilization. PMID:21383182

  2. Fine structure and morphogenesis of spironolactone bodies in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, K.; Horvath, E.; Singer, W.

    1973-01-01

    Numerous spironolactone bodies have been detected in the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex of a 36-year-old spironolactone-treated woman whose non-tumorous right adrenal gland was removed surgically because of primary hyperaldosteronism. Electron microscopy revealed spherical laminated whorls which consisted of a central core composed of an amorphous electron-dense material surrounded by numerous smooth-walled concentric membranes. Continuous with and deriving from the endoplasmic reticulum, they were present in viable cells and were not associated with ultrastructural features indicating cellular injury. Cytoplasmic inclusions similar to spironolactone bodies can be detected in other organs after the administration of various compounds. Thus, they can be regarded as neither specific to spironolactone treatment nor exclusively inducible in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Images PMID:4131694

  3. Body mass index is not associated with sperm-zona pellucida binding ability in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Sermondade, Nathalie; Dupont, Charlotte; Faure, Céline; Boubaya, Marouane; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Sifer, Christophe; Lévy, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as weight and nutritional status may affect male fertility, including sperm fertilization ability. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sperm-zona pellucida binding ability assessed according to the zona binding (ZB) test, which has been described to be a relevant diagnostic tool for the prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability. Three hundred and six male patients from couples diagnosed with primary idiopathic or mild male factor infertility were included. Correlations between BMI and semen parameters according to ZB test indices were assessed, together with frequencies of positive and negative tests across the BMI categories. In this selected population, BMI was not related to conventional semen parameters or sperm quality assessed according to the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. The previously described poor outcomes of IVF procedures in cases of male obesity could be due to other sperm defects, such as alterations of sperm capacitation or acrosome reaction. The link between male BMI and biological outcomes during IVF procedures, such as fertilization rates, should be further evaluated.

  4. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    DOE PAGES

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.; ...

    2017-01-19

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  5. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    SciTech Connect

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  6. Thermal effects in laser-assisted pre-embryo zona drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2001-04-01

    Diode lasers ((lambda) equals 1480 nm) are used with in vitro fertilization to dissect the zone pellucida (shell) of pre- embryos. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel or trench in the zona pellucida. The procedure is used to facilitate biopsy or as a promoter of embryo hatching. We present examples and measurements of zona pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g., by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed- beam experiment a HeNe laser probe is used to detect the temperature-induced change in the refractive index of an aqueous solution, and estimate local thermal gradient. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 degree(s)C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  7. Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Kim, Juhyun; Kim, Dong Won; Zhang, Yi Stephanie; Bao, Hechen; Denaxa, Myrto; Lim, Szu-Aun; Kim, Eileen; Liu, Chang; Wickersham, Ian R.; Pachnis, Vassilis; Hattar, Samer; Song, Juan; Brown, Solange P.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple populations of wake-promoting neurons have been characterized in mammals, but few sleep-promoting neurons have been identified1. Wake-promoting cell types include hypocretin and GABA (γ-aminobutyric-acid)-releasing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, which promote the transition to wakefulness from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep2,3. Here we show that a subset of GABAergic neurons in the mouse ventral zona incerta, which express the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx6 and are activated by sleep pressure, both directly inhibit wake-active hypocretin and GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus and receive inputs from multiple sleep–wake-regulating neurons. Conditional deletion of Lhx6 from the developing diencephalon leads to decreases in both NREM and REM sleep. Furthermore, selective activation and inhibition of Lhx6-positive neurons in the ventral zona incerta bidirectionally regulate sleep time in adult mice, in part through hypocretin-dependent mechanisms. These studies identify a GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the ventral zona incerta that promote sleep. PMID:28847002

  8. Secondary metabolites produced by Sardiniella urbana, a new emerging pathogen on European hackberry.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Maddau, Lucia; Masi, Marco; Linaldeddu, Benedetto Teodoro; Evidente, Antonio

    2018-05-30

    In this study the production of secondary metabolites by a virulent strain of Sardiniella urbana, a recently described pathogen originally found on declining European hackberry trees in Italy, was investigated for the first time. Chemical analysis of the culture filtrate extracts led to the isolation of three well known compounds as R-(-)-mellein and (3R,4R)-and (3R,4S)-4-hydroxy melleins which were identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially NMR and ESIMS). The isolated compounds were tested for their phytotoxic, antifungal and zootoxic activities. Among them, only R-(-)-mellein was found to be active.

  9. Aeronomy report no. 74: The Urbana meteor-radar system; design, development, and first observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, G. C.; Geller, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The design, development, and first observations of a high power meteor-radar system located near Urbana, Illinois are described. The roughly five-fold increase in usable echo rate compared to other facilities, along with automated digital data processing and interferometry measurement of echo arrival angles, permits unsurpassed observations of tidal structure and shorter period waves. Such observations are discussed. The technique of using echo decay rates to infer density and scale height and the method of inferring wind shear from radial acceleration are examined. An original experiment to test a theory of the Delta-region winter anomaly is presented.

  10. Laser-assisted zona pellucida thinning does not facilitate hatching and may disrupt the in vitro hatching process: a morphokinetic study in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Tim; Cohen, Jacques; Saunders, Helen; Alikani, Mina

    2014-12-01

    Does laser-assisted zona thinning of cleavage stage mouse embryos facilitate hatching in vitro? No, unlike laser zona opening, zona thinning does not facilitate embryo hatching. Artificial opening of the zona pellucida facilitates hatching of mouse and human embryos. Laser-assisted zona thinning has also been used for the purpose of assisted hatching of human embryos but it has not been properly investigated in an animal model; thinning methods have produced inconsistent clinical results. Time-lapse microscopy was used to study the hatching process in the mouse after zona opening and zona thinning; a control group of embryos was not zona-manipulated but exposed to the same laser energy. Eight-cell CB6F1/J mouse embryos were pooled and allocated to three groups (n = 56 per group): A control group of embryos that were exposed to a dose of laser energy focused outside the zona pellucida (zona intact); one experimental group of embryos in which the zona pellucida was opened by complete ablation using the same total number of pulses as the control group; a second experimental group of embryos in which the zona pellucida was thinned to establish a smooth lased area using the same number of pulses as used in the other two groups. The width of the zona opening was 25 μm and width of the thinned area was 35 μm. Development was monitored by time-lapse microscopy. Overall treatment differences for continuous variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons using the Student t-test allowing for unequal variances, while for categorical data, a standard chi-squared test was utilized for all pairwise comparisons. The frequency of complete hatching was 33.9% in the control group, 94.4% after zona opening, and 39.3% after zona thinning (overall group comparison, P < 0.0001). Overall, 60.7% of the zona-thinned embryos did not complete the hatching process and remained trapped within the zona; when they did hatch, they did not necessarily hatch from the zona

  11. Sperm Proteasomes Degrade Sperm Receptor on the Egg Zona Pellucida during Mammalian Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Shawn W.; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Yi, Young-Joo; Gupta, Satish K.; Sutovsky, Miriam; Odhiambo, John F.; Powell, Michael D.; Miller, David J.; Sutovsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP) remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP) solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL), a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and significantly reduced

  12. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiye; Wang, Lishan; Endoh, Akira; Hummelke, Geoffrey; Hawks, Christina L; Hornsby, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish whether there are differences in DNA-binding proteins between zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) cells of the human adrenal cortex, we prepared nuclear extracts from separated ZF and ZR cells. The formation of DNA-protein complexes was studied using an element in the first intron of the type I and type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes (HSD3B1 and HSD3B2). Using the element in the HSD3B2 gene as a probe, a complex (C1) was formed with extracts from ZF cells but was formed only at a low level with ZR cell extracts. Another pair of complexes (C2/C3) was formed with both ZF and ZR cell extracts. The ZF-specific protein forming C1 was enriched by column chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose. Oligonucleotide competition analysis on the enriched fraction gave results consistent with those obtained on the unfractionated material. A further enrichment was brought about by passing the protein over an oligonucleotide affinity column based on the HSD3B2 element. The protein bound to the column was identified as alpha-enolase by mass spectrometry. Although alpha-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme, it binds to specific DNA sequences and has been found to be present in nuclei of various cell types. We performed immunohistochemistry on sections of adult human adrenal cortex and found alpha-enolase to be located in nuclei of ZF cells but to be predominantly cytoplasmic in ZR cells. Transfection of an alpha-enolase expression vector into NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells increased HSD3B2 promoter activity, suggesting a possible functional role for this protein in regulation of HSD3B2 expression.

  13. Uncertainty in a College-Town Housing Market: The Case of the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadayuki, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the costs that arise from uncertainty in the college-town housing market in the Urbana-Champaign metropolitan area, the home of the University of Illinois. This research resulted in two principal findings. First, the rental price of housing owned by property owners having more than 10 claims filed against them…

  14. A Survey of Journal Use Within the Undergraduate Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopasek, Katherine; O'Brien, Nancy Patricia

    A survey was conducted from mid-January to mid-April 1980 in order to evaluate patterns of use for individual titles within the periodical section of the Undergraduate Library (UGL) of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Bound volume usage was measured by affixing self-adhesive markers to volume spines when reshelving, and later…

  15. Rank, Pay, and Representation of Women on the Faculty at the Urbana-Champaign Campus of the University of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Marianne; Loeb, Jane

    This report presents information on the employment status of women at the Urbana-Champaign campus of the University of Illinois. Discussed are: (1) the representation, rank, and pay of females on the faculty; (2) representation of women in administrative positions; (3) representation of women on the faculty versus representation in the labor…

  16. Network Monitoring and Fault Detection on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus Computer Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sng, Dennis Cheng-Hong

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) has a large campus computer network serving a community of about 20,000 users. With such a large network, it is inevitable that there are a wide variety of technologies co-existing in a multi-vendor environment. Effective network monitoring tools can help monitor traffic and link usage, as well…

  17. Pentoxifylline increases sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes without increasing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Llanos, M; Yovich, J L; Cummins, J M; Vigil, P

    1993-01-01

    Several drugs have been used to stimulate human sperm motility, including 3-deoxy-adenosine, caffeine, and pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase and may stimulate sperm motility by increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP. In this study we have evaluated the effect of pentoxifylline in the outcome of the sperm penetration assay into zona-free hamster oocytes. Twenty-seven semen samples, obtained for diagnostic purposes, were used. After the motile sperm were selected by the swim-up technique, the samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was incubated with 1 mg ml-1 of pentoxifylline at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 for 30 min. The control aliquot was incubated with culture medium. The samples were then washed and resuspended in fresh, pentoxifylline-free medium, at a sperm concentration of 10 x 10(6) cells ml-1. One hundred microlitres of each sperm suspension was then deposited under oil and 30-40 zona-free hamster oocytes were added. After 6 h of gamete coincubation, the percentage of penetrated oocytes and the number of decondensed sperm heads were evaluated. The percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm was evaluated using the Pisum sativum lectin. The percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated was increased after pentoxifylline-treatment. The percentage of acrosome reacted sperm and the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg were not different between the control and the pentoxifylline-treated groups. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of pentoxifylline upon the sperm cells is not mediated by stimulation of the acrosome reaction.

  18. La Desercion Escolar en los Niveles de Sexto y Noveno Grado: Una Comparacion Entre Zonas Rurales y Urbanas. Boletin 219 (The Educational Desertion in the 6th and 9th Grades: A Comparison Between Rural and Urban Zones. Bulletin 219).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria I. Hernandez; And Others

    In 1962 and again in 1965, a group of sixth and ninth grade students in selected schools in four Puerto Rican communities were interviewed to investigate the factors influencing students' decision to withdraw from school before completing twelfth grade and to identify some characteristics of dropouts. Of 616 students interviewed in 1962, 20.9% of…

  19. Human sperm bind to the N-terminal domain of ZP2 in humanized zonae pellucidae in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baibakov, Boris; Boggs, Nathan A.; Yauger, Belinda; Baibakov, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization requires taxon-specific gamete recognition, and human sperm do not bind to zonae pellucidae (ZP1–3) surrounding mouse eggs. Using transgenesis to replace endogenous mouse proteins with human homologues, gain-of-function sperm-binding assays were established to evaluate human gamete recognition. Human sperm bound only to zonae pellucidae containing human ZP2, either alone or coexpressed with other human zona proteins. Binding to the humanized matrix was a dominant effect that resulted in human sperm penetration of the zona pellucida and accumulation in the perivitelline space, where they were unable to fuse with mouse eggs. Using recombinant peptides, the site of gamete recognition was located to a defined domain in the N terminus of ZP2. These results provide experimental evidence for the role of ZP2 in mediating sperm binding to the zona pellucida and support a model in which human sperm–egg recognition is dependent on an N-terminal domain of ZP2, which is degraded after fertilization to provide a definitive block to polyspermy. PMID:22734000

  20. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.

  1. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  2. Functional TASK-3-Like Channels in Mitochondria of Aldosterone-Producing Zona Glomerulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junlan; McHedlishvili, David; McIntire, William E; Guagliardo, Nick A; Erisir, Alev; Coburn, Craig A; Santarelli, Vincent P; Bayliss, Douglas A; Barrett, Paula Q

    2017-08-01

    Ca 2+ drives aldosterone synthesis in the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of the adrenal zona glomerulosa cell. Membrane potential across each of these compartments regulates the amplitude of the Ca 2+ signal; yet, only plasma membrane ion channels and their role in regulating cell membrane potential have garnered investigative attention as pathological causes of human hyperaldosteronism. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of TASK-3 channels (tandem pore domain acid-sensitive K + channels) from mice produces aldosterone excess in the absence of a change in the cell membrane potential of zona glomerulosa cells. Here, we report using yeast 2-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and electron microscopic analyses that TASK-3 channels are resident in mitochondria, where they regulate mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, and aldosterone production. This study provides proof of principle that mitochondrial K + channels, by modulating inner mitochondrial membrane morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential, have the ability to play a pathological role in aldosterone dysregulation in steroidogenic cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Zona pellucida gene mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer retardance and fertilization competence.

    PubMed

    Canosa, S; Adriaenssens, T; Coucke, W; Dalmasso, P; Revelli, A; Benedetto, C; Smitz, J

    2017-05-01

    Do the mRNA expression levels of zona pellucida (ZP) genes, ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in oocyte and cumulus cells (CC) reveal relevant information on the oocyte? The ZP mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer (IL) retardance and fertilization capacity. ZP structure and birefringence provide useful information on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, developmental competence for embryonic growth, blastocyst formation and pregnancy. In order to understand the molecular basis of morphological changes in the ZP, in the current study, the polarized light microscopy (PLM) approach was combined with analysis of the expression of the genes encoding ZP1, 2, 3 and 4, both in the oocytes and in the surrounding CC. This is a retrospective study comprising 98 supernumerary human cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) [80 Metaphase II (MII), 10 Metaphase I (MI) and 8 germinal vesicle (GV)] obtained from 39 patients (median age 33.4 years, range 22-42) after controlled ovarian stimulation. Single oocytes and their corresponding CC were analysed. Oocytes were examined using PLM, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed for ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in these individual oocytes and their CC. Ephrin-B2 (EFNB2) mRNA was measured in CC as a control. Presence of ZP3 protein in CC and oocytes was investigated using immunocytochemistry. Data were analysed using one-parametric and multivariate analysis and were corrected for the potential impact of patient and cycle characteristics. Oocytes contained ZP1/2/3 and 4 mRNA while in CC only ZP3 was quantifiable. Also ZP3 protein was detected in human CC. When comparing mature (MII) and immature oocytes (MI/GV) or their corresponding CC, ZP1/2 and 4 expression was lower in mature oocytes compared to the expression in immature oocytes (all P < 0.05) and ZP3 expression was lower in the CC of mature oocytes compared to the expression in CC of immature oocytes (P < 0.05). This coincided with a significantly smaller IL-ZP area and thickness in

  4. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    SciTech Connect

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.

    1984-02-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodiesmore » in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.« less

  6. Structural Analysis of Peptide-Analogues of Human Zona Pellucida ZP1 Protein with Amyloidogenic Properties: Insights into Mammalian Zona Pellucida Formation

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Nikolaos N.; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A.; Giannelou, Polina; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

    2013-01-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix surrounding and protecting mammalian and fish oocytes, which is responsible for sperm binding. Mammalian ZP consists of three to four glycoproteins, called ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4. These proteins polymerize into long interconnected filaments, through a common structural unit, known as the ZP domain, which consists of two domains, ZP-N and ZP-C. ZP is related in function to silkmoth chorion and in an evolutionary fashion to the teleostean fish chorion, also fibrous structures protecting the oocyte and embryo, that both have been proven to be functional amyloids. Two peptides were predicted as ‘aggregation-prone’ by our prediction tool, AMYLPRED, from the sequence of the human ZP1-N domain. Here, we present results from transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Congo red staining and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), of two synthetic peptide-analogues of these predicted ‘aggregation-prone’ parts of the human ZP1-N domain, that we consider crucial for ZP protein polymerization, showing that they both self-assemble into amyloid-like fibrils. Based on our experimental data, we propose that human ZP (hZP) might be considered as a novel, putative, natural protective amyloid, in close analogy to silkmoth and teleostean fish chorions. Experiments are in progress to verify this proposal. We also attempt to provide insights into ZP formation, proposing a possible model for hZP1-N domain polymerization. PMID:24069181

  7. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  9. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  10. The pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation in human sperm in response to binding to zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny; Huszar, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP.

  11. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  12. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere at Urbana, Ill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Miller, M. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    During 13 nights of Rayleigh lidar measurements at Urbana, Ill. in 1984 to 1986, thirty-six quasi-monochromatic gravity waves were observed in the 35 to 50 km altitude region of the stratosphere. The characteristics of the waves are compared with other lidar and radar measurements of gravity waves and the theoretical models of wave saturation and dissipation phenomena. The measured vertical wavelengths ranged from 2 to 11.5 km and the measured vertical phase velocities ranged from 10 to 85 cm/s. The vertical wavelengths and vertical phase velocities were used to infer observed wave periods which ranged from 100 to 1000 min and horizontal wavelengths which ranged from 70 to 2000 km. Dominant wave activity was found at vertical wavelengths between 2 to 4 km and 7 to 10 km. No significant seasonal variations were evident in the observed parameters. Vertical and horizontal wavelengths showed a clear tendency to increase with wave periods, which is consistent with recent sodium lidar studies of quasi-monochromatic waves near the mesopause. An average amplitude growth length of 20.9 km for the rms wind perturbations was estimated from the data. Kinetic energy density associated with the waves decreased with height, suggesting that waves in this altitude region were subject to dissipation or saturation effects.

  13. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Körschgen, Hagen; Kuske, Michael; Karmilin, Konstantin; Yiallouros, Irene; Balbach, Melanie; Floehr, Julia; Wachten, Dagmar; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Stöcker, Walter

    2017-09-01

    How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH. Female mice deficient in the extracellular circulating ovastacin-inhibitor fetuin-B are infertile due to pre-mature ZPH. We isolated oocytes from wild-type and ovastacin-deficient (Astlnull) FVB mice before and after fertilization (in vitro and in vivo) and quantified ovastacin activity and cleavage of ZP2 by immunoblot. We assessed ZPH by measuring ZP digestion time using α-chymotrypsin and by determining ZP2 cleavage. We determined cellular distribution of ovastacin by immunofluorescence using domain-specific ovastacin antibodies. Experiments were performed at least in triplicate with a minimum of 20 oocytes. Data were pre-analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of normal distribution, significance was determined via two-sided Student's t-test, whereas in case of non-normal distribution via Mann-Whitney U-test. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes contained both inactive pro-ovastacin and activated ovastacin. Immunoblot and ZP digestion assays revealed a partial cleavage of ZP2 even before fertilization in wild-type mice. Partial cleavage coincided with germinal-vesicle breakdown and MII, despite the presence of fetuin-B protein, an endogenous ovastacin inhibitor, in the follicular and oviductal fluid. Upon exocytosis, part of the C-terminal domain of ovastacin remained attached to the plasmalemma, while the N-terminal active ovastacin domain was secreted. This finding may resolve previously conflicting data showing that ovastacin acts both as an oolemmal receptor termed SAS1B (sperm acrosomal SLLP1 binding protein; SLLP, sperm lysozyme like

  14. Mapping the potential beverage quality of coffee produced in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Samuel de Assis; de Queiroz, Daniel Marçal; Ferreira, Williams Pinto Marques; Corrêa, Paulo Cesar; Rufino, José Luis Dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of coffee production systems enables optimization of crop management, harvesting and post-harvest techniques. In this study, coffee quality is mapped as a function of coffee variety, altitude and terrain aspect attributes. The work was performed in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A large range of coffee quality grades was observed for the Red Catuai variety. For the Yellow Catuai variety, no quality grades lower than 70 were observed. Regarding the terrain aspect, samples from the southeast-facing slope (SEFS) and the northwest-facing slope (NWFS) exhibited distinct behaviors. The SEFS samples had a greater range of quality grades than did the NWFS samples. The highest grade was obtained from an NWFS point. The lowest quality values and the largest range of grades were observed at lower altitudes. The extracts from the highest-altitude samples did not produce any low-quality coffee. The production site's position and altitude are the primary variables that influenced the coffee quality. The study area has micro-regions with grades ranging from 80 to 94. These areas have the potential for producing specialty coffees. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  16. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties. PMID:19828504

  17. Detection of angiotensin II binding to single adrenal zona glomerulosa cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Michael J.; Habermann, Timothy J.; Hanke, Craig J.; Adar, Fran; Campbell, William B.; Nithipatikom, Kasem

    1999-04-01

    We developed a confocal Raman microspectroscopic technique to study ligand-receptor bindings in single cells using Raman-labeled ligands and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were used as a model in this study. ZG cells have a high density of angiotensin II (AII) receptors on the cellular membrane. There are two identified subtypes of AII receptors,namely AT1 and AT2 receptors. AII is a peptidic hormone, which upon binding to its receptors, stimulates the release of aldosterone from ZG cells. The cellular localization of these receptors subtypes was detected in single ZG cells by using immunocomplexation of receptors with specific antibodies and confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In the binding study, we used biotin-labeled AII to bind to its receptors in ZG cells. Then, avidin and Raman-labeled AII. The binding was measure directly on the single ZG cells. The results showed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled AII and specific AII antagonists. This is a rapid and sensitive technique for detection of cellular ligand bindings as well as antagonists screening in drug discovery.

  18. Capital social de los padres de escolares de una zona vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Susana; Herrera, Ariel; Hilas, Elena; Gigena, Y Pablo

    2018-01-01

    El capital social supone importantes inversiones materiales, simbólicas y de esfuerzos. Conocer el capital social de una comunidad puede facilitar la comprensión del beneficio de las relaciones comunitarias para la promoción de salud. Con el objetivo de reconocer los componentes del capital social de padres de escolares atendiendo una escuela en una zona vulnerable de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, indagamos a través de grupos focales acerca de elementos esenciales del capital social. La asintonía socio-cultural entre los pobladores originarios y los reubicados, la estigmatización policial y el clientelismo político han generado desconfianza del uno hacia el otro en diferentes aspectos convivenciales, siendo la familia la única red de apoyo. La escuela se reconoce como espacio adonde la gente espontáneamente se organiza para invertir en redes sociales, presentándose así con potencialidad para la promoción de conductas saludables, por el lugar simbólico que ocupa para los padres.

  19. Phosphorylation of zona occludens-2 by protein kinase C epsilon regulates its nuclear exportation.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, David; Alarcón, Lourdes; Ponce, Arturo; Tapia, Rocio; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Robles-Flores, Martha; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Segovia, José; Bandala, Yamir; Juaristi, Eusebio; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-09-01

    Here, we have analyzed the subcellular destiny of newly synthesized tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2. After transfection in sparse cells, 74% of cells exhibit ZO-2 at the nucleus, and after 18 h the value decreases to 17%. The mutation S369A located within the nuclear exportation signal 1 of ZO-2 impairs the nuclear export of the protein. Because Ser369 represents a putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, we tested the effect of PKC inhibition and stimulation on the nuclear export of ZO-2. Our results strongly suggest that the departure of ZO-2 from the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser369 by novel PKCepsilon. To test the route taken by ZO-2 from synthesis to the plasma membrane, we devised a novel nuclear microinjection assay in which the nucleus served as a reservoir for anti-ZO-2 antibody. Through this assay, we demonstrate that a significant amount of newly synthesized ZO-2 goes into the nucleus and is later relocated to the plasma membrane. These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2.

  20. Demi-embryo production from hatching of zona-drilled bovine and rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Skrzyszowska, M; Smorag, Z; Katska, L

    1997-09-01

    It is known that the pregnancy rate resulting after transfer of bisected embryos is lower than after transfer of whole embryos. The main reason is the reduced cell number in the demi-embryo which is less than 1 2 of that in the intact embryo, since a number of blastomeres is damaged as a result of the procedure used in conventional embryo splitting. The aim of our experiment was to develop a non-invasive procedure which would limit cell losses during microsurgery. The experiment was carried out on bovine IVM-IVF embryos at middle, late and expanded blastocyst stage and rabbit embryos at late blastocyst stage cultured in vitro from in vivo produced zygotes. The zona pellucida of these embryos was drilled on the line between the inner cell mass and the trophoblast using a glass microneedle (

  1. A Flexure-Guided Piezo Drill for Penetrating the Zona Pellucida of Mammalian Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.

  2. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2018-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.

  3. Orexin Gene Transfer into Zona Incerta Neurons Suppresses Muscle Paralysis in Narcoleptic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Konadhode, RodaRani; Begum, Suraiya; Pelluru, Dheeraj; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2011-01-01

    Cataplexy, a sudden unexpected muscle paralysis, is a debilitating symptom of the neurodegenerative sleep disorder, narcolepsy. During these attacks, the person is paralyzed, but fully conscious and aware of their surroundings. To identify potential neurons that might serve as surrogate orexin neurons to suppress such attacks, the gene for orexin (hypocretin), a peptide lost in most human narcoleptics, was delivered into the brains of the orexin-ataxin-3 transgenic mouse model of human narcolepsy. Three weeks after the recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV)-mediated orexin gene transfer, sleep–wake behavior was assessed. rAAV-orexin gene delivery into neurons of the zona incerta (ZI), or the lateral hypothalamus (LH) blocked cataplexy. Orexin gene transfer into the striatum or in the melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the ZI or LH had no such effect, indicating site specificity. In transgenic mice lacking orexin neurons but given rAAV-orexin, detectable levels of orexin-A were evident in the CSF, indicating release of the peptide from the surrogate neurons. Retrograde tracer studies showed that the amygdala innervates the ZI consistent with evidence that strong emotions trigger cataplexy. In turn, the ZI projects to the locus ceruleus, indicating that the ZI is part of a circuit that stabilizes motor tone. Our results indicate that these neurons might also be recruited to block the muscle paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:21508228

  4. Glycoprotein from the liver constitutes the inner layer of the egg envelope (zona pellucida interna) of the fish, Oryzias latipes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamazaki, T.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Iuchi, I.

    1989-05-01

    A glycoprotein from the liver, which shares epitopes with chorion (egg envelope or zona pellucida) glycoproteins, is present only in the spawning female fish, Oryzias latipes, under natural conditions. This spawning female-specific (SF) substance is distinct from vitellogenin but closely resembles a major glycoprotein component, ZI-3, of the inner layer (zona radiata interna) of the ovarian egg envelope with respect to some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics. Here we report that the (/sup 125/I)SF substance, injected into the abdominal cavity of the spawning female fish, was rapidly transported by the blood circulation into the ovary and incorporated into the inner layermore » of egg envelope of the growing oocytes. The result strongly suggests that the SF substance from the liver is a precursor substance of the major component, ZI-3, of the inner layer of egg envelope in the fish.« less

  5. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  6. Sperm Mitochondrial Integrity Is Not Required for Hyperactivated Motility, Zona Binding, or Acrosome Reaction in the Rhesus Macaque1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Miller, Marion G.; Meyers, Stuart A.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Whether the main energy source for sperm motility is from oxidative phosphorylation or glycolysis has been long-debated in the field of reproductive biology. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we examined the role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in sperm function by using alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH), a glycolysis inhibitor, and pentachlorophenol (PCP), an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler. Sperm treated with ACH showed no change in percentage of motile sperm, although sperm motion was impaired. The ACH-treated sperm did not display either hyperactivity- or hyperactivation-associated changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. When treated with PCP, sperm motion parameters were affected by the highest level of PCP (200 μM); however, PCP did not cause motility impairments even after chemical activation. Sperm treated with PCP were able to display hyperactivity and tyrosine phosphorylation after chemical activation. In contrast with motility measurements, treatment with either the glycolytic inhibitor or the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor did not affect sperm-zona binding and zona-induced acrosome reaction. The results suggest glycolysis is essential to support sperm motility, hyperactivity, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, while energy from oxidative phosphorylation is not necessary for hyperactivated sperm motility, tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm-zona binding, and acrosome reaction in the rhesus macaque. PMID:18480469

  7. Outcomes from stimulation of the caudal zona incerta and pedunculopontine nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaquate; Mooney, Lucy; Plaha, Puneet; Javed, Shazia; White, Paul; Whone, Alan L; Gill, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    Axial symptoms including postural instability, falls and failure of gait initiation are some of the most disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in combination with the caudal zona incerta (cZi) in order to determine their efficacy in alleviating these symptoms. Seven patients with predominant axial symptoms in both the 'on' and 'off' medication states underwent bilateral cZi and PPN DBS. Motor outcomes were assessed using the motor component of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS 3) and a composite axial subscore was derived from items 27, 28, 29 and 30 (arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability). Quality of life was measured using the PDQ39. Comparisons were made between scores obtained at baseline and those at a mean follow-up of 12 months. In both the off and on medication states, a statistically significant improvement in the UPDRS part 3 score was achieved by stimulation of the PPN, cZi and both in combination. In the off medication state, our composite axial subscore of the UPDRS part 3 improved with stimulation of the PPN, cZi and both in combination. The composite axial subscore, in the 'on' medication state, however, only showed a statistically significant improvement when a combination of cZi and PPN stimulation was used. This study provides evidence that a combination of PPN and cZi stimulation can achieve a significant improvement in the hitherto untreatable 'on' medication axial symptoms of PD.

  8. Vitrification of zona-free rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts: a possible model for human blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Garcia-Ximénez, F

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of one two-step (A) and two one-step (B1 and B2) vitrification procedures on denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts held in standard sealed plastic straws as a possible model for human blastocysts. The effect of blastocyst size was also studied on the basis of three size categories (I: diameter <200 micro m; II: diameter 200-299 micro m; III: diameter >/==" BORDER="0">300 micro m). Rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts were vitrified at day 4 or 5. Before vitrification, the zona pellucida was removed using acidic phosphate buffered saline. For the two-step procedure, prior to vitrification, blastocysts were pre- equilibrated in a solution containing 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 1 min. Different final vitrification solutions were compared: 20% DMSO and 20% EG with (A and B1) or without (B2) 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Of 198 vitrified blastocysts, 181 (91%) survived, regardless of the vitrification procedure applied. Vitrification procedure A showed significantly higher re-expansion (88%), attachment (86%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (80%) rates than the two one-step vitrification procedures, B1 and B2 (46 and 21%, 20 and 33%, and 18 and 23%, respectively). After warming, blastocysts of greater size (II and III) showed significantly higher attachment (54 and 64%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (44 and 58%) rates than smaller blastocysts (I, attachment: 29%; trophectoderm outgrowth: 25%). These result demonstrate that denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts of greater size can be satisfactorily vitrified by use of a two-step procedure. The similarity of vitrification solutions used in humans could make it feasible to test such a procedure on human denuded blastocysts of different sizes.

  9. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  10. [Molecules involved in sperm-zona pellucida interaction in mammals. Role in human fertility].

    PubMed

    Serres, Catherine; Auer, Jana; Petit, François; Patrat, Catherine; Jouannet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Fertilization in mammals requires an initial interaction of sperm with the oocyte envelope, the zona pellucida (ZP), before it reaches the oocyte. ZP is a highly glycosylated structure, composed of three (mouse) or four (rabbit, boar, bovine, humans...) glycoproteins. The presence of ZP around the oocyte does not allow heterospecific fertilization. This barrier is principally due to the presence of species-specific glycosylations on ZP proteins. Sperm bind ZP by means of membrane receptors which recognize carbohydrate moieties on ZP glycoproteins according to a well-precised sequential process. Upon initial attachment, spermatozoa bind ZP3/ZP4 which induces the sperm acrosome exocytosis followed by a secondary binding of acrosome reacted spermatozoa to ZP2 and by ZP penetration. The sperm receptors are adhesive proteins or integral plasma membrane proteins linked to intraspermatic signalling pathways activating the acrosome reaction. Over the last twenty years, numerous studies have been carried out to identify sperm receptors to ZP in several species, but the data in humans are still incomplete. Work initiated in our research group has identified several proteins interacting with recombinant human ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4, among which are glycolytic enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the gamete interaction by means of their affinity to sugars and not by their catalytic properties. From a clinical point of view, an observed lack or weak expression of some sperm receptors to ZP3 in cases of idiopathic infertility associated with in vitro fertilization failure suggests that knowing the molecular mechanism driving the gamete recognition can be important at the diagnostic level. Furthermore, it has been shown that proteins that mediate gamete recognition diverge rapidly, as a result of positive darwinian selection. A sexual conflict can drive co-evolution of reproductive molecules in both sexes resulting in reproductive isolation and species emergence.

  11. Effects of acrolein on aldosterone release from zona glomerulosa cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Lee; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lai, Wei-Ho; Idova, Galina; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    A positive correlation between smoking and hypertension has been well established. Acrolein is a major toxic volatile compound found in cigarette smoke. Human exposure to low levels of acrolein is unavoidable due to its production in daily activities, such as smoke from industrial, hot oil cooking vapors, and exhaust fumes from vehicles. The toxicity and the action mechanism of acrolein to induce apoptosis have been extensively studied, but the effects of acrolein on hypertension are still unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acrolein on aldosterone release both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were divided into three groups, and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, or acrolein (2mg/kg) for 1 (group A-1) or 3 (group A-3) days, respectively. After sacrificing, rat blood samples were obtained to measure plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were prepared from rat adrenal cortex, and were incubated with or without stimulants. We found that the serum aldosterone was increased by 1.2-fold (p<0.05) in A-3 group as compared to control group. Basal aldosterone release from ZG cells in A-3 group was also increased significantly. Moreover, acrolein enhanced the stimulatory effects of Ang II and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells prepared in both A-1 and A-3 groups. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of P450scc, the rate-limiting step of aldosterone synthesis, was elevated after acrolein injection. Plasma level of Ang II was increased in both A-1 and A-3 groups. These results suggested that acrolein exposure increased aldosterone production, at least in part, through elevating the level of plasma Ang II and stimulating steroidogenesis pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced contraception of canine zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine via targeting DEC-205 in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Jinyao; Aipire, Adila; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun

    2018-06-01

    Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a potential antigen for the development of contraceptive vaccines to control animal population. In this study, we designed a canine ZP3 (CZP3) DNA vaccine through targeting DEC-205 (named as pcD-scFv-CZP3c) and investigated its contraceptive effect in mice. Female BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized 3 times at 2 weeks intervals. After immunization, humoral and cellular immune responses were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry. The results showed that pcD-CZP3 and pcD-scFv-CZP3c induced CZP3-specific antibody (Ab) responses both in serum and vaginal secretions compared to pcDNA3.1. Additionally, compared to pcD-CZP3, pcD-scFv-CZP3c increased the levels of CZP3-specific Abs after a third immunization. Abs induced by these two DNA vaccines could bind with mice and dogs oocytes. Moreover, pcD-scFv-CZP3c enhanced the activation of CD4 + T cells characterized by the increased frequencies of CD4 + CD44 + T cells. Finally, the contraceptive effect was evaluated in the immunized mice. These two DNA vaccines significantly decreased a mean litter size of mice compared to pcDNA3.1, but pcD-scFv-CZP3c group showed the smallest mean litter size. The mean litter size of pcD-scFv-CZP3 were 3.2 ± 0.742 and 4.6 ± 1.118 in two mating tests, which were significantly lower than pcDNA3.1(P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the CZP3 DNA vaccine targeted with DEC-205 may be a potential strategy for developing a contraceptive DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-Year Comparison of Transfer and Native Student Academic Performance: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Fall 1986 Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Linda M.; Abbed, Nejla

    In 1989, a two-year study was completed comparing the academic progress of community college transfers, senior college transfers, and continuing juniors (natives) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The study samples were comprised of 673 former community college students and 393 senior college transfers who entered UIUC in…

  14. Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Claudia G; Vagnini, Laura D; Mauri, Ana L; Massaro, Fabiana C; Silva, Liliane F I; Cavagna, Mario; Baruffi, Ricardo L R; Oliveira, Joao B A; Franco, José G

    2011-04-23

    This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF) intensity and the nuclear (NM) and cytoplasmic (CM) in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence) or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence). CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs) throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9%) reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081). Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6%) showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2%) presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3%) with incomplete CM, 18 (50%) presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11). The current study demonstrated an absence of

  15. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pichardo, J E; Ducolomb, Y; Romo, S; Kjelland, M E; Fierro, R; Casillas, F; Betancourt, M

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU) or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP) binding. Experiment 1, 4-20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN). Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively) but statistically differents ( P  < 0.05) than mechanical activated oocytes in sham, ICSI and sham injection (13, 25, 32 %, respectively) (10-17 replicates; n  = 429). Experiment 2: Twelve ejaculates and 28 straws of semen were used (11-19 replicates). Sperm were selected by SU in BSA-TCM 199-H medium. A total of 2,294 fresh sperm and 2,760 from frozen-thawed semen were analyzed after SU or SU + ZP binding. Fresh sperm selected by SU showed acrosome reaction (AR) of 59 %, the sperm selected by SU + ZP binding increased AR to 91 %. In comparison, the AR of frozen-thawed sperm using SU or SU + ZP binding was 77 and 86 %, respectively ( P  < 0.05). Experiment 3: fertilization in 200 mechanical activativated oocytes (17 replicates) was 4 %, but fertilization increased in ethanol activated oocytes after ICSI (12-28 %) (5-6 replicates). When fresh sperm only selected by SU were injected to 123 oocytes, a fertilization rate (28 %) was achieved; in sperm selected by SU + ZP was 25 % (73 oocytes). In comparison, in frozen-thawed sperm selected by SU, fertilization was 13 % (70 oocytes), whereas sperm from SU + ZP binding displayed 12 % (51 oocytes) ( P  > 0.05). Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU

  16. Two subunits of the 55 K porcine zona pellucida glycoprotein family are immunologically distinct

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.G.; Yurewicz, E.C.; Sacco, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The 55K glycoprotein family (ZP3) of the porcine zona pellucida is comprised of two subunits of 46 K and 45 K which can be resolved by endo-..beta..-galactosidase digestion of ZP3 followed by reversed phase HPLC on Vydac C4 resin. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the 46 K component (EBDG..cap alpha..) is approx. 95% pure and the 45 K component (EBGD..beta..) is 100% pure. In the present study, these two subunits were evaluated immunologically by RIA. Under similar reaction protocols (chloramine-T iodination procedure) comparable specific activities were obtained for EBGD..cap alpha.. (33.06 +/- 7.5 ..mu..ci/..mu..gm), EBGD..beta.. (30.45 +/- 1.6) and ZP3 (26.3more » +/- 1.3). Antibody (Ab) titration studies revealed that EBGD..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. are potent immunogens and /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. showed minimal cross reactivity to EBGD..beta..-Ab (8% bound at 1:500 dilution), whereas, /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. showed a greater degree of cross reactivity to EBGD..cap alpha..-Ab (23% bound at 1:500 dilution). Maximum binding for the two labeled antigens against homologous Abs (1:500) was > 60%. Dose response studies revealed that in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. vs EBGD..cap alpha.. -Ab system, the 50% intercept was 3.25 +/- 0.32 ng for EBGD..cap alpha.. and 472.43 +/- 30.26 ng for EBGD..beta.. (p < 0.01), whereas, in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. vs EBGD..beta..-Ab system the 50% intercept was 3.51 +/- 0.58 for EBGD..beta.. and 166.77 +/- 49.20 for EBGD..cap alpha.. (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the slopes of the dose response curves. It is concluded that the two subunits of ZP3 possess distinct immunologic characteristics as evaluated by RIA.« less

  17. Surface alterations of the mouse zona pellucida and ovum following in vivo fertilization: correlation with the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jackowski, S.; Dumont, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    The zona pellucida and cell surface of in vivo fertilized mouse ova exhibit time dependent changes which can be detected with the scanning electron microscope. The periods of ovulation, fertilization and first cleavage in superovulated C3D2/F/sub 1/ hybrids were determined and times corresponding to G/sub 1/, S, G/sub 2/, and M were calculated. The zona of a mature unfertilized ovum has a rough texture with deep furrows; at fertilization and thereafter the zona develops a smoother, ropy and seemingly porous surface. The cell surface of the unfertilized ovum is characterized by uniform microvilli, small blebs and rounded, mound-like elevations. Aftermore » fertilization and development to G/sub 1/, the ovum loses its blebs but retains the mound-like elevations and microvilli which are now less uniform. As the ovum progresses toward S, it loses the mound-like elevations but retains microvilli in the same density as found in G/sub 1/. The ovum in G/sub 2/ exhibits smaller but more numerous microvilli which vary considerably in length. Some appear to bifurcate. The fertilized ovum developing through M and G/sub 1/ of the 2 cell stage exhibits a less dense population of relatively uniform microvilli, periodic blebs and, again, rounded elevations. The data are reminiscent of surface changes associated with the cell cycle in tissue culture cells and indicate a cyclic progression of the in vivo fertilized mouse ovum through the first cleavage division to the 2 cell stage.« less

  18. Using observed postconstruction peak discharges to evaluate a hydrologic and hydraulic design model, Boneyard Creek, Champaign and Urbana, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, Thomas M.; Soong, David T.; Holmes, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Boneyard Creek—which drains an urbanized watershed in the cities of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois, including part of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) campus—has historically been prone to flooding. Using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), a hydrologic and hydraulic model of Boneyard Creek was developed for the design of the projects making up the first phase of a long-term plan for flood control on Boneyard Creek, and the construction of the projects was completed in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cities of Champaign and Urbana and UIUC, installed and operated stream and rain gages in order to obtain data for evaluation of the design-model simulations. In this study, design-model simulations were evaluated by using observed postconstruction precipitation and peak-discharge data. Between May 2003 and September 2008, five high-flow events on Boneyard Creek satisfied the study criterion. The five events were simulated with the design model by using observed precipitation. The simulations were run with two different values of the parameter controlling the soil moisture at the beginning of the storms and two different ways of spatially distributing the precipitation, making a total of four simulation scenarios. The simulated and observed peak discharges and stages were compared at gaged locations along the Creek. The discharge at one of these locations was deemed to be critical for evaluating the design model. The uncertainty of the measured peak discharge was also estimated at the critical location with a method based on linear regression of the stage and discharge relation, an estimate of the uncertainty of the acoustic Doppler velocity meter measurements, and the uncertainty of the stage measurements. For four of the five events, the simulated peak discharges lie within the 95-percent confidence interval of the observed peak discharges at the critical location; the fifth was just outside the upper end of

  19. Assessment of Mouse Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocyte Quality by Evaluating the Cumulus Layer, Zona Pellucida, and Perivitelline Space

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Lei; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for patients with ovulation problems, it is necessary to retrieve and select germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes with high developmental potential. Oocytes with high developmental potential are characterized by their ability to undergo proper maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. In this study, we analyzed morphological traits of GV stage mouse oocytes, including cumulus cell layer thickness, zona pellucida thickness, and perivitelline space width. Then, we assessed the corresponding developmental potential of each of these oocytes and found that it varies across the range measured for each morphological trait. Furthermore, by manipulating these morphological traits in vitro, we were able to determine the influence of morphological variation on oocyte developmental potential. Manually altering the thickness of the cumulus layer showed strong effects on the fertilization and embryo development potentials of oocytes, whereas manipulation of zona pellucida thickness effected the oocyte maturation potential. Our results provide a systematic detailed method for selecting GV stage oocytes based on a morphological assessment approach that would benefit for several downstream ART applications. PMID:25144310

  20. GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, K M; Hinton, M R; Baldwin, B A

    1991-05-31

    In order to establish which neurotransmitters may influence the activity of zona incerta neurones in the sheep which respond selectively to the sight or ingestion of food, we have measured the release of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters from this region using microdialysis sampling. Co-ordinates for the placement of microdialysis probes in regions of the zona incerta where cells respond to the sight or ingestion of food were first established by making single-unit extracellular recordings. When animals were food-deprived results showed that release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased in response to the sight and ingestion of food but not of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. This release of GABA was absent when the animals were shown non-food objects or saw or ingested salt solutions. When the same animals were physiologically sodium-depleted GABA release was evoked by the sight and ingestion of salt solutions and release following the sight and ingestion of food was significantly reduced. These results provide further evidence that GABA is an important neurotransmitter in neural circuits controlling the regulation of food intake.

