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Sample records for zonata saunders infesting

  1. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  2. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  3. Effects of monoterpenes on mortality, growth, fecundity, and ovarian development of Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    El-Minshawy, Abdelaziz M; Abdelgaleil, Samir A M; Gadelhak, Gadelhak G; Al-Eryan, Mohamed A; Rabab, Rafiaa A

    2018-06-01

    The peach fruit fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata, is a serious insect pest infesting fruits and vegetables. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenes, namely, (R)-camphor, (R)-carvone, and (1R,2S,5R)-menthol, was evaluated on the second-instar larvae of B. zonata. In addition, the latent effects of monoterpenes on pupation, adult emergence, deformation, oviposition, adult longevity, and ovarian development were also examined. The three tested monoterpenes showed pronounced insecticidal activity against B. zonata larvae with (R)-carvone being the most potent toxicant. When the second-instar larvae of B. zonata were treated with monoterpenes at concentrations of 20, 50, and 70 mg/kg for 72 h, significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence was observed. The three monoterpenes caused complete suppression of adult emergence at 100 mg/kg. Moreover, monoterpenes induced complete inhibition of egg deposition at all tested concentrations. Some adult deformations were also noticed at 20, 50, and 70 mg/kg. However, (R)-carvone was more effective than (1R,2S,5R)-menthol and (R)-camphor on the examined biological parameters. On the other hand, histological examination of the ovaries of emerged females from larvae that fed on diet treated with (R)-carvone, (1R,2S,5R)-menthol, and (R)-camphor at 20 and 50 mg/L indicated that both concentrations caused retardation in the development of ovarioles. It is clear that all the egg chambers are empty; the germarium region is constricted at base due to the failure of oocyte formation. Many vacant spaces were present between ovarioles.

  4. Phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata (Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Robles, J A; Denardo, D F; Staub, R E

    1999-11-01

    The phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata, was studied using mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens belonging to the seven recognized subspecies and collected throughout the range of the species. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods identified a basal split within L. zonata that corresponds to southern and northern segments of its distribution. The southern clade is composed of populations from southern California (USA) and northern Baja California, Mexico. The northern clade is divided into two subclades, a 'coastal' subclade, consisting of populations from the central coast of California and the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of eastern California, and a 'northeastern' subclade, mainly comprised of populations north of the San Francisco Bay and from the majority of the Sierra Nevada. We suggest that past inland seaways in southwestern California and the embayment of central California constituted barriers to gene flow that resulted in the two deepest divergences within L. zonata. Throughout its evolutionary history, the northern clade apparently has undergone instances of range contraction, isolation, differentiation, and then expansion and secondary contact. Examination of colour pattern variation in 321 living and preserved specimens indicated that the two main colour pattern characters used to define the subspecies of L. zonata are so variable that they cannot be reliably used to differentiate taxonomic units within this complex, which calls into question the recognition of seven geographical races of this snake.

  5. Dame Cicely Saunders: An Omega Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Presents interview with Dame Cicely Saunders, founder of international hospice care movement. Saunders describes her background and experiences that led her to form the hospice movement and discusses the need for pain control for terminally ill patients. Saunders also notes her opposition to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. (NB)

  6. Polyketides from Pestalotiopsis zonata and structure revision of pestalrones A and B.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Liu, Chang; Dong, Ya-Jing; Liu, Fang-Ru; Xu, Xiu-Mei; Li, De-Sheng; Li, Dan-Yi; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2017-11-23

    The structures of pestalrones A-B were revised via reinterpretation of the NMR data and a brief chemical transformation from the co-occurring polyketides, in our investigation on the secondary metabolites of Pestalotiopsis zonata, which also afforded a new α-pyrone derivative, pestazonatic acid, and four known analogs.

  7. Degenerative encephalopathy in a coastal mountain kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata multifasciata) due to adenoviral-like infection.