  1. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of rat sperm surface antigen 2B1, a glycoprotein implicated in sperm-zona binding.

    PubMed

    Hou, S T; Ma, A; Jones, R; Hall, L

    1996-10-01

    The rat sperm surface antigen, 2B1, that has been proposed to play a key role in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida, has been cloned and its entire cDNA sequenced. Northern blot analysis indicates that 2B1 is encoded by a 2.2-kb RNA transcript that is abundantly expressed in the testis. The deduced protein sequence contains 512 amino-acid residues with a strong candidate signal sequence and C-terminal transmembrane domain. Data base searches reveal a high degree of sequence similarity to guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, and human PH20 sperm surface antigens, and a lower degree of similarity to honey bee and whiteface hornet venom hyaluronidases. Rat 2B1 antigen also possesses hyaluronidase activity, suggesting that it is a bifunctional protein with putative roles in the dispersion of cumulus oophorus cells as well as zona adhesion. However, while it would appear that 2B1 is the rat homologue of the guinea pig PH20 antigen, they differ in a number of important biochemical respects (including their mode of attachment to the sperm membrane and distribution between soluble and membrane-bound fractions), as well as in their localization on the sperm membrane. Expression of regions of the 2B1 protein in recombinant bacterial cells has allowed a preliminary mapping of the 2B1 epitope, and has provided more definitive information on the endoproteolytic processing of 2B1 during epididymal transit.

  3. Resveratrol reverses the adverse effects of a diet-induced obese murine model on oocyte quality and zona pellucida softening.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zeyang; Wang, Lining; Li, Hao; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Dingqi; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Daofu; Feng, Xizeng

    2018-05-23

    Reproductive dysfunction associated with obesity is increasing among women of reproductive age, including infertility and increasing risk of miscarriage. In females, reproductive disorders are linked to declining quality of oocytes. Using a model of diet-induced obesity, we have investigated the possible effects of obesity on oocyte quality, including metabolism, lipid accumulation, ROS levels, meiosis and changes in spindle structure in Metaphase II. Our study showed that obesity induced by a high fat diet can impair oocyte meiosis, destroy spindle assembly, and promote oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial distribution. With the addition of resveratrol, the negative impact of diet-induced obesity on the quality of oocytes was alleviated to some extent. In addition, we found that obesity causes mouse oocytes to soften, and resveratrol can restore the zona pellucida of oocytes to the same state as the control group. In conclusion, resveratrol can reverse the adverse effects of obesity on oocytes, which is beneficial for subsequent embryonic development.

  4. A common 'aggregation-prone' interface possibly participates in the self-assembly of human zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Louros, Nikolaos N; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Baltatzis, Georgios E; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A

    2016-03-01

    Human zona pellucida (ZP) is composed of four glycoproteins, namely ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. ZP proteins form heterodimers, which are incorporated into filaments through a common bipartite polymerizing component, designated as the ZP domain. The latter is composed of two individually folded subdomains, named ZP-N and ZP-C. Here, we have synthesized six 'aggregation-prone' peptides, corresponding to a common interface of human ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. Experimental results utilizing electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and polarizing microscopy indicate that these peptides self-assemble forming fibrils with distinct amyloid-like features. Finally, by performing detailed modeling and docking, we attempt to shed some light in the self-assembly mechanism of human ZP proteins. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Zona pellucida from fertilised human oocytes induces a voltage-dependent calcium influx and the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa, but cannot be penetrated by sperm

    PubMed Central

    Patrat, Catherine; Auer, Jana; Fauque, Patricia; Leandri, Roger L; Jouannet, Pierre; Serres, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background The functions of three zona glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 during the sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction are now well established in mice. The expression of an additional zona glycoprotein, ZPB/4, in humans, led us to reconsider the classical mouse model of gamete interaction. We investigated the various functions of human ZP (hZP) during the interaction of spermatozoa with fertilised and unfertilised oocytes. Results The hZP of fertilised oocytes retained their ability to bind sperm (albeit less strongly than that from unfertilised oocytes), to induce an intraspermatic calcium influx through voltage-dependent channels similar to that observed with hZP from unfertilised oocytes and to promote the acrosome reaction at a rate similar to that induced by the ZP of unfertilised oocytes (61.6 ± 6.2% vs60.7 ± 9.1% respectively). Conversely, the rate of hZP penetrated by sperm was much lower for fertilised than for unfertilised oocytes (19% vs 57% respectively, p < 0.01). We investigated the status of ZP2 in the oocytes used in the functional tests, and demonstrated that sperm binding and acrosome reaction induction, but not ZP penetration, occurred whether or not ZP2 was cleaved. Conclusion The change in ZP function induced by fertilisation could be different in human and mouse species. Our results suggest a zona blocking to polyspermy based at the sperm penetration level in humans. PMID:17147816

  6. Regulation of acrosomal exocytosis. II. The zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction of bovine spermatozoa is controlled by extrinsic positive regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Florman, H M; First, N L

    1988-08-01

    The effects of accessory sex gland secretions on the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction of bovine spermatozoa were investigated. Soluble extracts of zonae pellucidae initiated exocytosis in ejaculated spermatozoa. This process had an ED50 of 20 ng/microliter zona pellucida protein and saturated at 50 ng/microliter (Florman and First, 1988. Dev. Biol. 128, 453-463). In epididymal sperm this dose-response relationship was shifted toward greater agonist concentrations by at least a factor of 10(3). Reconstitution of high potency agonist response was achieved in vitro by incubation of epididymal sperm with bovine seminal plasma. Reconstitution was dependent on the seminal plasma protein concentration. The ED50 of this process was 62 micrograms protein/10(8) sperm and saturation was observed with 124 micrograms protein/10(8) sperm. Agonist responses in reconstituted epididymal sperm and in ejaculated sperm were indistinguishable with regard to dependence on the zona pellucida protein concentration and the kinetics of induced acrosome reactions. Kinetic studies suggest that reconstitution is due to adsorption of regulatory factors from seminal plasma. In addition to the positive regulatory elements responsible for reconstituting activity, seminal plasma also contains negative regulatory elements which inhibit agonist response. These negative factors are inactivated during sperm capacitation, permitting the expression of positive regulators. Acting together, these regulatory elements could coordinate high affinity agonist response with the availability of eggs in vivo.

  7. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  8. [Effects of infrasound on activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase of polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate in mice].

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei-min; Wang, Sheng; Tian, Shi-xiu; Chen, Bing; Sun, Fei; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yan; He, Li-hua

    2007-02-01

    To explore the biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation in mice. The biological effects of infrasound on the activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-betaHSDH) and acid phosphatase(ACP) of the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate were observed when exposure to 8 and 16 Hz infrasound at 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130 dB for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days or 14 days after the exposure. When exposure to 8 Hz infrasound, the enzyme activities of 3-betaHSDH increase as the sound pressure levels increase. Only when the sound pressure levels reach 130 dB, the enzyme activities began to decrease exceptionally. When exposure to 16 Hz, 80 dB infrasound, no significant difference between the treatment and control group in the activities of 3-betaHSDH could be observed, but the injury of the polygonal cells had appeared. When exposure to 16 Hz, 100 dB infrasound, the activities of 3-betaHSDH started to increase. The cell injury still existed. When exposed to 16 Hz, 120 dB infrasound, the local tissue damage represented. Fourteen days after the mice exposure to 8 Hz, 90 dB and 130 dB infrasound for 14 days continuously, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation began to recover at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the poorer the tissue recovery. The biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation response to the frequency of the infrasound are found at certain action strength range, but this characteristic usually is covered by the severe tissue injury. When exposure to infrasound is stopped for a period of time, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation could recovers at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the more poorer the tissue recovery.

  9. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, Kevin T.

    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the applicationmore » process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.« less

  10. Preliminary site-survey report on Frit Bagging Operation at Chi-Vit Corporation, Urbana, Ohio, June 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.C.

    A visit was made to the Frit Bagging Operation at the Chi-Vit Corporation located at Urbana, Ohio for the purpose of examining methods used at this facility to control worker exposure to hazardous materials during the production of various frits. Frit was the basic material for porcelain enamel used in major appliance finishes. The three major raw materials used to produce frit were soda-ash, borax, and silica-flour. In the manufacturing area batching, mixing, smelting, and bagging take place. All new employees were given a preemployment physical. An annual hearing evaluation was performed for all workers. Ventilation was provided throughout themore » operation. Each weight bin in the batching area was equipped with exhaust ventilation. The frit was moved by a vibration conveyor between smelter and bagger and passed under three exhaust hoods to remove airborne dust during this last portion of this transfer. A small capture hood at the packer unit removed airborne dust generated as material falls from the slide gate to the packer spout. The disposal of the bags was carried out in a very satisfactory manner. The author concludes that the controls used provided an exemplary work environment. The author recommends that an in-depth survey be conducted at this site.« less

  11. Involvement of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase in interleukin-6 regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme in the bovine zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Matharage S I; Dayton, Adam W; Rhoten, Lance R; Mallett, John W; Reese, Jared C; Squires, Mathieu D; Dalley, Andrew P; Porter, James P; Judd, Allan M

    2018-06-01

    In bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and NCI-H295R cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases cortisol release, increases expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) (increases steroidogenic proteins), and decreases the expression of adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1) (inhibits steroidogenic proteins). In contrast, IL-6 decreases bovine adrenal zona reticularis (ZR) androgen release, StAR, P450scc, and SF-1 expression, and increases DAX-1 expression. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated kinase (AMPK) regulates steroidogenesis, but its role in IL-6 regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis is unknown. In the present study, an AMPK activator (AICAR) increased (P < 0.01) NCI-H295R StAR promoter activity, StAR and P450scc expression, and the phosphorylation of AMPK (PAMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (PACC) (indexes of AMPK activity). In ZR (decreased StAR, P450scc, SF-1, increased DAX-1) (P < 0.01) and ZF tissues (increased StAR, P450scc, SF-1, decreased DAX-1) (P < 0.01), AICAR modified StAR, P450scc, SF-1 and DAX-1 mRNAs/proteins similar to the effects of IL-6. The activity (increased PAMPK and PACC) (P < 0.01) of AMPK in the ZF and ZR was increased by AICAR and IL-6. In support of an AMPK role in IL-6 ZF and ZR effects, the AMPK inhibitor compound C blocked (P < 0.01) the effects of IL-6 on the expression of StAR, P450scc, SF-1, and DAX-1. Therefore, IL-6 modification of the expression of StAR and P450scc in the ZF and ZR may involve activation of AMPK and these changes may be related to changes in the expression of SF-1 and DAX-1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct embryo tagging and identification system by attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Santaló, Josep; Durán, Sara; Gómez-Matínez, Rodrigo; Samitier, Josep; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of cultured embryos? The results achieved provide a proof of concept for a direct embryo tagging system using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes, which could help to minimize the risk of mismatching errors (mix-ups) in human assisted reproduction technologies. Even though the occurrence of mix-ups is rare, several cases have been reported in fertility clinics around the world. Measures to prevent the risk of mix-ups in human assisted reproduction technologies are therefore required. Mouse embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and the effectiveness of the tagging system was tested during fresh in vitro culture (n=140) and after embryo cryopreservation (n = 84). Finally, the full-term development of tagged embryos was evaluated (n =105). Mouse pronuclear embryos were individually rolled over wheat germ agglutinin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to distribute them uniformly around the ZONA PELLUCIDA surface. Embryo viability and retention of barcodes were determined during 96 h of culture. The identification of tagged embryos was performed every 24 h in an inverted microscope and without embryo manipulation to simulate an automatic reading procedure. Full-term development of the tagged embryos was assessed after their transfer to pseudo-pregnant females. To test the validity of the embryo tagging system after a cryopreservation process, tagged embryos were frozen at the 2-cell stage using a slow freezing protocol, and followed in culture for 72 h after thawing. Neither the in vitro or in vivo development of tagged embryos was adversely affected. The tagging system also proved effective during an embryo cryopreservation process. Global identification rates higher than 96 and 92% in fresh and frozen-thawed tagged embryos, respectively, were obtained when simulating an automatic barcode reading

  13. Capacitation in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in enhanced zona pellucida-binding ability of stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Aitken, R John; Gibb, Zamira; Lambourne, Sarah R; Nixon, Brett

    2014-02-01

    While IVF has been widely successful in many domesticated species, the development of a robust IVF system for the horse remains an elusive and highly valued goal. A major impediment to the development of equine IVF is the fact that optimised conditions for the capacitation of equine spermatozoa are yet to be developed. Conversely, it is known that stallion spermatozoa are particularly susceptible to damage arising as a consequence of capacitation-like changes induced prematurely in response to semen handling and transport conditions. To address these limitations, this study sought to develop an effective system to both suppress and promote the in vitro capacitation of stallion spermatozoa. Our data indicated that the latter could be achieved in a bicarbonate-rich medium supplemented with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a cyclic AMP analogue, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin, an efficient cholesterol-withdrawing agent. The populations of spermatozoa generated under these conditions displayed a number of hallmarks of capacitation, including elevated levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, a reorganisation of the plasma membrane leading to lipid raft coalescence in the peri-acrosomal region of the sperm head, and a dramatic increase in their ability to interact with heterologous bovine zona pellucida (ZP) and undergo agonist-induced acrosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, this functional transformation was effectively suppressed in media devoid of bicarbonate. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of efficient cholesterol removal in priming stallion spermatozoa for ZP binding in vitro.

  14. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  15. Conserved developmental expression of Fezf in chordates and Drosophila and the origin of the Zona Limitans Intrathalamica (ZLI) brain organizer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) and the isthmus organizer (IsO) are two major secondary organizers of vertebrate brain development. These organizers are located at the interface of the expression domains of key patterning genes (Fezf-Irx and Otx-Gbx, respectively). To gain insights into the evolutionary origin of the ZLI, we studied Fezf in bilaterians. Results In this paper, we identified a conserved sequence motif (Fezf box) in all bilaterians. We report the expression pattern of Fezf in amphioxus and Drosophila and compare it with those of Gbx, Otx and Irx. We found that the relative expression patterns of these genes in vertebrates are fully conserved in amphioxus and flies, indicating that the genetic subdivisions defining the location of both secondary organizers in early vertebrate brain development were probably present in the last common ancestor of extant bilaterians. However, in contrast to vertebrates, we found that Irx-defective flies do not show an affected Fezf expression pattern. Conclusions The absence of expression of the corresponding morphogens from cells at these conserved genetic boundaries in invertebrates suggests that the organizing properties might have evolved specifically in the vertebrate lineage by the recruitment of key morphogens to these conserved genetic locations. PMID:20849572

  16. Inhibition of endothelin- and phorbol ester-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity by corticotrophin in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kapas, S; Hinson, J P

    1996-01-01

    1. The experiments described in this study were carried out to investigate the role of tyrosine kinase in the acute adrenal response to peptide hormone stimulation, and to determine whether the activity of this kinase may be subject to regulation by other intracellular signalling mechanisms in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. 2. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that angiotensin II stimulates tyrosine kinase activity in the rat adrenal cortex. This study has shown, for the first time, that endothelin-1 also stimulates tyrosine kinase activity in this tissue. 3. Using the specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, Ro 31-8220, we have shown that stimulation of tyrosine kinase activity, in response to endothelin-1, angiotensin II or the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, is at least partly dependent on increased PKC activity. 4. The data presented also provide further evidence of cross-talk between signalling systems in the adrenal cortex. Corticotrophin and its intracellular second messenger, cyclic AMP, significantly attenuate the increment in tyrosine kinase activity seen in response to each of the effectors used. 5. The results of this study provide important new evidence for the regulation of protein kinases by other intracellular second messenger systems. PMID:8611168

  17. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levelsmore » of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.« less

  18. Human spermatozoa selected by Percoll gradient or swim-up are equally capable of binding to the human zona pellucida and undergoing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Vantman, D; Barros, C; Vigil, P

    1991-03-01

    Several techniques have been used for selecting motile spermatozoa including Percoll and albumin gradients, swim-up, and glass wool filtration. A high yield of motile spermatozoa as well as an enhancement of motility are the most desirable features of a practical method. An equally important consideration is whether or not these techniques select functionally normal spermatozoa. In this study we have compared two methods for separation of motile cells, swim-up and Percoll gradient. Normal semen samples from 12 different men were used in this study. Each sample was simultaneously processed by swim-up and Percoll gradient using modified Tyrode's medium. After the sperm concentration was adjusted to 1 x 10(7) spermatozoa/ml, the suspensions were incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 in air. In each suspension the percentage of sperm recovery, percentage of motile spermatozoa, percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa (either spontaneously or stimulated with human follicular fluid), percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated, and number of spermatozoa bound to the human zona pellucida were determined. The results obtained indicated that the percentage of sperm recovery was higher with the Percoll gradient than with the swim-up procedure (P less than 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between these two sperm populations in the percentage of motile cells, in the percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa, and in the percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated. In addition, the number of spermatozoa bound per zona pellucida was similar for spermatozoa selected by Percoll or swim-up. We conclude that there were no functional differences between the spermatozoa selected by either method.

  19. Time-lapse monitoring of zona pellucida-free embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Bodri, Daniel; Kato, Ryutaro; Kondo, Masae; Hosomi, Naoko; Katsumata, Yoshinari; Kawachiya, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsunekazu

    2015-05-01

    To report time-lapse monitoring of human oocytes in which the damaged zona pellucida was removed, producing zona-free (ZF) oocytes that were cultured until the blastocyst stage in time-lapse incubators. Retrospective case series. Private infertility clinic. Infertile patients (n = 32) undergoing minimal ovarian stimulation or natural cycle IVF treatment between October 2012 and June 2014. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) fertilization of ZF oocytes, prolonged embryo culture in time-lapse incubators, elective vitrification, and subsequent single vitrified-thawed blastocyst transfer (SVBT). Rate of fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development, live-birth rate per SVBT cycle. In spite of advanced maternal age (39 ± 4.2; range, 30-46 years), good fertilization (94%), cleavage (94%), and blastocyst development rates (38%) were reached after fertilization and culturing of ZF oocytes/embryos. All thawed ZF blastocysts survived, and up to this date seven SVBT transfers were performed, yielding three (43%) term live births with healthy newborns. Time-lapse imagery gives a unique insight into the dynamics of embryo development in ZF embryos. Moreover, our case series demonstrate that an oocyte with a damaged zona pellucida that has been removed could be successfully fertilized with ICSI, cultured until blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator and vitrified electively for subsequent use. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida during oligozoospermia induced with testosterone during a male contraceptive trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, D Y; Johnston, R; Baker, H W

    1995-06-01

    To determine the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP) in testosterone-induced oligozoospermia, previously fertile men participating in the World Heath Organization (WHO) male contraceptive trial in Melbourne were studied while oligozoospermic to various degrees. Semen analysis were performed according to WHO methods. One or two ejaculates from each subject were cryopreserved before commencing weekly intramuscular injections of 200 mg testosterone enanthate. The frozen spermatozoa were used as controls for ZP-binding tests of spermatozoa obtained during testosterone-induced oligozoospermia (< 10 x 10(6)/ml) in either the suppression or efficacy (n = 6) and recovery (n = 3) phases. Two other subjects in the recovery phase with normozoospermia were also tested. Human oocytes that failed to fertilized in vitro from infertile patients were used for the sperm-ZP binding test. Control (frozen) spermatozoa were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and test (oligozoospermic semen) spermatozoa were labelled with tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate. A mixture of equal numbers of labelled motile control and test spermatozoa were incubated with 4-6 ZP. There was a significantly (p < 0.01) lower number of spermatozoa bound per ZP in oligozoospermic samples (65 +/- 7, mean +/- SEM) than in controls (80 +/- 7). However, there were still large numbers of spermatozoa bound to the ZP for all the oligozoospermic samples. Five subjects had similar numbers of spermatozoa bound to the ZP for both control and oligozoospermic samples. Overall, the ZP-binding ratio of test and control spermatozoa averaged 0.82 (range 0.51-1.13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  2. Effects of milk proteins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Coutinho da Silva, Marco A; Seidel, George E; Squires, Edward L; Graham, James K; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2014-11-10

    Objectives were to determine the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) and milk proteins on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in stallion sperm; and to determine the effects of single caseins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). In Experiment I, sperm were incubated in media containing 2 or 4mM Ca(2+) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was determined after ionomycin treatment and long-term incubation (3h). Extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (2 compared with 4mM) did not affect baseline intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of sperm. However, incubating sperm in a medium containing 4 compared with 2mM Ca(2+) resulted in greater (P<0.05) influx of Ca(2+) into sperm. In Experiment II, sperm incubated in media containing 1mg/mL of native phosphocaseinate (NP) or sodium caseinate (SC) showed similar baseline intracellular Ca(2+) and influx of Ca(2+) than control (TALP). In Experiment III, sperm-ZP binding assays were performed in TALP medium containing: no additions (TALP); 1mg/mL SC; 1 or 3mg/mL of α-casein; 1 or 3mg/mL of β-casein; and 1 or 3mg/mL of κ-casein. The number of stallion sperm bound to bovine ZP was greatest (P<0.05) when SC was used. Co-incubation in media containing single caseins (α-, β- or κ-casein) resulted in similar results to TALP; however, a dose effect (P<0.05) was observed for β- and κ-caseins. In conclusion, extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and milk proteins did not affect baseline intracellular calcium in stallion sperm. It appears that β- and κ-caseins may be responsible for enhancing sperm binding to ZP, but the mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  4. Voice Tremor Outcomes of Subthalamic Nucleus and Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Malinova, Elin; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik

    2018-01-17

    We aimed to study the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on level of perceived voice tremor in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). This is a prospective nonrandomized design with consecutive patients. Perceived voice tremor was assessed in patients with PD having received either STN-DBS (8 patients, 5 bilateral and 3 unilateral, aged 43.1-73.6 years; median = 61.2 years) or cZi-DBS (14 bilateral patients, aged 39.0-71.9 years; median = 56.6 years) 12 months before the assessment. Sustained vowels that were produced OFF and ON stimulation (with simultaneous l-DOPA medication) were assessed perceptually in terms of voice tremor by two raters on a four-point rating scale. The assessments were repeated five times per sample and rated in a blinded and randomized procedure. Three out of the 22 patients (13%) were concluded to have voice tremor OFF stimulation. Patients with PD with STN-DBS showed mild levels of perceived voice tremor OFF stimulation and a group level improvement. Patients with moderate/severe perceived voice tremor and cZi-DBS showed marked improvements, but there was no overall group effect. Six patients with cZi-DBS showed small increases in perceived voice tremor severity. STN-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor on a group level. cZi-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor in patients with PD with moderate to severe preoperative levels of the symptom. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  6. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  7. Do age and extended culture affect the architecture of the zona pellucida of human oocytes and embryos?

    PubMed

    Kilani, Suha S; Cooke, Simon; Kan, Andrew K; Chapman, Michael G

    2006-02-01

    Advanced female age and extended in vitro culture have both been implicated in zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and thickening. This study aimed to determine the influence of (i) the woman's age and (ii) prolonged in vitro culture of embryos on ZP thickness and density using non-invasive polarized light (LC-PolScope) microscopy. ZP thickness and density (measured as retardance) were determined in oocytes, embryos and blastocysts in women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in two age groups (older, > 38 years; younger, < or = 38 years). A total of 193 oocytes from 29 patients were studied. The younger group contained 100 oocytes and the older group 93 oocytes. The ZP was significantly thicker in metaphase II oocytes in the older group compared with the younger group (mean +/- SD: 24.1 +/- 2.5 microm vs 23.1 +/- 3.3 microm; p = 0.01) but ZP density was equal (2.8 +/- 0.7 nm). By day 2 of culture, embryos from the two groups had similar ZP thickness (22.2 +/- 2.2 microm vs 21.7 +/- 1.6 microm; p = 0.28) and density (2.9 +/- 0.7 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm; p = 0.57). For the embryos cultured to blastocyst (older: n = 20; younger: n = 18) ZP thickness was similar in the two groups (19.2 +/- 2.7 microm vs 19.1 +/- 5.0 microm; p = 0.8) but thinner than on day 2. The older group had significantly denser ZP than the younger group (4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm, p < 0.01). Blastocysts from both groups had significantly denser ZP than their corresponding day 2 embryos (older: 4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 2.9 +/- 0.7 nm, p < 0.001; younger: 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm, p = 0.013). It is concluded that there is little relationship between ZP thickness and its density as measured by polarized light microscopy. While ZP thickness decreases with extended embryo culturing, the density of the ZP increases. ZP density increases in both age groups with extended culture and, interestingly, more in embryos from older compared with younger women.

  8. The preclinical evaluation of immunocontraceptive vaccines based on canine zona pellucida 3 (cZP3) in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Fuchun

    2018-05-11

    Stray dogs are the reservoirs and carriers of rabies and are definitive hosts of echinococcosis. To control the overpopulation of stray dogs, zona pellucida 3 (ZP3), a primary receptor for sperm, is a potential antigen for developing contraceptive vaccines. To enhance the immune responses and contraceptive effects of canine ZP3 (cZP3), dog gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and a T cell epitope of chicken ovalbumin (OVA) were selected to construct two fusion proteins with cZP3, ovalbumin-GnRH-ZP3 (OGZ) and ovalbumin-ZP3 (OZ), and their contraceptive effects were evaluated in mice. The synthesized DNA sequences of OGZ and OZ were cloned into plasmid pET-28a respectively. The fusion proteins OGZ and OZ were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Mice were immunized with OGZ, OZ and cZP3, and the infertility rates were monitored. Mice immunized with mouse ZP3 (mZP3) or adjuvant alone were used as positive control and negative control, respectively. cZP3- and GnRH-specific antibodies (Abs) were detected by ELISA. The bindings of the Abs to oocytes were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The paraffin sections of mice ovaries were observed under microscope for analyzing pathological characteristics. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the two fusion proteins OGZ and OZ were correctly expressed. ELISA results showed that OGZ vaccine induced both cZP3- and GnRH-specific Abs, and OZ vaccine induced cZP3-specific Ab, which lasted for up to 168 days. The levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) in sera were significantly decreased in OGZ immunized mice. Indirect immunofluorescence results showed that Abs induced by cZP3 and mZP3 could bind to the mouse ZP and dog ZP each other. Compared with the adjuvant group, all vaccine immunized groups significantly decreased the fertility rate and mean litter size. Interestingly, the fertility rate in OGZ-immunized group is the lowest, and only 1 mouse out of 10 mice is fertile

  9. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  10. Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental

  11. A model teacher education program in health occupations at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Vittetoe, M C

    1977-01-01

    The Health Occupations Teacher Education Program at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, U.S.A. has been shown to be a viable and productive model for the preparation of health occupations teacher for both traditional and non-traditional educational settings. Since 1971 the undergraduate program has grown from twelve students to 30 students on-campus, with more than two hundred students in the extramural and part-time programs. Recruitment has been accomplished through professional association meetings, journals and personal contacts. More recently, persons have heard of the program through extramural classes and from students, graduates or University personnel who have become familiar with the program. Program development has been effected through the "capstone" concept, which allows for transfer of technical credit in one's specialty, capped by teacher education courses and concentrated courses to enhance one's expertise in the teaching role. Courses developed by the HOTEP faculty are based on perceived student needs, and were designed as both integrative and collaborative courses to be taken with other health care practitioners and teachers. Evaluation procedures have shown the health occupations teacher education program to be effective in preparing graduates for their predicted roles. The numbers of new students, kinds of health practitioners, and numbers of graduates have increased steadily. Implementation of courses into the Health Occupations Teacher Education Program curriculum has been gradual, so that the undergraduate core of courses is now considered to be nearly complete. Much curriculum planning has already been completed on the master's program, from which some students have already graduated. A doctoral program is also open to those ready for this level of preparation. More time and effort needs to be and will be expended on courses for the master's and doctoral level programs being developed. This health occupations teacher education has

  12. Análisis de los determinantes socioeconómicos del gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos en seis zonas geográficas de Panamá.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ballesteros, Victor H; Castro, Franz; Gómez, Beatriz

    2018-04-27

    Caracterizar el gasto de bolsillo privado en medicamentos en función de los determinantes sociodemográficos y socioeconómicos. MATERIALES Y MéTODOS: La fuente de datos es la Encuesta de Gasto de Bolsillo en Medicamentos de 2014. Se caracterizó el gasto de bolsillo privado mediante variables explicativas sociodemográficas (SOD) y socioeconómicas (SES). Se hizo análisis factorial por componentes principales, regresión logística y lineal simple. Los Odds Ratio demuestran que la educación y la zona geográfica son determinantes fundamentales que inciden en el gasto de bolsillo. Los medicamentos son productos necesarios, en adición a que el gasto de bolsillo aumenta a un promedio del 2% por cada año de vida cronológica adicional. Existe mayor vulnerabilidad en las zonas más pauperizadas respecto del acceso a medicamentos, en especial en las indígenas e implica un mayor riesgo de gasto catastrófico a menor ingreso ante la mayor prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    PubMed

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  14. Inhibitors of serine proteases decrease sperm penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro by inhibiting sperm binding to the zona pellucida and acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-11-01

    Serine proteases are involved in mammalian fertilization. Inhibitors of serine proteases can be applied to investigate at which point these enzymes exert their action. We selected two serine protease inhibitors, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, 100 μM) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 5 μM) from Glycine max, via previous dose-response IVF experiments and sperm toxicity tests. In the present study, we evaluated how these inhibitors affect porcine fertilization in vitro as calculated on total fertilization rate, polyspermy rate, and the sperm number per fertilized oocyte of cumulus-intact, cumulus-free, and zona-free oocytes. In the control group (no inhibitor), these parameters were 86%, 49%, and 2.2 for cumulus-intact oocytes and 77%, 43%, and 2.2 for cumulus-free oocytes (6-hour gamete incubation period, 1.25 × 10(5) spermatozoa/mL). 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and STI significantly reduced total fertilization and polyspermy rate in cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes (P < 0.05). Total fertilization rates were respectively 65% and 53% (AEBSF) and 36% and 17% (STI). Inhibition rates were higher in cumulus-free oocytes than in cumulus-intact oocytes, indicating that inhibitors exerted their action after sperm passage through the cumulus. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not STI reduced sperm binding to the ZP. The acrosome reaction was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Only 40.4% (AEBSF) and 11.4% (STI) of spermatozoa completed a calcium-induced acrosome reaction compared to 86.7% of spermatozoa in the control group. There was no effect on sperm binding or fertilization parameters in zona-free oocytes. In conclusion, sperm-zona binding and acrosome reaction were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors during porcine IVF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MMP2 and acrosin are major proteinases associated with the inner acrosomal membrane and may cooperate in sperm penetration of the zona pellucida during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Marvin; Rodriguez, Hilma; Zara, Lindsay; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wei; Oko, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration during fertilization is a process that most likely involves enzymatic digestion of this extracellular coat by spermatozoa. Since the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) is the leading edge of spermatozoa during penetration and proteins required for secondary binding of sperm to the zona are present on it, the IAM is the likely location of these enzymes. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize proteinases present on the IAM, confirm their localization and provide evidence for their role in fertilization. Gelatin zymography of detergent extracts of the IAM revealed bands of enzymatic activity identified as serine and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs). Specific inhibitors to MMPs revealed that MMP activity was due to MMP2. Immunoblotting determined that the serine protease activity on the zymogram was due to acrosin and also confirmed the MMP2 activity. Immunogold labeling of spermatozoa at the electron microscope level showed that acrosin and MMP2 were confined to the apical and principal segments of the acrosome in association with the IAM, confirming our IAM isolation technique. Immunohistochemical examination of acrosin and MMP2 during spermiogenesis showed that both proteins originate in the acrosomic granule during the Golgi phase and later redistribute to the acrosomal membrane. Anti-MMP2 antibodies and inhibitors incorporated into in vitro fertilization media significantly decreased fertilization rates. This is the first study to demonstrate that MMP2 and acrosin are associated with the IAM and introduces the possibility of their cooperation in enzymatic digestion of the ZP during penetration.

  16. Identification of a Novel TGF-β-Binding Site in the Zona Pellucida C-terminal (ZP-C) Domain of TGF-β-Receptor-3 (TGFR-3)

    PubMed Central

    Diestel, Uschi; Resch, Marcus; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Weiler, Sigrid; Hellmann, Tina V.; Mueller, Thomas D.; Nickel, Joachim; Eichler, Jutta; Muller, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is present in extracellular proteins such as the zona pellucida proteins and tectorins and participates in the formation of polymeric protein networks. However, the ZP domain also occurs in the cytokine signaling co-receptor transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor type 3 (TGFR-3, also known as betaglycan) where it contributes to cytokine ligand recognition. Currently it is unclear how the ZP domain architecture enables this dual functionality. Here, we identify a novel major TGF-β-binding site in the FG loop of the C-terminal subdomain of the murine TGFR-3 ZP domain (ZP-C) using protein crystallography, limited proteolysis experiments, surface plasmon resonance measurements and synthetic peptides. In the murine 2.7 Å crystal structure that we are presenting here, the FG-loop is disordered, however, well-ordered in a recently reported homologous rat ZP-C structure. Surprisingly, the adjacent external hydrophobic patch (EHP) segment is registered differently in the rat and murine structures suggesting that this segment only loosely associates with the remaining ZP-C fold. Such a flexible and temporarily-modulated association of the EHP segment with the ZP domain has been proposed to control the polymerization of ZP domain-containing proteins. Our findings suggest that this flexibility also extends to the ZP domain of TGFR-3 and might facilitate co-receptor ligand interaction and presentation via the adjacent FG-loop. This hints that a similar C-terminal region of the ZP domain architecture possibly regulates both the polymerization of extracellular matrix proteins and cytokine ligand recognition of TGFR-3. PMID:23826237

  17. NEFM (Neurofilament Medium) Polypeptide, a Marker for Zona Glomerulosa Cells in Human Adrenal, Inhibits D1R (Dopamine D1 Receptor)-Mediated Secretion of Aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Maniero, Carmela; Garg, Sumedha; Zhao, Wanfeng; Johnson, Timothy Isaac; Zhou, Junhua; Gurnell, Mark; Brown, Morris J

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneity among aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has been highlighted by the discovery of somatic mutations. KCNJ5 mutations predominate in large zona fasciculata (ZF)-like APAs; mutations in CACNA1D , ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CTNNB1 are more likely to be found in small zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs. Microarray comparison of KCNJ5 mutant versus wild-type APAs revealed significant differences in transcriptomes. NEFM , encoding a neurofilament subunit which is a D1R (dopamine D1 receptor)-interacting protein, was 4-fold upregulated in ZG-like versus ZF-like APAs and 14-fold more highly expressed in normal ZG versus ZF. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of NEFM (neurofilament medium) polypeptide in ZG and in ZG-like APAs. Silencing NEFM in adrenocortical H295R cells increased basal aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation; silencing also amplified aldosterone stimulation by the D1R agonist, fenoldopam, and inhibition by the D1R antagonist, SCH23390. NEFM coimmunoprecipitated with D1R, and its expression was stimulated by fenoldopam. Immunohistochemistry for D1R was mainly intracellular in ZG-like APAs but membranous in ZF-like APAs. Aldosterone secretion in response to fenoldopam in primary cells from ZF-like APAs was higher than in cells from ZG-like APAs. Transfection of mutant KCNJ5 caused a large reduction in NEFM expression in H295R cells. We conclude that NEFM is a negative regulator of aldosterone production and cell proliferation, in part by facilitating D1R internalization from the plasma membrane. Downregulation of NEFM in ZF-like APAs may contribute to a D1R/D2R imbalance underlying variable pharmacological responses to dopaminergic drugs among patients with APAs. Finally, taken together, our data point to the possibility that ZF-like APAs are in fact ZG in origin. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Study on the zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene sequence and its expression in the ovaries of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, B; Nawrot, R; Nowak, W; Czyzyk, A; Kedzia, H; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, A

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of unknown pathology, involving reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Oocyte-specific genes are a group of genes expressed exclusively in ovarian tissue; therefore, they can play an important role in ovarian pathologies such as PCOS. The zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene encodes glycoprotein which is a part of the extracellular matrix of oocyte. We analyzed 87 patients with PCOS, which were divided into four groups depending on their phenotype. In each patient, we performed profound clinical and biochemical analysis, including the measurement of serum androgens. The ovarian tissue samples were used to perform a real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining using anti-ZP4 monoclonal antibodies. The ZP4 gene was sequenced from peripheral lymphocytes. The expression of ZP4 was present in early antral follicles and was stronger in mature follicles. The subgroup of patients with eumenorrhea and without hyperandrogenism presented the highest expression of ZP4 in ovarian tissue. In one case, we found a mutation of the ZP4 gene. No correlations were found between the ZP4 expression level and biochemical or clinical indices. Data from this and animal studies suggest a possible relationship between androgens and ZP4 expression. ZP4 expression is highest among patients with PCOS and a regular cycle, and this is a consequence of the presence of mature follicles in this group. In some patients with PCOS and infertility, ZP4 mutation can be found.

  19. In-vitro developmental potential of individual mouse blastomeres cultured with and without zona pellucida: future implications for human assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the developmental potential of individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell mouse embryos cultured with and without zona pellucida (ZP). In the first series, one, three, five and seven blastomeres were biopsied from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos respectively, and inserted individually into empty ZP recipients, leaving the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. In the second series, the same protocol was used except that the biopsied blastomeres were cultured without ZP and compared with the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. For the first series, individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos cultured with ZP showed blastocyst development of 82.4, 68.6, 44.4 and 23.1% respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 70.6, 60.0, 25.9 and 7.7%. For the second series, individual blastomeres cultured without ZP progressed with blastocyst development of 73.3, 64.5, 35.7 and 22.7% respectively. Blastocyst multiplication was achieved most efficiently when using individual blastomeres from 4- and 6-cell embryos. This is the first report on comparative in-vitro propagation of single blastomeres derived from various cleavage stages in a mammalian species. Blastomere cloning with its multiple applications may be envisaged for human assisted reproductive technologies.

  20. [Sexuality and STD/AIDS prevention: social representations by rural men in a county in the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria de Fátima Paz

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes the concepts displayed by rural men in the Zona da Mata region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, concerning their sexual practices and STD/AIDS prevention. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, having interviewed 22 men According to the interviews, their first sexual intercourse is characterized as a learning experience and is sometimes marked by violence. They make a distinction between the "woman at home" and "street women"; they acknowledge women's sexual desire and value reciprocity in sexual relations, differentiating between the kinds of sex they have with different categories of women. Seven men report homoerotic experiences during adolescence, which they ascribe to immaturity, not affecting their heterosexual identity. Condom use, perceived in a negative light, is inconstant and irregular, inversely proportional to knowing the female partner. STDs in general inspire little fear, while AIDS is associated with death; the interviewees do not see themselves at risk of acquiring HIV. Ambiguities in the men's discourse, together with a basically ineffective approach by health services and preventive campaigns, reveal a high level of exposure to the risk of contracting STDs/AIDS among the interviewees and their female or male partners.

  1. Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Production of tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 for contraceptive vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Affinity tags can interfere in various physicochemical properties and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. In the present study, tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) (TT-KK-ZP3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs), was purified by isolation of IBs, processed to remove host cell proteins, followed by solubilization and refolding. A specific 39 kDa protein including ZP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE. CD spectra showed the presence of α-helices and β-sheets, and fluorescent spectroscopy revealed emission maxima of 265 A.U. at 339 nm for refolded protein and showed red shift in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Immunization of inbred FvB/J female mice with purified recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 (25 μg/animal) led to generation of high antibody titers against the recombinant protein. The antibodies reacted specifically with ZP matrix surrounding mouse oocytes. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility as compared to the control group. The studies described herein provide a simple method to produce and purify tag-free recombinant protein for the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  3. Caudal Zona Incerta/VOP Radiofrequency Lesioning Guided by Combined Stereotactic MRI and Microelectrode Recording for Posttraumatic Midbrain Resting-Kinetic Tremor.

    PubMed

    Contreras Lopez, William Omar; Azevedo, Angelo R; Cury, Rubens G; Alencar, Francisco; Neville, Iuri S; Reis, Paul R; Navarro, Jessie; Monaco, Bernardo; da Silva, Fabio E Fernandes; Teixeira, Manoel J; Fonoff, Erich T

    2016-02-01

    Reporting the outcome of two patients who underwent unilateral ablative stereotactic surgery to treat pharmacologic resistant posttraumatic tremor (PTT). We present two patients (31 and 47 years old) with refractory PTT severely affecting their quality of life. Under stereotactic guidance, refined by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and double-channel multiunit microelectrode recording (MER), three sequential radiofrequency lesions were performed in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) up to the base of thalamus (VOP). Effects of cZi/VOP lesion were prospectively rated with a tremor rating scale. Both patients demonstrated intraoperative tremor suppression with sustained results up to 18 months follow-up, with improvement of 92% and 84%, respectively, on the tremor rating scale. Tremor improvement was associated with enhancement functionality and quality of life for the patients. The patients returned to their work after the procedure. No adverse effects were observed up to the last follow-up. Radiofrequency lesion of the cZi/VOP target was effective for posttraumatic tremor in both cases. The use of T2-weighted images and MER was found helpful in increasing the precision and safety of the procedure, because it leads the RF probe by relying on neighbor structures based on thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction between subfertile men with normal and abnormal semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, De Yi; Liu, Ming Li; Garrett, Claire; Baker, H W Gordon

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding (DSZPB) and defective ZP-induced acrosome reaction (DZPIAR) in subfertile men (i.e. male partners of infertile couples) with normal and abnormal semen analyses. A total of 1030 subfertile men with normal semen analysis (n=255), oligozoospermia (count<20x10(6)/ml, n=136), severe teratozoospermia (strict normal morphology

  5. Evaluation of tight junction protein 1 encoding zona occludens 1 as a candidate gene for albuminuria in a Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, D M; Leach, R J; Johnson-Pais, T; Hamlington, J; Fowler, S; Almasy, L; Duggirala, R; Stern, M P; Abboud, H E

    2006-09-01

    Albuminuria, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to be significantly heritable in multiple studies. Therefore, the identification of genes that affect susceptibility to albuminuria may lead to novel avenues of intervention. Current evidence suggests that the podocyte and slit diaphragm play a key role in controlling the selective sieve of the glomerular filtration barrier, and podocyte-specific genes have been identified that are necessary for maintaining its integrity. We therefore investigated the role of gene variants of tight junction protein (TJP1) which encodes another slit diaphragm-associated protein zona occludens 1 as risk factors for albuminuria in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS), which consists of extended Mexican-American families with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Albuminuria, defined as an albumin (mg/dl) to creatinine (mg/dl) ratio (ACR) of 0.03, which is approximately equivalent to a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) >30 mg/day, was present in a total of 14.9% of participants, and 31% had type 2 diabetes. The TJP1 exons, flanking intronic sequence, and putative proximal promoter regions were investigated in this population. Twentynine polymorphisms, including 7 nonsynonymous SNPs, were identified and genotyped in all subjects of this study for association analysis. Three sets of correlated SNPs, which include 3 exonic SNPs, were nominally associated with ACR (p value range 0.007-0.049); however, the association with the discrete trait albuminuria was not significant (p value range 0.094-0.338). We conclude that these variants in TJP1 do not appear to be major determinants for albuminuria in the SAFDGS; however, they may play a minor role in its severity in this Mexican-American population. Further examination of the TJP1 gene region in this and other cohorts will be useful to determine whether ZO-1 plays a significant role in glomerular permselectivity.

  6. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor in the zona pellucida of developing ovarian follicles in the rat: a possible role in destiny of follicles.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Kayisli, Umit Ali; Arici, Aydin; Demir, Ramazan

    2003-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that in many species angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may have important roles in folliculogenesis. The aim of this study is to determine the localization of VEGF and its receptors, Flt-1 and KDR, and bFGF expression in the rat ovary and to evaluate their distributions throughout the different follicular stages. Out of 20 virginal female rats, 10 were studied during the natural ovarian cycle without any ovulation induction. The other 10 were superovulated and their ovaries were studied by western analysis and immunohistochemistry. Granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes of primordial follicles were negative for VEGF. In early primary follicles, VEGF was present in the oocyte but its immunoreactivity was weak, while newly developing zona pellucida (ZP) of primary follicles was negative for VEGF. Subsequently, with the commencement of antral spaces between GC of the secondary follicle, ZP of some secondary follicles became strongly positive for VEGF, forming a continuous ring around the oocyte. In preovulatory mature follicles granulosa and theca interna (TI) cells showed a weak immunoreactivity for VEGF. Western blot analyses have also demonstrated that VEGF, a 26-kDa protein, was present in follicles. Moreover, in ovulated cumulus-oocyte complex we observed a halo-like immunoreactivity of VEGF around the fully mature oocyte. The immunoreactivity for Flt-1 and KDR receptors in growing follicles was mostly limited to GC and TI cells. Anti-bFGF did not exhibit any immunoreactivity in ZP of follicles at any stage. Its expression was weak in GC of the follicles at different stages, whereas, it could be localized to some extent in the blood capillaries of TI of antral follicles and in blood vessels localized in the stroma. Interestingly, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ZP of some secondary follicles is very striking. Accordingly, the possibility that VEGF may be an

  7. Information Seeking Behavior of Library and Information Science Faculty in Research with a Special Reference to the Use of Networked Information Sources and Services: A Case Study Performed at the Graduate School of Library And Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Modified Version)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and investigate the ways faculty at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign use Networked Information Sources And Services to support their research task. Library and Information Sciences faculty at the University of Illinois were chosen as…

  8. Information Seeking Behavior of Library and Information Science Faculty in Research with a Special Reference to the Use of Networked Information Sources and Services: A Case Study Performed at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and investigate the ways faculty at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign use Networked Information Sources and Services to support their research task. Library and Information Sciences faculty at the University of Illinois were chosen as…

  9. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax

  10. The human is an exception to the evolutionarily-conserved phenomenon of pre-fertilization zona pellucida resistance to proteolysis induced by oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, I; Avilés, M; Coy, P

    2013-03-01

    Is zona pellucida (ZP) resistance to proteolysis, induced by oviductal fluid (OF), a mechanism common to species other than the pig and cow? ZP resistance to proteolysis induced by OF was observed in the mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, sheep, goat, pig and cow, but not in humans. Oviductal ZP resistance to proteolysis occurs in the pig and cow where it influences the incidence of fertilization and polyspermy. The effect is observed after incubation of ZP in OFs from pig (pOF), cow (cOF), rabbit (rOF) and sheep (sOF). Oocytes from nine different species, including ungulates, rodents, lagomorphs and primates were incubated in rOF, sOF, gOF, cOF, pOF and human oviductal fluid (hOF). ZP digestion times for the matured oocytes of these nine species, without any treatment or incubated in 5 (mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, cow, ewe and goat) or 6 (pig and humans) of the OFs collected were compared using three replicates per treatment and at least three oocytes per replicate. In vivo matured oocytes from rat, hamster, mouse, rabbit and humans, in vitro matured oocytes from cow, goat, ewe and pig and rOF, cOF, gOF, sOF, pOF and human (hOF) were collected and processed for the study. Oocytes from each species were incubated in the different OFs for 30 min. The resistance of the ZP of the oocytes to enzymatic digestion in a pronase solution (0.5% in PBS) was measured and registered as ZP digestion time. rOF increased ZP resistance to proteolytic digestion in the range of between 96 and 720 h for any of the species tested, whereas the corresponding increase in human ZP was only 1 min. OFs from the remaining species also had a significant effect, with variations among the cross-species experiments (P < 0.05). hOF, which was only tested on human and porcine oocytes, had no effect on ZP chemical hardening. Measurements of ZP digestion times are not of extreme accuracy and errors of a few seconds can be assumed in the experimental data. However, when differences are in the range of

  11. The roles of protein disulphide isomerase family A, member 3 (ERp57) and surface thiol/disulphide exchange in human spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Wai; Lam, Kevin K W; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Yeung, William S B; Zhao, Wei E; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ou, Jian-Ping; Chiu, Philip C N

    2017-04-01

    Are multimeric sperm plasma membrane protein complexes, ERp57 and sperm surface thiol content involved in human spermatozoa-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction? ERp57 is a component of a multimeric spermatozoa-ZP receptor complex involved in regulation of human spermatozoa-ZP binding via up-regulation of sperm surface thiol content. A spermatozoon acquires its fertilization capacity within the female reproductive tract by capacitation. Spermatozoa-ZP receptor is suggested to be a composite structure that is assembled into a functional complex during capacitation. Sperm surface thiol content is elevated during capacitation. ERp57 is a protein disulphide isomerase that modulates the thiol-disulphide status of proteins. The binding ability and components of protein complexes in extracted membrane protein fractions of spermatozoa were studied. The roles of capacitation, thiol-disulphide reagent treatments and ERp57 on sperm functions and sperm surface thiol content were assessed. Spermatozoa were obtained from semen samples from normozoospermic men. Human oocytes were obtained from an assisted reproduction programme. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western ligand blotting and mass spectrometry were used to identify the components of solubilized ZP/ZP3-binding complexes. The localization and expression of sperm surface thiol and ERp57 were studied by immunostaining and sperm surface protein biotinylation followed by western blotting. Sperm functions were assessed by standard assays. Several ZP-binding complexes were isolated from the cell membrane of capacitated spermatozoa. ERp57 was a component of one of these complexes. Capacitation significantly increased the sperm surface thiol content, acrosomal thiol distribution and ERp57 expression on sperm surface. Sperm surface thiol and ERp57 immunoreactivity were localized to the acrosomal region of spermatozoa, a region responsible for ZP-binding. Up-regulation of the surface thiol content or ERp57 surface

  12. Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) and several proteins containing BX7B motifs in human sperm may have hyaluronic acid binding or recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Torabi, F; Bogle, O A; Estanyol, J M; Oliva, R; Miller, D

    2017-12-01

    Are there novel hyaladherins in human sperm? Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2), containing a Link-like hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding domain, and several other proteins containing BX7B motifs, such as ADAM32 and Midkine, may be novel hyaladherins with HA-binding properties. HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), which can bind HA surrounding the cumulus-oophorus complex, are distinct from hyases such as PH 20 (SPAM1) and are expressed by mature spermatozoa. Although HABP1 and CD44 are reasonably well characterized hyaladherins and the former has been implicated in sperm-oocyte interactions, the overall significance of sperm hyaladherins for male fertility is still poorly understood. This was a laboratory-based investigation into human sperm hyaladherins undertaken as part of a three year PhD programme sponsored by the EU Marie Curie Training network, Reprotrain. Protein homogenates of sperm obtained from young men of unknown fertility (N = 4) were partitioned into HA-binding and non-binding fractions by a protein affinity 'panning' method; their subsequent characterization was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and partitioning behaviour was confirmed by western blotting. Sequences of proteins from both fractions were submitted to PDBsum to look for orthologous entries (PDB codes) and all returned codes were queried against the matching protein using SAS (Sequences Annotated by Structure) looking for structural similarities between them. A systematic search for other common features of hyaladherins was also undertaken. The presence of BX7B sequence motifs found in several well-described hyaladherins including RHAMM was used to assess efficacy of potential hyaladherin partitioning by the HA substrate. The data showed that 50% (14/28) and 34.5% (28/81) of proteins in the bound and unbound fractions, respectively, contained these motifs (one-tailed Z-score = 1.45; P = 0.074), indicating weak discrimination by the substrate. Querying PDBsum

  13. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 3: developmental changes in spermatid flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet and interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida and egg plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis constitutes the steps involved in the metamorphosis of spermatids into spermatozoa. It involves modification of several organelles in addition to the formation of several structures including the flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet. The flagellum is composed of a neck region and middle, principal, and end pieces. The axoneme composed of nine outer microtubular doublets circularly arranged to form a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules is present throughout the flagellum. The middle and principal pieces each contain specific components such as the mitochondrial sheath and fibrous sheath, respectively, while outer dense fibers are common to both. A plethora of proteins are constituents of each of these structures, with each playing key roles in functions related to the fertility of spermatozoa. At the end of spermiogenesis, a portion of spermatid cytoplasm remains associated with the released spermatozoa, referred to as the cytoplasmic droplet. The latter has as its main feature Golgi saccules, which appear to modify the plasma membrane of spermatozoa as they move down the epididymal duct and hence may be partly involved in male gamete maturation. The end product of spermatogenesis is highly streamlined and motile spermatozoa having a condensed nucleus equipped with an acrosome. Spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and eventually penetrate the zona pellucida and bind to the egg plasma membrane. Many proteins have been implicated in the process of fertilization as well as a plethora of proteins involved in the development of spermatids and sperm, and these are high lighted in this review. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. [A study on the construction, expression and immunosterility of Lagurus laguru zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3].

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Chen; Yu, Ji-Yun; Jiang, Min; Tu, Yi-Xian; Ma, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2011-09-01

    To enhance the immunocontraceptive effect of Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine, and to achieve the prospect of application through the pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 different immunity pathway. Two adjuvant molecules were constructed into the recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 as DNA vaccine which contains Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and the molecular adjuvant 3 copies of C3d. The results of RT-PCR and western blot showed that the DNA vaccine was expressed in mRNA and protein level. The female C57BL/6 mice were immunized by three ways: intramuscular injection, intranasal or oral route.Antibody levels and types were detected by ELISA. ELISA results showed that recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 immunization induced specific IgG, IgA levels were significantly different comparing with control (P<0.01). Antifertility experiment showed that the experimental group reduced the average fertility significantly different compared with the control group (P<0.01). Restriction analysis, RT-PCR and Western blot showed that the recombinant plasmid constructed correctly and can be the expression of mRNA and protein levels.It resulted that the recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 can induce the specific immune response efficiently and enhance the immunocontraceptive effects.

  15. Melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide EI projections from the lateral hypothalamic area and zona incerta to the medial septal nucleus and spinal cord: a study using multiple neuronal tracers.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, J C; Elias, C F

    1998-09-14

    The projection pathways of neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and neuropeptide EI (NEI), two peptides colocalized in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the rat, were mapped using the retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes, true blue (TB) and diamidino yellow (DY). TB and DY were injected into the medial septum/diagonal band complex (MS/DBC) and the thoracic level of the spinal cord (SpCd), respectively. Brains from rats receiving only one or both tracer injections were immunohistochemically stained for MCH in the spinal cord and NEI in the forebrain. In the MS/DBC, NEI-immunoreactive (-ir) fibers are concentrated in the MS and in the vertical and horizontal limbs of the DBC. In the SpCd, MCH-ir fibers are concentrated primarily in lamina X. Of the diencephalic NEI-ir neurons, 37.15% project to the MS/DBC and reside in the rostromedial zona incerta (ZIm), in the LHAt and LHAp, and in the perifornical region. Of the diencephalic MCH-ir neurons, 20.2% project to the SpCd and reside in the LHAt and LHAp. In addition, 2. 2% of the MCH-ir cells and 8.7% of the NEI-ir cells in the hypothalamus were labeled with both retrograde tracers and thus project to both the MS/DBC and SpCd. These dual projection neurons are located mainly in the LHAt and LHAp. Anterograde injections of the tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into the LHAt and ZIm corroborated our findings in the retrograde studies. Potential autonomic and behavioral roles of the NEI and MCH systems in the MS/DBC and the SpCd are discussed. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B. V.

  16. Calibration of the Urbana lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, T.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A method for calibrating data obtained by the Urban sodium lidar system is presented. First, an expression relating the number of photocounts originating from a specific altitude range to the soodium concentration is developed. This relation is then simplified by normalizing the sodium photocounts with photocounts originating from the Rayleigh region of the atmosphere. To evaluate the calibration expression, the laser linewidth must be known. Therefore, a method for measuring the laser linewidth using a Fabry-Perot interferometer is given. The laser linewidth was found to be 6 + or - 2.5 pm. Problems due to photomultiplier tube overloading are discussed. Finally, calibrated data is presented. The sodium column abundance exhibits something close to a sinusoidal variation throughout the year with the winter months showing an enhancement of a factor of 5 to 7 over the summer months.

  17. Home | University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

    Science.gov Websites

    Students Faculty & Staff Alumni Parents Campus Resources The Next 150 Strategic Plan Inclusive Illinois Search Directory Quicklinks A-Z Index & Directory Map Library Give Now Resources for Students Faculty & Staff Alumni Parents About About Links Overview Leadership Facts Research Milestones Nobels &

  18. A preprocessor for the Urbana coherent-scatter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zendt, F. T.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The design, interfacing, testing, and operation of a preprocessor to increase the altitude and temporal resolution of the present coherent-scatter system are described. This system upgrade requires an increase in the data collection rate. Replacing the present, relatively slow, ADC with two high speed ADCs achieves the increased echo sampling rate desired. To stay within the capabilities of the main computer's I/O and processing rate the data must be reduced before transfer to the main computer. Thus the preprocessor also coherently integrates the data before transfer.

  19. The Urbana coherent-scatter radar: Synthesis and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, K. P.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    A coherent scatter radar system was synthesized and several hundred hours of echo power and line of sight velocity data obtained. The coherent scatter radar utilizes a diode array and components from meteor radar. The receiving system permits a time resolution of one minute in the data. Echo power from the D region shows a high degree of variability from day to day. Examples of changes in power level at shorter time scales are observed. Velocity data show the existence of gravity waves and occasionally exhibit vertical standing wave characteristics.

  20. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  1. Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related effects of dexamethasone administration in adrenal zona reticularis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Henrique; Matos, Liliana; Ferreira, Jorge; Neves, Delminda

    2006-05-01

    Suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone results in reduced adrenal steroid output, adrenocortical cell atrophy, and apoptosis in young rats. To verify such effects during aging, dexamethasone was injected into rats for 3 days at five different ages; at day 4, adrenals and blood were collected for morphologic and corticosterone assay. Adrenal structure was similar at all ages, but in dexamethasone-injected animals there were ultrastructural features of apoptosis and a higher percentage of TUNEL and caspase-3-labeled nuclei and cytoplasm; their corticosterone decreased significantly. In both groups, there was age-related decrease in the percentage of apoptotic cells, significant only in dexamethasone-injected rats. The data suggest that aged adrenocortical cells are less susceptible to the lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), possibly as a result of their decreased functional ability.

  3. Identification of ZASP, a novel protein associated to Zona occludens-2.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Susana; Alarcón, Lourdes; Solano, Jesús; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2010-11-15

    With the aim of discovering new molecular interactions of the tight junction protein ZO-2, a two-hybrid screen was performed on a human kidney cDNA library using as bait the middle segment of ZO-2. Through this assay we identified a 24-kDa novel protein herein named ZASP for ZO-2 associated speckle protein. ZO-2/ZASP interaction further confirmed by pull down and immunoprecipitation experiments, requires the presence of the intact PDZ binding motif SQV of ZASP and the third PDZ domain of ZO-2. ZASP mRNA and protein are present in the kidney and in several epithelial cell lines. Endogenous ZASP is expressed primarily in nuclear speckles in co-localization with splicing factor SC-35. Nocodazole treatment and wash out reveals that ZASP disappears from the nucleus during mitosis in accordance with speckle disassembly during metaphase. ZASP amino acid sequence exhibits a canonical nuclear exportation signal and in agreement the protein exits the nucleus through a process mediated by exportin/CRM1. ZASP over-expression blocks the inhibitory activity of ZO-2 on cyclin D1 gene transcription and protein expression. The identification of ZASP helps to unfold the complex nuclear molecular arrays that form on ZO-2 scaffolds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Reduces Rotenone Effect on Stallion Sperm-Zona Pellucida Heterologous Binding.

    PubMed

    Plaza Dávila, M; Bucci, D; Galeati, G; Peña, F J; Mari, G; Giaretta, E; Tamanini, C; Spinaci, M

    2015-12-01

    Stallion spermatozoa are highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production to achieve normal sperm function and to fuel the motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of equine sperm under capacitating conditions to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone and to test whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural polyphenol component of green tea, could counteract this effect. After 2-h incubation of stallion spermatozoa in modified Tyrode's medium, rotenone (100 nm, 500 nm and 5 μm) and EGCG (10, 20 and 60 μm), alone or in combination, did not induce any significant difference on the percentage of viable cells, live sperm with active mitochondria and spermatozoa with intact acrosome. The inhibition of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain of stallion sperm with rotenone exerted a negative effect on heterologous ZP binding ability. EGCG at the concentrations of 10 and 20 μm (but not of 60 μm) induced a significant increase in the number of sperm bound to the ZP compared with that for control. Moreover, when stallion sperm were treated with rotenone 100 nm, the presence of EGCG at all the concentrations tested (10, 20 and 60 μm) significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP up to control levels, suggesting that this green tea polyphenol is able to reduce the toxicity of rotenone. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Julio César; Lizarazo, Fredy Eberto; Murillo, Olga Lucía; Mendigaña, Fernando Antonio; Pachón, Edwin; Vera, Mauricio Javier

    2017-03-29

    Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores representan más de 17 % de todas las enfermedades infecciosas y causan anualmente un millón de defunciones a nivel mundial. En Colombia, la malaria, el dengue, la enfermedad de Chagas y las leishmaniasis son condiciones endemoepidémicas persistentes.Objetivo. Determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia entre 1990 y 2016.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo del comportamiento epidemiológico de las principales enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia entre 1990 y 2016, con la información proveniente de fuentes oficiales secundarias.Resultados. En el periodo estudiado se registraron 5'360.134 casos de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, de los cuales 54,7 % fueron de malaria y 24,9 % de dengue. Estos casos concentraron el 80 % de la carga acumulada de casos de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Las medianas de las tasas de incidencia fueron 1.371 y 188 por 100.00 habitantes para malaria y dengue, respectivamente. Además, los casos de chikungunya fueron 774.831 desde su introducción en el 2014 y, los de Zika, 117.674 desde su aparición en 2015. En las zonas rurales predominaron las enfermedades parasitarias transmitidas por vectores como la malaria, las leishmaniasis y la enfermedad de Chagas. A nivel urbano, predominaron el dengue, el chikungunya y el Zika.Conclusiones. La transmisión en Colombia de estas enfermedades es persistente en las zonas urbanas y en las rurales, y de tipo endemoepidémico en los casos de malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis y enfermedad de Chagas. Dicha transmisión se ha dado de manera focalizada y con patrones variables de intensidad. Asimismo, se mantienen las condiciones que han favorecido la transmisión emergente de nuevas arbovirosis.

  6. The Perfect Career: Jennifer Hain-Teper--University of Illinois Library, Urbana-Champaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article details the work of Jennifer Hain-Teper, from the University of Illinois Library. For Jennifer Hain Teper, it all began with a simple question: "If you could do anything at all, regardless of pay, what would it be?" This was posed by a friend when Hain Teper was a volunteer at the wildflower research center in Austin, TX.…

  7. Daytime lidar measurements of tidal winds in the mesospheric sodium layer at Urbana, Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, K. H.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Voelz, D. G.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.; Roesler, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    For more than 15 years lidar systems have been used to study the chemistry and dynamics of the mesospheric sodium layer. Because the layer is an excellent tracer of atmospheric wave motions, sodium lidar has proven to be particularly useful for studying the influence of gravity waves and tides on mesospheric dynamics. These waves, which originate in the troposphere and stratosphere, propagate through the mesosphere and dissipate their energy near the mesopause making important contributions to the momentum and turbulence budget in this region of the atmosphere. Recently, the sodium lidar was modified for daytime operation so that wave phenomena and chemical effects could be monitored throughout the complete diurnal cycle. The results of continuous 24 hour lidar observations of the sodium layer structure are presented alond with measurement of the semidiurnal tidal winds.

  8. Progress Report for Grant Number W911NF-09-1-0347 (University of Illinois - Urbana)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-06

    critical tunneling current is proportional to mexc, we find good agreement with this explanation via the approximate square-root dependence seen in Fig...can occur near the contact, reducing interlayer conductivity significantly. As critical tunneling current is linearly dependent on the width of the...studied the possibility of finding the same type of condensation in a 3D topological insulator, and started our work on a time- dependent theory to

  9. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Urbana (Reading and Writing Instruction: Urban Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults in Mexico who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at urban inhabitants of Mexico.…

  10. Symposium on Early Childhood Education (Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, November 9-10, 1997). Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Coll. of Education.

    This book compiles abstracts of presentations from a symposium held in honor of Dr. Bernard Spodek, a leading scholar in early childhood education, on the occasion of his retirement. Topics addressed are as follows: (1) culture in early childhood curriculum; (2) developmental and cultural appropriateness; (3) kindergarten in Japan; (4) pressure…

  11. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This interdisciplinary laboratory in the College of Engineering support research in areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. These research programs are developed with the assistance of faculty, students, and research associates in the departments of Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Nuclear Engineering.

  12. Birth of piglets from in vitro-produced, zona-intact porcine embryos vitrified in a closed system

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Zhao, Chongbei; Wei, Si; Murphy, Clifton N.; Spate, Lee; Liu, Yang; Walters, Eric M.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Prather, Randall S.; Critser, John K.

    2011-01-01

    As the importance of swine models in biomedical research increases, it is essential to develop low-cost, high-throughput systems to cryopreserve swine germplasm for maintenance of these models. However, porcine embryos are exceedingly sensitive to low temperature and successful cryopreservation is generally limited to the use of vitrification in open systems that allow direct contact of the embryos with liquid nitrogen (LN2). This creates a high risk of pathogen transmission. Therefore, cryopreservation of porcine embryos in a “closed” system is of very high importance. In this study, in vitro-produced (IVP) porcine embryos were used to investigate cryosurvival and developmental potential of embryos cryopreserved in a closed system. Optimal centrifugal forces to completely disassociate intracellular lipids from blastomeres were investigated using Day-4 embryos. Cryosurvival of delipidated embryos was investigated by vitrifying the embryos immediately after centrifugation, or after development to blastocysts. In this study, centrifugation for 30 min at 13,000 g was adequate to completely delipidate the embryos; furthermore, these embryos were able to survive cryopreservation at a rate comparable to those centrifuged for only 12 min. When delipidated embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst stage, there was no difference in survival between embryos vitrified using OPS and 0.25 mL straws. Some embryos vitrified by each method developed to term. These experiments demonstrated that porcine embryos can be cryopreserved in a closed system after externalizing their intracellular lipids. This has important implications for banking swine models of human health and disease. PMID:21458047

  13. Medición de posiciones astrométricas con CCD en la zona de Rup 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    It is shown the utilization of the block adjustment method for the measurement of astrometric positions from a mosaic of sixteen CCD images with partial overlap, which were taken with the Telescope Jorge Sahade of CASLEO. The observations cover an area of 25' x 25' around the open cluster Rup21. The source of reference positions was ACT Reference Catalog. The internal error of the measured positions is analyzed, and the external error is estimated from the comparison with the catalog USNO-A. In this comparison it is found that the direct CCD images taken with focal reducer could be distorted by severe field curvature. The effect of the distortion presumably introduced by the optics is eliminated with the suitable corrections of the stellar positions measured on every frame, but a new systematic effect on scales of the entire field is observed, which could be due to the distribution of the reference stars.

  14. Delimitacion de las Zonas Dialectales de Mexico: Objetivos y Problemas (Delimitation of Dialect Zones in Mexico: Objectives and Problems)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Juan M. Lope

    1975-01-01

    Before creating a linguistic map of Mexican dialects, it is necessary to determine the dialect regions of the country. An extensive questionnaire must be written and distributed to collect data from a representative sample of the population for an accurate picture of the language. (CK) (Text in Spanish.)

  15. International Symposium on the Effective Teaching of Racquet Sports. Proceedings (1st, Urbana, Illinois, June 11-14, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Jack L., Ed.; Sears, Ronald G., Ed.

    Researchers, coaches, and players of racquet sports were brought together for this symposium on four racquet sports. Although most of the papers presented at the symposium were written by Americans, one of the speakers was from Canada, and another was from Australia. The sports represented were badminton, racquetball, tennis, and squash. In Part…

  16. Proceedings: USA-CERL Technology Transfer (T2) Workshop Held in Urbana, Illinois on December 15-16 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    February 1986. Kotler , Philip , Bobby J. Calder, Brian Sternthal, and Alice Tybout. "A Marketing Approach to the Development and Dissemination of...intended to cause a particular acquirer, or class of acquirers, to initiate a transfer. In the business world, this operation is called marketing . The... marketing operation and the transfer operation make up the active mode of technology transfer. When operating in the *active mode, the providing

  17. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium Held at Urbana, Illinois on 19-21 September 1984. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    lbs. at STA 117. Rlando Vibration MIL-STD-1SOC. Method. 514.2, 20-2w000 z at Wo a .04S2/Rz, I bour each axis. lhock NIL4- TD -8IOC, Method 516.2...day-. FULL FAR FIELD O-NE CUT INFAR FIELD 0 NBS BENCHMARK TIME 1000sm 0 TD 13ENCHMARK TIME __ 1 hou .j SPHERICAL OR PLANE, POLAR 1000 sec 20 60 100...for the coupling: bBd h ’(kd)IO d> 6 + (4) "-.(4) a2 nnedd an 32 1), i) fljfi f*f P(cose) si d do (5) 630 The spherical Hankel function of the first

  18. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium Held in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois on September 24, 25, 26, 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Sept. 1975. 18 9. J. L. Bogdanor , R. A. Rearlman, and M. D. Siegel, "Intrasystem Electromagnetic...34 IRE Transactions on Antennas and Propa- gation, May 1962, pp. 264-273. 11. J. L. Bogdanor , R. A. Pearlman, and M. D. Siegel, "Intrasystem

  19. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium Held in Urbana, Illinois on 17-19 September 1986. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    apply here. The primary negative effect of the inclusion of test ports into the package is to increase its size and complexity. In summary, the...FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEMSE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED .i ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER Air Force Systems Command Griffiss Air Force...ORGANIZATION b. OPFICE SYMBOL 7&. NAME OP MONITORING OAGANIZATION 10I11110111blep Rome Air Development Center EEMA 4116 A00101163 (City. Sfte *Ad ZIP C4,40

  20. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium (1982) Held at Illinois University at Urbana on 22-24 September 1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    1980 (this conference) attests to method , that in admittedly a phased b array context, and to method being a bit complex. Polarization control...Computation of the phase shift was made by two methods . The first used equations in Marcuvitz 4 for an E-plane waveguide bend, with changes in e i...made by adjustment of the waveguide width. The second method (Bahar-) requi-edi solving the wave equation in cylindrical coordinates. 28 Because the

  1. Crew Station Aspects of Manned Spacecraft. Degree awared by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a frame work for a crew station handbook and includes samples of the broader areas which such a handbook should cover. The completed sections of this thesis serve as extensive treatments of the topics covered. The content of the individual sections of Chapters I and II varied with my experience and knowledge.

  2. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  3. Feed system design and experimental results in the uhf model study for the proposed Urbana phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loane, J. T.; Bowhill, S. A.; Mayes, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric turbulence and the basis for the coherent scatter radar techniques are discussed. The reasons are given for upgrading the Radar system to a larger steerable array. Phase array theory pertinent to the system design is reviewed, along with approximations for maximum directive gain and blind angles due to mutual coupling. The methods and construction techniques employed in the UHF model study are explained. The antenna range is described, with a block diagram for the mode of operation used.

  4. Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium Held in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois on September 23, 24, 25, 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    reflectivity near 9.0 GHz and relative transparency above 10.5 GHz and below 7.5 GHz. The frequency-selective response of the FSS, as tested in the...FREQUENCY (GHz) Figure 6. Frequency Selective Responses of FSS U.~I noU 0 .jj 7 41 IN J43 cH-’ AI 𔃽 4c!,) ---------- -- ,-7 -7 2Z~Zf -~44 -- t 4qpi V...assumes no responsibility for the information presented." -2- quiescent (before adaption) radiation pattern of the adaptive antenna affects the initial

  5. Nonlinear Vibrations, Stability, and Dynamics of Structures and Mechanisms Conference (4th) Held in Blacksburg, Virginia on June 7-11, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Subharmonic Forced Traveling Waves in a Thin Perfect Circular Disk T. A. Nayfeh and A. F. Vakakis, University of Illinois at Urbana -Champaign, Urbana ...of Illinois at Urbana -Champaign, Urbana , IL and J. Awrejcewicz, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JAPAN 0830-1010 On the Nonlinear Parametric Excitation...and A. F. Vakakis, University of Illinois at Urbana -Champaign, Urbana , IL Thursday, June 11 Session 15. Multibody Dynamics I/ Chairmen: G. Anderson

  6. Birth of cloned calves from vitrified-warmed zona-free buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced by hand-made cloning.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ambikaprasanna; Panda, Sudeepta K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    The availability of techniques for the vitrification of cloned blastocysts can improve their effective use. The present study compared the developmental competence of buffalo cloned embryos derived from adult (BAF), newborn (BNF) and fetal fibroblast (BFF) before and after vitrification. Despite similar cleavage rates among the three groups, the blastocyst rate was lower for BAF- than BNF- and BFF-derived embryos (30.2±2.2% vs 41.7±1.7% and 39.1±2.1%, respectively; P<0.01). The total cell number of BNF-derived blastocysts was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of BFF-derived blastocysts, which, in turn, was higher (P<0.01) than that of BAF-derived blastocysts. Following transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts to recipients, no pregnancy was obtained with fresh (n=8) or vitrified-warmed (n=18) BAF-derived blastocysts, whereas transfer of fresh BNF- (n=53) and BFF-derived (n=32) blastocysts resulted in four and three pregnancies, respectively, which aborted within 90 days of gestation. The transfer of vitrified-warmed BNF-derived blastocysts (n=39) resulted in the live birth of a calf weighing 41kg, which is now 23 months old and has no apparent abnormality, whereas the transfer of vitrified-warmed BFF-derived blastocysts (n=18) resulted in one live birth of a calf that died within 6h. These results demonstrate that cloned buffalo embryos cryopreserved by vitrification can be used to obtain live offspring.

  7. Gender and Gonadal Status Differences in Zona Reticularis Expression in Marmoset Monkey Adrenals: Cytochrome b5 Localization With Respect To Cytochrome P450 17,20-Lyase Activity.

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, J Christina; Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H; Hogan, Brynn K; Nguyen, Ann D; Husen, Bettina; Einspanier, Almuth; Conley, Alan J; Bird., Ian M

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal marmosets express an adrenal fetal zone comparable to humans. While adult males fail to express a functional ZR, with barely detectable blood DHEA levels, females produce higher levels of DHEA than males in adulthood. We investigated the presence of a putative functional ZR in adult female marmosets. In contrast to males, immunohistochemical analysis showed the ZR marker cytochrome b5 was elevated in the innermost zone in cycling females (compared to testis-intact males), further elevated in the adrenals from anovulatory females, and substantially elevated and continuous in ovariectomized females. As a functional test in vivo, following overnight dexamethasone treatment, cycling and anovulatory females showed higher levels of DHEA relative to males, but DHEA failed to increase in response to ACTH. In direct contrast, while ovariectomized females exhibited lower initial DHEA levels, clear increases were detectable after ACTH administration (p<0.05), suggesting an adrenal origin. The apparent differences in cytochrome b5 expression between groups were also further verified by western blotting of adrenal microsomes, and compared to 17,20-lyase activity; the two parameters were positively correlated (p<0.01) across multiple treatment groups. We conclude that the cycling female marmoset expresses a rudimentary ZR with at least a capacity for DHEA production that becomes significantly ACTH-responsive after anovulation. Expression of cytochrome b5 in this region may be directly or indirectly controlled by gonadal function, and is, at least in part, a critical determinant in the development of an adrenal ZR that is more defined and significantly ACTH-responsive. PMID:17222503

  8. Detection of antisperm antibodies: their localization to human sperm antigens that are transferred to the surface of zona-free hamster oocytes during the sperm penetration assay.

    PubMed

    Wiley, L M; Obasaju, M F; Overstreet, J W; Cross, N L; Hanson, F W; Chang, R J

    1987-08-01

    The authors have developed an extension of the sperm penetration assay for detecting serum immunoglobulins to sperm antigens that are transferred to the plasma membrane of a sperm-penetrated hamster oocyte. After the hamster oocytes have been scored for sperm penetration by observing for the presence of swollen sperm heads, they are incubated in serum followed by either a 20-minute treatment with rhodamine-conjugated protein A (which binds to most subclasses of IgA, IgG, and IgM) or a 2-hour incubation in guinea pig serum (complement). Positive fluorescence indicates that the serum contains antibodies to sperm antigens that were transferred to the surface of an oocyte during gamete fusion. Complement-mediated lysis indicates that the immunoglobulin that is bound can also fix complement. The advantages of this assay for detection of serum antisperm antibodies are that it is an extension of a widely used assay, is rapid and requires readily available reagents and equipment, can detect most subclasses of IgA, IgG, and IgM, detects antibodies to those sperm antigens that may be transferred to the oocyte during fertilization, and indicates whether the detected antisperm antibodies can mediate complement-dependent lysis of the fertilized oocyte.

  9. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  10. Conserving and Preserving Library Materials. Papers Presented at the Allerton Park Institute (Urbana, Illinois, November 15-18, 1981). Allerton Park Institute Number 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn Luther, Ed.; Henderson, William T., Ed.

    Papers presented at the 1981 Allerton Park Institute include: (1) "Conservation: What We should Do Until the Conservator and the Twenty-first Century Arrive," by Robert H. Patterson; (2) "Expanding Preservation Resources: The Corps of Practitioners and the Core of Knowledge," by Pamela W. Darling; (3) "National Preservation Planning and Regional…

  11. Proceedings of a National Symposium on the Racquet Sports. An Exploration of Research Implications and Teaching Strategies (Urbana, Illinois, June 13-16, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    Conference proceedings from this national symposium on hard scientific research and developments in teaching tennis, squash, racquetball, and badminton are divided into several sections. The first deals with sports medicine and the biomechanics of the racquet sports. The second part discusses the pyschological and sociological aspects of…

  12. Case Study of a Successful Educational Partnership: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVol, Dave

    2014-01-01

    When the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA) was founded in 1985, the state of Illinois charged IMSA with two mandates: (1) "The primary role of the Academy shall be to offer a uniquely challenging education for students talented in the areas of mathematics and science." (2) "The Academy shall also carry a responsibility…

  13. Public Access to Library Automation. Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (17th, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divilbiss, J. L., Ed.

    Eight studies by experts in the field of information retrieval examine aspects of public use of such automated systems as online catalogs in libraries. Ward Shaw discusses "Design Principles for Public Access," outlining desirable characteristics of an information retrieval system. Allen Avner and H. George Friedman, Jr. treat problems…

  14. Progress Report for the Joint Services Electronic Program for the Period April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1990 (Coordinated Science Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    since the projected ion range is of the order of lattice constants. Thus, we have extended our thermal-dopant incorporation model and have developed...bombardment results in residual lattice damage, which degrades electrical and optical properties. Obviously, at sufficiently high acceleration energies...understand the details of collisional lattice dynamics and ion-induced defect for- mation and annihilation. In addition, the simulations are providing, for

  15. Twenty-Five Years of Linguistic Research and Teaching at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Graduate Research by Doctoral and Master's Degree Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A special issue of the journal, dedicated to Henry B. Kahane, the late founder of the Department of Linguistics at the University of Illinois at Champaign, celebrates the department's first 25 years. It contains three parts. The first consists of specifically commissioned papers originally written in 1973-74 and meant for a specific project,…

  16. Interrelationships between Work Life and Family Life. Proceedings, Silver Jubilee Conference, Illinois Teacher of Home Economics (Urbana, Illinois, April l8-2l, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Hazel Taylor, Ed.

    These conference proceedings examine the interrelationships between work life and family life and explore ways in which home economics education can contribute to the solution of attendant problems. The opening session includes a welcome and an introduction to the topic. Other papers address (1) the evolution of the role of women; (2) inflation…

  17. Joint Services Electronics Program for the Period 1 April 1990 Through 31 March 1991, (Coordinated Science Laboratory, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-30

    AND TITLES: 0. Arikan , Research Assistant I W. Chuang, Research Assistant A. Krone, Research Assistant M, Leung, Research Assistant I Y. Liu, Research...P. Willis and Y. Bresler, "Norm invariance of minimax-optimal interpolation," submitted to3 IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory. (JSEP/NSF) [5] 0. Arikan and...imaging of time varying distributions," in Proc. Int. Syrup. Circuits and Syst., Singapore, Jun. 1991 (to appear). (JSEP/NSF) [101 0. Arikan and 1). C

  18. NIEHS/EPA CEHCs: Novel Methods to Assess Effects of Bisphenol A & Phthalates on Child Development - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    At this center, researchers study the effects of two endocrine disruptors that are commonly used in pesticides, plastics and many other products and are also found in vehicle exhaust: bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates.

  19. Men's health: non-communicable chronic diseases and social vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Daniele Natália Pacharone Bertolini; Simonetti, Janete Pessuto; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2016-08-15

    Doenças em homens solteiros. Obtiveram-se 21 casos geoestatisticamente significantes de intolerância à glicose na zona urbana. Desses, 62% moravam em região com a classificação de vulnerabilidade social Muito Baixa, 19% Média, 14% Baixa e 5% Alta. observou-se que quanto mais velhos os homens, maior é o número de doenças crônicas instaladas e menos eles faltam em consultas agendadas. Quanto ao uso do geoprocessamento, obteve-se número de casos significantes de intolerância à glicose na zona urbana, sendo a maioria classificada como vulnerabilidade social Muito Baixa. Pôde-se relacionar a distribuição espacial dessas doenças com a classificação de vulnerabilidade social, porém, não foi possível perceber uma relação delas com índices mais elevados de vulnerabilidade social. evaluar la relación entre las faltas en las citas programadas y el número de enfermedades crónicas y para investigar la relación entre la distribución espacial de estas enfermedades y la vulnerabilidad social, utilizando geoprocesamiento. estudio cuantitativo de enfoque mixto secuencial y siendo analizadas 158 historias clínicas de los usuarios masculinos para relacionar las faltas y 1250 registros de geoprocesamiento. cuanto mayor eran el número de ausencias en las citas médicas programadas, menores fueron el número, para los hombres solteiros, de enfermedades crónicas y de las incluídas en la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades. Se obtuvieron 21 casos de intolerancia a la glucosa geoestadísticamente significativos en el área urbana. De éstos, el 62% viven en una región con calificación de vulnerabilidad social muy baja 19%, media, 14% baja y 5% Alta. se observó que cuanta mayor la edad de los hombres, mayor es el número de enfermedades crónicas instaladas y menos faltas en las citas programadas. Respecto al uso de geoprocesamiento, obtuvimos número significativo de casos de intolerancia a la glucosa en las zonas urbanas, la mayoría clasificada

  20. Seizures, cysticercosis and rural-to-urban migration: the PERU MIGRANT study

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Isidro; Miranda, J Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Vargas, Victor; Cjuno, Alfredo; Smeeth, Liam; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H

    2015-01-01

    équences neurologiques de l'infection par la cysticercose sont susceptibles de survivre à la réponse d'anticorps durant des années après la migration des zones rurales vers les zones urbaines. Objetivos Examinar la prevalencia de convulsiones, epilepsia, y seropositividad para cisticercosis entre población rural (de zonas endémicas para cisticercosis), inmigrantes provenientes de zonas rurales a tugurios urbanos no endémicos, y habitantes urbanos de los mismo tugurios urbanos no endémicos. Métodos Se estudiaron tres poblaciones peruanas (n=985) originalmente reclutadas en un estudio de enfermedades crónicas y migración. Estos grupos incluían habitantes rurales de una región endémica (n=200), inmigrantes de larga duración de zonas rurales a urbanas (n=589), e individuos que vivían en la misma zona urbana (n=196). Las convulsiones se detectaron mediante una encuesta y un neurólogo examinó a quienes habían respondido positivamente. Se procesaron muestras de suero de 981/985 individuos en busca de anticuerpos para cisticercosis mediante inmunoblot. Resultados La prevalencia de epilepsia (por 1,000 personas) era de 15.3 en el grupo urbano, 35.6 en inmigrantes y 25 en habitantes rurales. Se observó un gradiente en la seroprevalencia de los anticuerpos para cisticercosis: grupos urbano 2%, inmigrante 13.5% y rural 18% (p<0.05). Se observó un patrón de aumento similar de mayor seroprevalencia entre inmigrantes según la edad que tenían en el momento de emigrar. En pobladores rurales, había una evidencia importante de asociación entre tener una serología positiva y sufrir convulsiones (p=0.011), pero esta asociación no se observaba en inmigrantes de larga duración o residentes urbanos. En la población al completo, comparada con los participantes seronegativos, aquellos con una fuerte reactividad de anticuerpos (≥4 bandas de anticuerpos) tenían una mayor probabilidad de sufrir epilepsia (p<0.001). Conclusiones No solo la migración internacional afecta la

  1. Emergent and Reemergent Arboviruses in South America and the Caribbean: Why So Many and Why Now?

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Contigiani, Marta; Gleiser, Raquel Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Varios arbovirus han emergido y/o reemergido en el Nuevo Mundo en las últimas décadas. Los virus Zika y chikungunya, anteriormente restringidos a África y quizás Asia, invadieron el continente, causando gran preocupación; además siguen ocurriendo brotes causados por el virus dengue en casi todos los países, con millones de casos por año. El virus West Nile invadió rápidamente América del Norte, y ya se han encontrado casos en América Central y del Sur. Otros arbovirus, como Mayaro y el virus de la encefalitis equina del este han aumentado su actividad y se han encontrado en nuevas regiones. Se han documentado cambios en la patogenicidad de algunos virus que conducen a enfermedades inesperadas. Una fauna diversa de mosquitos, cambios climáticos y en la vegetación, aumento de los viajes, y urbanizaciones no planificadas que generan condiciones adecuadas para la proliferación de Aedes aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say y otros mosquitos vectores, se han combinado para influir fuertemente en los cambios en la distribución y la incidencia de varios arbovirus. Se enfatiza la necesidad de realizar estudios exhaustivos de la fauna de mosquitos y modificaciones de las condiciones ambientales, sobre todo en las zonas urbanas fuertemente influenciadas por factores sociales, políticos y económicos. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório de; Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes Dos; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro de

    2016-01-01

    ratio - OR: 0,45; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95%: 0,39-0,52), computador e/ou videogame (OR: 0,30; IC95%: 0,22-0,42), passavam menos tempo sentados (OR: 0,66; IC95%: 0,54-0,80), optaram menos pelo lazer passivo (OR: 0,83; IC95%: 0,72-0,95) e tinham menos chances de serem classificados como insuficientes ativos (OR: 0,88; IC95%: 0,78-0,99), quando comparados àqueles que residiam na área urbana, independentemente do sexo e da idade. Os adolescentes da área rural que não trabalhavam apresentaram mais chances de serem classificados como insuficientemente ativos (OR: 2,59; IC95%: 2,07-3,24), mostrando que a ocupação tinha um papel importante no nível de atividade física deste grupo. Os adolescentes residentes na área rural estiveram menos expostos aos comportamentos sedentários, optaram mais por um lazer ativo e apresentaram um melhor nível de atividade física, podendo a zona de domicílio e a ocupação influenciar no estilo de vida deles.