    PubMed

    Raymond, James T; Lamm, Marnie; Nordhausen, Robert; Latimer, Ken; Garner, Michael M

    2003-04-01

    In March 2000, an approximately 30-yr-old, male coastal mountain kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata multifasciata) presented with disequilibrium and unresponsiveness to stimuli that ultimately lead to euthanasia. Histologically, there were foci of gliosis primarily within the caudal cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord. Several glial cells and endothelial cells contained magenta, intranuclear inclusion bodies. Electron microscopy of the inclusions revealed paracrystalline arrays of 79-82 nm, viral-like particles. DNA in situ hybridization of sections of formalin-fixed brain using a mixture of two digoxigenin-end-labeled, adenovirus specific, oligonucleotide probes at low and high stringency was positive for adenovirus.

  8. A New Method for Obtaining Russell-Saunders Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yue; Liu, Bihui

    2011-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Russell-Saunders terms of atomic configurations is reported. This new method is significantly different from, while at the same time complementary to, previously published methods for obtaining atomic terms. This novel procedure is elicited by the method used to determine the splitting of S, P, D terms in weak ligand…

  9. Multilocus phylogeographic assessment of the California Mountain Kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata) suggests alternative patterns of diversification for the California Floristic Province.

    PubMed

    Myers, E A; Rodríguez-Robles, J A; Denardo, D F; Staub, R E; Stropoli, A; Ruane, S; Burbrink, F T

    2013-11-01

    Phylogeographic inference can determine the timing of population divergence, historical demographic processes, patterns of migration, and when extended to multiple species, the history of communities. Single-locus analyses can mislead interpretations of the evolutionary history of taxa and comparative analyses. It is therefore important to revisit previous single-locus phylogeographic studies, particularly those that have been used to propose general patterns for regional biotas and the processes responsible for generating inferred patterns. Here, we employ a multilocus statistical approach to re-examine the phylogeography of Lampropeltis zonata. Using nonparametic and Bayesian species delimitation, we determined that there are two well-supported species within L. zonata. Ecological niche modelling supports the delimitation of these taxa, suggesting that the two species inhabit distinct climatic environments. Gene flow between the two taxa is low and appears to occur unidirectionally. Further, our data suggest that gene flow was mediated by females, a rare pattern in snakes. In contrast to previous analyses, we determined that the divergence between the two lineages occurred in the late Pliocene (c. 2.07 Ma). Spatially and temporally, the divergence of these lineages is associated with the inundation of central California by the Monterey Bay. The effective population sizes of the two species appear to have been unaffected by Pleistocene glaciation. Our increased sampling of loci for L. zonata, combined with previously published multilocus analyses of other sympatric species, suggests that previous conclusions reached by comparative phylogeographic studies conducted within the California Floristic Province should be reassessed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An historical perspective on the pioneering experiments of John Saunders.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2017-09-15

    John Saunders was a highly skilled embryologist who pioneered the study of limb development. His studies on chick embryos provided the fundamental framework for understanding how vertebrate limbs develop. This framework inspired generations of scientists and formed the bridge from experimental embryology to molecular mechanisms. Saunders investigated how feathers become organized into tracts in the skin of the chick wing and also identified regions of programmed cell death. He discovered that a region of thickened ectoderm that rims the chick wing bud - the apical ectodermal ridge - is required for outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (long axis) of the wing, identified the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA; polarizing region) that controls development across the anteroposterior axis ("thumb to little finger "axis) and contributed to uncovering the importance of the ectoderm in development of structures along the dorso-ventral axis ( "back of hand to palm" axis). This review looks in depth at some of his original papers and traces how he made the crucial findings about how limbs develop, considering these findings both in the context of contemporary knowledge at the time and also in terms of their immediate impact on the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  13. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  14. HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 1 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 1 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 4 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 4 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 2 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 2 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. HABS DC,WASH,515A (sheet 3 of 4) Captain Henry Saunders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HABS DC,WASH,515A- (sheet 3 of 4) - Captain Henry Saunders House, Virginia Room, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (moved from VA, Windsor vicinity, U.S. Route 460), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica: 1972-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S.; Foley, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite images from 1972 to 1997 have been used to prepare a map showing glaciological features of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica. Analysis of the imagery shows a trend toward ice-front retreat that may be a result of changing environmental conditions.