  3. Report of study visits by University of Bristol, UK to University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, USA to initiate collaboration and coordination with 2005 MURI MICROVASCULAR AUTONOMIC COMPOSITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-15

    fibre interaction are areas that require further research. Experimental and modelling studies undertaken at UIUC on individual microcapsules have many... Microcapsules : Work at UIUC has shown microcapsules to be a very effective method of self- healing to recover fracture toughness. In particular... microcapsule , cleaving it and initiating the release of monomer. A potential limitation of the microcapsule system is the limited volume of self-healing

  4. Human Aspects of Library Automation: Helping Staff and Patrons Cope. Papers presented at the Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (22nd, Urbana, Illinois, April 14-16, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Debora, Ed.

    This collection explores the human aspect of the automation and reautomation of library functions as both library staff and library users are expected to adapt to and use computers. A brief introduction by Debora Shaw sets the stage for the following papers: (1) "Terminal Paralysis, or Showdown at the Interface" (Sara Fine); (2)…

  5. Language Legislation and Linguistic Rights: Selected Proceedings of the Language Legislation and Linguistic Rights Conference (Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, March 21-23, 1996). IMPACT: Studies in Language and Society, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibbee, Douglas A. Ed.

    This edited volume of conference papers contains the following titles: "Presentation: Realism and Idealism in Language Conflict and Their Resolution" (Douglas A. Kibbee); "Legal and Linguistic Perspectives on Language Legislation" (Douglas A. Kibbee); "The Linguistic Rights of Non-English Speaking Suspects, Witnesses,…

  6. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems: Will They Change the Library? Papers Presented at the Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (27th, Urbana, Illinois, March 25-27, 1990). Illinois, March 25-27, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. W., Ed.; Smith, Linda C., Ed.

    Some of the 12 conference papers presented in this proceedings focus on the present and potential capabilities of artificial intelligence and expert systems as they relate to a wide range of library applications, including descriptive cataloging, technical services, collection development, subject indexing, reference services, database searching,…

  7. Visualizing Subject Access for 21st Century Information Resources. Papers Presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (34th, Urbana, Illinois, March 2-4, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline Atherton, Ed.; Johnson, Eric H., Ed.

    This proceedings represents and documents in part the 16 presentations made at the 34th Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing. World Wide Web URLs that provide insight into each presentation are included. Presentations include: (1) "Hypostatizing Data Collections, Especially Bibliographic: Abstractions, Representations,…

  8. Symposium on Using Mechanics to Discover New Materials. Annual Technical Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science (45th) held in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois on 12-15 October 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-21

    celled Nitinol has recently become possiblevia a (newly discovered by Profs. D. Grummon at Michigan State Univ. and J.Shaw at Univ. of Michigan...transient-liquid reactive brazing system for creating robust metallurgical Nitinol Nitinol bonds. With this technique, prototype sparse cellularhoneycomb...Brian.Berg@bsci.com Nitinol has become a frequently used medical implant material despite its notorious complexity; especiallywith respect to fatigue [1

  9. Literature Search and Analysis for Cultural Resources in Areas 1 through 5 of the Rock River, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Illinois Historical Survey Library ( Urbana ). Very little documentary material pertinent to the project area was found. The Scripps’ (1891) manuscript...within the project area. Illinois Archaeological Survey ( Urbana ). The IAS maintains the active site files for archaeological sites within the state of...should include consulting these site files. University of Illinois ( Urbana ). The most interest- ing documentary materials here were the Smithsonian Insti

  10. An Assessment of Previous Archaeological Surveys at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Krejsa Public Service Archaeology Program Department of Anthropology University of Illinois Urbana , IL 61801 Michael L. Hargrave Construction...ii Abstract: From September 2003 through June 2004 the Public Service Archaeology Program (PSAP) of the University of Illinois at Urbana ...of this work was done by Dr. Paul Krejsa, Public Service Archaeological Program, University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, under contract DACA42-00

  11. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound-Targeted Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    and Pam Utterback and Doug Hilgendorf, staff of the University of Illinois at 400 Urbana-Champaign Poultry Research Farm , for maintenance of the hens...Utterback and Doug Hilgendorf, staff of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Poultry Re- search Farm , for maintenance of the hens. The authors also...and Doug Hilgendorf, staff of the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign Poultry Research Farm , for maintenance of the hens. They also thank

  12. Perceptional gaps among women, husbands and family members about intentions for birthplace: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shimpuku, Yoko; Madeni, Frida Elikana; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Leshabari, Sebalda Charles

    2017-01-30

    (BIQ), medindo o conhecimento, atitude, percepcão de controle comportamental, normas subjetivas e intenção para lugar de parto. Análise descritivas, ANOVA, Qui-quadrado e regressão linear múltipla foram utilizados para analisar os dados. o modelo de regressão mostrou que o conhecimento, percepcão de controle comportamental e normas subjetivas previram intenção de lugar de parto (R2 = 0,28). Enquanto 81% das mulheres grávidas pensavam que seus maridos eram os decisores para seu parto, apenas 38% dos maridos e 37% dos membros da família concordaram. As mulheres grávidas tiveram escores significativamente mais baixos sobre o item "Vou me preparar para o parto com a minha família", em comparação com os maridos (p < 0,01) e outros membros da família (p < 0,001). Proporcionar preparação para o parto baseada em evidencias e a redução das lacunas de percepção identificadas podem melhorar a intenção das mulheres para dar à luz em unidades de saúde. las mujeres son más propensas a dar a luz en un centro de salud cuando sus familias están de acuerdo con el lugar de parto. Sin embargo, en las zonas rurales de Tanzania, las mujeres son a menudo marginadas de la toma de decisiones. Este estudio predijo la intención del lugar de parto y los factores identificados para reducir la brecha de percepción entre las mujeres embarazadas, esposos y miembros de la familia. encuesta transversal explicativa llevada a cabo en tres aldeas en el noreste de Tanzania. Los participantes fueron 138 mujeres embarazadas y sus familias, que respondieron al Cuestionario sobre Intención del Parto (BIQ), que mide el conocimiento, la actitud, percepción de control del comportamiento, las normas subjetivas y la intención de lugar de parto. Se utilizaron análisis descriptivo, ANOVA, Chi-cuadrado y regresión lineal múltiple para analizar los datos. el modelo de regresión mostró que el conocimiento, la percepción de control del comportamiento, y las normas subjetivas

  13. Urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis due to sacral herpes zoster: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erol, B; Avci, A; Eken, C; Ozgok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Zona zoster infection is often associated with painful erythematous vesicular eruptions of the skin or mucous membranes. Varicella zoster virus which stays latent in the sensorial root ganglia causes zona zoster infection. The most recognized feature of zona zoster is the dermatomal distribution of vesicular rashes. In the present case report, we state an unusual presentation of sacral zona zoster with urinary retention, erectile dysfunction and meningitis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Content Area Reading: A Functional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecki, Gerard D.

    The implementation of a content reading program at Urbana High School, Urbana, Illinois, is discussed in this document. Reading staff hired with Title VII funds offered assistance to all teachers in the high school by working with classroom teachers in their classes for 60 minutes of class time per week. Free reading time devoted to high-interest…

  15. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Molecular Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Together with Serum Markers of Tumor-Associated Nuclear Change and Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Pincas; Rush University Medical Center, Pathology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Basu, Sanjib; Rush University Medical Center, Preventive Medicine ...and Jacques S Abramowicz 2, 5 Departments of 1 Pharmacology, 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3 Pathology, 5 Preventive Medicine (Biostatistics...Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (Dr Bahr Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine

  16. Home school student visit and introduction to rail transportation and engineering.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-22

    This project consisted of hosting local Champaign-Urbana, Illinois home school students for a visit to : the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana- : Champaign (UIUC). Beyond visiting RailTEC, st...

  17. Design and Demonstration of RSFQ Processor Datapath for High Performance Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Date(f-2): 1 b. InQubit, Inc. 21143 Hawthorne Blvd. #459 Torrance CA 90503 SF Memory Development University oF Illinois-Urbana Champagne 00000 University...oF Illinois-Urbana Champagne 00000 1 a. 1 a. 1 a. Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress See Attachment Technology Transfer N Patent Filed in US? (5d

  18. Nonlinear Analysis of Mechanical Systems Under Combined Harmonic and Stochastic Excitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-27

    Namachchivaya and Naresh Malhotra Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois...Aeronauticai and Astronautical Engineering, University of Illinois, 1991. 2. N. Sri Namachchivaya and N. Malhotra , Parametrically Excited Hopf Bifurcation...Namachchivaya and N. Malhotra , Parametrically Excited Hopf Bifurcation with Non-semisimple 1:1 Resonance, Nonlinear Vibrations, ASME-AMD, Vol. 114, 1992. 3

  19. US-Europe Workshop on Impact of Multifunctionality on Damage Evolution in Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress See Attachment Technology Transfer Not applicable UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AEROSPACE ENGINEERING...Composite Materials PI: Ioannis Chasiotis Aerospace Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL...focused on the current state of corporate research in the aerospace industry which is a major potential adopter of multifunctional composites. The two

  20. Cryogenic Frequency Domain Optical Mass Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-10

    Schuster Dr. William M. Jackson Chemistry Department Department of Chemistry University of Illinois Howard University Urbana, Illinois 61801 Washington...DC 20059 Dr. A. Adamson Dr. George E. Walraffen Department of Chemistry Department of Chemistry University of Southern Howard University California...University of Illinois Howard University Urbana, Illinois 61801 1 Washixgton, DC 20059 Dr. A. Adamson Dr. George E. Walraffen Department of Chemistry

  1. Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-31

    Urbana-Champaign Department of Geology 605 E. Springfield Ave. Champaign, IL 61820 31 August 2015 Final Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...ADDRESS(ES) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1Los Alamos National Laboratory Department of Geology PO Box 1663 605 E

  2. Providing Medical Information to College Health Center Personnel: A Circuit Librarian Service at the University of Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpff, Julia C.

    2003-01-01

    College health center personnel are no different from other health practitioners in their need for medical information. To help meet this need, the McKinley Health Center, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, developed a partnership in 1997 with the Library of the Health Sciences-Urbana, a regional site library of the University of Illinois at…

  3. Downstream of downtown: urban wastewater as groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. S. D.; Chilton, P. J.

    Wastewater infiltration is often a major component of overall recharge to aquifers around urban areas, especially in more arid climates. Despite this, such recharge still represents only an incidental (or even accidental) byproduct of various current practices of sewage effluent handling and wastewater reuse. This topic is reviewed through reference to certain areas of detailed field research, with pragmatic approaches being identified to reduce the groundwater pollution hazard of these practices whilst attempting to retain their groundwater resource benefit. Since urban sewage effluent is probably the only `natural resource' whose global availability is steadily increasing, the socioeconomic importance of this topic for rapidly developing urban centres in the more arid parts of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East will be apparent. L'infiltration des eaux usées est souvent la composante essentielle de toute la recharge des aquifères des zones urbaines, particulièrement sous les climats les plus arides. Malgré cela, une telle recharge ne constitue encore qu'un sous-produit incident, ou même accidentel, de pratiques courantes variées du traitement de rejets d'égouts et de réutilisation d'eaux usées. Ce sujet est passé en revue en se référant à certaines régions étudiées en détail, par des approches pragmatiques reconnues pour permettre de réduire les risques de pollution des nappes dues à ces pratiques tout en permettant d'en tirer profit pour leur ressource en eau souterraine. Puisque les effluents d'égouts urbains sont probablement la seule « ressource naturelle » dont la disponibilité globale va croissant constamment, l'importance socio-économique de ce sujet est évidente pour les centres urbains à développement rapide de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amérique latine et du Moyen-Orient. La infiltración de aguas residuales es a menudo un componente principal de la recarga total en acuíferos ubicados en torno a zonas urbanas

  4. Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

  5. Ice Skating Instruction at the University of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Char; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign conducts a instructional ice skating program for its students and the community. Activities include: a figure skating club; a speed skating club; ice hockey program; and ice skating classes. (CJ)

  6. Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Moose, Steve

    2018-02-05

    Steve Moose from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on "Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting.

  7. Clinic, hospital try to fulfill vision of coordinated care with joint venture company.

    PubMed

    2000-09-01

    Coordinated Care Services Inc., a joint venture of Carle Foundation and Carle Clinic Association in Urbana, IL, shares its initial successes and ongoing challenges after one year of operation. The biggest barrier to further improvements remains insufficient information management capability.

  8. Investigation of railroad bridge approach problems along heavy haul freight lines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    Under a contract with the Federal Railroad : Administration (FRA), the University of Illinois at Urbana : Champaign (UIUC) is investigating different factors that : contribute to the problem of differential movement at : railroad track transitions Th...

  9. Ballast degradation characterized through triaxial test : research results.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-06-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) : has supported the development of a large-scale : triaxial test device (Figure 1) for testing ballast : size aggregate materials at the University of : Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). This new : tes...

  10. Railway project design and construction (CEE 411) course updates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-01-20

    Course CEE 411 "Railway Project Design and Construction" is a cornerstone of the railway : engineering education program developed by the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center : (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)....

  11. Research in aeronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in aeronomic research is reported. The following topics are discussed: ionospheric theory; rocket experiments; system development for Urbana measurements; meteor radar; coherent and incoherent scatter radar; and laser radar.

  12. Milestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    Tami Bond, environmental engineer and professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been selected as a 2014 MacArthur Fellow.

  13. Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Moose, Steve

    2010-03-25

    Steve Moose from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on "Tackling the Triple-Threat Genome of Miscanthus x giganteus" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting.

  14. NURail Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Summer Program in Multimodal Freight Transportation Risk.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    NURail hosted an REU Summer Program in Multimodal Freight Transportation Risk at the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC...

  15. Stormwater pollution, erosion, and sediment control products demonstration and training center.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), and the : Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers joined in a : partnership to develop a training...

  16. UIUC concrete tie and fastener field testing at TTC.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    In July 2012, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) began an extensive : experimental program at the Transportation : Technology Center (TTC) in Pueblo, CO. The : field experimentation program was part of a : larger research program f...

  17. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  18. Style of Life and Student Personnel Policy in College Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie E.

    1969-01-01

    Doctoral dissertation, Dimensions of Conformity and Evasion in Residence Halls for University Women: A Sociological Analysis of Normative Behavior in a Large-Scale Social Organization, 1962, University of Illinois, Urbana.

  19. Fundamental Study of Interactions Between Pulsed High-Density Plasmas and Materials for Space Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN Final Report 05/23/2016 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research ...This project led by a team of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign has been engaged in...release. 2 Project Overview: This project led by a team of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Illinois, Urbana

  20. Incorporating Temporal Information in Microblog Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Urbana-Champaign Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA willis8@illinois.edu Richard Medlin School of Information & Library Science University of North Carolina at...Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA rich_medlin@med.unc.edu Jaime Arguello † School of Information & Library Science University of North Carolina at...published prior to time tQ. The School of Information and Library Science at the Uni- versity of Carolina at Chapel Hill submitted four runs to the Microblog

  1. A New Method of Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Reconstruction Using Modified Convolution Back-Projection Algorithm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 DISTRIBUTIONAVAILABILITY OF REPORT N/A \\pproved for public release, 21b. OECLASS FI) CAT ) ON/OOWNGRAOING SCMEOLLE...from this set of projections. The Convolution Back-Projection (CBP) algorithm is widely used technique in Computer Aide Tomography ( CAT ). In this work...University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 1985 Ac % DTICEl_ FCTE " AUG 1 11986 Urbana. Illinois U,) I A NEW METHOD OF SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR IMAGE

  2. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Avenue Urbana , IL 61801-4797 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...allow validation of each structure’s effectiveness. Approach A research team consisting of members from the University of Illinois, Urbana ...and preferential drainage channel. Furthermore, dry weather conditions on unimproved ERDC/CERL TR-06-31 4 roads generate large volumes of airborne

  3. Effect of Woody Vegetation on Hydraulic Conductivity at Various Levee Systems Using Numerical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    XIX International Conference on Water Resources CMWR 2012 University of Illinois at Urbana -Champaign June 17-22, 2012 1 EFFECT OF WOODY...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the XIX International Conference on Water Resources CMWR 2012, Urbana -Champaign, IL, June...the Pocket and Burlington levees, the lower toe for the Portland levee, and the bottom of the dewatered drainage ditch for the Albuquerque levee

  4. Understanding and Representing Natural Language Meaning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    agent- controller ) (e.g. John hit Mary.) --subject of transitive ( non -agent) (e.g. John received a telegram.) -object-complement (e.g. They elected...UNIT NUMUERS Coordinated Science Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research DECEMBER 1982 800 N. Quincy Street is. NUMBER OF PAQES Arlington, VA 22217 44 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & AODRESS

  5. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper Thirty Two. A New Era in International Technical Communication: American-Russian Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Flammia 6, University of Central Florida 7.. . Orlando, Florida 6 UT 2 3 1993 Rebecca 0. Barclay Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York Thomas...of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois John M. Kennedy T--:* i,-,-- -- n e Indiana University ! •o,,-o Cod sae itse!i di t-!1_-,_:’,1 • ; s ...Communication: American-Russian Collaboration Madelyn Flammia English Department Rebecca 0. Barclay University of Central Florida Thomas E. Pinelli

  6. Backlash over Enrollment Proposal at U. of Illinois Leads to Quick Retraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign decided last spring to increase its enrollment of non-Illinois students, noting that the Urbana-Champaign campus has the lowest proportion of out-of-state students among the Big Ten universities, with 11 percent. Out-of-state applicants have ACT scores up to a point and a half higher than in-state…

  7. The Classification, Detection and Handling of Imperfect Theory Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-20

    Explanation-Based Learning: Failure-Driven Schema Refinement." Proceedings of the Third IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications . Orlando...A. Rajamoney. Gerald F. DeJong Artificial Intelligence Research Group " . Coordinated Science Laboratory " University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign...Urbana. IL 61801 . April 1987 ABSTRACT This paper also appears in the Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence

  8. 1997 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium (4th) Proceedings, Held in Charlottesville, Virginia on December 10-13, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Matagne1𔃼, Jean -Pierre Leburton1 Jacques Destine2, Guy Cantraine2 1Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, IL 61820...PROCESSES R. Peter Smith, Suzanne C. Martin, Moonil Kim, Jean Bruston, Imran Mehdi, Dexter Humphrey, Michael Gaidis, Neal Erickson*, and Peter H...SEV/VSE, Feb. 1981 G. Galup-Montoro, M. Schneider, S. Acosta, R. Pinto , Proc. Brazilian Microelectronics Conference SBMICRO󈨤,1996. A. Cunha, O

  9. Morphology and ultrastructure of the adrenal gland in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    PubMed

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Wang, Feng-Ling; Wang, Hong-Ju; Wang, Jian-Lin

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the morphological features of the adrenal gland in Bactrian camel by means of digital anatomy, light and electron microscopy. Our findings testified that the gland was divided into three parts, capsule, cortex and medulla from outside to inside as other mammals, and the cortex itself was further distinguished into four zones: zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis. Notably, the zona intermedia could be seen clearly in the glands from females and castrated males, whereas it was not morphologically clear in male. There was a great deal of lipid droplets in the zona fasciculate, while it was fewer in the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis. The cytoplasm of adrenocortical cell contained rich mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The adrenal medulla was well-developed with two separations of external and internal zones. The most obvious histological property of adrenal medulla cells were that they contained a huge number of electron-dense granules enveloped by the membrane, and so medulla cells could be divided into norepinephrine cells and epinephrine cells. Moreover, the cortical cuffs were frequently present in adrenal gland. Results of this study provides a theoretical basis necessary for ongoing investigations on Bactrian camels and their good adaptability in arid and semi-arid circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

  11. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical, Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, along the Ituxi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    enfermedades infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil. II. Epidemiologia de las infecciones por arbovirus. Bol. Of...F.P. 1981. Programa multidisciplinario de vigilancia de las enfermedades , infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil

  12. Heterogeneous levels of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes in rat adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Koichi; Harada, Keita; Endo, Yutaka; Sagawa, Sueko; Inoue, Masumi

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that produce ATP and reactive oxygen species, which are thought to be responsible for a decline in physiological function with aging. In this study, we morphologically and biochemically examined mitochondria in the rat adrenal gland. Immunohistochemistry showed that the rank order for intensity of immunolabelling for complex IV was zona reticularis > zona fasciculata > adrenal medulla, whereas for complex V α and β subunits, it was zona fasciculata > zona reticularis and adrenal medulla. The immunolabelling for complex I was homogeneous in the adrenal gland. The difference in immunolabelling between complexes I and IV indicates that the ratio of levels of complex I to that of complex IV in the zona reticularis was smaller than that in the zona fasciculata and the adrenal medulla. Electron microscopy revealed that aging rats had zona reticularis cells with many lysosomes and irregular nuclei. The result suggests that the level of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation is coordinated within the complex, but differs between the complexes. This might be responsible for degeneration of zona reticularis cells with aging. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    La isla de Puerto Rico, localizada al noreste del Mar Caribe y sus islas principales, Vieques, Culebra e Isla de Mona, poseen humedales en abundancia . El clima subtropical, la lluvia abundante y las complejas formas topográficas y geológicas de estas islas dan origen a los humedales, que varían desde los raros e inusuales bosques cubiertos por nubes en las tierras altas, hasta los extensos manglares, yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas Norte y Sur. Sin embargo, los humedales en Puerto Rico han disminuido en los últimos siglos como resultado del aumento en el desarrollo agrícola, poblacional y turístico. Algunos tipos de humedales como los bosques de palo de pollo (Pterocarpus officinalis) se han reducido a sólo unos pocos remanentes (figura 1).Biológicamente hablando, los humedales de las islas están entre las áreas más productivas. Los humedales asociados con el bosque pluvial en las tierras altas del interior de Puerto Rico contienen varias plantas raras y especies de animales que no se encuentran en otras partes de la Isla. El agua de escorrentía proveniente de los humedales en las partes altas de la Isla proveen una fuente de agua que utilizan varias ciudades para abasto público. Los humedales costeros como los mangles, los colchones de yerbas marinas y los arrecifes de coral proveen áreas para la reproducción y crianza de varios peces, crustáceos y otras especies en la cadena alimenticia (López y otros, 1988). De esta manera, los humedales costeros contribuyen a la productividad biológica de las aguas llanas del mar alrededor de las islas . Los humedales también estabilizan las costas atrapando y reteniendo sedimentos no consolidados y amortiguan la acción de las olas y de las tormentas que tienen el potencial de causar daños en la zona.El valor de los humedales de Puerto Rico para la vida silvestre está muy bien documentado . Por ejemplo, las salinas de Cabo Rojo, en la costa suroeste, proveen áreas para el

  14. The involvement of beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase and N-Acetylglucosamine residues in fertilization has been lost in the horse.

    PubMed

    Mugnier, Sylvie; Boittin, Stéphane; Douet, Cécile; Monget, Philippe; Magistrini, Michèle; Goudet, Ghylène

    2008-11-14

    In human and rodents, sperm-zona pellucida binding is mediated by a sperm surface Galactosyltransferase that recognizes N-Acetylglucosamine residues on a glycoprotein ZPC. In large domestic mammals, the role of these molecules remains unclear: in bovine, they are involved in sperm-zona pellucida binding, whereas in porcine, they are not necessary. Our aim was to clarify the role of Galactosyltransferase and N-Acetylglucosamine residues in sperm-zona pellucida binding in ungulates. For this purpose, we analyzed the mechanism of sperm-zona pellucida interaction in a third ungulate: the horse, since the Galactosyltransferase and N-Acetylglucosamine residues have been localized on equine gametes. We masked the Galactosyltransferase and N-Acetylglucosamine residues before the co-incubation of gametes. Galactosyltransferase was masked either with an anti-Galactosyltransferase antibody or with the enzyme substrate, UDP Galactose. N-Acetylglucosamine residues were masked either with a purified Galactosyltransferase or with an anti-ZPC antibody. The number of spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida did not decrease after the masking of Galactosyltransferase or N-Acetylglucosamine. So, these two molecules may not be necessary in the mechanism of in vitro sperm-zona pellucida interaction in the horse. The involvement of Galactosyltransferase and N-Acetylglucosamine residues in sperm-zona pellucida binding may have been lost during evolution in some ungulates, such as porcine and equine species.

  15. Transcriptome Pathway Analysis of Pathological and Physiological Aldosterone-Producing Human Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhua; Lam, Brian; Neogi, Sudeshna G; Yeo, Giles S H; Azizan, Elena A B; Brown, Morris J

    2016-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism is present in ≈10% of hypertensives. We previously performed a microarray assay on aldosterone-producing adenomas and their paired zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. Confirmation of top genes validated the study design and functional experiments of zona glomerulosa selective genes established the role of the encoded proteins in aldosterone regulation. In this study, we further analyzed our microarray data using AmiGO 2 for gene ontology enrichment and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify potential biological processes and canonical pathways involved in pathological and physiological aldosterone regulation. Genes differentially regulated in aldosterone-producing adenoma and zona glomerulosa were associated with steroid metabolic processes gene ontology terms. Terms related to the Wnt signaling pathway were enriched in zona glomerulosa only. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed "NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway" and "LPS (lipopolysaccharide)/IL-1 (interleukin-1)-mediated inhibition of RXR (retinoid X receptor) function" were affected in both aldosterone-producing adenoma and zona glomerulosa with associated genes having up to 21- and 8-fold differences, respectively. Comparing KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenoma, zona glomerulosa, and zona fasciculata samples with wild-type samples, 138, 56, and 59 genes were differentially expressed, respectively (fold-change >2; P<0.05). ACSS3, encoding the enzyme that synthesizes acetyl-CoA, was the top gene upregulated in KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenoma compared with wild-type. NEFM, a gene highly upregulated in zona glomerulosa, was upregulated in KCNJ5 wild-type aldosterone-producing adenomas. NR4A2, the transcription factor for aldosterone synthase, was highly expressed in zona fasciculata adjacent to a KCNJ5-mutant aldosterone-producing adenoma. Further interrogation of these genes and pathways could potentially provide further insights into the pathology of primary

  16. Solar flare ionization in the mesosphere observed by coherent-scatter radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. W.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    The coherent-scatter technique, as used with the Urbana radar, is able to measure relative changes in electron density at one altitude during the progress of a solar flare when that altitude contains a statistically steady turbulent layer. This work describes the analysis of Urbana coherent-scatter data from the times of 13 solar flares in the period from 1978 to 1983. Previous methods of measuring electron density changes in the D-region are summarized. Models of X-ray spectra, photoionization rates, and ion-recombination reaction schemes are reviewed. The coherent-scatter technique is briefly described, and a model is developed which relates changes in scattered power to changes in electron density. An analysis technique is developed using X-ray flux data from geostationary satellites and coherent scatter data from the Urbana radar which empirically distinguishes between proposed D-region ion-chemical schemes, and estimates the nonflare ion-pair production rate.

  17. Survey of Urban Meteorological Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    8217) 51 • TN Totawe Wayne Airort 4 r l ,4 35 74 14 ,4 I’% 𔄁.. 14e taI 40 3,5S 14 𔃾 Ic V- Memoria ! q-hool 40 40 I ’ 1 4 1 0( WF West End 40 46 175 1...Circulation Number of operations: 5--clear light winds 38 W. P. Lowry, 1973, 񓟔 Operational Report for Metromex," Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana , IL...39W. P. Lowry, 1973, 񓟕 Operational Report for Metromnx," Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana , IL 𔃺 T. J. Henderson and 0. W. Duckering, 1976

  18. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  19. 77 FR 33766 - Notice of Public Meeting; Wyoming Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... the BLM's wild horse partnership with Friends of a Legacy and Marathon Oil, water projects, porcine zona pellucida and the overall wild horse program; a RAC business session; and a presentation on fire...

  20. A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-02

    Una Società Galileo Avionica A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via...ES) METEOR, Finmeccanica Group Zona Industriale di Soleschiano Via Mario Stoppani 21 34077 Ronchi dei Legionari (GO) ITALY 8. PERFORMING...PMSFMS RS1Backup FMS NSU Payload Control Actuators Router Router RS2 Recovery Devices Una Società Galileo Avionica • Daylight TV Camera • IR Sensor • HR

  1. Effects of acute administration of ethanol on the rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Tatjana; Budec, Mirela; Balint-Perić, Ljiljana; Koko, Vesna; Todorović, Vera

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of ethanol on rat adrenal cortex and to determine whether the estrous cycle can influence this effect of ethanol. Adult female Wistar rats showing proestrus or diestrus Day 1 (n = 12) were treated intraperitoneally with ethanol (4 g/kg body weight). Untreated (n = 15) and saline-injected (n = 14) rats were used as controls. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation 0.5 hour after ethanol administration. Stereological analysis was performed on paraffin sections of adrenal glands stained with AZAN, and the following parameters were determined: absolute volume of the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis, numerical density, volume and the mean diameter of adrenocortical cells and of their nuclei, and diameter and length of capillaries. The diameter and volume of adrenocortical cells in the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis were significantly increased by acute ethanol treatment at proestrus. In the same group of animals, a single dose of ethanol induced significant decrease in numerical density of adrenocortical cells and of their nuclei in all three zones. Increased length of capillaries of the zona fasciculata as well as enhanced level of serum corticosterone was found in ethanol-treated rats at both phases of the estrous cycle, proestrus and diestrus Day 1. The obtained results indicate that a single dose of ethanol activates adrenal cortex in female rats and that the effect is more pronounced on morphometric parameters at proestrus.

  2. Automated Interactive Storeroom Inventory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Albert L.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    The inventory system designed for six storerooms in three buildings at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's School of Chemical Sciences replaced an issue-slip and transactions record system with barcode technology. Data collection error reductions have been significant, making it easier to determine stock levels and plan purchases.…

  3. Measuring and Sustaining the Impact of Less Commonly Taught Language Collections in a Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkart, Joe; Teper, Thomas H.; Thacker, Mara; Witt, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current state of resource sharing and cooperative collection development, this paper examines the relationship between less commonly taught language collections (LCTL) and ILL services. The study examined multiple years of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's resource-sharing data. This paper provides a historical…

  4. Illinois Tech Prep Planning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    This tech prep planning handbook is based on the research conducted at the Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The study involved information gathering procedures at each of the 17 tech prep pilot sites about their planning activities. Seven sections are included: (1) tech prep in…

  5. Investigating Textbook Reserves: A Case Study of Two Models for Reserves Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts-Noggle, Stephanie; Rafferty, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the behaviors and preferences of medical and nursing students in relation to their required textbooks and library reserves. The findings are based on an April 2015 survey at the University of Illinois-Chicago satellite Library of the Health Sciences in Urbana, where the library provides access to textbooks through traditional…

  6. Investigating the Possibility of Using TOEFL Scores for University ESL Decision-Making: Placement Trends and Effect of Time Lag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    The English Placement Test (EPT) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) is designed to provide an accurate placement (or exemption) of international students into the ESL writing and pronunciation classes. Over the last five years, UIUC has experienced an increase in the number of international students taking the EPT. Because of…

  7. Creating Fee-Based Online Services: A New Role for Academic Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehub, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the impact of the Internet on libraries focuses on librarians as creators and marketers of new online services. Describes two fee-based online services at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and concludes that academic libraries have the ability to create new online services, especially reference services. (Author/LRW)

  8. 78 FR 43853 - Designation for the Champaign-Danville, IL Area; Correction to Geographic Area for Champaign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...) to provide official services under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA), as amended. In... March 31, 2016. Interested persons may obtain official services by contacting these agencies at the... Designation end Champaign Urbana, IL, (217) 344-9306..... 4/1/2013 3/31/2016 Section 79(f) of the USGSA...

  9. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  10. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  11. Resilient Localization for Sensor Networks in Outdoor Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Sensor Networks in Outdoor Environments by YoungMin Kwon, Kirill Mechitov, Sameer Sundresh, Wooyoung Kim and Gul Agha June 2004 Report...Environments YoungMin Kwon, Kirill Mechitov, Sameer Sundresh, Wooyoung Kim and Gul Agha Department of Computer Science University of Illinois at Urbana

  12. More than Ramps and Braille.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Timothy J.

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the growth and services of the rehabilitation program at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, for physically handicapped students. In addition to changing architectural and technological barriers, attitudinal barriers are overcome through pre-admission evaluation, early registration, and various kinds of supportive…

  13. The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    DeLucia, Evan

    2018-02-13

    Evan DeLucia of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute talks about The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting.

  14. Using and Evaluating Differential Modeling in Intelligent Tutoring and Apprentice Learning Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    medical diagnosis (Buchanan and Shortliffe, 1984); student hypothesis errors are discovered in the process of conducting a Socratic dialogue. Recent... Jose Mestre Pit-sb r h, PA 15213 Urbana, IL 61801 Department of Physics D- %iDHasbrouck Laboratory A; Jilr ieLaKin Dr. Don Lyon University of

  15. Planning for Preservation during Mass Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teper, Jennifer Hain; Shaw, Emily F.

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of current and future mass digitization projects in which the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Library will participate, the Library's Conservation Unit began to gather data on the "scannability" of our general book collections to anticipate potential effects on conservation and preservation work flows. The…

  16. Problems and Failures in Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid, Ed.

    Drawn from the 15th Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the nine papers presented in this volume deal with problems--or, in some cases, downright failures--in the automation of various facets of library service. They range from a general survey of failures or limitations…

  17. Policing the New World Disorder: Peace Operations and Public Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Ministerio de Justicia, 1993). 25IUDOP, "La delincuencia urbana," Estudios Centroamericanos 534-545 (April/May 1993), 471-79. "Report of the Director...and Special Forces were used for urgently needed repairs. A special prison was established for women and juveniles in Port-au-Prince to separate them

  18. Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Spring 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.; Preece, Laurel

    2003-01-01

    Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed Internet-only journal sponsored by the Early Childhood and Parenting (ECAP) Collaborative at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles…

  19. Formation of Silicon Nitride Structures by Direct Electron-Beam Writing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Urbana, Illinois 73 ii To My Very Own Sivvy ...We have come so far, it is over... from "Edge" by Sylvia Plath I p2" -,i ’- ’.’ . --’ -o . o...1 bellows custom fabricated from type 304 LN stainless steel, which is fully rated for cryogenic service. On the subject of service life , we should

  20. CHOICES. A Resource for Literacy Providers and Homeless Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Gwen; And Others

    CHOICES, a literacy program for homeless families, piloted a program at the Women's Emergency Shelter in Champaign, Illinois and later expanded its services to A Woman's Place, a domestic violence shelter, in Urbana, Illinois. The CHOICES program offered weekly language activities for the children and gave mothers information about developing…

  1. Life Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, Stig Lanesskog, associate dean for the MBA program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, challenged a group of his students to venture beyond classroom polemics and into the lives of people in need. Lanesskog took them to South Dakota's Pine Ridge Reservation, a culturally rich and economically devastated area with…

  2. Crime Scene Intelligence. An Experiment in Forensic Entomology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Investigation (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993), 72. 23 Smith, 86. 24 G. Bianchini, “La Biologia Del Cadaver, ” Archivic Antropologia...May R. Ninety-Nine More Maggots, Mites, and Munchers. Urbana and Chi- cago: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Bianchini, G. “La Biologia Del

  3. Curriculum, Technology, and Education Reform (CTER) Online: Evaluation of an Online Master of Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandra R.; Levin, James A.; Guell, James G.; Waddoups, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Master of Education program at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign called Curriculum, Technology, and Education Reform OnLine (CTER) that is aimed at K-12 teachers. The evaluation based on program stakeholders includes interface design; instructional design; faculty satisfaction; student attitudes; economic viability;…

  4. Development of interdisciplinary undergraduate railroad engineering course.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-02-29

    Professor James McKinney was a participant in the AREMA 2008 Railroad Engineering Education Symposium (REES) held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, as well as the AREMA 2010 REES held at the Johnson County Community College/BNSF's Tr...

  5. Side by Side: What a Comparative Usability Study Told Us about a Web Site Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougan, Kirstin; Fulton, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Library Web sites must compete against easy-to-use sites, such as Google Scholar, Google Books, and Wikipedia, for students' time and attention. Library Web sites must therefore be designed with aesthetics and user perceptions at the forefront. The Music and Performing Arts Library at Urbana-Champaign's Web site was overcrowded and in much need of…

  6. Assessing Digital Humanities Tools: Use of Scalar at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    As librarians increasingly support digital publication platforms, they must also understand the user experience of these tools. This case study assesses use of Scalar, a digital humanities publishing platform for media-rich projects, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Based on a survey, interviews, and content analysis, the study…

  7. Educational benefits of green chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Serenity; Ray, Christian; Andino Martínez, José G.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we present our current state of affairs in the "greening" of general chemistry laboratories, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. We recognize the need to quantify our environmental mark and what we plan to do to continue to strive to make our work more sustainable and educational.

  8. Solid State Cooling with Advanced Oxide Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    Department of Materials Science and Engineering , Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering , and Department of Electrical and Computer... Engineering University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Program Overview The focus of this program was to probe electro-(magneto-)caloric materials for... engineering systems by developing theoretical and experimental approaches to study thermodynamic properties and effects in thin film systems. Despite

  9. A Wireless Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign UTRC United Technologies Research Center VFD variable frequency drive WSN wireless sensor network ...demonstration area. .............................................................. 16 Table 4. Cost model for wireless sensor network ...buildings with MPC-based whole-building optimal control and (2) reduction in first costs achievable with a wireless sensor network (WSN)-based

  10. Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

  11. Papers in African Linguistics. Current Inquiry into Language and Linguistics I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chin-Wu, Ed.; Stahlke, Herbert, Ed.

    This volume, a collection of selected papers from the Conference on African Languages and Linguistics organized by the Department of Linguistics of the University of Illinois and held at Urbana-Champaign on April 24-25, 1970, contains: W. E. Welmers, "The Typology of the Proto-Niger-Kordofanian Noun Class System"; D. Dalby, "A…

  12. The Public Image of the Military as Reflected in Leading Magazines, (1982-1983).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    a-I. n America Middle East Vietnam War POW s Vietnam Memoria ; -’-. -. -:-’u...Naw Es±laamaal.: Aamad Eozaa aa Amaa Soie.±, by Char]les C. Moskos, Jr. Peterson, Theodore. Mgzims.s .Lm ±.a I ±~*.~£~.~ Urbana : University of

  13. High Temperature Oxidation and Electrochemical Studies Related to Hot Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Birnbaum Dept. of Metallurgy & Mining Eng. Dr. W. C. Moshier University of Illinois Martin Marietta Laboratories Urbana , Ill 61801 1450 South...Defense Metals and Ceramics Command Infor-r.ation Center Alexandria, VA 22331 Battelle Memoria !nsri~ure ATTn: Code 03 1 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH

  14. High Temperature Oxidation and Electrochemical Studies Related to Hot Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    University of Illinois Martin Marietta Laboratories Urbana , Ill 61801 1450 South Rolling Rd. Baltimore, MD 21227-3898 Prof. H.W. Pickering Prof. P.J. Moran...N aval Facilities Engineering Defense Metals and Ceramics Com and :nfo-.a:ion Center Alexandria, VA 22331 Battelle Memoria

  15. Information Resources for Training: A Survey of Non-Military Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-05

    Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational at.’’ Technical Education BatteRe Memoria ] Institute Catalog of National Institute of...Reading and Communication Skills National Council of Teachers of English 1111 Kenyon Road Urbana , Illinois 61801 Subject coverage: Areas of reading

  16. Digital Primary Source Materials in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nuala; Trofanenko, Brenda

    Digital technologies bring museums, libraries, and archives together to enhance learning by providing access to digitized primary and secondary cultural resources along with the more traditional bibliographic materials. At the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the University Library and the College of Education are developing a…

  17. Connecting Families through Innovative Technology in an Early Childhood Gifted Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristovich, Sharon; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Klein, Marjorie

    University Primary School (UPS) is an early childhood gifted program affiliated with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This paper highlights three innovative uses of technology at UPS: Knowledge Web pages, photo portfolios, and Chickscope. The Knowledge Web pages are a collection of Web pages that serve as a virtual bulletin board…

  18. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  19. Technological Change and Rural Development: A Case Example from Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoke, Gordon

    In 1980, the Office of Continuing Education and Public Service at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign acquired a W. K. Kellogg Foundation grant to establish a 4-year model Community Information and Education Service (CIES). Working with the university's Cooperative Extension Service and five community colleges, CIES initially focused on…

  20. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by researchers analyzing four ... Urbana-Champaign . MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission ...

  1. User-Oriented Project Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Larry G.; Alcorn, Lisa S.

    1990-01-01

    The project accounting system used by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign School of Chemical Sciences exchanges financial data with the campus' central accounting system and allows integration of this information with user-entered data to produce an easily read, fully obligated project accounting statement for the budget and period…

  2. A Solution Method for Large Deformation Contact Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    15] Desai, C.S., Zaman, M.M., Lightner , J.G., and Siriwardane, H.J., "Thin Element for Interfaces and Joints," Int. J. Anal. and Num. Meth. in...Urbana, IL 61801 SMCCR-SPS-IL 1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Aeroelastic and Structures Research Laboratory ATTN: Dr. E. A. Witmer Cambridge

  3. The Student/Library Computer Science Collaborative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jim

    2015-01-01

    With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services demonstration grant, librarians of the Undergraduate Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign partnered with students in computer science courses to design and build student-centered mobile apps. The grant work called for demonstration of student collaboration…

  4. Critical Issues in Library Management: Organizing for Leadership and Decision-Making. Papers from the Thirty-Fifth Allerton Institute. Occasional Papers, Nos. 198/199.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce L., Ed.; Weech, Terry L., Ed.

    This is a collection of six papers on critical issues in library management presented at the annual Allerton Park Conference (35th, October 24-26, 1993) sponsored by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science. The first paper, "Learning about Leadership: What Works in Modern Organizations"…

  5. Microcomputer Applications in Local Assessment Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Delwyn L.; And Others

    The capabilities and hardware requirements of four microcomputer software packages produced by the Office of Educational Testing, Research and Service at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are described. These programs are: (1) the Scan-Tron Forms Analysis Package Version 2.0, an interface between an IBM-compatible and a Scan-Tron…

  6. A Teaching Artist in Rural Schools: Sowing Seeds for Creative Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuper, Kate

    2006-01-01

    For nearly 25 years, the author has driven the highways and back roads of Illinois, teaching dance to school children, leading family programs, performing lecture/demonstrations, and choreographing technically simple, conceptually complex pieces with and for young dancers. The author's home base is Champaign/Urbana (C/U), twin cities with a…

  7. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Participant Activity, Demographics, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrader, Sara; Wu, Maryalice; Owens, Dawn; Santa Ana, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines activity patterns, participant demographics, and levels of satisfaction in multiple MOOC offerings at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from August 2012-December 2013. Using the following guiding questions: "Who are MOOC participants, how do they participate, and were they able to get what they wanted out of…

  8. Integrating Assessment into Recurring Information Literacy Instruction: A Case Study from LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searing, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Information literacy instruction is integrated into the distance education program in library and information science (LEEP) at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). This article describes the LEEP program and the library services provided to its students. Published research on LEEP and related topics in librarianship is reviewed.…

  9. The China Connection: Western Institutions Meet Chinese Students and Alumni on the Country's Most Popular Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramspott, Becca

    2013-01-01

    As one of the top U.S. choices for international students, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has a solid reputation in China and a history of educating Chinese students that goes back more than a century. But the university did not realize until last June that its nickname in China is the "Cornfield Ivy" and that Chinese…

  10. Spring 2006. Industry Study. Environment Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    sustainability. 91 On the positive side, a 2005 survey found that an increasing number of business schools are offering courses in ethics, corporate...Studies Journal. Urbana: 2000.Vol.28, Iss. 3; pg. 576, 21 pgs. 92 World Resource Institute (WRI) (2005, October 19) Business Schools Respond to New

  11. Virtual Service, Real Data: Results of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibbee, Jo; Ward, David; Ma, Wei

    2002-01-01

    Describes a pilot project at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign reference and undergraduate libraries to test the feasibility of offering real-time online reference service via their Web site. Discusses software selection, policies and procedures, promotion and marketing, user interface, training and staffing, data collection, and…

  12. Professional Training for TRADOC Environmental and Natural Resource Professionals. Volume 2. Source Listings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Plant Biology); Carol Augspurger 376 INSTITUTION; COOPERATOR University of Illinois, Urbana ( Ecology , Ethology & Evolution ...43 Ph.D. 33 33 33 1 STRENGTHS AND SPECIALTIES Subject Matter Strengths: Biogeography, community ecology , vertebrate ecology , plant /insect interactions ... ecology , population ecology of small mammals, avian ecology , plant /animal interactions . Formal Teaching/Research Arrangements With Other

  13. Sharing her passion with others.

    PubMed

    Henze, Tonja Marie

    2013-10-22

    Tonja Marie Henze, MS, CMAR, RLATg, Facilities Coordinator, Division of Animal Resources, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. Ms. Henze talks about the joys and challenges of her job and realizing the importance of speaking out about her passion for laboratory animal care.

  14. Sediment Budget on the Indiana Shore at Burns Harbor, Lake Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    formation of the Indiana Dunes 146 20/03/2015 16 pp 3 National Lakeshore (Engel 1983, Franklin and Schaeffer 1983, Higgs 1995). The Harbor is a...shores of Lake Michigan,” University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 278 p. Higgs , S. (1995). “Eternal Vigilance: Nine Tales of Environmental

  15. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  16. Data Management Practices and Perspectives of Atmospheric Scientists and Engineering Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Christie; Mischo, William H.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes 21 in-depth interviews of engineering and atmospheric science faculty at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) to determine faculty data management practices and needs within the context of their research activities. A detailed literature review of previous large-scale and institutional surveys and interviews…

  17. Competitiveness of Second Generation Biofuel Feedstocks: Role of Technology and Policy (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Khanna, Madhu

    2018-02-19

    Madhu Khanna from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute on Competitiveness of Second Generation Biofuel Feedstocks: Role of Technology and Policy on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting.

  18. NSF Says It Will Support Supercomputer Centers in California and Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strosnider, Kim; Young, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    The National Science Foundation will increase support for supercomputer centers at the University of California, San Diego and the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, while leaving unclear the status of the program at Cornell University (New York) and a cooperative Carnegie-Mellon University (Pennsylvania) and University of Pittsburgh…

  19. The Age of the Supercomputer Gives Way to the Age of the Super Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    In October 1997, the National Science Foundation will discontinue financial support for two university-based supercomputer facilities to concentrate resources on partnerships led by facilities at the University of California, San Diego and the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. The reconfigured program will develop more user-friendly and…

  20. Data Sharing Interviews with Crop Sciences Faculty: Why They Share Data and How the Library Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to generate a deeper understanding of data sharing by targeting faculty members who had already made data publicly available. During interviews, crop scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign were asked why they decided to share data, why they chose a data sharing method (e. g., supplementary file,…

  1. AACR2 Impact and OCLC Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon E.; Lenzini, Rebecca T.

    This paper analyzes the impact of adopting the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, second edition (AACR2), upon cataloging at the library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The staffing and workflow of the OCLC unit which incorporated AACR2 is described and figures are reported on the effects of AACR2 application as measured on the…

  2. STEM Leader from the Roeper School: An Interview with Nuclear Engineer Clair J. Sullivan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2016-01-01

    Clair J. Sullivan is an assistant professor in the Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Her research interests include radiation detection and measurements; gamma-ray spectroscopy; automated isotope identification algorithms; nuclear forensics; nuclear security;…

  3. An Electronic Finding Aid Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Encoded Archival Description (EAD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, May

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of electronic finding aids for archives at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign that used XML (extensible markup language) and EAD (encoded archival description) to enable more flexible information management and retrieval than using MARC or a relational database management system. EAD template is appended.…

  4. Training the Future - Swamp Work Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    In the Swamp Works laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, student interns such as Kevin Murphy are joining agency scientists, contributing in the area of Exploration Research and Technology. Murphy is majoring in mechanical engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The agency attracts its future workforce through the NASA Internship, Fellowships and Scholarships, or NIFS, Program.

  5. Two Photon Spectroscopy of UF6 in the Near Ultraviolet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-10

    Chemistry Department Department of Chemistry University of Illinois Howard University Urbana, Illinois 61801 Washington, DC 20059 Dr. A. Adamson Dr. George...E. Walraffer Department of Chemistry Department of Chemistry University of Southern Howard University California Washington, DC 20059 Los Angeles

  6. Microwave Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    up to many meters in electrically insulating materials, such as ceramics, polymers, and certain composite materials. As discussed in Chapter 2, the...for University of Illinois, Urbana Center: High Performance Polymeric Materials Technology 1206 West Green Street Adhesives & Composites United...Michigan State University, application of microwave processing to polymers and polymer composites Dr. Raymond Decker, University Science Partners

  7. A Task Analysis on the Education and Utilization of Medical Transcriptionists in Illinois Community College District #505.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tworek, Richard K.; Campbell, Edward L.

    A study was conducted in the Champaign-Urbana area to evaluate the relationship of the educational preparation of medical transcriptionists to their on-the-job requirements. Personal interviews were conducted with three hospital medical records administrators and with the appropriate department head of an area community college that offered a…

  8. Integral Manifold in System Design with Application to Flexible Link Robot Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    environment. I am very grateful to my advisor . Professor Kokotovic. whose insight and guidance in my research work led me to the beginning of my...MANIFOLD IN SVSTEM DESIGN WITH RPLICATION TT 2Z2 FLEXIBLE LINK ROBO (U) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB H C TSENG JUN 98

  9. Propagation of Regional Phases in the Basin and Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-02

    complex miultiple rupture, Bull. Seusmol. Soc. Am., 57, 1017 W i23 K un.rT~I, "aind G. S. Stew art, Seismologica aspects of she Gutemala 1967...Fred K. Lamb Prof. William Menke University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory Department of Physics of Columbia

  10. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  11. A Visual Construct on the Role of the Teacher in Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckman, Ralph E.

    This paper describes an undergraduate teacher education course offered at Urbana University (Ohio). The course introduces preservice teachers to the nature of multiculturalism in terms of economic, social, intellectual, age, and gender differences, leading participants to explore this educational process from sociological and psychological…

  12. Designing Educational Programs for Minority Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pride, Michelle L.; Stoffel, Bruce; van Es, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    When Urbana (Illinois) city government had difficulty recruiting minority contractors, extension educators interviewed 22 minority entrepreneurs, finding they had difficulty meeting requirements and learning about opportunities. Solutions included training for banking, legal, and insurance representatives; workshops to develop bidding skills; and…

  13. Successes & Failures of Digital Libraries. Papers Presented at the Annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (35th, Champaign, Illinois, March 22-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harum, Susan, Ed.; Twidale, Michael, Ed.

    This clinic's goal was to address questions arising during the process of transition from theory and research development to deployed useful and usable (and used) digital library systems. The idea was to use the Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) based at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and entering its final year, as a detailed…

  14. Development of Laboratory Model Ecosystems as Early Warning Elements of Environmental Pollution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    AD-AOll 851 DEVELOPMENT OF LABORATORY MODEL ECOSYSTEMS AS EARLY WARNING ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Robert L. Metcalf... ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Robert L. Metcalf, Ph. D. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois INTRODUCTION Problems of environmental pollution with...house dust is unsafe to breathe (Ewing and Pearson, 1974). Most of the source of our concern about environmental pollution by trace substances relates

  15. Recombinant mouse sperm ZP3-binding protein (ZP3R/sp56) forms a high order oligomer that binds eggs and inhibits mouse fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Mariano G; Zhuang, Tiangang; Ord, Teri S; Hui, Ling; Moss, Stuart B; Gerton, George L

    2008-05-02

    Many candidates have been proposed as zona pellucida-binding proteins. Without precluding a role for any of those candidates, we focused on mouse sperm protein ZP3R/sp56, which is localized in the acrosomal matrix. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of ZP3R/sp56 in mouse fertilization. We expressed recombinant ZP3R/sp56 as a secreted protein in HEK293 cells and purified it from serum-free, conditioned medium. In the presence of reducing agents, the recombinant ZP3R/sp56 exhibited a molecular weight similar to that observed for the native ZP3R/sp56. Reminiscent of the native protein, recombinant ZP3R/sp56 formed a high molecular weight, disulfide cross-linked oligomer consisting of six or more monomers under non-reducing conditions. Recombinant ZP3R/sp56 bound to the zona pellucida of unfertilized eggs but not to 2-cell embryos, indicating that the changes that take place in the zona pellucida at fertilization affected the interaction of this protein with the zona pellucida. The extent of in vitro fertilization was reduced in a dose-dependent manner when unfertilized eggs were preincubated with recombinant ZP3R/sp56 (74% drop at the maximum concentrations assayed). Eggs incubated with the recombinant protein showed an absence of or very few sperm in the perivitelline space, suggesting that the reduction in the fertilization rate is caused by the inhibition of sperm binding and/or penetration through the zona pellucida. These results indicate that sperm ZP3R/sp56 is important for sperm-zona interactions during fertilization and support the concept that the acrosomal matrix plays an essential role in mediating the binding of sperm to the zona pellucida.

  16. Survival of sheep demi-embryos in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J N; Szell, A

    1988-01-01

    Sheep embryos (morulae and blastocysts) were bisected either by microscalpel or by microneedle after dissolving the zona pellucida with acidified Tyrode's solution. Fourteen and 11 cryopreserved demi-embryos failed to develop when transferred to recipients or placed in culture, respectively. When fresh demi-embryos were cultured in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS) plus fetal calf serum (FCS) or Whitten's medium, the survival rate was 26% compared to 68% for whole embryos (P<0.01), and there was a suggestion that the presence of a zona pellucida was beneficial to survival. When two demi-embryos each within a zona pellucida were transferred into each of 10 ewes, six of them lambed to produce a total of eight lambs, including two sets of identical twins. Of 10 ewes receiving two demi-embryos without zonae pellucidae, three lambed to produce a total of four lambs, including one set of identical twins. Of 10 ewes that each received two whole embryos, 10 lambed to produce a total of 16 lambs. There was a suggestion that the zona pellucida might enhance the survival of demi-morulae but not demi-blastocysts.

  17. Possible mechanism of polyspermy block in human oocytes observed by time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Mio, Yasuyuki; Iwata, Kyoko; Yumoto, Keitaro; Kai, Yoshiteru; Sargant, Haruka C; Mizoguchi, Chizuru; Ueda, Minako; Tsuchie, Yuka; Imajo, Akifumi; Iba, Yumiko; Nishikori, Kyoko

    2012-09-01

    To analyze the fertilization process related to polyspermy block in human oocytes using an in vitro culturing system for time-lapse cinematography. We had 122 oocytes donated for this study from couples that provided informed consent. We recorded human oocytes at 2,000 to 2,800 frames every 10 s during the fertilization process and thereafter every 2 min using a new in vitro culture system originally developed by the authors for time-lapse cinematography. We displayed 30 frames per second for analysis of the polyspermy block during fertilization. Three oocytes showed the leading and following sperm within the zona pellucida in the same microscopic field. The dynamic images obtained during the fertilization process using this new system revealed that once a leading sperm penetrated the zona pellucida and attached to the oocyte membrane, a following sperm was arrested from further penetration into the zona pellucida within 10 s. The present results strongly suggest the existence of a novel mechanism of polyspermy block that takes place at the zona pellucida immediately after fertilization. These findings are clearly different from previous mechanisms describing polyspermy block as the oocyte membrane block to sperm penetration and the zona reaction. The finding presented herein thus represents a novel discovery about the highly complicated polyspermy block mechanism occurring in human oocytes.

  18. Determination of the reactivity of cytotoxic immune cells with preimplantation mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Ewoldsen, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cytotoxic immune cells were used in an assay, MELIA (mixed embryo leukocyte interaction assay) to test the ability of the cells to kill blastocyst stage embryos. The cytotoxic immune cells generated for use in this study, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells were shown to have phenotypic and cytolytic characteristics similar to those reported by other investigators. The lysis of the blastocysts in the MELIA was determined by measuring the inhibition of blastocoel retention and/or by the inhibition of incorporation of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) into embryonic DNA. Blastocysts which possess ormore » lack their zonae pellucidae were tested to determine whether the zona pellucida plays an immunoprotective role in preimplantation development. The results indicated that CTLs only lysed embryonic cells when the zona pellucida was absent, but NK and LAK cells lysed embryonic cells whether the zona pellucida was present or absent. The results suggest that the zona pellucida may protect the preimplantation mouse embryo from lysis by CTLs but what protects the embryo from lysis by NK and LAK cells is unclear.« less

  19. Use of medicines and other products for therapeutic purposes among children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-12-01

    átrica brasileira e testar se fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos e médicos estão associados ao uso. Estudo transversal de base populacional (Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - PNAUM), incluindo 7.528 crianças com 12 anos ou menos de idade, residentes na zona urbana do território brasileiro. O uso de medicamentos para tratar doenças crônicas ou agudas foi referido pelo principal cuidador da criança presente na entrevista domiciliar. Associações entre as variáveis independentes e o uso de medicamentos foram investigadas por meio de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de uso global de medicamentos foi de 30,7% (IC95% 28,3-33,1). A prevalência de uso de medicamentos para doenças crônicas foi de 5,6% (IC95% 4,7-6,7) e para condições agudas, 27,1% (IC95% 24,8-29,4). Os fatores significativamente associados com o uso global foram ter no máximo cinco anos de idade, residir na região Nordeste, ter plano de saúde e utilizar serviços de saúde nos últimos 12 meses (consultas de emergência e internações). Associaram-se ao uso de medicamentos para doenças crônicas: idade ≥ 2 anos, regiões Sudeste e Sul e utilização de serviços de saúde. Para o uso de medicamentos em condições agudas, foram identificados os seguintes fatores associados: ≤ 5 anos, Norte, Nordeste ou Centro-Oeste, plano de saúde e uma ou mais consultas de emergência. Os medicamentos com maior prevalência de uso pelas crianças menores de dois anos foram paracetamol, ácido ascórbico e dipirona; nas crianças com 2 ou mais anos, foram dipirona, paracetamol e amoxicilina. O uso de medicamentos na população infantil é substancial, principalmente no tratamento de condições médicas agudas. As crianças usuárias de medicamentos para doenças crônicas apresentam perfil demográfico diferente das usuárias de medicamentos para condições agudas, em relação ao sexo, à idade e à região geográfica.

  20. Hospitalization in older adults: association with multimorbidity, primary health care and private health plan.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Soares, Mariangela Uhlmann; Wachs, Louriele Soares; Volz, Pâmela Moraes; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-05-04

    Evaluate the association of multimorbidity, primary health care model and possession of a private health plan with hospitalization. A population-based cross-sectional study with 1,593 elderly individuals (60 years old or older) living in the urban area of the city of Bagé, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The outcome was hospitalization in the year preceding the interview. The multimorbidity was evaluated through two cut-off points (≥ 2 and ≥ 3). The primary health care model was defined by residence in areas covered by traditional care or by Family Health Strategy. The older adults mentioned the possession of a private health plan. We performed a gross and adjusted analysis by Poisson regression using a hierarchical model. The adjustment included demographic, socioeconomic, functional capacity disability and health services variables. The occurrence of overall and non-surgical hospitalization was 17.7% (95%CI 15.8-19.6) and 10.6% (95%CI 9.1-12.1), respectively. Older adults with multimorbidity were admitted to hospitals more often when to older adults without multimorbidity, regardless of the exhibition' form of operation. Having a private health plan increased the hospitalization by 1.71 (95%CI 1.09-2.69) times among residents in the areas of the Family Health Strategy when compared to elderly residents in traditional areas without a private health plan. The multimorbidity increased the occurrence of hospitalizations, especially non-surgical ones. Hospitalization was more frequent in older adults with private health plan and those living in Family Health Strategy areas, regardless of the presence of multiple diseases. Avaliar a associação da multimorbidade, modelo de atenção básica e posse de plano de saúde com hospitalização. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.593 idosos (60 anos ou mais) residentes na zona urbana do município de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul. O desfecho foi a hospitalização no ano anterior à entrevista. A

  1. The behaviour of cow blastocyst in vitro: cinematographic and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Massip, A; Mulnard, J; Vanderzwalmen, P; Hanzen, C; Ectors, F

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of the cow blastocyst in vitro was studied by time-lapse cinematography and analysed by morphometry. Three types of behaviour were observed: continuous expansion followed by hatching; discontinuous expansion interrupted by few contractions and followed by hatching; discontinuous expansion interrupted by several rapid contractions without hatching. This demonstrated that the pulsatile activity of the blastocyst is not a necessary condition of hatching but also that only a moderate pulsatile activity is compatible with normal hatching. The time of hatching in vitro corresponded approximately with the time of zona loss in vivo (9-10 days). Rupture of the zona occurred at any point of the trophoblast layer. Hatching by herniation through a reduced opening of the zona was occasionally observed. The behavior of the embryos from a particular animal was very similar but differences were noted between embryos from different animals. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7076563

  2. [Polarized light microscopy for evaluation of oocytes as a prognostic factor in the evolution of a cycle in assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    González-Ortega, C; Cancino-Villarreal, P; Alonzo-Torres, V E; Martínez-Robles, I; Pérez-Peña, E; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, A M

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the best embryos to transfer is a key element for success in assisted reproduction. In the last decade, several morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos were evaluated with regard to their potential for predicting embryo viability. The introduction of polarization light microscopy systems has allowed the visualization of the meiotic spindle and the different layers of the zona pellucida in human oocytes on the basis of birefringence in a non-destructive way. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the predictive value in ICSI cycles. To assess the predictive ability of meiotic spindle and zona pellucida of human oocytes to implant by polarized microscopy in ICSI cycles. Prospective and observational clinical study. 903 oocytes from 94 ICSI cycles were analyzed with polarized microscopy. Meiotic spindle visualization and zona pellucida birefringence values by polarized microscopy were correlated with ICSI cycles results. Meiotic spindle visualization and birefringence values of zona pellucida decreased in a direct basis with increasing age. In patients aged over the 35 years, the percentage of a visible spindle and mean zona pellucida birefringence was lower than in younger patients. Fertilization rate were higher in oocytes with visible meiotic spindle (81.3% vs. 64%; p < 0.0001), as well as embryo quality (47.4% vs. 39%; p=0.01). Fertilization rate was higher in oocytes with positive values of birefringence (77.5 % vs. 68.5% p=0.005) with similar embryo quality. Conception cycles showed oocytes with higher mean value of zona birefringence and visible spindle vs. no-conception cycles (p<0.05). Polarized light microscopy improves oocyte selection, which significantly impacts in the development of embryos with greater implantation potential. The use of polarized light microscopy with sperm selection methods, blastocyst culture and deferred embryo transfers will contribute to transfer fewer embryos without diminishing rates of live

  3. In vitro studies on normal and pathological preimplantation development. I. Events of normal mouse preimplantation development as revealed by microcinematography.

    PubMed

    Checiu, M; Schlechta, B; Checiu, I; Sandor, S

    1990-01-01

    After briefly presenting the main historical data of in vitro culture of preimplantation mouse embryos and their filming, the first own observations on normal preimplantation development made by using microcinematography are presented: development from two-cell to eight-cell embryos; compaction and cavitation. The timing and the duration of various developmental events were recorded. Own observations were compared with previous cinematographic data reported by other authors. Some processes needing further investigations are evidenced: rotation within the zona pellucida, penetration of cytoplasmic emissions through the zona, contraction and reexpansion.

  4. The Computer as a Tool for Learning through Reflection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    different accents and backgrounds (e.g., Vanessa Redgrave, Martin Luther King, and Ricardo Montalban). Thus students can compare how they read the...Coordinated Science Laboratory Santa Barbara, CA 93106 University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801 Edward E. Eddowes CNATRA N301 Goery Delacote Naval Air Station...DC 20052 Dr. James G. Greeno University of California Dr Jim Hollan Berkeley. CA 94720 Intelligent Systems Group Institute for Prof Edward Haertel

  5. The Third Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003. 6 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University... Mexico Institute of Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801. 14 Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana...NJ 08544. 49 FNRS Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP. 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium

  6. Deflagration to Shock to Detonation Transition of Energetic Propellants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 Prepared for: Air Force Office of Scientific Research Aerospace Sciences Directorate: Bldg. 410 Boiling Air Force Base, DC 20332...Program Manager: Dr. Henry R. Radoski For Research Performed under ()Grant AFOSR 81-0145 During Period I June 1983 through 30 May 1984 AIR ,,1 C~i...ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE / Air Force Office of Scientific Research/Q July 1984 Building 410; ATTN: Henry R. Radoski 13. NUMBER OF AGES Bolling Air Force

  7. Army Installations Water Sustainability Assessment: An Evaluation of Vulnerability to Water Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    del Norte Water Task Force PM particulate matter PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PWC Public Works Commission PWD RFTA RSC Regional...ct io n E n gi n ee ri n g R es ea rc h L ab or at or y Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CERL TR-09-38...and Ryan Holmes University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S

  8. Sharing to Succeed: Lessons from Open Information-sharing Projects in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    initiative. rebecca linder Blachly is di- rector of advancement, international Programs, and Studies at the univer- sity of illinois at urbana...learned. July 2013 by Linton Wells II, James Bosworth, John Crowley, and Rebecca Linder Blachly Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...been de - veloping personal relationships early with actors who are www.ndu.edu/inss dh No. 76 5 seen as working in the local community’s best

  9. An Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Large Scale Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Abstract Hypersonic vehicles are subjected to extreme acoustic, thermal and mechanical loading with strong spatial and temporal...07/15/2012 Reporting Period End Date 07/14/2015 Abstract Hypersonic vehicles are subjected to extreme acoustic, thermal and mechanical loading with...gradients and for extended periods of time. Long duration, 3-D simulations of non-linear response of these vehicles , is prohibitively expensive using

  10. Summary of Literature Describing the Functional Ability of Wetlands to Enhance Wastewater Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    may be used with these plants. Duckweed ( Lemna minor ), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), water lily (Nymphaea sp., Nuphar sp.), and others may...sition shifted to cattail (Typha latifolia) and duck weed ( Lemna minor ), and above ground biomass increased by a factor of four. Sediment deposition in...Macrophytes: Biochemical Study And Mathematical Modelling (Artificial Wetland, Ecological Modelling, depurmodelling Dcion De Aguas Residuales Urbanas De

  11. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-01

    Dr. Donald Gilles, the Discipline Scientist for Materials Science in NASA's Microgravity Materials Science and Applications Department, demonstrates to Carl Dohrman a model of dendrites, the branch-like structures found in many metals and alloys. Dohrman was recently selected by the American Society for Metals International as their 1999 ASM International Foundation National Merit Scholar. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign freshman recently toured NASA's materials science facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  12. Effects of Strong Local Sporadic E on ELF Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-15

    Huygens diffraction model (e.g., Marcuse , 1972). The model is similar to that used by Crombie. Unlike Crombie’s work however , the Fresnel approximation...40. Marcuse , D., “Light transmission optics ,” Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York , 1972. Papper t , R. A. & Moler , W. F., “A theoretica’ study of...ATTN Donald Dubbert O1 CY ATTN Herbert Rend University of IllinoisDepartment of Electrical Engineering Develco Urbana , IL 61803 530 Logue Avenue O2CY

  13. Nonuniform Grain Boundary Corrosion and the Local Electrode Potential in Crevicing. Types and Models of Precipitation Induced Nonuniform Grain Boundary Corrosion. Investigation of Sensitization and Grain Boundary Corrosion in Ferritic Stainless Steel. The Local Electrode Potential in Cavities, Crevices and Cracks and Its Role in Causing Degradation of Structural Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    J.R. Pickens Dept. of Metallurgy & Mining Eng. Martin Marietta Laboratories % University of Illinois 1450 South Rolling Rd. Urbana, EIl 61801...AND MINERAL DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE SCIENCES METALLURGY PROGRAM 00 00 TECHNICAL REPORT February 1987 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH IContract No...725 % ~ ~ ’. -~ ~AS~~jX.%......... !1CUlnITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When n#e& Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS

  14. Toxicologic and Analytical Studies with T-2 and Related Trichothecene Mycotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-20

    Diagnostic Lab, Urbana, IL ’ Modulus anesthetic machinf with Vernitrol vaporizer, Ohio Med Prod, Madison , WI Bird Mark 4A ventilator, 3M Corp., Minneapolis...advanced into the lumbar region of the descending’ Aorta via the right femoral artery. These catheters were then heparinized to maintain patency and the...over the caudal lumbar region (Fig. 1). In addition, the limbs are hobbled to decrease their range of nmction and minimize the possibility of injury

  15. Effects of Surface Structure and of Embedded-Atom Pair Functionals on Adatom Diffusion on FCC Metallic Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    total-energy calculations that this complex mechanism for diffusion can be invoked for surface self-diffusion on the (100) surface ( Kellog and...Woodland Hills, CA 91364 National Science Foundation 3 SRI International ATIN: A.B. Harvey ATIN: G. Smith Washington, DC 20550 D. Crosley D. Golden...Aeronautics and Astronautics ATTN: H. Krier ATfN: J.R. Osborn 144MEB, 1206 W. Green St. Grissom Hall Urbana, IL 61801 West Lafayette, IN 47906 The Johns

  16. Bug Distribution and Pattern Classification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-15

    Center Educational Psychology University of Leyden San Diego. CA 92152 Urbana. IL 61801 Education Research Center oernaavelaan 2 Dr. Erling B. Andersen...Dr. Dattprasad rlivgi 23314 EN Leyden Department of Statistics Syracuse University The NETHERLANDS 3tudiestraede 6 Department of Psychology 1455...Rebecca Hetter Learning R&D Center Navy Personnel R&D Center University of Pittsburgh Ms. Kathleen Moreno Code 62 Pittsburgh, PA 15260 Navy Personnel R

  17. Exploiting Auxiliary Information about Examinees in the Estimation of Item Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Research. The author is grateful to Kathleen Sheehan and Martha Stocking for their comments and suggestions. a, • ... Am -. ,** . Exploiting...Research Laboratory Dr. Hans Crombag 103 South Mathews Street University of Leyden Urbana, IL 61801 Education Research Center Boerhaavelaan 2 Dr. Susan...Embretson 23-4 EN Leyden University of Kansas The NETHERLANDS Psychology Department Lawrence, KS 66045 CTR/McGraw-Hill Library 2500 Garden Road ERIC

  18. Application of Component Scoring to a Complicated Cognitive Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    Command (N-5) NAS Pensacola, FL 32508 Dr. John M. Eddins S..""*University of IllinoisDr. Hans Crombag 252 Engineering Research University of Leyden ...Laboratory Education Research Center 103 South Mathews Street Boerhaavelaan 2 Urbana, IL 61801 2334 EN Leyden The NETHERLANDS V.- University of Illinois...Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL 32508 Ms. Kathleen Moreno Navy Personnel R&D Center Dr. Gary Marco Code 62 Stop 31-E San Diego, CA 92152 Educational

  19. Symposium on Animal Retroviruses: Abstracts. Held in Denver, Colorado on 10 December 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-10

    Ogilvie, M. B. Tompkins, W. A. F. Tompkins and S. Daniel, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL. 3:15 Coffee Break 3:45 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF BOVINE ...secretion, or by altering cell functions through cell surface receptors. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. A. Burny, Y. Cleuter, R. Kettmann, M...Mammerickx, G. Marbaix, D. Portetelle, A. Van Den Broeke and L. Willems, University of Brussels, Rhode-Saint-Genese, Belgium. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV

  20. Diligence in front-end processes is critical: an interview with Cheryl A. Harmon.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Cheryl A

    2002-12-01

    Cheryl Harmon's position reflects her organization's emphasis on an expanded role for the CFO. Harmon was hired recently to serve as CFO of Provena Covenant Medical Center, (PCMC) in Urbana, Illinois. Her mission as CFO is to help develop strategies to ensure that Provena Covenant maintains its financial stability. Harmon appreciates Povena Covenant's creative approaches to challenges faced by many healthcare organizations, such as workforce shortages.

  1. Practical Techniques for Language Design and Prototyping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Practical Techniques for Language Design and Prototyping Mark-Oliver Stehr1 and Carolyn L. Talcott2 1 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign...cs.stanford.edu Abstract. Global computing involves the interplay of a vast variety of languages , but practially useful foundations for language ...framework, namely rewriting logic, that allows us to express (1) and (2) and, in addition, language aspects such as concurrency and non-determinism. We

  2. Potential Improvements for HEC-HMS Automated Parameter Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    and is now a graduate student in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana /Champaign. Daniel...divided into 14 nested subwatersheds with a flow measuring flume constructed at each of the subwatershed outlets. The drainage areas above the...boundaries and stream network, and rain and stream gauge locations are shown in Figure 1. The first HEC-HMS model was applied to the 39.8-acre drainage

  3. The Bat Tick Carios Azteci (Acari: Argasidae) From Belize, With An Endosymbiotic Coxiellaceae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research Dept/FHT 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 8...Durden2, Elizabeth H. Foley3 & Will K. Reeves4 1Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana...the taxonomic level. Further research into the pathogens and diversity of bat parasites and diseases is an open field of research in the tropics. Some

  4. Theoretical Studies of High Field, High Energy Transport in Gallium Arsenide, Silicon and Heterostructures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Springfield Ave. Urbana. IL 61801 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE January 1983 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 163 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME...AOORESS(II different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) IUnclassified ISa. DECLASSIFICATION OOWNGRADING 16. OIST IUTIO...understood and quantitatively calculated by the same approach: A Monte Carlo simulation inclu g a pseudopotential band structure. The Monte Carlo simulation

  5. Brain Region and Cell Type Transcripts for Informative Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    cerebral cortex region, the caudoputamen region GPi, GPe CTX PIR TH CP TRS CP PVT CP PVT BST Fx CP 17 distinctly comes out. This...oligodendrocytes and astrocytes cell- specific genes (marked with white arrow in Table 5). The columns of the fornix ( Fx ) region are also clustered with...Invited talks this year: NP: Seminar, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, September 2, 2010 oligo > astro

  6. Antimony-Based Type-II Superlattice Photodetectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-06

    photodetectors, antimony-based mid- infrared detectors Shun L. Chuang, Russell D. Dupuis University of Illinois - Urbana Grants and Contracts Office...Q. Yang, Interband Cascade Detectors , US Patent #7,282,777, October 16, 2007. Graduate Students PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME Shin Mou 0.25 Adam Petschke...DD882) Inventions (DD882) Interband Cascade Detectors Patent Filed in US? (5d-1) Y NPatent Filed in Foreign Countries? (5d-2) Was the assignment

  7. Pre-Engineering Program: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-29

    educators in the Urbana-Champaign area. 15. SUBJECT TERMS STEM: science, technology , engineering, mathematics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME...9132T-13-1-0002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pre-Engineering Program: Science, Technology , Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N...project was focused on underserved children in grades 1-6 who need, but have limited access to, out-of-school time STEM (science, technology

  8. ILLIAC IV Applications Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-31

    Reducino a Real Matrix to the Unper-Hessenbern Form," CAC Document Ko . 11: Center for Advanced Computation, Pniversitv of Illinois at Urbana...Complex for small-scale interactive imane analysis; (4) The APPA Network for decentrali7ed user access Ko t.hp system; -11- APPA FINAL REPORT (5...Grossman David M. Grothe Bruce P. Hanna Bruce M. Hannon James H. Hansen David C. Healy Steven F, Holmgren Dorothy J. Hopkin Robert J. Husby Renato

  9. Forth system for coherent-scatter radar data acquisition and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennier, A. D.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A real time collection system was developed for the Urbana coherent scatter radar system. The new system, designed for use with a microcomputer, has several advantages over the old system implemented with a minicomputer. The software used to collect the data is described as well as the processing software used to analyze the data. In addition a magnetic tape format for coherent scatter data exchange is given.

  10. Supplement request for Support of MRS Symposium (PECASE: Active Microstructured Polymer Systems)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-06

    materials (e.g., gels, polymers, liquids , liquid crystals and photosensitive materials) that can change shape in a controlled response to stimuli. These...Rogers1. 1, , University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA. Show Abstract 8:45 AM - *XX1.02 New Wonders of Nafion : Shape Memory, Temperature Memory... Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA; 5, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow

  11. Chemically Initiated Electron-Exchange Luminescence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-14

    CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS IQ. REPORT DATE Chemistry Program, raterials Science Division, November 14, 1980 Office of Naval Research, 800 N. Quincy...A./IHorn Prepared for Publication in9 z Chemi- and Bio-Energized Processes School of Chemical Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801...National Science Foundation and in part by the Office of Naval Research. GBS is a Fellow of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1977-79) and The Dreyfus

  12. Low-Level Convergence and the Prediction of Convective Precipitation in South Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Af" -Ao97 55 ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY URBANA F/6 4/2 LOWLEVEL CONVERGENCE AND THE PREDICTION OF CONVECTIVE PRECIPIT-ETC(U) FEB 81 A I WATSON. R L...varying meteorological cond’tions and ti: == UNCLASSIFIED of day. SECURITY CLASSIFICATIOR OF TNIS PAGE (Whven Data Etered) State Water Survey...1981 1: 4. i0 The project "Low-level Convergence and the Prediction of Convective Precipitation" is a coordinated research effort by the State Water

  13. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    lines characteristic of the Midwest . The nearest major urban area is Champaign-Urbana, 15 miles south of Rantoul (see Figure 3.2-1). Village of Rantoul...and 70 tons per day during the summer. Coal Is delivered by truck from southern Indiana . The second heating plant is in Building 998, In the southeast...grasses, trees, and shrubs have been used for landscaping the base. Trees have been planted along streets and walkways as well as in lawns, and shrubs

  14. Experimental Studies of Lateral Electron Transport in Gallium Arsenide-Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Heterostructures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    AD-A125 858 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LATERAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN 1/3 GALLIUM ARSENIDE-RL..(U) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATED SCIENCE LAB N R...EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LATERALXILECTRON TRANSPORT ,:g IN GALLIUM ARSENIDE -ALUMINUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE- -HETEROSTRUCTURES APRVE O PUBLICRLEAS.DSRBUINULMTE. 2...EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LATERAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN GALLIUM ARSENIDE-ALUMINUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE Technical Report R-975 HETEROSTRUCTURES 6. PERFORMING ONG

  15. American Military Ethics: Stalwart in a Changing Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    73 Raymond B. Lech , Broken Soldiers (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000), 215. 74 Gaddis, The Landscape of History, 4. 75 Edwards, The...communist 78 Ibid., 167. 79 Ibid., 168. Korea saw ten times the POW deaths then World War II. 80 Lech , Broken Soldiers, 2. 81 John A. Lynn, Battle...1953; April 24, 1953; April 29, 1953; August 10, 1953; August 16, 1953; August 20, 1953. 83 Lech , Broken Soldiers, 298. 84 Richard A. Gabriel, To

  16. Neuropsychological Component of Imagery Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-25

    and von Bonin, G. (1951). The Isocortex of Man. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Bauer, R. M., and Rubens, A. B. (1985). Agnosia . In K. M...Apperceptive agnosia : the specification and description of constructs. In Humphreys, G. W., and Riddoch, M. J. (1987a) (Eds.). Visual Object Processing: A...visual processing: agnosias , achromatopsia, Balint’s syndrome and related difficulties of orientation and construction. In M.-M. Mesulam (Ed

  17. Neuropsychological Components of Object Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-10

    Man. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Bauer, R. M., and Rubens, A. B. (1985). Agnosia . In K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical...J. (1987). Apperceptive agnosia : the specification and description of constructs. In Humphreys, G. W., and Riddoch, M. J. (1987a) (Eds.). Visual... agnosias , achromatopsia, Balint’s syndrome and related difficulties of orientation and construction. In M.-M. Mesulam (Ed.), Principles of Behavioral

  18. Effect of Interstitials on the Trapping of Hydrogen in High Purity Iron as Studied by Positron Annihilation and Electron Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Order Perturbation Theory for Assessment" Authors: James T. hlaber. Asok Ray , A. B. Kunz and R. Weidman Place: Eight Canadian Symposium on Theoreticai...Urbana, I 61801 ASOK K. RAY * and ROBERT WEIDMAN Physics Department, Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 and JAMES T. WABER Department...PERTURBATION THEORY FOR ASSESSMENT by James T. Waber NorthNestern University, Evanston ZL 60201 Asok Ray University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX 76019 A

  19. Dendrite Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Donald Gilles, the Discipline Scientist for Materials Science in NASA's Microgravity Materials Science and Applications Department, demonstrates to Carl Dohrman a model of dendrites, the branch-like structures found in many metals and alloys. Dohrman was recently selected by the American Society for Metals International as their 1999 ASM International Foundation National Merit Scholar. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign freshman recently toured NASA's materials science facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. Bombardment of Thin Lithium Films with Energetic Plasma Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Travis Kelly

    2009-01-01

    The Divertor Erosion and Vapor Shielding Experiment (DEVEX) has been constructed in the Center for Plasma-Material Interactions at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It consists of a conical theta-pinch connected to a 60 kV, 36 [mu]F capacitor bank which is switched with a rise time of 3.5 [mu]s. This results in a peak current of 300…

  1. National Security Challenges: Insights from Social, Neurobiological, and Complexity Sciences. Topical Strategic Multi-Layer Assessment (SMA) and U.S. Army ERDC Multi-Agency/Multi-Disciplinary White Papers in Support of National Security Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    population. The amount of information on Facebook doubles every 6 months. This under- scores the nation’s need to understand what is happening on a ...QL—Russia: Emerging Insight Into Muslim Populations (October 2011) • QL— A Trend Toward Increased Information Communication Technol- ogy (ICT...Hendrix ( College of William & Mary), Mr. Eric A . Knudson (PACOM), Mr. Joseph T. Lee (PACOM), Mr. Kalev Leetaru (University of Illinois at Urbana), Lt

  2. Being There is Only the Beginning: Toward More Effective Web 2.0 Use in Academic Libraries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-02

    Google is Our Friend,” and “ Plagiarism 101.” Also unlike the hard-to-find blogs, many academic libraries, including both Hollins University and Urbana...Effective Web 2.0 Use in Academic Libraries by Hanna C. Bachrach Pratt Institute...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 2.0 Use in Academic Libraries 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bachrach

  3. Dimensions of Familism among Hispanic and Mainstream Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Speaking Mental Health Research Center Urbana-Champaign University of California, Los Angeles Judith Lisansky & Bei-Hung Chang University of Illinois...Culture, disease, and stress among Latino immigEants. Washington: Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies, Smithsonian Institute, 1979...D.C.: Institute of Comparative Social & Cultural Studies, Inc., 1978. Szapocznik, j. A prograumatic mental health approach to enhancing the meaning of

  4. Switched Systems With Multiple Invariant Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-06

    LaSalle’s invariant set theorem [10] allow us to analyze asymptotic stability of this larger class of systems . LaSalle’s theorem and much of the... Stability and conver- gence for systems with switching equilibria, in: Proc. of the 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control , 2007. [8] X. Xu, G...Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Abstract This paper explores dwell time constraints on switched systems with mul- tiple, possibly disparate

  5. Solid State Research, 1975:3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-15

    Heckscher T. F. Deutsch H. Kildal D. L. Spears I. Melngailis T. C. Haiman P. L. Kelley R. S. Eng D. L. Spears H. R. Fetterman H. R... Fetterman H. R. Schlossberg* W. E. Barch 1975 International IEEE/APS Symposium and USNC/URSI Meeting, Urbana, Illinois, 4 June 1975 * Author not...ft. Chinn, S. R. Del-eo, ft. E. Deutsch, T. F. Fetterman , II. R. Hancock, R. C. II. Ileckscher, Kildal, II. Larsen, D. M. Mandel, P

  6. Validation of the Noncommissioned Officer Special Assignment Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    scoring designed to reduce the effects of faking in personality assessment [ Doctoral Dissertation]. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Stark, S...conducted factor analyses to determine whether these scales could be reasonably combined to create a reduced number of criteria for examining WAI and NSAB...has been that previously validated instruments for this purpose required proctored testing. To make it easier for Soldiers to be tested, reduce

  7. Psychometric Approach to Error Analysis on Response Patterns of Achievement Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Maxwell Dr. Richard L. Ferguson I Dr. Earl Hunt Department of Psychology The American Collage Testing Program Dept. of Psychology University of Houston...South Carolina Educational Testing Service Columbia. SC 29208 Princeton. NJ 08541 PROF. FiFIIKO SAMEJIMA 1 Dr. Kikumi Tatsuoka DEPT. OF PSYCHOLOGY ...Illinois Urbana Illinois PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH TO ERROR ANALYSIS ON RESPONSE PATTERNS OF ACHIEVEMENT TESTS -.C, 0 ~KIKUMI K. TATSUOKA -’- MENUCHA

  8. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Treesearch

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  9. Function and culture requirements of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Howard, J G; Donoghue, A M; Swanson, W F; Wildt, D E

    1994-08-01

    Electroejaculates from eight snow leopards were used to determine how the motility of spermatozoa was influenced by (i) type of media (Ham's F10, PBS, human tubal fluid or RPMI-1640); (ii) holding temperature (23 degrees C versus 37 degrees C); (iii) washing of spermatozoa and (iv) a sperm metabolic enhancer, pentoxifylline. The duration of sperm motility was assessed by evaluating samples in each treatment every hour for 6 h and a sperm motility index (a value combining percentage sperm motility and rate of forward progression) calculated. Spermatozoa from the Ham's F10, PBS and PBS plus pentoxifylline treatments were also co-incubated with zona-intact, domestic cat eggs that were fixed and evaluated for spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida, penetrating the outer and inner layers of the zona pellucida and within the perivitelline space. During the 6 h co-incubation, the sperm motility index in PBS with pentoxifylline was greater (P < 0.05) than in PBS alone which, in turn, was greater (P < 0.05) than in the other three test media. Washing the spermatozoa enhanced (P < 0.05) motility in both PBS and PBS plus pentoxifylline relative to unwashed samples, but there was no effect (P > 0.05) of holding temperature. Pentoxifylline supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) the proportion of cat eggs with bound, but not penetrated, snow leopard spermatozoa in the inner layer of the zona pellucida, and there were no spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  11. 76 FR 58562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... controlled by significant foreign narcotics traffickers as identified by the President. In addition, the..., Jalisco, Mexico; Plaza Del Sol Local 28, Zona R, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; Paseo Del Heliotropo 3426, Monraz, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; DOB 09 Aug 1955; POB Jalisco, Mexico; Citizen Mexico; Nationality...