  19. Visualizing, Rather than Deriving, Russell-Saunders Terms: A Classroom Activity with Quantum Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    A 1 h classroom activity is presented, aimed at consolidating the concepts of microstates and Russell-Saunders energy terms in transition metal atoms and coordination complexes. The unconventional approach, based on logic and intuition rather than rigorous mathematics, is designed to stimulate discussion and enhance familiarity with quantum…

  20. [The use of Saunders lumbar traction in physiotherapy of patients with chronic lower back pain].

    PubMed

    Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz; Łabecka, Monika; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Pain of the lower back is one of the most common ailments in modem society. Such frequent occurrence of back pain syndromes is a serious medical and social problem. Despite numerous attempts, there have not been comprehensive or decisive publications on the therapeutic standard for back pain syndromes that would cover all the aspects of the ailment. Partial report can change the attitude and shed new light on the treatment of these syndromes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Saunders lumbar tractions in patients with chronic lower back pain in comparison with the group of patients undergoing pharmacological treatment. The study included 140 patients with chronic lower back pain who were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 70 persons of mixed gender (the age mean value was 45). Group I were treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction and Group II (control group) were treated pharmacologically. The following scales were used to assess pain and mobility of the lumbar part of the vertebral column (before treatment, in-treatment, right after treatment and 30 days after treatment): Laitinen, VAS, Rolland-Morris questionnaire and Schober functional test. The statistical analysis was performed with Greenhouse-Geisser test of within-subjects effects. In both the groups, a significant analgesic action and an improvement to spinal mobility were observed. Significantly better results were obtained in Group I where the patients had been treated with the use of Saunders lumbar traction. The pharmacological treatment applied in Group II showed an analgesic action and influenced positively the functional parameters of the patients. The effects, however, were much worse than in Group 1 where axial Saunders traction was applied to the lumbar part of the vertebral column.

  1. Comment on 'The effect of liquid water on thunderstorm charging' by C.P.R. Saunders et al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Earle; Zhang, Renyi

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a comment on the claims made in the paper by Saunders et al. (1991), which reports on a laboratory simulation of ice particle charging in thunderstorms, concerning the microphysical condition of riming ice particles and the conditions for sublimation and negative charging in thunderclouds. It is argued that the interpretation of Saunders is contrary to the findings of Williams et al. (1991), which support the hypothesis that sublimating graupel charge negatively (in collision with smaller ice particles) and graupel in deposition charge positively. Based on microphysical calculations as well as observations in thunderclouds, it is concluded that, while sublimation of the rimer surface and negative charging do not appear to account for the laboratory observations reported by Saunders et al., these authors do not have sufficient evidence for rejecting the sublimation hypothesis presented by Williams et al. (1991) for thunderstorms.

  2. Sexual differences in post-hatching Saunders's gulls: size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Seung-Hee; Joo, Eun-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong

    2013-04-01

    Various selection pressures induce the degree and direction of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Selection favors either larger males for contests over mates or resources, or smaller males are favored for maneuverability; whereas larger females are favored for higher fecundity, or smaller females for earlier maturation for reproduction. In the genus of Larus (seagulls), adult males are generally known to be larger in size than adult females. However, the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism is not well understood, compared to that in adults. The present study investigates the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in Saunders's gulls (Larus saundersi) in captivity. We artificially incubated fresh eggs collected in Incheon, South Korea, and measured body size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill in post-hatching chicks in captivity. Our results indicated that the sexual differences in size and locomotor activity occurred with the post-hatching development. Also, larger males exhibited greater foraging skills for food acquisition than smaller females at 200 days of age. Future studies should assess how the adaptive significance of the sexual size dimorphism in juveniles is linked with sexual divergence in survival rates, intrasexual contests, or parental effort in sexes.