  12. Autoradiographic visualization of the mouse egg's sperm receptor bound to sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Bleil, J.D.; Wassarman, P.M.

    1986-04-01

    The extracellular coat, or zona pellucida, of mammalian eggs contains species-specific receptors to which sperm bind as a prelude to fertilization. In mice, ZP3, one of only three zona pellucida glycoproteins, serves as sperm receptor. Acrosome-intact, but not acrosome-reacted, mouse sperm recognize and interact with specific O-linked oligosaccharides of ZP3 resulting in sperm-egg binding. Binding, in turn, causes sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction; a membrane fusion event that results in loss of plasma membrane at the anterior region of the head and exposure of inner acrosomal membrane with its associated acrosomal contents. Bound, acrosome-reacted sperm are able to penetratemore » the zona pellucida and fuse with the egg's plasma membrane (fertilization). In the present report, we examined binding of radioiodinated, purified, egg ZP3 to both acrosome intact and acrosome reacted sperm by whole-mount autoradiography. Silver grains due to bound 125I-ZP3 were found localized to the acrosomal cap region of heads of acrosome-reacted sperm. Under the same conditions, 125I-fetuin bound at only background levels to heads of both acrosome-intact and -reacted sperm, and 125I-ZP2, another zona pellucida glycoprotein, bound preferentially to acrosome-reacted sperm. These results provide visual evidence that ZP3 binds preferentially and specifically to heads of acrosome intact sperm; properties expected of the mouse egg's sperm receptor.« less

  13. ¿Qué está haciendo la EPA para proteger a los arrecifes de coral?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA protege a los arrecifes de coral mediante la implementación de programas de la Ley de Agua Limpia que protegen la calidad del agua en cuencas y zonas costeras de las áreas con arrecifes de coral.

  14. 9 CFR 98.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and sterilization. (1) All equipment that comes in contact with embryos or with media used for their... found to be intact and free from any adherent material. (5) After washing and examination of the zona... be moved to a U.S. Department of Agriculture-operated animal import center in either New York, Hawaii...

  15. 9 CFR 98.17 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and sterilization. (1) All equipment that comes in contact with embryos or with media used for their... found to be intact and free from any adherent material. (5) After washing and examination of the zona... be moved to a U.S. Department of Agriculture-operated animal import center in either New York, Hawaii...

  16. Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

    1999-06-01

    During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

  17. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.

  18. New Editors Appointed for Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    Praveen Kumar (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), the newly appointed editor in chief of Water Resources Research (WRR), heads the new team of editors for the journal. The other editors are Tom Torgersen (University of Connecticut, Groton), who continues his editorship; Tissa Illangasekare (Colorado School of Mines, Golden); Graham Sander (Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK); and John Selker (Oregon State University, Corvallis). Hoshin Gupta (University of Arizona, Tucson) will join WRR at the end of 2009. The new editors will begin receiving submissions immediately. The incoming editorial board thanks outgoing editors Marc Parlange, Brian Berkowitz, Amilcare Porporato, and Scott Tyler, all of whom will assist during the transition.

  19. A DoD/DESAT Phase I Final Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    19-22, 1982 in Albuquerque, New Mexico: 1) Spatially Correlated Redistribution of Mn and Ge in Inl.x Gax As MBE layers, E. Silberg , T.Y. Chang, and...Urbana-Champaign. 2) Spatially correlated redistribution of Mn and Ge in InGaAs MBE layers in conjunction with E. Silberg , T.Y. Chang and E.A. Caridi at...AlGaAs MBE layers. 2) A group headed by Ors. T. Chang and E. Silberg of Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, New Jersey, have been involved in growing Mn and

  20. An accelerated forth data-acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    A new data acquisition system was put into operation at Urbana in August 1984. It uses a standard Apple 2 microcomputer with 48 k RAM and a standard 5 1/4 inch floppy disk. Design criteria for the system is given. The system was implemented using fig-FORTH, a threaded interpretive language which permits easy interfacing to machine code. The throughput of this system is better by a factor of 6 than the PDP-15 minicomputer system previously used, and it has the real time display feature and provides the data in much more convenient form. The features which contribute to this improved performance is listed.

  1. Study of Antenna Radome Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    115 DISTRIBUTION LIST .... ......................... 117 4 - #iE MU aM . a--. LIST 01 FICURZS Figure Page 1. Antenna A end radoe E...coetficiente at points 1 and 2 (Figure 26a) T -T n1E + (1/0) (5.18) In a sitmitar manner, we can calculate the field on the multiply refracted rays (t. twice...34 Differential geometry for GTD applications," ElectromagneticsLaboratory Report 77-21, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1977. (lij F. W. Sears, M. W

  2. Analyzing Infrequent Events: Once You Find Them Your Troubles Begin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    e €ical kepmt. 80-3 /J,, p r - ...... Running Head: Analyzing Infrequent Events -_ Prepared with the support of the Organizatio-Effec-Uanasa Research...of post hoc groups defines after the occurrences of the event - , 1473 ,FI ,, o , ov 5 IS 0:, l.FTr , • . IS i N , { I , ; 0 1 4 - 0& E ct U m I r Y...AA8 048 ILLINOIS WdIV AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN DEPT OP PSYCHOLOGY F/B 5/10 ANALYZING INFREQUENT EVENTS: ONCE YOU FIND THEN YOUR TROUBLES B-ETC(U) APR 80 C

  3. Measurement of solids motion in gas-fluidized beds. Technical progress report, 1 October 1982-31 December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.M.; Chao, B.T.

    This technical progress report covers the progress made during the fifth quarter of the project entitled Measurements of Solids Motion in Gas Fluidized Beds under Grant No. DOE-F22-81PC40804 during the period 1 October through 31 December 1982. The research concerns the measurement of solids particle velocity distribution and residence time distribution using the Computer-Aided Particle Tracking Facility (CAPTF) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The experimental equipment and measuring methods used to determine particle size distribution and particle motion and the results obtained are presented.

  4. Perturbation theory of nuclear matter with a microscopic effective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Benhar, Omar; Lovato, Alessandro

    Here, an updated and improved version of the effective interaction based on the Argonne-Urbana nuclear Hamiltonian, derived using the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique, is employed to obtain a number of properties of cold nuclear matter at arbitrary neutron excess within the formalism of many-body perturbation theory. The numerical results, including the ground-state energy per nucleon, the symmetry energy, the pressure, the compressibility, and the single-particle spectrum, are discussed in the context of the available empirical information, obtained from measured nuclear properties and heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Perturbation theory of nuclear matter with a microscopic effective interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Benhar, Omar; Lovato, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Here, an updated and improved version of the effective interaction based on the Argonne-Urbana nuclear Hamiltonian, derived using the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique, is employed to obtain a number of properties of cold nuclear matter at arbitrary neutron excess within the formalism of many-body perturbation theory. The numerical results, including the ground-state energy per nucleon, the symmetry energy, the pressure, the compressibility, and the single-particle spectrum, are discussed in the context of the available empirical information, obtained from measured nuclear properties and heavy-ion collisions.

  6. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  7. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    APR EZT:: F I AN 73S e OsL:-: UNCLASSI?:-- Q4~.’~- .A.., 6, *~*i i~~*~~*.- U ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH UNKNOWN COST...AD-A161 885 ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH i/1 UNKNOWN COST FUNCTIONALSCU) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB T...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7.. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION CoriaeLcenef~pda~ Joint Services Electronics Program Laboratory, Univ. of Illinois N/A

  8. Acute Respiratory Tract Toxicity of the Trichothecene Mycotoxin, T-2 Toxin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    to 10-week-old, castrated , e male, cross-bred, specific pathogen-free pigs were exposed to an aerosol of T-2 toxin for 45 to 61 minutes with 8 mg of... castrated , crossbred, specific pathogen-free swine to aerosols of T-2 toxin for 42 to 65 minutes with 9 mg of the toxin nebulized per kilogram of body... cattle , Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1983. 28. Lorenzana, R.M., Beasley, V.R., Buck, W.B., Ghent, A.W., Lundeen, G.R., and

  9. Proceedings of the 1985 Antenna Applications Symposium. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    in reflector antenna systems. In the first, -. suppression of a high power mobile S-band source was accomplished while maintaining a continuous link...substrates. Ph.D. thesis . University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. [71 Harrington. R+F. (1961) Tinze-farmo~ntc Electromnagn~etic Fields, McGraw-Hill. New...to be adequate for the 102’ range spacing. From this analysis, and the weight limitation of the mobile tower, a non-backplaned array with non-resonant

  10. Modeling Sediment Transport Using a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Algorithm Coupled with High-Resolution Large Eddy Simulations: a Critical Analysis of Model Limits and Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling Sediment Transport Using a Lagrangian Particle Tracking Algorithm Coupled with High-Resolution Large Eddy Simulations: a Critical Analysis of Model Limits and Sensitivity Som Dutta1, Paul Fischer2, Marcelo H. Garcia11Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Il, 61801 2Department of Computer Science and Department of MechSE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Il, 61801 Since the seminal work of Niño and Garcia [1994], one-way coupled Lagrangian particle tracking has been used extensively for modeling sediment transport. Over time, the Lagrangian particle tracking method has been coupled with Eulerian flow simulations, ranging from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based models to Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) [Escauriaza and Sotiropoulos, 2011]. Advent of high performance computing (HPC) platforms and faster algorithms have resulted in the work of Dutta et al. [2016], where Lagrangian particle tracking was coupled with high-resolution Large Eddy Simulations (LES) to model the complex and highly non-linear phenomenon of Bulle-Effect at diversions. Despite all the advancements in using Lagrangian particle tracking, there has not been a study that looks in detail at the limits of the model in the context of sediment transport, and also analyzes the sensitivity of the various force formulation in the force balance equation of the particles. Niño and Garcia [1994] did a similar analysis, but the vertical flow velocity distribution was modeled as the log-law. The current study extends the analysis by modeling the flow using high-resolution LES at a Reynolds number comparable to experiments of Niño et al. [1994]. Dutta et al., (2016), Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of flow and bedload transport at an idealized 90-degree diversion: insight into Bulle-Effect, River Flow 2016 - Constantinescu, Garcia & Hanes (Eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London, 101-109. Escauriaza and Sotiropoulos

  11. Unresolved issues in mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Olds-Clarke, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    This review considers the role of the sperm in fertilization, addressing areas of misunderstanding and unfounded assumptions and taking particular advantage of the large body of data resulting from work with rodent species in vitro. Considerable attention is given to the appropriate use and interpretation of assays for capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis, hyperactivation, and sperm protein phosphorylation, as well as tests for sperm-zona and sperm-oocyte membrane interactions. The lack of general agreement on the means of sperm adhesion to and penetration of the zona pellucida is addressed, and the need for new approaches to this problem is pointed out. Some molecular advances in our understanding of specific steps in the process of fertilization are discussed in the context of intact cell-matrix and cell-cell interaction. This review should provide practical information for researchers just beginning the study of fertilization and interesting but not widely known observations to stimulate new ideas in experienced scientists.

  12. Caffeine delays oocyte aging and maintains the quality of aged oocytes safely in mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Li; Wu, Dan-Ya; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Gao, Ying-Ying; Miao, Yi-Liang

    2017-03-28

    Caffeine, as an oocyte aging inhibitor, was used in many different species to control or delay oocyte aging. However, the safety of caffeine and developmental competence of aged oocytes inhibited by caffeine has not been studied systematically. So we detected the spindle morphology, distribution of cortical granules, zona pellucida hardening and pronucleus formation to assess oocyte quality of caffeine treated oocytes. We found that aged oocytes treated by caffeine maintained weak susceptibility to activating stimuli and regained normal competent after aged further 6 hr. Caffeine maintained the spindle morphology, changed cortical granules distribution of aged oocytes and could not prevent zona pellucida hardening. Furthermore, caffeine increased pronucleus formation of aged oocytes and decreased fragmentation after fertilization. These results suggested that caffeine could maintain the quality of aged oocytes safely in mouse.

  13. Zonal differences in the distribution and morphology of lipid droplets using 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine to lower cholesterol level in the rat adrenal.

    PubMed

    Szabó, D; Somogyi, J; Acs, Z; Mihály, K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels on adrenocortical lipid droplets have been examined by treating adult rats with 4-amino-pyrazolo-(3,4 d) pyrimidine (4-APP), a drug that inhibits hepatic secretion of lipoproteins. Lowering the blood cholesterol level and the cholesterol content of the adrenals was associated with a marked reduction in the lipid droplets and with a simultaneous increase in their electron density in the inner cortical zones. In the zona glomerulosa cells, no perceptible differences were found in the quantity and morphology of lipid droplets. These data suggest that reduced blood and adrenal cholesterol levels do not affect lipids located in the zona glomerulosa and in the inner cortical zones in the same way, probably due to differences in their intracellular lipid dynamism. Noteworthy, that in spite of the marked lipid depletion, the adrenal glands retained their responsiveness to ACTH stimulation.

  14. Identification of a ZP3-binding protein on acrosome-intact mouse sperm by photoaffinity crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Bleil, J.D.; Wassarman, P.M.

    1990-07-01

    During the process of fertilization in mammals, sperm bind in a relatively species-specific manner to the zona pellucida (ZP) of ovulated eggs. ZP3, a glycoprotein found in the mouse egg zona pellucida, serves as receptor for sperm during gamete adhesion. We report here that a Mr 56,000 protein found on mouse sperm has properties expected for a sperm component that recognizes and binds to ZP3. This sperm protein is radiolabeled preferentially by a photoactivatable heterobifunctional crosslinker (Denny-Jaffee reagent) covalently linked to purified ZP3, binds very tightly to ZP3-affinity columns, and is localized to heads of acrosome-intact but not acrosome-reacted sperm.more » These and other findings suggest that this protein may be a ZP3-binding protein that, together with the sperm receptor, supports species-specific binding of mouse sperm to unfertilized eggs.« less

  15. Effect of acute heat stress on rat adrenal glands: a morphological and stereological study.

    PubMed

    Koko, Vesna; Djordjeviae, Jelena; Cvijiae, Gordana; Davidoviae, Vukosava

    2004-11-01

    The morphological and stereological structure of rat adrenal gland was analysed by light microscopy after an acute (60 min) exposure to high ambient temperature (38 degrees C). A significant increase in plasma corticotrophin (ACTH) and serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations was observed, confirming that acute heat exposure has a strong stressful effect. Under these conditions the adrenal gland mass and volume were decreased, probably as the consequence of adrenal cortex reduction, especially that of the zona fasciculata (ZF). Histological examination revealed that many ZF cells were deprived of lipid droplets. Fibrosis was observed in all parts of the adrenal gland, both cortex and medulla, of heat stressed animals. Mitotic figures were absent in cortical cells after heat exposure, but there were no differences in ZF and zona reticularis (ZR) small blood vessels compared to nonstressed controls.

  16. Regulators of G-protein signaling 4 in adrenal gland: localization, regulation, and role in aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Damian G; Zhou, Ming Yi; Yanes, Licy L; Plonczynski, Maria W; Washington, Tanganika R; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P

    2007-08-01

    Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS proteins) interact with Galpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins, accelerating the rate of GTP hydrolysis and finalizing the intracellular signaling triggered by the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-ligand interaction. Angiotensin II (Ang II) interacts with its GPCR in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells and triggers a cascade of intracellular signals that regulates steroidogenesis and proliferation. On screening for adrenal zona glomerulosa-specific genes, we found that RGS4 was exclusively localized in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal cortex. We studied RGS4 expression and regulation in the rat adrenal gland, including the signaling pathways involved, as well as the role of RGS4 in steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical H295R cells. We reported that RGS4 mRNA expression in the rat adrenal gland was restricted to the adrenal zonal glomerulosa and upregulated by low-salt diet and Ang II infusion in rat adrenal glands in vivo. In H295R cells, Ang II caused a rapid and transient increase in RGS4 mRNA levels mediated by the calcium/calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C pathways. RGS4 overexpression by retroviral infection in H295R cells decreased Ang II-stimulated aldosterone secretion. In reporter assays, RGS4 decreased Ang II-mediated aldosterone synthase upregulation. In summary, RGS4 is an adrenal gland zona glomerulosa-specific gene that is upregulated by aldosterone secretagogues, in vivo and in vitro, and functions as a negative feedback of Ang II-triggered intracellular signaling. Alterations in RGS4 expression levels or functions may be involved in deregulations of Ang II signaling and abnormal aldosterone secretion.

  17. A Compilation Catalog in the Direction of the Galactic Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-18

    and Argelander 1890) 3) Catalogo de Zonas Estrellas (GA; Gould 1884a, b) 4) Catalogue of 12441 Stars for the Epoch 1880 (Cp 80; Stone 1881) 2 5...Catalogo General Argentino (Gou; Gould 1886) 6) Catalogo de 15200 Estrellas (Cord B; Perrine 1914) 7) Albany Zone Catalogue of 8276 Stars Between -200 and...Astrografico (AC: Perrine 1927a, b, 1928, 1931, 1932, 1933) 10) Catalogo de 6429 Estrellas de Repere (G; Guerin 1934) 11) Cape Photographic Catalogue

  18. El Estado de los Bosques de Puerto Rico, 2003

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Eileen H. Helmer; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2003-01-01

    La cobertura forestal de Puerto Rico sigue aumentando y ahora asciende a un 57 por ciento en la isla de Puerto Rico, 85 por ciento en Vieques y 88 por ciento en Culebra. Los bosques subtropicales secos ocupan 50 346 ha, 6832 ha, 2591 ha y 6217 ha en las islas de Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra y Mona, respectivamente. El bosque subtropical húmedo, la zona de vida...

  19. Quantitative assessment of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression in aldosterone-producing adenomas.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Pezzi, V; Barzon, L; Mulatero, P; Veglio, F; Sonino, N; Mathis, J M

    2002-12-01

    The presence and pathophysiological role of CYP11B1 (11beta-hydroxylase) gene in the zona glomerulosa of human adrenal cortex is still controversial. In order to specifically quantify CYP11B1, CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP17(17alpha-hydroxylase) mRNA levels, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay and examined the expression in a series of adrenal tIssues, including six normal adrenals from patients adrenalectomized for renal cancer and twelve aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) from patients with primary aldosteronism. CYP11B1 mRNA levels were clearly detected in normal adrenals, which comprised both zona glomerulosa and fasciculata/reticularis cells, but were also measured at a lower range (P<0.05) in APA. The levels of CYP11B2 mRNA were lower (P<0.005) in normal adrenals than in APA. CYP17 mRNAlevels were similar in normal adrenals and in APA. In patients with APA, CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 mRNA levels were not correlated either with basal aldosterone or with the change from basal aldosterone in response to posture or to dexamethasone. No correlation between CYP11B1 mRNA or CYP11B2 mRNA and the percentage of zona fasciculata-like cells was observed in APA. Real-time RT-PCR can be reliably used to quantify CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNA levels in adrenal tIssues. Expression of CYP11B1 in hyperfunctioning zona glomerulosa suggests an additional formation of corticosterone via 11beta-hydroxylase, providing further substrate for aldosterone biosynthesis. CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNA levels in APA are not related to the in vivo secretory activity of glomerulosa cells, where post-transcriptional factors might ultimately regulate aldosterone production.

  20. Immune-endocrine interactions in the mammalian adrenal gland: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Nussdorfer, G G; Mazzocchi, G

    1998-01-01

    Several cytokines, which are the major mediators of the inflammatory responses, are well-known to stimulate the hypothalamopituitary corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)/adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) system, thereby evoking secretory responses by the adrenal cortex. Many of these cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) are synthesized in the adrenal gland by both parenchymal cells and resident macrophages, and the release of some of them (e.g., IL-6 and TNF-alpha) is regulated by the main agonists of steroid hormone secretion (e.g., ACTH and angiotensin-II) and bacterial endotoxins. Adrenocortical and adrenomedullary cells are provided with specific receptors for IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6. IL-1 and TNF-alpha directly inhibit aldosterone secretion of zona glomerulosa cells, whereas IL-6 enhances it. IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, and INF-alpha are able to directly stimulate glucocorticoid production by zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells, whereas IL-1 exerts an analogous effect through an indirect mechanism involving the stimulation of catecholamine release by chromaffin cells and/or the activation of the intramedullary CRH/ACTH system; again, TNF-alpha depresses glucocorticoid synthesis. IL-6 raises androgen secretion by inner adrenocortical layers. IL-1 enhances the proliferation of adrenocortical cells, and findings suggest that cytokines may control the apoptotic deletion of senescent zona reticularis cells. The relevance of the intraadrenal cytokine system in the fine-tuning of the secretion and growth of the adrenal cortex under normal conditions remains to be explored. However, indirect proof is available that local immune-endocrine interactions may play an important role in modulating adrenal responses to inflammatory and immune challenges and stresses.

  1. An approach to successful freezing of demi-embryos derived from day-7 bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Niemann, H; Brem, G; Sacher, B; Smidt, D; Kräusslich, H

    1986-04-01

    The developmental capacity of frozen/thawed bisected embryos (n = 33) derived from day-7 bovine embryos was investigated and compared to ordinary embryos after freezing and thawing (n = 28) and to freshly bisected embryos (n = 19). The freezing and thawing protocol was identical for ordinary and demi-embryos. The percentage of intact embryos classified as excellent, good, or poor after thawing was 92.9 and 96.3% for ordinary and demi-embryos, respectively. Pregnancy rates of 53.8 (8 15 ), 46.2 (6 13 ), and 47.5% (9 19 ) were obtained when frozen/thawed ordinary embryos and frozen/thawed demi-embryos classified as excellent or good and sealed with an additional zona pellucida from hatched pig blastocysts or freshly bisected embryos were transferred. One pair of identical twins resulted from the transfer of frozen/thawed demi-embryos sealed with an additional zona pellucida. Transfer of four frozen/thawed demi-embryos without an additional zona pellucida led to one pregnancy. In contrast, demi-embryos derived from frozen/thawed ordinary embryos (n = 8) as well as frozen/thawed demi-embryos classified as poor (n = 6) did not result in any pregnancies although two halves were transferred per recipient. It is concluded that sealing the punctured zona pellucida improves the developmental capacity of frozen/thawed demi-embryos derived from day-7 bovine embryos, and freezing demi-embryos is more efficient compared to the splitting of frozen/thawed ordinary embryos.

  2. Ratio of inner cell mass and trophoblastic cells in demi- and intact pig embryos.

    PubMed

    Tao, T; Reichelt, B; Niemann, H

    1995-07-01

    Pig morulae, early blastocysts and blastocysts were microsurgically bisected to produce zona-free demi-embryos or remained nonbisected with or without zona pellucida, and the presence of inner cell mass cells was determined using a differential fluorochrome staining technique. After 24 h of in vitro culture, all demi-embryos were classified into three categories, based on morphological criteria: 1, excellent; 2, fair; and 3, degenerated. The average number of total cells and inner cell mass cells in intact embryos cultured without zona pellucida for 24 h was higher (P < 0.05) than that for those with zona pellucida in morulae and early blastocysts. The percentage of demi-embryos without inner cell mass cells in these different morphological categories was 18.7%, 22.2% and 29.8% for morulae, respectively; 3.8%, 16.7% and 30.8% for early blastocysts, respectively; and 3.7%, 32.0% and 36.4% for blastocysts, respectively. The percentage of demi-embryos without inner cell mass cells was lower (P < 0.01) in demi-embryos classified in category 1 compared with category 3 in early blastocysts and in category 1 compared with categories 2 and 3 in blastocysts. Significant differences in the total number of cells and the number of inner cell mass cells were apparent among the three morphological categories of demi-embryos derived from morulae, early blastocysts and blastocysts. The ratio of total cells to inner cell mass cells was similar among intact pig embryos and the different morphological categories of demi-embryos derived from morulae, early blastocysts and blastocysts, with the exception of that between demi-blastocysts of category 1 and the other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Papers Selected for Presentation at the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (16th) Held at Buenos Aires, Argentina on 2-9 June 1982. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    ARGENTINA Oscar Dominguez and Stella Carballo .............. 355 STUDIES ON SOME URBAN PROBLEMS USING AIRBORNE REMOTE SENSORS IN SANTIAGO, CHILE ...SAN JUAN ARGENTINA) (1) Silvia Lendaro de Gianni (2,3) Enrique Uliarte (I) Centro Regional de Agua Subterrgnea (2) Universidad Nacional de San Juan act...Hidrogeol6gico para refuerzo do la provisi6n de agua " a Puerto Deseado. In4dito. - Pezzuchi, Hugo Daniel (1978) "studio Geol6gico de la zona de Lstancia Dos

  4. Acute ethanol treatment increases level of progesterone in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Budec, Mirela; Koko, Vesna; Milovanović, Tatjana; Balint-Perić, Ljiljana; Petković, Aleksandra

    2002-04-01

    To determine whether an increased level of progesterone in adult female rats after acute ethanol treatment, described previously in our study, is the result of activation of adrenal glands, we analyzed adrenal cortex morphologically and measured serum levels of corticosterone and progesterone in ovariectomized rats. In addition, a possible involvement of the opioid system in an observed phenomenon was tested. Adult female Wistar rats were ovariectomized, and 3 weeks after surgery they were treated intraperitoneally with (a) ethanol (4 g/kg), (b) naltrexone (5 mg/kg), followed by ethanol (4 g/kg) 45 min later, and (c) naltrexone (5 mg/kg), followed by saline 45 min later. Untreated and saline-injected rats were used as controls. The animals were killed 0.5 h after ethanol administration. Morphometric analysis was carried out on paraffin sections of adrenal glands, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the following parameters were determined: absolute volume of the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis; numerical density, volume, and the mean diameter of adrenocortical cells and of their nuclei; and mean diameter and length of capillaries. The results showed that acute ethanol treatment significantly increased absolute volume of the zona fasciculata and length of its capillaries but did not alter other stereological parameters. Also, serum levels of corticosterone and progesterone were enhanced. Pretreatment with naltrexone had no effect on ethanol-induced changes. These findings are consistent with our previous hypothesis that an ethanol-induced increase of the progesterone level in adult female rats originates from the adrenal cortex.

  5. Sperm plasma membrane remodeling during spermiogenetic maturation in men: relationship among plasma membrane beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, cytoplasmic creatine phosphokinase, and creatine phosphokinase isoform ratios.

    PubMed

    Huszar, G; Sbracia, M; Vigue, L; Miller, D J; Shur, B D

    1997-04-01

    Sperm creatine phosphokinase (CK) concentrations and the synthesis of the CK-M isoform reflect normal spermiogenesis and predict maturity and fertilizing potential of ejaculated human spermatozoa. Immature spermatozoa, characterized by cytoplasmic retention and low CK-M to CK-B isoform ratios, are deficient in zona binding and fail to cause pregnancies. Because these sperm lack zona-binding ability, we examined in this study whether beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase), a key element of sperm-zona interactions in mice, is diminished in immature human sperm. Unexpectedly, GalTase was overexpressed in immature sperm relative to mature sperm: the levels of cytoplasmic CK and plasma membrane GalTase were positively correlated (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, n = 88). Sperm populations with various levels of cellular maturity, prepared by Percoll gradients, had different CK and GalTase concentrations, but within each subpopulation the relationship between CK and GalTase was maintained (p < 0.01-0.001). GalTase activities in intact and vortex-disrupted sperm fractions were similar, showing that GalTase is present on the surface membrane of human sperm--similar to the situation in all other species assayed. The changes previously reported by our laboratory in zona-binding ability and lipid peroxidation rates (which occur simultaneously with cytoplasmic extrusion), decline in CK activity, and increased expression of the CK-M isoform are suggestive of a remodeling of the sperm surface concomitant with cytoplasmic maturation. The changes reported here in GalTase expression on the surface of maturing spermatozoa prove this hypothesis.

  6. Possible mechanisms of mammalian immunocontraception.

    PubMed

    Barber, M R; Fayrer-Hosken, R A

    2000-03-01

    Ecological and conservation programs in ecosystems around the world have experienced varied success in population management. One of the greatest problems is that human expansion has led to the shrinking of wildlife habitat and, as a result, the overpopulation of many different species has occurred. The pressures exerted by the increased number of animals has caused environmental damage. The humane and practical control of these populations has solicited the scientific community to arrive at a safe, effective, and cost-efficient means of population control. Immunocontraception using zona pellucida antigens, specifically porcine zona pellucida (pZP), has become one of the most promising population control tools in the world today, with notable successes in horses and elephants. A conundrum has risen where pZP, a single vaccine, successfully induces an immunocontraceptive effect in multiple species of mammals. This review describes the most current data pertaining to the mammalian zona pellucida and immunocontraception, and from these studies, we suggest several potential mechanisms of immunocontraception.

  7. Characterization of angiotensin receptors on bovine adrenal fasciculata cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vallotton, M B; Capponi, A M; Grillet, C; Knupfer, A L; Hepp, R; Khosla, M C; Bumpus, F M

    1981-01-01

    We have further characterized angiotensin receptors on bovine adrenal fasciculata cells whose presence was previously demonstrated by the intrinsic agonistic activity of angiotensin II (AII), dex-Asp1-AII, angiotensin I (AI), and des-ASp1-AI on steroidogenesis. The specific binding of AII and des-Asp1-AII labeled with 125I to dispersed bovine fasciculata cells was studied. For both peptides, a single class of binding sites accounted for the data with a mean (+/- SEM) Ka value of 0.23 +/- 0.123 X 10(8) liters/mol for AII and 0.68 X 10(8) liters/mol for des-Asp1-AII. The concentration at which unlabeled AII and des-Asp1-AII displaced 50% of the tracers (Kd) was similar to that at which they induced half-maximal stimulation of steroidogenesis (Kact). For AI and des-Asp1-AI, Kd greater than Kact. Analogs of AII or des-Asp1-AII with antagonistic properties upon steroidogenesis competed also with binding of the tracers. Corticotropin (ACTH) did not inhibit binding. Although ACTH stimulated the formation of cyclic AMP, none of the angiotensins with intrinsic activity did so. Calcium, but not potassium, appeared to potentiate the steroidogenic activity of AII. These data suggest that there is a single class of receptors for angiotensins and analogs in zona fasciculata. These receptors show characteristics that differentiate them from ACTH receptors in zona fasciculata or angiotensin receptors in zona glomerulosa cells. PMID:6264451

  8. Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) and their role in mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Débora J; Maldera, Julieta A; Weigel Muñoz, Mariana; Ernesto, Juan I; Vasen, Gustavo; Cuasnicu, Patricia S

    2011-01-01

    Epididymal protein CRISPI is a member of the CRISP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory proteins) family and is involved in sperm-egg fusion through its interaction with complementary sites on the egg surface. Results from our laboratory have shown that this binding ability resides in a 12-amino-acid region corresponding to a highly conserved motif of the CRISP family, named Signature 2 (S2). In addition to this, our results revealed that CRISP1 could also be involved in the previous step of sperm binding to the zona pellucida, identifying a novel role for this protein in fertilization. As another approach to elucidate the participation of CRISP1 in fertilization, a mouse line containing a targeted disruption of CRISP1 was generated. Although CRISP1-deficient mice exhibited normal fertility, CRISP1-defficient sperm presented a decreased level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation, and an impaired ability to fertilize both zona-intact and zona-free eggs in vitro, confirming the proposed roles for the protein in fertilization. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicated that testicular CRISP2 would also be involved in sperm-egg fusion. Competition assays between CRISP1 and CRISP2, as well as the comparison of their corresponding S2 regions, suggest that both proteins bind to common complementary sites in the egg. Together, these results suggest a functional cooperation between CRISP1 and CRISP2 to ensure the success of fertilization.

  9. Reduced glutathione enhances fertility of frozen/thawed C57BL/6 mouse sperm after exposure to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi

    2011-11-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is useful for the effective storage of genomic resources derived from genetically engineered mice. However, freezing the sperm of C57BL/6 mice, the most commonly used genetic background for genetically engineered mice, considerably reduces its fertility. We previously reported that methyl-beta-cyclodextrin dramatically improved the fertility of frozen/thawed C57BL/6 mouse sperm. Recently, it was reported that exposing sperm to reduced glutathione may alleviate oxidative stress in frozen/thawed mouse sperm, thereby enhancing in vitro fertilization (IVF); however, the mechanism underlying this effect is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the combined effects of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione on the fertilization rate of IVF with frozen/thawed C57BL/6 mouse sperm and the characteristic changes in the zona pellucida induced by reduced glutathione. Adding reduced glutathione to the fertilization medium increased the fertilization rate. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and reduced glutathione independently increased fertilization rates, and their combination produced the strongest effect. We found that reduced glutathione increased the amount of free thiols in the zona pellucida and promoted zona pellucida enlargement. Finally, 2-cell embryos produced by IVF with the addition of reduced glutathione developed normally and produced live offspring. In summary, we have established a novel IVF method using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin during sperm preincubation and reduced glutathione during the IVF procedure to enhance fertility of frozen/thawed C57BL/6 mouse sperm.

  10. Safety, efficacy and efficiency of laser-assisted IVF in subfertile mutant mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Wen; Kinchen, Kristy L; Vallelunga, Jadine M; Young, Diana L; Wright, Kaleb D K; Gorano, Lisa N; Wasson, Katherine; Lloyd, K C Kent

    2013-01-01

    In the present report we studied the safety, efficacy and efficiency of using an infrared laser to facilitate IVF by assessing fertilization, development and birth rates after laser-zona drilling (LZD) in 30 subfertile genetically modified (GM) mouse lines. We determined that LZD increased the fertilization rate four to ten times that of regular IVF, thus facilitating the derivation of 26 of 30 (86.7%) GM mouse lines. Cryopreserved two-cell stage embryos derived by LZD-assisted IVF were recovered and developed to blastocysts in vitro at the same rate as frozen–thawed embryos derived by regular IVF. Surprisingly after surgical transfer to pseudopregnant recipients the birth rate of embryos derived by LZD-assisted IVF was significantly lower than that of embryos derived by regular IVF. However this result could be completely mitigated by the addition of 0.25 M sucrose to the culture medium during LZD which caused the oocyte to shrink in volume relative to the perivitelline space. By increasing the distance from the laser target site on the zona pellucida, we hypothesize that the hyperosmotic effect of sucrose reduced the potential for laser-induced cytotoxic thermal damage to the underlying oocytes. With appropriate preparation and cautious application, our results indicate that LZD-assisted IVF is a safe, efficacious and efficient assisted reproductive technology for deriving mutant mouse lines with male factor infertility and subfertility caused by sperm–zona penetration defects. PMID:23315689

  11. Application of a 1.48-microm diode laser for bisecting oocytes into two identical hemizonae for the hemizona assay.

    PubMed

    Edenfeld, J; Schöpper, B; Sturm, R; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    2002-04-01

    Laser systems are very promising new technical tools in assisted reproduction. It was investigated if laser radiation can replace the mechanical cutting procedure via micromanipulator in the hemizona assay (HZA), a commonly used bioassay to determine the sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity. An oocyte was bisected precisely into two identical hemizonae with approximately 20 laser pulses (pulse length 30 msec) using a 1.48-microm diode laser. Compared with the conventional method using microscalpels for zona bisection, laser treated hemizonae showed equivalent sperm-binding and within the two groups there was no detectable difference between matching hemizonae in their capacity for tight sperm-binding. To evaluate whether laser radiation affects the outcome of the HZA when effects of certain substances are investigated, the spermatozoa were preincubated with human follicular fluid (hFF), which inhibits the binding of spermatozoa to zona pellucida in vitro. Supplementation with follicular fluid exerted an inhibitory effect in both groups. The hemizona index (HZI) showed no statistical differences between the two methods. Therefore, the 1.48-microm diode laser is a suitable new instrument for generating equally sized hemizonae. There is no use for holding pipettes and microscalpels, on the contrary, for performing the HZA the laser is a precise, very quick and easy to use new working tool.

  12. Hydroxypropyl cellulose as an option for supplementation of cryoprotectant solutions for embryo vitrification in human assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Mori, Chiemi; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Murata, Nana; Takayama, Yuko; Okimura, Tadashi; Uchiyama, Kazuo; Takakura, Kei; Abe, Hiroyuki; Wada, Keiko; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was investigated as a replacement for serum substitute supplement (SSS) for use in cryoprotectant solutions for embryo vitrification. Mouse blastocysts from inbred (n = 1056), hybrid (n = 128) strains, and 121 vitrified blastocysts donated by infertile patients (n = 102) were used. Mouse and human blastocysts, with or without zona pellucida, were vitrified and warmed in either 1% or 5% HPC or in 5% or 20% SSS-supplemented media using the Cryotop (Kitazato BioPharma Co. Ltd, Fuji, Japan) method, and the survival and oxygen consumption rates were assessed. Viscosity of each vitrification solution was compared. Survival rates of mouse hybrid blastocysts and human zona pellucida-intact blastocysts were comparable among the groups. Mouse and human zona pellucida-free blastocysts, which normally exhibit poor cryoresistance, showed significantly higher survival rates in 5% HPC than 5% SSS (P < 0.05). The 5% HPC-supplemented vitrification solution showed a significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.05). The blastocysts were easily detached from the Cryotop strip during warming when HPC-supplemented vitrification solution was used. The oxygen consumption rates were similar between non-vitrified and 5% HPC groups. The results suggest possible use of HPC for supplementation of cryoprotectant solutions and provide useful information to improve vitrification protocols. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential analysis of sperm functional aspects involved in fertilisation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu, D A H; Franken, D R; Hoffman, B; Henkel, R

    2012-05-01

    The development of diagnostic techniques in andrology as a second level of approach to the diagnosis of male factor infertility has enthused the focus of researchers on the development of a sequential diagnostic programme for these men. Semen samples of 78 men form couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation therapy were used in the study. The semen samples were used to test sperm functional aspects known to interfere with fertilisation. These tests included semen profile, DNA integrity, apoptosis, chromatin packaging, acridin orange staining, zona binding capacity, zona-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Results were correlated with fertilisation outcome. Statistical analyses of the recorded data were carried out using a logistic regression analysis model on all sperm functional tests. A negative and significant association with the fertilisation rates was recorded for DNA damage (r = -0.56; P ≤ 0.0005). A positive significant correlation was recorded between fertilisation rates and sperm with normal DNA (r = -0.57, P ≤ 0.0004), and zona-induced AR (r = 0.33, P ≤ 0.002). Diagnostic andrology can be regarded as a mandatory part of the male factor patient's work-up schedule to assist clinicians with the most suitable therapeutic modality to follow. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  15. Immunohistochemical Localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptor Subtypes in the Rat Adrenal, Pituitary, and Brain with a Perspective Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Premer, Courtney; Lamondin, Courtney; Mitzey, Ann; Speth, Robert C.; Brownfield, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and stimulates thirst and sodium appetite in the brain. It also stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal zona glomerulosa and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. The rat has 3 subtypes of angiotensin II receptors: AT1a, AT1b, and AT2. mRNAs for all three subtypes occur in the adrenal and brain. To immunohistochemically differentiate these receptor subtypes, rabbits were immunized with C-terminal fragments of these subtypes to generate receptor subtype-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence revealed AT1a and AT2 receptors in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla. AT1b immunofluorescence was present in the zona glomerulosa, but not the medulla. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling for the AT1a receptor in glomerulosa and medullary cells localized it to plasma membrane, endocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and the nucleus. AT1b and AT2, but not AT1a, immunofluorescence was observed in the anterior pituitary. Stellate cells were AT1b positive while ovoid cells were AT2 positive. In the brain, neurons were AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 positive, but glia was only AT1b positive. Highest levels of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 receptor immunofluorescence were in the subfornical organ, median eminence, area postrema, paraventricular nucleus, and solitary tract nucleus. These studies complement those employing different techniques to characterize Ang II receptors. PMID:23573410

  16. The Behavior and Acrosomal Status of Mouse Spermatozoa In Vitro, and Within the Oviduct During Fertilization after Natural Mating.

    PubMed

    Hino, Toshiaki; Muro, Yuko; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Okabe, Masaru; Tateno, Hiroyuki; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2016-09-01

    Although 90%-100% of mouse oocytes can be fertilized in vitro with capacitated spermatozoa within 1 h after insemination, oocytes within the oviduct are fertilized one by one over a period of several hours. In vitro experiments showed that both acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa entered the cumulus oophorus, but that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa reached the surface of oocytes more readily than acrosome-intact spermatozoa. During the period of fertilization within the oviduct, acrosome-reacted spermatozoa were seen throughout the isthmus, but with higher incidence in the upper than in the mid- and lower segments of the isthmus. Very few spermatozoa were present in the ampulla, and almost all were acrosome reacted. Although the cumulus oophorus and zona pellucida are known to be able to induce or facilitate the acrosome reaction of spermatozoa, this picture makes it likely that almost all fertilizing mouse spermatozoa within the oviduct begin to react before ascending from the isthmus to the ampulla. We witnessed a reacted spermatozoon that stayed on the zona pellucida of a fertilized oocyte for a while; it then moved out of the cumulus before reaching the zona pellucida of the nearby unfertilized oocyte. We noted that only a few spermatozoa migrate from the isthmus to the ampulla during the progression of fertilization, and this must be one of the reasons why we do not see many spermatozoa swarming around a single oocyte during in vivo fertilization. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. Immunocontraception of Eastern Grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) with recombinant brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) ZP3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Anne L; Harman, Amanda; Kay, David J; McCartney, Carmen A; Mate, Karen E; Rodger, John C

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the potential of a recombinant marsupial zona pellucida 3 protein as a contraceptive vaccine for the Eastern Grey kangaroo, a marsupial that is locally overabundant in several regions of eastern Australia. First, a pilot study using porcine zona pellucidae (PZP) demonstrated that ZP proteins, primarily the ZP3 component of PZP, are highly immunogenic in the grey kangaroo and produce a long-lasting humoral response to a single immunisation, as found in other marsupials. Immunisation with 300 microg of a non-glycosylated recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) protein in complete Freund's adjuvant produced a similar, significant and sustained antibody response, and none of the immunised kangaroos (n=7) produced offspring during the following breeding season compared with four out of the six control animals. An epitope analysis of the B-cell response to recBP-ZP3 using a brushtail possum ZP3 identified numerous B-cell epitope regions clustered around the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. Two regions of interest for further fertility vaccine development based on their immunogenicity and fertility trials and functional studies in other species were found to be immunogenic. These results suggest that immunocontraception based on targeting the ZP3 protein within the zona pellucida may be an effective strategy for fertility reduction in Eastern Grey kangaroos.

  18. Investigation of the winds and electron concentration variability in the D region of the ionosphere by the partial-reflection radar technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, R. M.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development and first observations of the partial-reflection drifts experiment at Urbana, Illinois (40 N) are described. The winds data from the drifts experiment are compared with electron concentration data obtained by the differential-absorption technique to study the possible meteorological causes of the winter anomaly in the mesosphere at midlatitudes. winds data obtained by the meteor-radar experiment at Urbana are also compared with electron concentration data measured at Urban. A significant correlation is shown is both cases between southward winds and increasing electron concentration measured at the same location during winter. The possibility of stratospheric/mesospheric coupling is investigated by comparing satellite-measured 0.4 mbar geopotential data with mesospheric electron concentration data. No significant coupling was observed. The winds measured at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (52 N) are compared with the electron concentrations measured at Urban, yielding constant fixed relationship, but significant correlations for short segments of the winter. A significant coherence is observed at discrete frequencies during segments of the winter.

  19. Mumps Outbreak at a University and Recommendation for a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine - Illinois, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Justin P; Clegg, Whitney J; Reid, Heather D; Arbise, Benjamin S; Pryde, Julie; Vaid, Awais; Thompson-Brown, Rachella; Echols, Fredrick

    2016-07-29

    Mumps is an acute viral disease characterized by fever and swelling of the parotid or other salivary glands. On May 1, 2015, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) confirmed a mumps outbreak at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. IDPH and the Champaign-Urbana Public Health District (C-UPHD) conducted an investigation and identified 317 cases of mumps during April 2015-May 2016. Because of sustained transmission in a population with high 2-dose coverage with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, a third MMR dose was recommended by IDPH, C-UPHD, and the university's McKinley Health Center. No formal recommendation for or against the use of a third MMR dose has been issued by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1). However, CDC has provided guidelines for use of a third dose as a control measure during mumps outbreaks in settings in which persons are in close contact with one another, where transmission is sustained despite high 2-dose MMR coverage, and when traditional control measures fail to slow transmission (2).

  20. Intrinsic Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzorov, Vitaly

    2005-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential components of modern electronics. Despite the rapid progress of organic electronics, understanding of fundamental aspects of the charge transport in organic devices is still lacking. Recently, the OFETs based on highly ordered organic crystals have been fabricated with innovative techniques that preserve the high quality of single-crystal organic surfaces. This technological progress facilitated the study of transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors [1-4]. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic polaronic transport, not dominated by disorder, with a remarkably high mobility of ``holes'' μ = 20 cm^2/Vs can be achieved in these devices at room temperature [4]. The signatures of the intrinsic polaronic transport are the anisotropy of the carrier mobility and an increase of μ with cooling. These and other aspects of the charge transport in organic single-crystal FETs will be discussed. Co-authors are Etienne Menard, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Valery Kiryukhin, Rutgers University; John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Michael Gershenson, Rutgers University. [1] V. Podzorov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1739 (2003); ibid. 83, 3504 (2003). [2] V. C. Sundar et al., Science 303, 1644 (2004). [3] R. W. I. de Boer et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 1302 (2004). [4] V. Podzorov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086602 (2004).

  1. Study of 11Li+p elastic scattering using BHF formalism with three body force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manjari; Haider, W.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work we have analyzed the elastic scattering data of 11Li + p at 62, 68.4 and 75 MeV/nucleon, using the microscopic optical potential calculated within the framework of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock formalism (BHF). The calculation uses Argonne v18 and Urbana v14 inter-nucleon potentials and the Urbana IX (UVIX) model of three body force. The required nucleon-density distributions for 11Li are obtained using the semi-phenomenological model for nuclear density distributions. The optical potential has been obtained by folding the g-matrices as calculated in BHF (with and without three body forces) over the nucleon density distributions. We have used the exact method for calculating both the direct and the exchange parts of the spin-orbit potential. Our results reveal that the spin-orbit potential significantly contributes to 11Li+p elastic scattering at all three incident energies. Further, the calculated spin-orbit potential in BHF is much smaller and more diffused as compared with the phenomenological spin-orbit potential. The analysis reveals that the calculated microscopic optical potentials, with and without three body force using BHF approach with phenomenological form of density distribution, provides satisfactory agreement with the elastic scattering data for 11Li+p.

  2. Ten Years toward Equity: Preliminary Results from a Follow-Up Case Study of Academic Computing Culture

    PubMed Central

    Crenshaw, Tanya L.; Chambers, Erin W.; Heeren, Cinda; Metcalf, Heather E.

    2017-01-01

    Just over 10 years ago, we conducted a culture study of the Computer Science Department at the flagship University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, one of the top five computing departments in the country. The study found that while the department placed an emphasis on research, it did so in a way that, in conjunction with a lack of communication and transparency, devalued teaching and mentoring, and negatively impacted the professional development, education, and sense of belonging of the students. As one part of a multi-phase case study spanning over a decade, this manuscript presents preliminary findings from our latest work at the university. We detail early comparisons between data gathered at the Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2005 and our most recent pilot case study, a follow-up research project completed in 2016. Though we have not yet completed the full data collection, we find it worthwhile to reflect on the pilot case study data we have collected thus far. Our data reveals improvements in the perceptions of undergraduate teaching quality and undergraduate peer mentoring networks. However, we also found evidence of continuing feelings of isolation, incidents of bias, policy opacity, and uneven policy implementation that are areas of concern, particularly with respect to historically underrepresented groups. We discuss these preliminary follow-up findings, offer research and methodological reflections, and share next steps for applied research that aims to create positive cultural change in computing. PMID:28579969

  3. The Early Developments of the Theory of the Mössbauer Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipkin, Harry J.

    I was at the University of Illinois at Urbana in the academic year 1958-1959 when I first heard about the Mössbauer effect. My contacts with Bardeen and his theory group taught me everything I needed to know about solid state physics to understand the Mössbauer effect. I also learned at Urbana from Fred Seitz that my old friend Kundan Singwi had done pioneering work in neutron scattering which was very relevant to the Mössbauer effect. I had met Kundan and his wife Helga in 1953 when we were both postdocs learning about nuclear energy at Saclay, lived in the same pension operated by the French Atomic Energy Commission, and had dinner together every evening. It was a pleasure to renew our contacts after their arrival at Argonne in 1959 when we were both involved in the Mössbauer effect, and during an extended period while he was at Argonne and we visited every summer. I shall miss both John and Kundan.

  4. Progesterone Accelerates the Completion of Sperm Capacitation and Activates CatSper Channel in Spermatozoa from the Rhesus Macaque1

    PubMed Central

    Sumigama, Shiho; Mansell, Steven; Miller, Melissa; Lishko, Polina V.; Cherr, Gary N.; Meyers, Stuart A.; Tollner, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    During transit through the female reproductive tract, mammalian spermatozoa are exposed to increasing concentrations of progesterone (P4) released by the cumulus oophorus. P4 triggers massive calcium influx into human sperm through activation of the sperm-specific calcium channel CatSper. These properties of human spermatozoa are thought to be unique since CatSper is not progesterone sensitive in rodent sperm. Here, by performing patch clamp recording from spermatozoa from rhesus macaque for the first time, we report that they express P4-sensitive CatSper channel identically to human sperm and react to P4 by inducing responsiveness to zona pellucida, unlike human sperm, which respond directly to P4. We have also determined the physiologic levels of P4 capable of inducing capacitation-associated changes in macaque sperm. Progesterone (1 μM) induced up to a 3-fold increase in the percentage of sperm undergoing the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction with the lowest threshold as low as 10 nM of P4. Submicromolar levels of P4 induced a dose-dependent increase in curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement, while sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation was not altered. Macaque spermatozoa exposed to 10 μM of P4 developed fully hyperactivated motility. Similar to human sperm, on approaching cumulus mass and binding to zona pellucida, macaque spermatozoa display hyperactivation and undergo an acrosome reaction that coincides with the rise in the sperm intracellular calcium. Taken together, these data indicate that P4 accelerates the completion of capacitation and provides evidence of spermatozoa “priming” as they move into a gradient of progesterone in search for the oocyte. PMID:26490839

  5. Resveratrol Improves the Mitochondrial Function and Fertilization Outcome of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; SATO, Daichi; KIMURA, Koji; MONJI, Yasunori; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; KAWAHARA-MIKI, Ryoka; IWATA, Hisataka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to address the effect of resveratrol-mediated upregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) during oocyte maturation on mitochondrial function, the developmental ability of oocytes and on mechanisms responsible for blockage of polyspermic fertilization. Oocytes collected from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries were cultured in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and 0 or 20 µM resveratrol (Res). We examined the effect of Res on SIRT1 expression in in vitro-matured oocytes (Exp 1); fertilization and developmental ability (Exp 2); mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt number), ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in matured oocytes (Exp 3); and the time required for proteinase to dissolve the zona pellucida following in vitro fertilization (as a marker of zona pellucida hardening), as well as on the distribution of cortical granules before and after fertilization (Exp 4). In Exp 1, the 20 µM Res treatment upregulated protein expression of SIRT1 in oocytes. In Exp 2, Res treatment improved the ratio of normal fertilization and the total cell number of blastocysts. In Exp 3, Res treatment significantly increased the ATP content in matured oocytes. Additionally, Res increased the overall Mt number and mitochondrial membrane potential, but the effect was donor-dependent. In Exp 4, Res-induced zona hardening improved the distribution and exocytosis of cortical granules after in vitro fertilization. In conclusion, Res improved the quality of oocytes by improving mitochondrial quantity and quality. In addition, Res added to the maturation medium enhanced SIRT1 protein expression in oocytes and improved fertilization via reinforcement of the mechanisms responsible for blockage of polyspermic fertilization. PMID:24390595

  6. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses: effect of oocyte morphology, embryo reconstruction method and donor cell type.

    PubMed

    Lagutina, Irina; Lazzari, Giovanna; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Ponderato, Nunzia; Turini, Paola; Crotti, Gabriella; Galli, Cesare

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate and clarify the factors affecting the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in the horse, including embryo reconstruction, in vitro culture to the blastocyst stage, embryo transfer, pregnancy monitoring and production of offspring. Matured oocytes, with zona pellucida or after zona removal, were fused to cumulus cells, granulosa cells, and fetal and adult fibroblasts, and fused couplets were cultured in vitro. Blastocyst development to Day 8 varied significantly among donor cells (from 1.3% to 16%, P < 0.05). In total, 137 nuclear transfer-embryos were transferred nonsurgically to 58 recipient mares. Pregnancy rate after transfer of NT-embryos derived from adult fibroblasts from three donor animals was 24.3% (9/37 mares transferred corresponding to 9/101 blastocysts transferred), while only 1/18 (5.6%) of NT-blastocysts derived from one fetal cell line gave rise to a pregnancy (corresponding to 1/33 blastocysts transferred). Overall, seven pregnancies were confirmed at 35 days, and two went to term delivering two live foals. One foal died 40 h after birth of acute septicemia while the other foal was healthy and is currently 2 months old. These results indicate that (a) the zona-free method allows high fusion rate and optimal use of equine oocytes, (b) different donor cell cultures have different abilities to support blastocyst development, (c) blastocyst formation rate does not correlate with pregnancy fate and (d) healthy offspring can be obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer in the horse.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Stem/Progenitor Cell Maintenance in the Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Finco, Isabella; LaPensee, Christopher; Hammer, Gary Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is characterized by three histologically and functionally distinct zones: the outermost zona glomerulosa (zG), the intermediate zona fasciculata, and the innermost zona reticularis. Important aspects of the physiology and maintenance of the adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells have emerged in the last few years. Studies have shown that the adrenocortical cells descend from a pool of progenitors that are localized in the subcapsular region of the zG. These cells continually undergo a process of centripetal displacement and differentiation, which is orchestrated by several paracrine and endocrine cues, including the pituitary-derived adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and angiotensin II. However, while several roles of the endocrine axes on adrenocortical function are well established, the mechanisms coordinating the maintenance of an undifferentiated progenitor cell pool with self-renewal capacity are poorly understood. Local factors, such as the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with embedded signaling molecules, and the activity of major paracrine effectors, including ligands of the sonic hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways, are thought to play a major role. Particularly, the composition of the ECM, which exhibits substantial differences within each of the three histologically distinct concentric zones, has been shown to influence the differentiation status of adrenocortical cells. New data from other organ systems and different experimental paradigms strongly support the conclusion that the interactions of ECM components with cell-surface receptors and secreted factors are key determinants of cell fate. In this review, we summarize established and emerging data on the paracrine and autocrine regulatory loops that regulate the biology of the progenitor cell niche and propose a role for bioengineered ECM models in further elucidating this biology in the adrenal. PMID:28386245

  8. LGR5 Activates Noncanonical Wnt Signaling and Inhibits Aldosterone Production in the Human Adrenal.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Lalarukh Haris; Zhou, Junhua; Teo, Ada E D; Garg, Sumedha; Neogi, Sudeshna Guha; Figg, Nichola; Yeo, Giles S; Yu, Haixiang; Maguire, Janet J; Zhao, Wanfeng; Bennett, Martin R; Azizan, Elena A B; Davenport, Anthony P; McKenzie, Grahame; Brown, Morris J

    2015-06-01

    Aldosterone synthesis and cellularity in the human adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) is sparse and patchy, presumably due to salt excess. The frequency of somatic mutations causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) may be a consequence of protection from cell loss by constitutive aldosterone production. The objective of the study was to delineate a process in human ZG, which may regulate both aldosterone production and cell turnover. This study included a comparison of 20 pairs of ZG and zona fasciculata transcriptomes from adrenals adjacent to an APA (n = 13) or a pheochromocytoma (n = 7). Interventions included an overexpression of the top ZG gene (LGR5) or stimulation by its ligand (R-spondin-3). A transcriptome profile of ZG and zona fasciculata and aldosterone production, cell kinetic measurements, and Wnt signaling activity of LGR5 transfected or R-spondin-3-stimulated cells were measured. LGR5 was the top gene up-regulated in ZG (25-fold). The gene for its cognate ligand R-spondin-3, RSPO3, was 5-fold up-regulated. In total, 18 genes associated with the Wnt pathway were greater than 2-fold up-regulated. ZG selectivity of LGR5, and its absence in most APAs, were confirmed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Both R-spondin-3 stimulation and LGR5 transfection of human adrenal cells suppressed aldosterone production. There was reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of transfected cells, and the noncanonical activator protein-1/Jun pathway was stimulated more than the canonical Wnt pathway (3-fold vs 1.3-fold). ZG of adrenal sections stained positive for apoptosis markers. LGR5 is the most selectively expressed gene in human ZG and reduces aldosterone production and cell number. Such conditions may favor cells whose somatic mutation reverses aldosterone inhibition and cell loss.

  9. Effects of ultrashort gamete co-incubation time on porcine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Almiñana, C; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Vazquez, J M; Martinez, E A

    2008-07-01

    A reduction in co-incubation time has been suggested as an alternative method to reduce polyspermic fertilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short periods of gamete co-incubation during pig in vitro fertilization. A total of 2,833 in vitro matured oocytes were inseminated with thawed spermatozoa and coincubated for 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 min and 6h. The oocytes from the 0.25-10 min groups were washed three times in modified Tris-buffered medium (mTBM) medium to remove spermatozoa not bound to the zona and transferred to the same medium (containing no spermatozoa) until 6h of co-incubation time were completed. After 6h, presumptive zygotes from each group were cultured in NCSU-23 medium for 12-15 h to assess fertilization parameters. After each period of co-incubation, 45-50 oocytes from each group were stained with Hoechst-33342 and the number of spermatozoa bound to the zona was counted. Although the number of zona bound spermatozoa increased (p<0.05) with the co-incubation time, no increase was observed in penetration rates among groups from 2 min to 6h of co-incubation time (ranging from 53.5+/-2.8 to 61.3+/-2.6%). Similarly, the efficiency of fertilization reached a maximum for the 2 min of co-incubation group with values ranging between 32.3+/-2.4 and 41.9+/-2.5%. The reduction of co-incubation time did not affect the monospermy rate (range: 71.3+/-3.4-80.2+/-3.8%) and the mean number of spermatozoa/oocyte (range: 1.2+/-0.4-1.4+/-0.5). These results show that, under our in vitro conditions, high penetration rate can be obtained with co-incubation times as short as 2 min, although monospermy could not be improved using this strategy.

  10. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R.; Edwards, Michael A.; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA. PMID:26240369

  11. SLXL1, a novel acrosomal protein, interacts with DKKL1 and is involved in fertilization in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xin-jie; Hou, Xiao-jun; Liao, Shang-Ying; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Cooke, Howard J; Zhang, Ming; Han, Chunsheng

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex cellular developmental process which involves diverse families of genes. The Xlr (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated) family includes multiple members, only a few of which have reported functions in meiosis, post-meiotic maturation, and fertilization of germ cells. Slx-like1 (Slxl1) is a member of the Xlr family, whose expression and function in spermatogenesis need to be elucidated. The mRNA and protein expression and localization of Slxl1 were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in different tissues and at different stages of spermatogenesis. The interacting partner of SLXL1 was examined by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization. Assessment of the role of SLXL1 in capacitation, acrosome reaction, zona pellucida binding/penetration, and fertilization was carried out in vitro using blocking antisera. The results showed that Slxl1 mRNA and protein were specifically expressed in the testis. SLXL1 was exclusively located in the acrosome of post-meiotic germ cells and interacts with DKKL1 (Dickkopf-like1), which is an acrosome-associated protein and plays an important role in fertilization. The rates of zona pellucida binding/penetration and fertilization were significantly reduced by the anti-SLXL1 polyclonal antiserum. SLXL1 is the first identified member of the XLR family that is associated with acrosome and is involved in zona pellucid binding/penetration and subsequent fertilization. These results, together with previous studies, suggest that Xlr family members participate in diverse processes from meiosis to fertilization during spermatogenesis.

  12. Epididymal protein CRISP1 plays different roles during the fertilization process.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Débora J; Maldera, Julieta A; Vasen, Gustavo; Ernesto, Juan I; Muñoz, Mariana Weigel; Battistone, María A; Cuasnicú, Patricia S

    2011-01-01

    Rat epididymal CRISP1, the first described member of the evolutionarily conserved Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP) family, is expressed in the proximal regions of the epididymis and associates with the sperm during epididymal transit. Evidence indicates the existence of 2 populations of CRISP1 in spermatozoa: a major one, loosely bound, which is released during capacitation and, therefore, proposed as a decapacitating factor; and a minor one, strongly associated with spermatozoa that remains on the cells after capacitation and is proposed to participate in gamete interaction. Originally localized to the dorsal region of capacitated sperm, CRISP1 migrates to the equatorial segment with capacitation and acrosome reaction. Consistent with these localizations, in vitro fertilization experiments support the involvement of CRISP1 in the first step of sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction and subsequent gamete fusion through its interaction with egg-complementary sites. The potential roles of CRISP1 in capacitation and fertilization have been further supported by the finding that capacitated spermatozoa from CRISP1 "knockout" animals exhibit low levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and have an impaired ability to fertilize zona-intact and zona-free eggs in vitro. Moreover, recent evidence from mutant spermatozoa reveals that CRISP1 mediates the stage of sperm binding to the ZP. Altogether, these observations support the view that CRISP1 is a multifunctional protein playing different roles during fertilization through its different associations with and localizations on spermatozoa. We believe these results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in both the fertilization process and the acquisition of sperm-fertilizing ability that occurs during epididymal maturation.

  13. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Chong, Cherish; Hamid, Anis; Yao, Tham; Garza, Amanda E; Pojoga, Luminita H; Adler, Gail K; Romero, Jose R; Williams, Gordon H

    2017-03-01

    We posit the existence of a paracrine/autocrine negative feedback loop, mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), regulating aldosterone secretion. To assess this hypothesis, we asked whether altering MR activity in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells affects aldosterone production. To this end, we studied ex vivo ZG cells isolated from male Wistar rats fed chow containing either high (1.6% Na + (HS)) or low (0.03% Na + (LS)) amount of sodium. Western blot analyses demonstrated that MR was present in both the ZG and zona fasciculata/zona reticularis (ZF/ZR/ZR). In ZG cells isolated from rats on LS chow, MR activation by fludrocortisone produced a 20% and 60% reduction in aldosterone secretion basally and in response to angiotensin II (ANGII) stimulation, respectively. Corticosterone secretion was increased in these cells suggesting that aldosterone synthase activity was being reduced by fludrocortisone. In contrast, canrenoic acid, an MR antagonist, enhanced aldosterone production by up to 30% both basally and in response to ANGII. Similar responses were observed in ZG cells from rats fed HS. Modulating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity did not alter aldosterone production by ZG cells; however, altering GR activity did modify corticosterone production from ZF/ZR/ZR cells both basally and in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Additionally, activating the MR in ZF/ZR/ZR cells strikingly reduced corticosterone secretion. In summary, these data support the hypothesis that negative ultra-short feedback loops regulate adrenal steroidogenesis. In the ZG, aldosterone secretion is regulated by the MR, but not the GR, an effect that appears to be secondary to a change in aldosterone synthase activity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. The proliferative effect of synthetic N-POMC(1-28) peptides in rat adrenal cortex: a possible role for cyclin E.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Pedro O R de; Lotfi, Claudimara F P

    2011-04-10

    Modified synthetic N-POMC(1-28) without disulfide bridges has been shown to act as an adrenal mitogen. Cyclins and their inhibitors are the major cell cycle controls, but in the adrenal cortex the effect of ACTH and N-POMC on the expression of these proteins remains unclear. In this work, we evaluate the effect of different synthetic N-POMC peptides on the S-phase of the cell cycle. In addition, we examine the cyclin E expression in rat adrenal cortex. Rats treated with dexamethasone were injected with ACTH and/or synthetic modified N-POMC and/or synthetic N-POMC with disulfide bridges. DNA synthesis was determined by BrdU incorporation and protein expression was analyzed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that similarly to modified N-POMC without disulfide bridges, administration of synthetic N-POMC with disulfide bridges and the combination of ACTH and N-POMC promoted an increase of BrdU-positive nuclei in adrenal cortex. However, the proliferative effect of N-POMC was comparable to that of ACTH only in the zona glomerulosa. An increase in cyclin E expression was observed 6 h after N-POMC treatment in the outer fraction of the adrenal cortex, in agreement with immunohistochemical findings in the zona glomerulosa. In summary, the effect of synthetic N-POMC with disulfide bridges was similar to modified synthetic N-POMC, increasing proliferation in the adrenal cortex, confirming previous evidence that disulfide bridges are not essential to the N-POMC mitogenic effect. Moreover, cyclin E appears to be involved in the N-POMC- and ACTH-stimulated proliferation in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fundamental studies of adrenal retinoid-X-receptor: Protein isoform, tissue expression, subcellular distribution, and ligand availability.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Behling; Al-Shammari, Fatema H; Ghader, Isra'a A; Sequeira, Fatima; Thakkar, Jitendra; Mathew, Thazhumpal C

    2017-07-01

    Adrenal gland reportedly expresses many nuclear receptors that are known to heterodimerize with retinoid-X-receptor (RXR) for functions, but the information regarding the glandular RXR is not adequate. Studies of rat adrenal homogenate by Western blotting revealed three RXR proteins: RXRα (55kDa), RXRβ (47kDa) and RXR (56kDa). RXRγ was not detectable. After fractionation, RXRα was almost exclusively localized in the nuclear fraction. In comparison, substantial portions of RXRβ and RXR were found in both nuclear and post-nuclear particle fractions, suggesting genomic and non-genomic functions. Cells immunostained for RXRα were primarily localized in zona fasciculata (ZF) and medulla, although some stained cells were found in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona reticularis (ZR). In contrast, cells immunostained for RXRβ were concentrated principally in ZG, although some stained cells were seen in ZR, ZF, and medulla (in descending order, qualitatively). Analysis of adrenal lipid extracts by LC/MS did not detect 9-cis-retinoic acid (a potent RXR-ligand) but identified all-trans retinoic acid. Since C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can also activate RXR, subcellular availabilities of unesterified fatty acids were investigated by GC/MS. As results, arachidonic acid (C20:4), adrenic acid (C22:4), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5), and cervonic acid (C22:6) were detected in the lipids extracted from each subcellular fraction. Thus, the RXR-agonizing PUFAs are available in all the main subcellular compartments considerably. The present findings not only shed light on the adrenal network of RXRs but also provide baseline information for further investigations of RXR heterodimers in the regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human homolog of the mouse sperm receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, M.E.; Dean, J.

    1990-08-01

    The human zona pellucida, composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3), forms an extracellular matrix that surrounds ovulated eggs and mediates species-specific fertilization. The genes that code for at least two of the zona proteins (ZP2 and ZP3) cross-hybridize with other mammalian DNA. The recently characterized mouse sperm receptor gene (Zp-3) was used to isolate its human homolog. The human homolog spans {approx}18.3 kilobase pairs (kbp) (compared to 8.6 kbp for the mouse gene) and contains eight exons, the sizes of which are strictly conserved between the two species. Four short (8-15 bp) sequences within the first 250 bpmore » of the 5{prime} flanking region in the human Zp-3 homolog are also present upstream of mouse Zp-3. These elements may modulate oocyte-specific gene expression. By using the polymerase chain reaction, a full-length cDNA of human ZP3 was isolated from human ovarian poly(A){sup +} RNA and used to deduce the structure of human ZP3 mRNA. Certain features of the human and mouse ZP3 transcripts are conserved. Both have unusually short 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated regions, both contain a single open reading frame that is 74% identical, and both code for 424 amino acid polypeptides that are 67% the same. The similarity between the two proteins may define domains that are important in maintaining the structural integrity of the zona pellucida, while the differences may play a role in mediating the species-specific events of mammalian fertilization.« less

  17. Gibraltar Experiment: A Plan for Dynamic and Kinematic Investigations of Strait Mixing, Exchange and Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Iuz y clorofila; conl posible opcibn a determinar metales pesados en sedimentos, en el Estrecho de Gibral- tar y zonas adyacentes. Todo ello muy...Estrecho. El trabajo de campo acabara& en Abril y se podra’ disponer de un informe pr-eli- minar par-a despue’s del Verano. Este programa ha sido...pademas realizar una primera campar~a en Junio de 1985 la usari’amas coma campa de pruebas . Aparte de esta campah’a pensamos realizar otra en Octubre a

  18. Cumulus cell expansion and first polar body extrusion during in vitro oocyte maturation in relation to morphological and morphometric characteristics of the dromedary camel ovary.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, F; Kafi, M; Nili, H

    2016-12-01

    The morphological and morphometric characteristics of the ovary are fundamental properties for in vitro oocyte maturation. Nuclear maturation, including first polar body (1PB) extrusion, cytoplasmic maturation and cumulus cell (CC) expansion are the criteria for in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocyte. This study was designed to determine the effect of morphological and morphometric features of the ovary on CC expansion and 1PB extrusion during IVM of oocyte in the adult female dromedary camel. The weight, volume and three dimensions of ovaries from slaughtered dromedary camels and oocytes inside zona diameter and zona pellucida thickness were measured. The follicles were classified in regard to the size and oocytes according to their ooplasm appearance and CC compactness. Aspirated cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were incubated for 48 hr (with a 6-hr interval) in Hams-F10, and CC expansion and 1PB extrusion were assessed. Significant differences were seen in the shape, weight, volume and three dimensions of the ovaries between ≤4-year-old and >4-year-old dromedary camel (p < .5). Approximately, 95.82% of follicles were 2-4 mm in diameter. The mean (±SD) of inside zona diameter of the oocyte and zona pellucida thickness was 132.22 ± 13.8 and 14.64 ± 2.24 μm, respectively, in >4-year-old dromedary camel. The CC expansion and 1PB extrusion were seen in 86% and 21.88% of COCs, respectively. Age and sexual conditions of dromedary camel influence the morphological and morphometric characteristics of the ovary. Most COCs retrieved from 2-6 mm follicles are cultivable. The most slaughterhouse-derived COCs retrieved from 2-6 mm follicles of non-pregnant dromedary camels are excellent and good and yielding a most favourable diameter to achieve the developmental competence for IVM in an optimal time of 24-30 hr; the optimal time for CC expansion is 24-30 hr in this species. However, the CC expansion is a prerequisite process, but not sufficient for IVM. © 2016

  19. Laser confers less embryo exposure than acid tyrode for embryo biopsy in preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Geber, Selmo; Bossi, Renata; Lisboa, Cintia B; Valle, Marcelo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2011-04-28

    We compared two methods of zona pellucida drilling. 213 embryos were biopsied with acid Tyrode. Each biopsy took 3 minutes and the entire procedure ~29 minutes. 5% of blastomeres lysed, 49% of embryos became blastocyst and 36% of patients became pregnant. 229 embryos were biopsied with laser. Each biopsy took 30 seconds and the entire procedure ~7 minutes. 2.5% of blastomeres lysed, 50.6% of embryos became blastocyst and 47% of patients became pregnant. We can conclude that laser can be used for embryo biopsy. Reduction of embryo exposure and of removed blastomeres is associated with increased blastocysts available for transfer and a better clinical outcome.

  20. Laser confers less embryo exposure than acid tyrode for embryo biopsy in preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles: a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We compared two methods of zona pellucida drilling. 213 embryos were biopsied with acid Tyrode. Each biopsy took 3 minutes and the entire procedure ~29 minutes. 5% of blastomeres lysed, 49% of embryos became blastocyst and 36% of patients became pregnant. 229 embryos were biopsied with laser. Each biopsy took 30 seconds and the entire procedure ~7 minutes. 2.5% of blastomeres lysed, 50.6% of embryos became blastocyst and 47% of patients became pregnant. We can conclude that laser can be used for embryo biopsy. Reduction of embryo exposure and of removed blastomeres is associated with increased blastocysts available for transfer and a better clinical outcome. PMID:21527004

  1. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica...Fernández Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada University of Seville, Sevilla, SPAIN High temperature protonic conductors (HTPC) were

  2. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    vista extra-regional, la "zona vital" es rica en materiales estrat~gicos, tales como el petr6leo, el hierro, y el aluminlo. Adem~s del petr6leo de...nivel de post-grado, en el Area de hidrocarburos para el periodo 1981 / 1982. Ofrecimiento de cooperaci6n en el campo de geologia de uranlo y materiales ...hombre, yo lo conocia, aparte de que era un homnbre muy preparado, muy inteligente , era un fan~tico. *Un fanatico religioso. Yo s6 porque lo digo

  3. Servicio de Mapas en Internet para la Salud Ambiental en la Region Fronteriza Entre los Estados Unidos y Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny; Stefanov, Jim

    2004-01-01

    La region fronteriza de los Estados Unidos y Mexico abarca una gran diversidad de ambientes fisicos y habitaciones, entre los cuales estan los humedales, desiertos, pastos, montanas, y bosques. Estos a su vez son unicos en cuanto a su diversidad de recursos acuaticos minerales, y biologicos. La region se interconecta economica, politica, y socialmente debido a su herencia binacional. En 1995, cerca de 11 millones de habitantes vivian en la zona adyacente a la frontera. Un estudio sugiere que esa poblacion podria doblarse antes del ano 2020.

  4. Evaluation of the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and adrenal androgen secretion dynamics in a large cohort of patients aged 6-18 years with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, with an emphasis on the impact of cardiac iron load.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Ahmet; Öner, Nergiz; Özek, Gülcihan; Çetinçakmak, Mehmet Güli; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Yıldırım, Ali; Kaya, Cemil; Ünverdi, Sena; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Yılmaz, Yasin; Yetim, Aylin

    2016-07-01

    The variable presence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) due to hypocortisolemia (HC) in patients with thalassemia is well established; however, the prevalence of adrenocortical hypofunction (ACH) in the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex is unknown. To establish the prevalence of ACH, we examined the cortisol response to 1-µg and 250-µg ACTH tests, plasma aldosterone (A)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in a large cohort of patients with thalassemia, and to investigate the impact of total body iron load (TBIL) on adrenocortical function. The setting used was University hospital and government-based tertiary care center. One hundred twenty-one (52 females) patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) and 72 healthy peers (38 females) were enrolled. The patients underwent a 250-µg cosyntropin test if their peak cortisol was <500 nmol/L in a 1-µg cosyntropin test. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess the MRI-based liver iron content and cardiac MRI T2* iron. The associations between ACH and TBIL were investigated. The patients with thalassemia had lower ACTH, cortisol, DHEAS, and A/PRA values compared with the controls (p < 0.001). Thirty-nine patients (32.2 %) had HC [primary (n = 1), central (n = 36), combined (n = 2)], and 47 (38.8 %) patients had reduced DHEAS levels; 29 (24.0 %) patients had reduced A/PRA ratios. Forty-six (38.0 %) patients had hypofunction in one of the adrenal zones, 26 (21.5 %) had hypofunction in two adrenal zones, and 9 (7.4 %) had hypofunction in all three zones. Patient age and TBIL surrogates were significant independent parameters associated with ACH. Cardiac MRI T2* iron was the only significant parameter that predicted the severity of ACH at a cut-off of 20.6 ms, with 81 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity. Patients with thalassemia have a high prevalence of AI due to HC and zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis

  5. Chile Earthquake: U.S. and International Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    5 United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Chile Earthquake: Situation Report #2,” March 1, 2010; Gobierno de Chile...U.S. Department of State, March 2, 2010. 6 “Bachelet decreta primer Estado de Catástrofe desde terremoto de 1985,” El Mercurio (Chile), March 1...2010; “Amplían toque de queda en zonas más afectadas por terremoto en Chile,” Agence France Presse, March 1, 2010; “160 detained, one killed during

  6. Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program, Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Part 4. Analysis of Borehole Gravity Surveys and Other Geologic and Bathymetric Studies in Vicinity of OAK and KOA craters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    si(e(TILDA) rL ojwa (URSULA) 4-~ ~Alembel ( VERA ) 100 ± 4- U Billse (WILMA) 1~O0 iA .~~IJ~ , *(MACK) Runil (YVONNE) . (OSCAR) ~,M(ZONA) - 11൦’ BSken...Chapter, the totals for these species are given in row 41. Procythereis sp. B generally occurs in zones 1 Setae are small hairs that occur on the exterior...6.1 2. 15 5536. 5073. 0920. 330 533.0 .063239. 32008. 31960. alo A3.) o00 96 0*3. 060 72* 50320 2.00 313os. 30. 3196. 3360 340 3.0)3*02 302. 302 so

  7. Follicular growth and atresia in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Oakberg, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    Follicles were classified on the basis of number of layers of follicle cells, presence and degree of development of the zona pellucida, and presence of an antrum. Formation of an antrum in follicles with less than 7-8 cell layers and/or presence of necrotic cells was considered indicative of degeneration. When classified in this manner, the data suggest that follicles and their contained oocytes are committed to either normal development or atresia by the time a third layer of granulosa cells is formed.

  8. Laser microbeam irradiation and renucleation of mouse eggs. Final progress report, July 1, 1979-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.P.

    1983-01-01

    We have combined laser microbeam irradiation of mouse egg nuclei with fusion to donor cell nuclei in order to develop a new procedure for transferring nuclei into mammalian eggs. We have been using virus-treated cells injected into the perivitelline for fusion with egg cells. Binucleate cells inside the zona pellucida were often produced indicating nuclear transfer between cells had occurred. To prevent the formation of such abortive polyploidy, host nuclei were inactivated with a laser microbeam. The subsequent cleavage of the microirradiated eggs has been studied.

  9. Studies on trypsin-like enzymes in sperm and early embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A.

    1975-12-09

    Results are reported from a study of acrosomal proteinase, a trypsin-like enzyme (TLE), found in the acrosome of all eutherian mammals studied to date. It has been implicated in the dissolution of a passage for the sperm through the zona pellucida of the egg, a step necessary for in vivo fertilization. A cytochemical procedure employing autoradiographic film as a gelatin substrate is described for in situ detection and localization of acrosomal proteolytic activity. A role for TLE in the early development of embryos is suggested. (CH)

  10. STUDIES ON THE ORIGIN OF CIRCULATING 18-HYDROXYCORTISOL AND 18-OXOCORTISOL IN NORMAL HUMAN SUBJECTS.

    PubMed Central

    Freel, E Marie; Shakerdi, Loai A; Friel, Elaine C; Wallace, A Michael; Davies, Eleanor; Fraser, Robert; Connell, John MC

    2005-01-01

    18-hydroxycortisol (18-OHF) and 18-oxocortisol (18oxo-F) are derivatives of cortisol found in Primary Aldosteronism but whose origin and regulation in normal subjects is uncertain. 18-OHF can be synthesised by zona fasciculata 11-β hydroxylase; 18-oxoF can only be produced by zona glomerulosa aldosterone synthase (AS). Stably transfected cell lines expressing either CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase) or CYP11B2 (AS) were incubated with cortisol and other substrates over a range of concentrations. Both enzymes could synthesise 18-OHF from cortisol but only AS could synthesise 18-oxoF. AS was more efficient than 11β-hydroxylase at 18-hydroxylation. The apparent Km of AS for cortisol was estimated to be 2.6μM. In 5 patients with adrenal insufficiency maintained on hydrocortisone, urinary free cortisol and cortisone levels were high; 18-oxoF was detectable in all patients and 18-hydroxycortisol in 3. It is likely that the 18-oxygenated steroids were synthesised from circulating cortisol, either in the zona glomerulosa or at extra-adrenal sites. In 8 male volunteers, dexamethasone treatment decreased urinary excretion rates of free cortisol, cortisone, 18-OHF and 18-oxoFl, confirming dependence of 18-oxygenated steroid levels on cortisol availability. In both groups, hydrocortisone administration resulted in detectable levels of 18-OHF and raised levels of 18-oxoF. There was close correlation between 18-oxoF and cortisol excretion during hydrocortisone administration in normal subjects (r=0.86, p<0.001). These data show, for the first time, that 18-OHF and 18oxoF can be synthesised from circulating cortisol. The close correlation between 18-oxoF and cortisol suggests that 18-oxoF is normally produced by the action of aldosterone synthase utilising circulating cortisol as a substrate. Although 18OHF can be synthesized using circulating cortisol as substrate, our data suggest this is normally produced in the zona fasciculata by 11β-hydroxylase from locally available cortisol

  11. Teledermatology in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brown, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The Health Frontiers in Tijuana (HFiT) clinic is a binational partnership between the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine (San Diego, California); the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California School of Medicine (Tijuana, Mexico); and Desayunador Salesiano Padre Chava, a community grassroots organization in Tijuana, Mexico. Health Frontiers in Tijuana provides accessible quality health care for the underserved in Tijuana's Zona Norte. This article is a narrative meant to share my clinical experience as a dermatology resident who worked with HFiT to establish teledermatology services at this clinic.

  12. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda; Coates-Markle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  13. Collaborative Defense of Transmission and Distribution Protection and Control Devices Against Cyber Attacks (CODEF) DE-OE0000674. ABB Inc. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nuqui, Reynaldo

    This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-OE funded project DEOE0000674, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Ameren-Illinois (Ameren-IL) pursued the development of a system of collaborative defense of electrical substation’s intelligent electronic devices against cyber-attacks (CODEF). An electrical substation with CODEF features will be more capable of mitigating cyber-attacks especially those that seek to control switching devices. It leverages the security extensions of IEC 61850 to empower existing devices to collaborate in identifying and blocking malicious intents to trip circuit breakers, mis-coordinate devices settings, even thoughmore » the commands and the measurements comply with correct syntax. The CODEF functions utilize the physics of electromagnetic systems, electric power engineering principles, and computer science to bring more in depth cyber defense closer to the protected substation devices.« less

  14. Comparison of Two Serologically Distinct Ribonucleic Acid Bacteriophages I. Properties of the Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Overby, L. R.; Barlow, G. H.; Doi, R. H.; Jacob, Monique; Spiegelman, S.

    1966-01-01

    Overby, L. R. (University of Illinois, Urbana), G. H. Barlow, R. H. Doi, Monique Jacob, and S. Spiegelman. Comparison of two serologically distinct ribonucleic acid bacteriophages. I. Properties of the viral particle. J. Bacteriol. 91:442–448. 1966.—Two ribonucleic acid (RNA) coliphages, MS-2 and Qβ, have been characterized physically and serologically. MS-2 has an S20, w value of 79, a molecular weight of 3.6 × 106, a density of 1.422, and pH 3.9 as its isoelectric point. Qβ has an S20, w of 84, a molecular weight of 4.2 × 106, a density of 1.439, and an isoelectric point at pH 5.3. One host (Escherichia coli A-19) permits a distinction between the two on the basis of a marked difference in plaque size. They are distinct immunochemically, no serological cross-reaction being detectable. Images PMID:5903109

  15. NASA/USRA University advanced design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.; Prussing, John

    1989-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA University Advanced Design Program for the 1988 to 1989 academic year is reviewed. The University's design project was the Logistics Resupply and Emergency Crew Return System for Space Station Freedom. Sixty-one students divided into eight groups, participated in the spring 1989 semester. A presentation prepared by three students and a graduate teaching assistant for the program's summer conference summarized the project results. Teamed with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the University received support in the form of remote telecon lectures, reference material, and previously acquired applications software. In addition, a graduate teaching assistant was awarded a summer 1989 internship at MSFC.