  3. IceBridge Survey Flight Over Saunders Island and Wolstenholme Fjord

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This image of Saunders Island and Wolstenholme Fjord with Kap Atholl in the background was taken during an Operation IceBridge survey flight in April, 2013. Sea ice coverage in the fjord ranges from thicker, white ice seen in the background, to thinner grease ice and leads showing open ocean water in the foreground. In March 2013, NASA's Operation IceBridge scientists began another season of research activity over Arctic ice sheets and sea ice. IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice. Image Credit: NASA / Michael Studinger Read more about the mission here: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/icebridge/index.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. A sublittoral population of Pleurophycus gardneri Setchell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae: Laminariaceae) in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Reed, Daniel C.; Harrold, Christopher; Bodkin, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Published distributional records for the stipitate kelp Pleurophycus gardneri Setchell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae: Laminariaceae) indicae a geographic range from Montague Island (59°58’N, 147°22W), Alaska to Fort Bragg (39°27’N, 123°47’W), California (Druehl 1969, 1970; Kjeldsen 1972). P. gardneri is found primarily in rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal locations (Scagel 1967; Nicholson 1976). In California, populations of P. gardneri have been reported only from the lower rocky intertidal near Fort Bragg (Kjeldsen 1972).On 7 and 8 July 1982 and 23 March 1984 we censused stipitate kelps during SCUBS dives at a site 2.3 km south southeast of Pt. Sierra Nevada (35°41’ N, 121°18’W). we counted kelps in 1 x 5-m plots along a 50-m tape laid across the bottom in an arbitrarily predetermined direction from the skiff anchor. We also measured water depth at 1-m intervals along the tape, using a SCUBA depth gauge. On 20 August 1982, we used the same tehniques to sample kelp densities at a site 2.4 km east southeast of Pt. Piedras Blancas (35°39’N, 121°15’W).The most abundant kelps at the Pt. Sierra Nevada ste were Pterygophora californica Ruprect 1852 (Phaeophyceae: Alariaceae) and a species we tentatively identified as P. gardneri (Table 1). Based on specimens we collected on 8 July 1982, our field identification was subsequently confirmed by I. A. Abbot. Voucher specimens were placed in the Gilbert M. Smith Herbarium at Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California.

  5. Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

    2008-01-01

    Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.

  6. Reseeding tarweed-infested ranges.

    Treesearch

    E.W. Stevenson

    1950-01-01

    Cluster tarweed(Madia glomerata) infests many livestock ranges in eastern Oregon, using soil moisture and nutrients that should be producing plants more valuable as forage and more effective in stabilizing watersheds. No completely satisfactory method of eliminating this obnoxious plant and replacing it, with forage has yet been found. Recent...

  7. Accelerated test system strength models based on Birnbaum-Saunders distribution: a complete Bayesian analysis and comparison.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, S K; Mukherjee, Bhaswati; Gupta, Ashutosh

    2009-09-01

    Several models for studies related to tensile strength of materials are proposed in the literature where the size or length component has been taken to be an important factor for studying the specimens' failure behaviour. An important model, developed on the basis of cumulative damage approach, is the three-parameter extension of the Birnbaum-Saunders fatigue model that incorporates size of the specimen as an additional variable. This model is a strong competitor of the commonly used Weibull model and stands better than the traditional models, which do not incorporate the size effect. The paper considers two such cumulative damage models, checks their compatibility with a real dataset, compares them with some of the recent toolkits, and finally recommends a model, which appears an appropriate one. Throughout the study is Bayesian based on Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. [Assessment of rehabilitation progress in patients with cervical radicular pain syndrome after application of high intensity laser therapy - HILT and Saunders traction device].

    PubMed

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Julia; Pingot, Mariusz

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis of the spine is a major global health problem, it is an epidemic of our times. It affects all parts of the spine, but the hardest to treat is its cervical region. The cervical spine is most mobile, delicate and sensitive to any load. It requires special care in conservative treatment. To date the selection of effective therapeutic approaches has been controversial. The aim of the study was to assess the progress of rehabilitation in patients with cervical radicular pain syndrome after using two different methods of treatment: HILT and spinal axial traction with the use of Saunders device. The randomized study included 150 patients (81 women and 69 men, aged 24-67 years, mean age 45.5) divided into two groups of 75 patients each with characteristic symptoms of radicular pain. The measurement of the range of cervical spine movement of the cervical spine, visual analog scale for pain - VAS and a NDI questionnaire (Neck Disability Index - Polish version) - an indicator of functional disorders - were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the two different therapies. The results obtained by Saunders method remained significantly higher than those obtained when HILT laser therapy was used for most of the examined parameters. A thorough analysis of the results showed greater analgesic efficacy, improved global mobility and reduced functional impairment in patients treated with Saunders method. Both therapeutic methods manifest analgesic effect and a positive impact on the improvement of range of cervical spine movement in patients with radicular pain in this spine region. HILT laser therapy and Saunders traction device reduce neck disability index in the treated patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  9. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Iain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. PMID:15829190