  16. Advanced engineering design program at the University of Illinois for the 1987-1988 academic year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, Kenneth R.; Lembeck, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The participation of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the NASA/USRA Universities Advanced Engineering Design Program (Space) is reviewed for the 1987 to 88 academic year. The University's design project was the Manned Marsplane and Delivery System. In the spring of 1988 semester, 107 students were enrolled in the Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering Departments' undergraduate Aerospace Vehicle Design course. These students were divided into an aircraft section (responsible for the Marsplane design), and a spacecraft section (responsible for the Delivery System Design). The design results are presented in Final Design Reports, copies of which are attached. In addition, five students presented a summary of the design results at the Program's Summer Conference.

  17. Two New Species of Bibloplectus Reitter (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from the Orlando Park Collection, Field Museum of Natural History.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brittany E; Carlton, Christopher E

    2018-04-10

    Two new species of Bibloplectus Reitter, 1881 are described from the Orlando Park Collection of Pselaphinae at the FMNH (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL, USA): Bibloplectus silvestris Owens and Carlton, new species (type locality, Urbana, IL, USA) and Bibloplectus wingi Owens and Carlton, new species (type locality, Shades State Park, IN, USA). Types of these new species were part of a series of specimens bearing unpublished Park manuscript names in both the pinned and slide collection at the FMNH. They bring the total number of species in the genus in eastern North America to twenty-three. Resolving these manuscript names adds to previous efforts to uncover elements of the hidden diversity of North American Bibloplectus from museum collections (Owens and Carlton 2016, Owens and Carlton 2017) and highlights the importance of close examination of the Orlando Park pselaphine collection as a valuable historic and taxonomic resource.

  18. Lidar observations of wave-like structure in the atmospheric sodium layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlett, J. R.; Gardner, C. S.; Richter, E. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The University of Illinois (Urbana) lidar system has been developed to study the atmospheric sodium layer near 90 km altitude through the mechanism of resonance scattering. The photocount data are processed using digital smoothing filters to obtain continuous estimates of the sodium density versus altitude. The filter cutoff frequency is related to the height resolution and accuracy of the estimated profile. Lidar photocount data processed using this filtering technique show wave-like structures in the sodium layer which move downward with time. The waves have typical wavelengths of 3-15 km and phase velocities of less than 1 m/sec. The movement of these structures seems to be independent of the motion of the bottomside of the layer, which also has been observed to move up or down by as much as 2 km over a period of a few hours.

  19. JCESR Scientific Sprints – Better Polymers for Better Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Brushett, Fikile; Moore, Jeff; Zhang, Lu

    2016-02-19

    Argonne National Laboratory leads the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), a major collaborative research partnership with the goal of developing next-generation energy storage technologies. JCESR supplements its traditional project management approach with scientific “Sprints.” The Sprint described in this video involved a multidisciplinary team from Argonne, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan. As they studied how polymers in solution can react electrochemically to store energy, the team solved a crucial battery problem: “crossover,” which is caused by molecules mixing together when they should not, resulting in reduced performance. Manymore » possible materials were tested, and a set of candidate polymers were chosen that are stable, cheap to make, and suitable for conditions required in batteries. The collaboration allowed timely development that would have taken much longer had the groups been working independently.« less

  20. Data harmonization and model performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.

  1. Urban hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Third International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage will be held in Goteborg, Sweden, June 4-8, 1984. Contact A. Sjoborg, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden, for more information. The Fourth Conference will be in late August 1987 in Lausanne, Switzerland, and the Fifth Conference is planned for Tokyo in 1990. The proceedings of the First International Conference, held in Southampton, England, in April 1978, are available from Wiley-Interscience under the title “Urban Storm Drainage.”The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”

  2. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  3. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, Jon

    1999-01-01

    An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

  4. The Effects of the Critical Ice Accretion on Airfoil and Wing Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selig, Michael S.; Bragg, Michael B.; Saeed, Farooq

    1998-01-01

    In support of the NASA Lewis Modern Airfoils Ice Accretion Test Program, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provided expertise in airfoil design and aerodynamic analysis to determine the aerodynamic effect of ice accretion on modern airfoil sections. The effort has concentrated on establishing a design/testing methodology for "hybrid airfoils" or "sub-scale airfoils," that is, airfoils having a full-scale leading edge together with a specially designed and foreshortened aft section. The basic approach of using a full-scale leading edge with a foreshortened aft section was considered to a limited extent over 40 years ago. However, it was believed that the range of application of the method had not been fully exploited. Thus a systematic study was being undertaken to investigate and explore the range of application of the method so as to determine its overall potential.

  5. JCESR Scientific Sprints – Better Polymers for Better Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Brushett, Fikile; Moore, Jeff; Zhang, Lu; Rodriguez-Lopez, Joaquin; Sevov, Christo; Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna; Montoto, Elena

    2018-06-25

    Argonne National Laboratory leads the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), a major collaborative research partnership with the goal of developing next-generation energy storage technologies. JCESR supplements its traditional project management approach with scientific “Sprints.” The Sprint described in this video involved a multidisciplinary team from Argonne, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan. As they studied how polymers in solution can react electrochemically to store energy, the team solved a crucial battery problem: “crossover,” which is caused by molecules mixing together when they should not, resulting in reduced performance. Many possible materials were tested, and a set of candidate polymers were chosen that are stable, cheap to make, and suitable for conditions required in batteries. The collaboration allowed timely development that would have taken much longer had the groups been working independently.

  6. 100 years of Pb deposition and transport in soils in Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In Illinois, atmospheric deposition is one major source of heavy metal inputs to agricultural land. The atmospheric Pb deposition and transport record in agricultural soils in Champaign, Illinois, was established by studying surface and subsurface soil samples collected during the past 100 years from the Morrow Plots on the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The Pb content in the soil samples was measured and the Ph deposition fluxes were calculated. The Pb content in surface soils increased sharply in the first half of the 20th century, and stayed invariant since. The maximum Pb flux from the atmosphere was estimated to be 27 (??14) ??g cm-2 yr-1 around 1940. The major pollution source for this increase probably was residential coal burning. It was estimated that in 50 yr, more than 50% of the Pb input had been lost from the surface soils.

  7. Lidar Probing of the Mesosphere: Simultaneous Observations of Sporadic Sodium and Iron Formations, Calcium Ion Layers, Neutral Temperature and Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Timothy J.; Qian, Jun; Scherrer, Daniel R.; Senft, Daniel C.; Pfenninger, W. Matthew; Papen, George C.; Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Meteoritic ablation in the upper atmosphere is the commonly accepted source of the mesospheric metals between 80 and 105 km. The vertical and temporal behavior of some of these metals can be probed with high accuracy and resolution using resonance fluorescence lidar techniques. Of considerable interest in recent years has been the sporadic and rapid formation of thin, dense enhancements in these metallic layers. Since late Mar. 1991, the UIUC CEDAR lidar system, located at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory, has been routinely operating at the Fe resonance line of 372 nm in order to probe the mesospheric Fe layer. In Nov. 1991, the capability to investigate mesospheric Ca(+) at the resonance line of 393.4 nm was added. The lidar's eximer-pumped dye laser uses Exciton QUI laser dye dissolved in p-dioxane, which can lase at both the Fe and Ca(+) frequencies. Various aspects of this investigation are discussed.

  8. IHP Intergovernmental Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Representatives of 69 countries, five United Nations organizations, and eight international non-governmental organizations (NGO) met March 19-24, 1990, in Paris, France, at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to evaluate and approve projects for the fourth phase of the International Hydrological Program (IHP-IV), which will be active during 1990-1995. The International Association of Hydrological Sciences was represented by AGU members and IAHS officers Vit Klemes, President, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada; Henny Colenbrander, Secretary General, TNO, The Hague, The Netherlands; and Ivan Johnson, Honorary President, A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Arvada, Colo. The International Water Resources Association was represented by AGU member and IWRA Secretary General Glenn Stout, IWRA, Urbana, 111. The U.S. representatives (observer status) were David Rickert, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., and Glenn Stout.

  9. Application of the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to developing a machine-portable disruption predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Matthew; Tang, William; Feibush, Eliot

    2016-10-01

    Plasma disruptions pose a major threat to the operation of tokamaks which confine a large amount of stored energy. In order to effectively mitigate this damage it is necessary to predict an oncoming disruption with sufficient warning time to take mitigative action. Machine learning approaches to this problem have shown promise but require further developments to address (1) the need for machine-portable predictors and (2) the availability of multi-dimensional signal inputs. Here we demonstrate progress in these two areas by applying the Disruption Predictor Feature Developer to data from JET and NSTX, and discuss topics of focus for ongoing work in support of ITER. The author is also supported under the Fulbright U.S. Student Program as a graduate student in the department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  10. Photonuclear sum rules and the tetrahedral configuration of He4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazit, Doron; Barnea, Nir; Bacca, Sonia; Leidemann, Winfried; Orlandini, Giuseppina

    2006-12-01

    Three well-known photonuclear sum rules (SR), i.e., the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn, the bremsstrahlungs and the polarizability SR are calculated for He4 with the realistic nucleon-nucleon potential Argonne V18 and the three-nucleon force Urbana IX. The relation between these sum rules and the corresponding energy weighted integrals of the cross section is discussed. Two additional equivalences for the bremsstrahlungs SR are given, which connect it to the proton-neutron and neutron-neutron distances. Using them, together with our result for the bremsstrahlungs SR, we find a deviation from the tetrahedral symmetry of the spatial configuration of He4. The possibility to access this deviation experimentally is discussed.

  11. Progress on the Development of the hPIC Particle-in-Cell Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dart, Cameron; Hayes, Alyssa; Khaziev, Rinat; Marcinko, Stephen; Curreli, Davide; Laboratory of Computational Plasma Physics Team

    2017-10-01

    Advancements were made in the development of the kinetic-kinetic electrostatic Particle-in-Cell code, hPIC, designed for large-scale simulation of the Plasma-Material Interface. hPIC achieved a weak scaling efficiency of 87% using the Algebraic Multigrid Solver BoomerAMG from the PETSc library on more than 64,000 cores of the Blue Waters supercomputer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The code successfully simulates two-stream instability and a volume of plasma over several square centimeters of surface extending out to the presheath in kinetic-kinetic mode. Results from a parametric study of the plasma sheath in strongly magnetized conditions will be presented, as well as a detailed analysis of the plasma sheath structure at grazing magnetic angles. The distribution function and its moments will be reported for plasma species in the simulation domain and at the material surface for plasma sheath simulations. Membership Pending.

  12. Using multimedia learning modules in a hybrid-online course in electricity and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.

    2011-06-01

    We have been piloting web-based multimedia learning modules (MLMs), developed by the Physics Education Research Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC), as a “prelecture assignment” in several introductory physics courses at California State Polytechnic University at Pomona. In this study, we report the results from a controlled study utilizing modules on electricity and magnetism as a part of a blended hybrid-online course. We asked students in the experimental section to view the MLMs prior to attending the face-to-face class, and to make sure this would not result in additional instructional time, we reduced the weekly class time by one-third. We found that despite reduced class time, student-learning outcomes were not hindered; in fact, the implementation of the UIUC MLMs resulted in a positive effect on student performance on conceptual tests and classroom discussion questions.

  13. Research productivity in select psychology journals, 1986-2008.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Kevin T; Buboltz, Walter C; Calvert, Barbara; Hoffmann, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Examination of research productivity has a long history in psychology. Journals across psychology have periodically published research-productivity studies. An analysis of institutional research productivity was conducted for 17 journals published by the American Psychological Association for the years 1986-2008. This analysis implemented two methodologies: one a replication and extension of G. S. Howard, D. A. Cole, and S. E. Maxwell's (1987) method, the other a new method designed to give credit to psychology departments rather than only overall institutions. A system of proportional credit assured all articles with multiple institutions received credit. Results show that for the 23-year period, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was ranked 1st, followed by the University of California, Los Angeles, and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Overall, results showed both consistency and change across all journals examined. The authors explore the implications of these findings in the context of the current academic environment.

  14. Determination of base-flow characteristics at selected streamflow-gaging stations on the Mad River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study to estimate characteristics of base flow and sustained ground-water discharge at five streamflow-gaging stations on the Mad River in Ohio. The five streamflow-gaging stations are located at Zanesfield, near Urbana, at St. Paris Pike (at Eagle City), near Springfield, and near Dayton. The median of the annual-mean base flows, determined by means of hydrograph separation, ranged from 0.64 (ft3/s)/mi2 (cubic feet per second per square mile) at Zanesfield to 0.74 (ft3/s)/mi2 at St. Paris Pike. The median percentage of annual total streamflow attributed to base flow ranged from 61.8 percent at Zanesfield to 76.1 percent near Urbana. Estimates of an upper limit (or threshold) at which base flows can be considered to be composed predominately of sustained ground-water discharge were made by constructing and analyzing base- flow-duration curves. The sustained ground-water discharges (base flows less than or equal to the estimated sustained ground-water-discharge thresholds) are assumed to originate from ground-water- flow systems that are minimally affected by seasonal climatic changes. The median sustained ground- water discharge ranged from 0.11 (ft3/s)/mi2 at Zanesfield to 0.26 (ft3/s)/mi2 at St. Paris Pike (at Eagle City) and near Springfield. The median sustained ground-water discharge, expressed as a percentage of the median annual-mean base flow, ranged from 17.2 percent at Zanesfield to 38.6 percent near Springfield.

  15. Historical anthropogenic and biofuel burning emissions of carbon monoxide, 1850-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Liang Liu, Colin Zarzycki, Ekbordin Winijkul, Tami C. Bond Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA Carbon monoxide (CO) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by acting as the primary sink of the most important atmospheric oxidizer, hydroxyl radicals (OH), and participating in the cycle of tropospheric ozone. CO can also provide constraints on model prediction of black carbon (BC) and vice versa due to their common sources of incomplete combustion. A well developed historical emission inventory of CO would serve the purpose of various global atmospheric models over the historical record. Only a few attempts have been made to represent the time dependence of CO emissions. In this study, we present the first technology based global historical trend of anthropogenic and biofuel emissions of CO from 1850 to 2000. The essential components of a bottom-up emission inventory are technology divisions, fuel consumptions for each technology, and emission factors for each combination of fuel and technology. Previous research done by Bond et al., [2007] has provided this study with technology breakdowns for different combinations of fuel and usage and the time trends of fuel-use for each specific technology in activities that contribute to BC emissions. This work reconstructs the fuel-use trend of the brick and cement industries which were not included in the historical BC emission inventory but play an important role in CO emission. Emission factors are developed for past and present CO emitters. Fuel consumption and emission factors are then combined to estimate global CO emissions at the country level. Uncertainty analysis in activity data, technology splits, and emission factors are performed. The developed historical CO emission trend is compared with the historical BC emission trend to provide more insight into the relationship of the two pollutants.

  16. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.

  17. Is vitronectin the velcro that binds the gametes together?

    PubMed

    Fusi, F M; Bernocchi, N; Ferrari, A; Bronson, R A

    1996-11-01

    Evidence has been presented that the adhesion of human spermatozoa to the oolemma is mediated by integrins recognizing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence (RGD). Fibronectin and vitronectin, glycoproteins that contain functional RGD sequences, are both present on human spermatozoa, and integrins that recognize these ligands have been detected on spermatozoa and eggs. In this work, we studied the effects of oligopeptides specifically designed to block fibronectin or vitronectin receptors on the interaction of human spermatozoa with zona-free hamster oocytes. GRGDdSP, a peptide blocking cell attachment to fibronectin, was without effect, while GdRGDSP, which blocks both fibronectin and vitronectin receptors, significantly inhibited the binding of human spermatozoa to the oolemma of zona-free hamster eggs, in a concentration-dependent manner, over a range 1-100 microM. As these experiments suggested that a vitronectin receptor plays a role in sperm-oolemmal adhesion, we performed a series of experiments studying the effects of exogenous vitronectin, when added to spermatozoa and oocytes, on gamete interactions. Sperm-oolemmal adherence, as well as sperm aggregation, was promoted by vitronectin, over range of 2.2 nM to 1 microM, but only in the presence of calcium ions. We propose that vitronectin released during the sperm acrosome reaction is recognized by both gametes and plays a role in their adhesion.

  18. The Maturation of Oocyte Follicular Epithelium of Podarcis s. sicula Is Promoted by d-Aspartic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria Maddalena

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the maturation of oocyte follicular epithelium of lizard is affected by d-aspartic acid (d-Asp). Our results demonstrated that d-Asp is endogenously present in the oocytes, and its distribution varies during the reproductive cycle and following intraperitoneal administration. At previtellogenesis, it is observed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of pyriform cells, in intermediate cells, in some small cells of the granulosa, in the ooplasm, and in some thecal elements. At vitellogenesis, d-Asp is localized in the proximity of the zona pellucida, in the theca, and in the ooplasm. Injected d-Asp is mainly captured by pyriform cells and ooplasm of previtellogenic oocytes, but a moderate accumulation is evident in the cytoplasm of some small granulosa cells and in the theca. d-Asp also increases the ovarian and plasmatic levels of 17β-estradiol and decreases those of testosterone. As a direct and/or indirect consequence of d-Asp, previtellogenic oocytes grow up and mature, resulting in a higher accumulation of carbohydrates in the granulosa, zona pellucida, and ooplasm, but also a reduction in the thickness of the granulosa layer and an increase of the theca stratum. Taken together, our results show that d-Asp may be related to the synchrony of reproduction, either enhancing the growth and maturation of follicular epithelium or influencing its endocrine functions. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:157–171, 2010) PMID:19826072

  19. Milestones in contraceptive vaccines development and hurdles in their application

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Satish Kumar; Shrestha, Abhinav; Minhas, Vidisha

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive vaccines have been proposed for controlling the growing human population and wildlife population management. Multiple targets such as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, gonadotropin receptors, sperm-specific proteins and zona pellucida glycoproteins have been exploited to develop contraceptive vaccine and their efficacy investigated and shown in various experimental animal models. Vaccines based on GnRH have found application in immuno-castration of male pigs for prevention of boar-taint. Vaccines based on zona pellucida glycoproteins have shown promising results for population management of wild horses and white-tailed deer. Phase II clinical trials in women with β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG)-based contraceptive vaccine established proof of principle that these can be developed for human application. Block in fertility by β-hCG contraceptive vaccine was reversible. Further research inputs are required to establish the safety of contraceptive vaccines, improve their immunogenicity and to develop novel vaccine delivery platforms for providing long lasting immunity. PMID:24262991

  20. Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) suppresses premature calcium release in mouse eggs

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Miranda L.; Lowther, Katie M.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; McDonough, Caitlin E.; Lee, Katherine N.; Evsikov, Alexei V.; Uliasz, Tracy F.; Chidiac, Peter; Williams, Carmen J.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    During oocyte maturation, capacity and sensitivity of Ca2+ signaling machinery increases dramatically, preparing the metaphase II (MII)-arrested egg for fertilization. Upon sperm-egg fusion, Ca2+ release from IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum stores results in cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that drive egg activation and initiate early embryo development. Premature Ca2+ release can cause parthenogenetic activation prior to fertilization; thus, preventing inappropriate Ca2+ signaling is crucial for ensuring robust MII arrest. Here, we show that regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) suppresses Ca2+ release in MII eggs. Rgs2 mRNA was recruited for translation during oocyte maturation, resulting in ∼20-fold more RGS2 protein in MII eggs than in fully grown immature oocytes. Rgs2-siRNA-injected oocytes matured to MII; however, they had increased sensitivity to low pH and acetylcholine (ACh), which caused inappropriate Ca2+ release and premature egg activation. When matured in vitro, RGS2-depleted eggs underwent spontaneous Ca2+ increases that were sufficient to cause premature zona pellucida conversion. Rgs2−/− females had reduced litter sizes, and their eggs had increased sensitivity to low pH and ACh. Rgs2−/− eggs also underwent premature zona pellucida conversion in vivo. These findings indicate that RGS2 functions as a brake to suppress premature Ca2+ release in eggs that are poised on the brink of development. PMID:26160904

  1. Gamete competence assessment by polarizing optics in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Montag, Markus; Köster, Maria; van der Ven, Katrin; van der Ven, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first to give an overview of the historical development of polarization microscopy, second to describe the various applications of this technique in assisted reproduction techniques (ART) and third to discuss the potential benefit of polarization microscopy as a predictor for IVF success. The history of polarization microscopy was undertaken by performing a backward search in the scientific literature using Google and internet sites of several Societies for Microscopy and Cell Biology. Studies of polarization microscopy in ART were identified by using a systematic literature search in PubMed and Scopus. A total of 62 articles were identified by the direct search and further relevant articles were found by screening the cited literature in these articles. The topics relevant for assisted reproduction were spindle and zona imaging in combination with IVF success, meiotic cell cycle progression, pharmaceutical studies and cryopreservation. A separate topic was the use of sperm birefringence in ART. The majority of studies are observational studies and were not performed in a randomized manner and there is no direct comparison of techniques using other gamete selection markers. Despite this, most studies show that polarization microscopy may help us to further increase our knowledge on gametes and meiosis. Whether certain applications such as spindle or zona imaging may lead to an increase in IVF success is unclear at present. Publications on the use of polarization microscopy on sperm are still very limited.

  2. Laser effects in the manipulation of human eggs and embryos for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tadir, Yona; Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H

    2007-01-01

    Gamete manipulations using laser micro beams were introduced in 1991 and testing its application for assisted hatching occurred shortly thereafter. This procedure has now become an accepted modality of penetrating or reducing the thickness of the zona pellucida in human in vitro fertilization (IVF). Lasers used in earlier work are summarized. Although the earliest lasers used pulses as long as 15 ms, the simplest and safest laser presently used in this application is the high-power 1480-nm In GaAsP diode, used in pulses with duration typically < 1 ms. Since prevention of damage to the blastomeres is essential, we specifically discuss this system with particular attention to safety considerations. The laser operates by its thermal effect on the zona pellucida, and the implications for embryo safety are discussed in detail. A thermal model is derived using numerical analysis and the effect on the embryo of laser beam power and pulse duration is indicated. Typical recommended protocols and operating values for various applications in the human IVF laboratory are given.

  3. An investigation of the origin and significance of bilateral symmetry of the pronuclear zygote in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R L; Davies, T J

    2006-02-01

    Preliminary observations revealed that advanced zygotes of the PO strain mouse are often bilaterally symmetrical, and suggested that both the plane of first cleavage and features of the blastocyst bear a consistent relationship to the zygote's bilateral plane. Spaced oil drops were injected into the zona pellucida to delineate the bilateral plane in pronuclear zygotes, and a distinct cluster of drops then placed over the second polar body. Such non-invasive marking was combined with gelation of the perivitelline space to prevent rotation of the zygotes within the zona pellucida. Nearly two-thirds of advanced pronuclear stage zygotes were bilaterally symmetrical and, regardless of whether first cleavage was meridional, it was almost invariably orthogonal to the bilateral plane. Moreover, both the axis of polarity and bilateral plane of the blastocyst bore a consistent relationship to the zygote's bilateral plane. Haploid parthenotes also exhibited bilateral symmetry, although in the absence of fertilization, first cleavage was less consistently orthogonal to the bilateral plane. Bilateral symmetry may be an intrinsic property of the oocyte that is induced by its activation and, from the reproducible way it maps on both the 2-cell conceptus and blastocyst, seems to play a role in early patterning.

  4. Amino acid carryover in the subzonal space of mouse fertilized ova affects subsequent transport kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rudraraju, Nirmala; Baltz, Jay M

    2009-11-01

    SummaryWe have investigated whether culture in glycine-containing medium affects subsequent glycine transport by the specific transport system, GLYT1, which is the sole glycine transporter in fertilized mouse ova. When fertilized ova were maintained for 6 h in culture with a physiological level of glycine (1 mM), subsequent transport of radiolabelled glycine was decreased by 40% compared with fertilized ova that had been maintained in glycine-free medium. Kinetic measurements showed that the apparent glycine affinity was decreased after culture with glycine (Km increased from 0.20 to 0.41 mM), but maximal transport rate was unchanged (similar Vmax of 20 and 23 fmol/fertilized ovum/min). These findings could have reflected activation of GLYT1 by prolonged substrate starvation, similar to some other amino acid transport systems. However, our findings were instead consistent with the alteration in glycine transport being due to trapping of glycine within the zona pellucida resulting in competitive transport inhibition even after ova were removed from glycine-containing media. First, even very brief exposures to glycine resulted in decreased subsequent glycine transport rates, with a maximal effect apparent within ~6 min. Second, extensive washing (at least six) reversed the effect. Third, the effect was absent when zona-free fertilized ova were used. Thus, it appears that components of the external environment of preimplantation embryos may continue to affect transport kinetics for a period even after embryos are removed from environments that contain them.

  5. Evaluating outcome-correlated recruitment and geographic recruitment bias in a respondent-driven sample of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Abby E.; Gaines, Tommi L.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2015-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling’s (RDS) widespread use and reliance on untested assumptions suggests a need for new exploratory/diagnostic tests. We assessed geographic recruitment bias and outcome-correlated recruitment among 1048 RDS-recruited people who inject drugs (Tijuana, Mexico). Surveys gathered demographics, drug/sex behaviors, activity locations, and recruiter-recruit pairs. Simulations assessed geographic and network clustering of active syphilis (RPR titers≥1:8). Gender-specific predicted probabilities were estimated using logistic regression with GEE and robust standard errors. Active syphilis prevalence was 7% (crude: men=5.7% and women=16.6%; RDS-adjusted: men=6.7% and women=7.6%). Syphilis clustered in the Zona Norte, a neighborhood known for drug and sex markets. Network simulations revealed geographic recruitment bias and non-random recruitment by syphilis status. Gender-specific prevalence estimates accounting for clustering were highest among those living/working/injecting/buying drugs in the Zona Norte and directly/indirectly connected to syphilis cases (men:15.9%, women:25.6%) and lowest among those with neither exposure (men:3.0%, women:6.1%). Future RDS analyses should assess/account for network and spatial dependencies. PMID:24969586

  6. Identification of stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR data normalization in defined localizations of cyclic bovine ovaries.

    PubMed

    Schoen, K; Plendl, J; Gabler, C; Kaessmeyer, S

    2015-06-01

    Ovaries are highly complex organs displaying morphological, molecular and functional differences between their cortical zona parenchymatosa and medullary zona vasculosa, and also between the different cyclic luteal stages. Objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of twelve putative reference genes (RGs) in bovine ovaries, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine ovarian tissue with regard to different luteal stages and intra-ovarian localizations. The focus was on identifying RGs, which are suitable to normalize RT-qPCR results of ovaries collected from clinical healthy cattle, irrespective of localization and the hormonal stage. Expression profiles of twelve potential reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, YWHAZ, HPRT1, SDHA, UBA52, POLR2C, RPS9, ACTG2, H3F3B, RPS18 and RPL19) were analysed. Evaluation of gene expression differences was performed using genorm, normfinder, and bestkeeper software. The most stably expressed genes according to genorm, normfinder and bestkeeper approaches contained the candidates H3F3B, RPS9, YWHAZ, RPS18, POLR2C and UBA52. Of this group, the genes YWHAZ, H3F3B and RPS9 could be recommended as best-suited RGs for normalization purposes on healthy bovine ovaries irrespective of the luteal stage or intra-ovarian localization. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Measurement of /sup 125/I-low density lipoprotein uptake in selected tissues of the squirrel monkey by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, R.G.; Schnitzer, J.J.; Yarmush, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    A recently developed technique of absolute quantitative light microscopic autoradiography of /sup 125/I-labeled proteins in biologic specimens was used to measure /sup 125/I-low density lipoprotein (/sup 125/I-LDL) concentration levels in various tissues of the squirrel monkey after 30 minutes of in vivo LDL circulation. Liver and adrenal cortex exhibited high /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations, presumably because of binding to specific cell surface receptors and/or internalization in vascular beds with high permeability to LDL. High tissue concentrations of LDL were associated with the zona fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortex and the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testis; significantly lowermore » levels of /sup 125/I-LDL were observed in the adrenal medulla, the zona glomerulosa, and germinal centers of the testis. Contrary to previous reports, low /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations were observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in lymph nodes. In addition, multiple arterial intramural focal areas of high /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations were identified in arteries supplying the adrenal gland, lymph node, small bowel, and liver.« less

  8. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria) Oocytes' Contact Plate Structure and Development

    PubMed Central

    Adonin, Leonid S.; Shaposhnikova, Tatyana G.; Podgornaya, Olga

    2012-01-01

    One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47) stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the “contact plate”. Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high Mr bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides Mr corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' Mr is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1) it attracts spermatozoids; (2) the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3) these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s); (4) contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida. PMID:23185235

  9. Singular features of fertilization and their impact on the male reproductive system in eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Bedford, J Michael

    2014-02-01

    Therian (marsupial and eutherian) mammals have evolved a suite of novel reproductive features - seen variously in their gametes, the steps of fertilization and the male reproductive tract - whose adaptive significance remains unclear. Present evidence for the better-understood eutherian mammals suggests that the 'prime mover' in their evolution has been the character of the egg coat, with other such features being adaptations to the consequences of this. Its elastic thickness allows the zona pellucida to stretch to a variable degree and yet remain around the blastocyst during much or all of its expansion before implantation, but its character represents an unusual challenge for spermatozoa. Novel aspects of the acrosome related to this challenge enable it to maintain a relatively prolonged binding after the onset of the acrosome reaction, and the structure, shape and behaviour of the sperm head point to physical thrust as a major element of zona penetration - with the unique configuration of gamete fusion as a sequela of this strategy. In the male, such adaptations are reflected in sperm head formation in the testis and in sperm maturation in the epididymis involving at least the sperm head's structure, plasmalemma and acrosome. This complexity allied to a slow epididymal sperm transport, a relatively modest sperm production and the brief life span of mature spermatozoa kept above the cauda epididymidis could account for the evolution of the sperm storage function - a development seemingly linked, in turn, to the need for sperm capacitation and scrotal evolution.

  10. Cysteine protects rabbit spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species-induced damages

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaoteng; Pan, Yang; Lv, Shan; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Anmin

    2017-01-01

    The process of cryopreservation results in over-production of reactive oxygen species, which is extremely detrimental to spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to investigate whether addition of cysteine to freezing extender would facilitate the cryosurvival of rabbit spermatozoa, and if so, how cysteine protects spermatozoa from cryodamages. Freshly ejaculated semen was diluted with Tris-citrate-glucose extender supplemented with different concentrations of cysteine. The motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials, 8-hydroxyguanosine level and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity were examined. Furthermore, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione content (GSH), and level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide of spermatozoa were analyzed. The values of motility, intact acrosomes, membrane integrity, mitochondrial potentials and sperm-zona pellucida binding capacity of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the treatment of cysteine were significantly higher than those of the control. Addition of cysteine to extenders improved the GPx activity and GSH content of spermatozoa, while lowered the ROS, DNA oxidative alterations and lipid peroxidation level, which makes spermatozoa avoid ROS to attack DNA, the plasma membrane and mitochondria. In conclusion, cysteine protects spermatozoa against ROS-induced damages during cryopreservation and post-thaw incubation. Addition of cysteine is recommended to facilitate the improvement of semen preservation for the rabbit breeding industry. PMID:28700739

  11. Thermal effects in laser-assisted embryo hatching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2000-08-01

    Diode lasers [(lambda) equals 1480 nm] are used with in-vitro fertilization [IVF] as a promoter of embryo hatching. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel in the zona pellucida (shell) of the pre-embryo. After transfer into the uterus, the embryo hatches: it extrudes itself through the channel and implants into the uterine wall. Laser-assisted hatching can result in improving implantation and pregnancy success rates. We present examples of zone pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g. by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side-effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed-beam experiment a HeNe laser probe detects the temperature-induced change in refractive index. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  12. Cold laser technique for cell surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Ohad, Shoshanit; Lewis, Aaron; Laufer, Neri

    1992-08-01

    A new cell surgery technique has been developed to produce well-defined alterations in cells and tissues without detectable heating and/or other structural damage in the surroundings. The technique involves the use of a 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser which is guided through a glass pipette filled with a positive air pressure. To demonstrate the method holes were drilled in the zona pellucida of mouse oocytes. The diameter of the drilled hole was determined by the pipette tip size, and its depth by an energy emitted per pulse and number of pulses. Scanning electron microscopy of the drilled mouse oocytes showed uniform, round, well circumscribed holes with sharp edges. Oocytes that had their zona pellucida drilled with this new method fertilized in vitro and developed to the blastocyst stage in a rate similar to that of control group. These results demonstrate the non-perturbing nature of this cold laser microsurgical procedure. In addition to the extension of our results for clinical in vitro fertilization purposes, such as enhancement of fertilization and embryo biopsy, there are wide ranging possible uses of our method in fundamental and applied investigations that require sub-micron accuracy in cellular alteration.

  13. Localization of cytochrome P4501A in liver and extrahepatic organs of the pilot whale, Globiocephala melaena

    SciTech Connect

    Stegeman, J.; Miller, C.; Moore, M.

    1994-12-31

    Marine mammals may be important indicators of effects of contaminants that are globally distributed. Recently the authors described apparent environmental induction of hepatic CYPLA in beluga whales. Here they describe the localization and extent of CYPLA expression in organs of the pilot whale. Tissues from 18 pilot whales stranded on Cape Cod in 1990/91 were frozen in liquid N2 or fixed in formalin and embedded. Liver microsomal EROD activity were comparable to results with other cetaceans. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a periportal localization of CYPLA in liver parenchyma, and staining in the endothelium. Renal staining was strong in brush border andmore » endothelium. Testis, ovary, and spleen showed CYPLA staining only in endothelium. Adrenal zona fasciculata and zona reticularis stained more weakly than did endothelium. In lung there was mild staining of bronchiolar epithelium and strong staining of endothelium. The results indicate that active concentrations of inducer have penetrated throughout the body. CYPLA stained in dermal endothelium, indicating that analysis of skin biopsies could allow nondestructive analysis of CYPLA induction in marine mammals. CYPLA expression in these whales was surprisingly strong, suggesting the possibility of chemical effects related to CYPLA induction.« less

  14. Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channels Negatively Regulate Aldosterone Secretion in Human Adrenocortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liang, Qingnan; Shi, Yingtang; Mei, Yan-Ai; Barrett, Paula Q; Hu, Changlong

    2016-09-01

    Aldosterone, which plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte balance, is produced by zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex. Autonomous overproduction of aldosterone from zona glomerulosa cells causes primary hyperaldosteronism. Recent clinical studies have highlighted the pathological role of the KCNJ5 potassium channel in primary hyperaldosteronism. Our objective was to determine whether small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels may also regulate aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. We found that apamin, the prototypic inhibitor of SK channels, decreased membrane voltage, raised intracellular Ca(2+) and dose dependently increased aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical H295R cells. By contrast, 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone, an agonist of SK channels, antagonized apamin's action and decreased aldosterone secretion. Commensurate with an increase in aldosterone production, apamin increased mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and aldosterone synthase that control the early and late rate-limiting steps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively. In addition, apamin increased angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion, whereas 1-Ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone suppressed both angiotensin II- and high K(+)-stimulated production of aldosterone in H295R cells. These findings were supported by apamin-modulation of basal and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone secretion from acutely prepared slices of human adrenals. We conclude that SK channel activity negatively regulates aldosterone secretion in human adrenocortical cells. Genetic association studies are necessary to determine whether mutations in SK channel subtype 2 genes may also drive aldosterone excess in primary hyperaldosteronism. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Molecular identity and gene expression of aldosterone synthase cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Nonaka, Yasuki; Takemori, Hiroshi

    11{beta}-Hydroxylase (CYP11B1) of bovine adrenal cortex produced corticosterone as well as aldosterone from 11-deoxycorticosterone in the presence of the mitochondrial P450 electron transport system. CYP11B1s of pig, sheep, and bullfrog, when expressed in COS-7 cells, also performed corticosterone and aldosterone production. Since these CYP11B1s are present in the zonae fasciculata and reticularis as well as in the zona glomerulosa, the zonal differentiation of steroid production may occur by the action of still-unidentified factor(s) on the enzyme-catalyzed successive oxygenations at C11- and C18-positions of steroid. In contrast, two cDNAs, one encoding 11{beta}-hydroxylase and the other encoding aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), were isolatedmore » from rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, and human adrenals. The expression of CYP11B1 gene was regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling, whereas that of CYP11B2 gene by calcium ion-signaling as well as cAMP-signaling. Salt-inducible protein kinase, a cAMP-induced novel protein kinase, was one of the regulators of CYP11B2 gene expression.« less

  16. FLB1, a human protein of epididymal origin that is involved in the sperm-oocyte recognition process.

    PubMed

    Boué, F; Duquenne, C; Lassalle, B; Lefèvre, A; Finaz, C

    1995-02-01

    CA6 antibody was selected out of a monoclonal antibody library raised against human sperm proteins primarily for its ability to recognize an epididymal antigen and to modify sperm adhesion to zona-free hamster oocytes. In the present study, CA6 was shown to decrease sperm binding to zona-free hamster and human oocytes by 40-92% and 38-48%, respectively. The corresponding protein, which was referred to as FLB1, was found to be secreted by the epididymis and to bind specifically to a human, macaque, and rodent subacrosomal sperm region. Western blotting revealed a molecular mass of 94 kDa in human epididymal extracts and of 100 kDa in human, macaque, mouse, rat, and hamster sperm, suggesting further modifications after its binding to sperm. An equivalent protein was not observed in human liver, ovary, testis, plasma, or epidermis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that FLB1 is formed of two subunits with the same 47-kDa molecular mass and slightly different pI (5.8, 5.9). Microsequencing of the protein revealed a partial homology with human cytokeratins 1 and 10. These results suggest that FLB1 is an epididymis-specific cytokeratin-like protein that is involved in the sperm-oocyte recognition process.

  17. Fotometría superficial de la galaxia irregular NGC 1427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.; Forte, J. C.

    Se presenta fotometría superficial multicolor de la galaxia irregular NGC 1427A. Esta galaxia, un miembro del Cúmulo de Fornax que no ha sido estudiado previamente, muestra una morfología muy particular: una distribución estelar subyacente de bajo brillo superficial (LSB) con varias manchas brillantes dispuestas en una estructura anular deformada. Por sus colores muy azules se infiere que estas son zonas de formación estelar reciente. Al norte del cuerpo principal de la galaxia, y conectado con éste mediante filamentos LSB, hay un objeto de isofotas aproximadamente circulares. Este objeto tiene en sí mismo algunas zonas brillantes, pero su población estelar subyacente es significativamente más azul que la del cuerpo principal de la galaxia. Esto indica que ambos objetos han tenido distintas historias evolutivas. Estructuralmente, el objeto del norte es muy similar a algunas de las galaxias elípticas enanas más débiles que pueblan el Cúmulo de Fornax. Se discute la posible relación entre este objeto y la galaxia en si.

  18. Feedforward inhibitory control of sensory information in higher-order thalamic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Philippe; Urbain, Nadia; Dufresne, Caroline; Bokor, Hajnalka; Acsády, László; Deschênes, Martin

    2005-08-17

    Sensory stimuli evoke strong responses in thalamic relay cells, which ensure a faithful relay of information to the neocortex. However, relay cells of the posterior thalamic nuclear group in rodents, despite receiving significant trigeminal input, respond poorly to vibrissa deflection. Here we show that sensory transmission in this nucleus is impeded by fast feedforward inhibition mediated by GABAergic neurons of the zona incerta. Intracellular recordings of posterior group neurons revealed that the first synaptic event after whisker deflection is a prominent inhibition. Whisker-evoked EPSPs with fast rise time and longer onset latency are unveiled only after lesioning the zona incerta. Excitation survives barrel cortex lesion, demonstrating its peripheral origin. Electron microscopic data confirm that trigeminal axons make large synaptic terminals on the proximal dendrites of posterior group cells and on the somata of incertal neurons. Thus, the connectivity of the system allows an unusual situation in which inhibition precedes ascending excitation resulting in efficient shunting of the responses. The dominance of inhibition over excitation strongly suggests that the paralemniscal pathway is not designed to relay inputs triggered by passive whisker deflection. Instead, we propose that this pathway operates through disinhibition, and that the posterior group forwards to the cerebral cortex sensory information that is contingent on motor instructions.

  19. Adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and evidence for deoxyribonucleic acid binding and stimulation by adrenocorticotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, T.; Driscoll, W.J.; Lee, Y.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei of the guinea pig adrenal cortex contain a protein that specifically binds progesterone and that, biochemically, is clearly distinct from the classical progesterone receptor. The adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein has now been purified more than 2000-fold by steroid-affinity chromatography with a 75% yield. The purified protein preparation demonstrated three major bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel of 79K, 74K, and 50K. To determine which of the three might represent the progesterone-binding protein, steroid photoaffinity labeling was performed which resulted in the specific and exclusive labeling of a 50K band. Thus, the adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein appears to be distinctmore » from the classical progesterone receptor not only biochemically, but also on the basis of molecular size. To test whether the adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein can be hormonally stimulated, guinea pigs were treated with ACTH. The chronic administration of ACTH caused a 4- to 6-fold increase in the specific progesterone binding capacity without a change in the binding affinity. There appeared to be no significant difference in nuclear progesterone binding between the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. This finding suggests a mediating role for the progesterone-binding protein in ACTH action. In addition, the nuclear progesterone-binding protein bound to nonspecific DNA sequences, further suggesting a possible transcriptional regulatory role.« less

  20. Evaluating outcome-correlated recruitment and geographic recruitment bias in a respondent-driven sample of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Abby E; Gaines, Tommi L; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2014-12-01

    Respondent-driven sampling's (RDS) widespread use and reliance on untested assumptions suggests a need for new exploratory/diagnostic tests. We assessed geographic recruitment bias and outcome-correlated recruitment among 1,048 RDS-recruited people who inject drugs (Tijuana, Mexico). Surveys gathered demographics, drug/sex behaviors, activity locations, and recruiter-recruit pairs. Simulations assessed geographic and network clustering of active syphilis (RPR titers ≥1:8). Gender-specific predicted probabilities were estimated using logistic regression with GEE and robust standard errors. Active syphilis prevalence was 7 % (crude: men = 5.7 % and women = 16.6 %; RDS-adjusted: men = 6.7 % and women = 7.6 %). Syphilis clustered in the Zona Norte, a neighborhood known for drug and sex markets. Network simulations revealed geographic recruitment bias and non-random recruitment by syphilis status. Gender-specific prevalence estimates accounting for clustering were highest among those living/working/injecting/buying drugs in the Zona Norte and directly/indirectly connected to syphilis cases (men: 15.9 %, women: 25.6 %) and lowest among those with neither exposure (men: 3.0 %, women: 6.1 %). Future RDS analyses should assess/account for network and spatial dependencies.