  10. Severe Demodex infestation of a coal miner.

    PubMed

    Toğral, Arzu Karataş; Altındal, Mahmut; Koryürek, Özgül Muştu; Tutkun, Engin; Yılmaz, Ömer Hınç

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Demodex infestation in a 35 year old coal miner presenting with a 5 year history of scally papulopustular eruption on his face. He had been working inunderground coal tunnels in a humid- hot- dusty environment and he had been used to bath twice a day with hot water and multiple cleaners. The patient was treated successfully with oral metronidazol, topical permethrin, topical steroids and avoidance of undergraund mining . We believe his occupational environment made him prone to infestation by changes in sebum composition and/or viscosity, his bath habituation facilitated infestation, damaging the epidermal barrier function and his previous treatments exaggerated his infestation. During evaluation of the patient, specific occupational factors and habituations will be related with higher succession rates of treatment. We need to conduct further studies in order to draw a definite conclusion about the effect of the occupational environment on Demodex infestation.

  11. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  12. Head lice infestations: A clinical update.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Carl; Finlay, Jane C; MacDonald, Noni E

    2018-02-01

    Head lice ( Pediculus humanus capitis ) infestations are not a primary health hazard or a vector for disease, but they are a societal problem with substantial costs. Diagnosis of head lice infestation requires the detection of a living louse. Although pyrethrins and permethrin remain first-line treatments in Canada, isopropyl myristate/ST-cyclomethicone solution and dimeticone can be considered as second-line therapies when there is evidence of treatment failure.

  13. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Treesearch

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  14. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  15. Severe iron deficiency anemia and lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Guss, David A; Koenig, Mark; Castillo, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    Lice infestation is a commonly encountered disorder in emergency medicine. The louse survives from a blood meal from its host; hence, iron deficiency anemia is a theoretic possibility. A limited number of reports of severe iron deficiency anemia have appeared in the veterinary literature, but a thorough review of the medical literature did not reveal a single instance in human beings. We report a small case series of patients with heavy louse infestation and profound iron deficiency anemia. The index case along with two other cases discovered from an exhaustive search of 4 years of the institution's Emergency Department records all had heavy infestation with head and body lice. Laboratory evaluation revealed serum hemoglobin levels under 6 gm/dL, low serum ferritin levels, and microcytic red blood cell indices. All patients were admitted to the hospital, received transfusions, and had evaluation of their anemia. No patient had evidence of gastrointestinal blood loss or alternative explanation for their anemia. Although cause and effect cannot be established from this case series, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first published evidence of a provocative association of louse infestation and severe iron deficiency anemia in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical sensing of weed infestations at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsola ssp.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. These weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives...

  17. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  18. Promoting Native Vegetation in Medusahead Infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Restoring medusahead-infested native communities may be most successful if there is enough remnant native vegetation to eliminate the need for revegetation efforts. Prescribed burning followed by imazapic (Plateau®1) application provided the best control of medusahead and resulted in the greatest i...

  19. Delusional Infestation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Vulink, Nienke C

    2016-08-23

    Patients with a delusional infestation (DI) have an overwhelming conviction that they are being infested with (non) pathogens without any medical proof. The patients need a systematic psychiatric and dermatological evaluation to assess any possible underlying cause that could be treated. Because they avoid psychiatrists, a close collaboration of dermatologists and psychiatrists, who examine the patient together, seems to be a promising solution. It helps to start a trustful doctor-patient relationship and motivates the patient for psychiatric treatment. We here review diagnostic criteria, classification of symptoms, pathophysiology and treatment options of DI. Antipsychotic medication is the treatment of choice when any other underlying cause or disorder is excluded. Further research is needed to assess the pathophysiology, and other treatment options for patients with DI.

  20. TICK INFESTATION: A 200-PATIENTS' SERIES.

    PubMed

    Guven, Oya; Satilmis, Dilay; Sonmez, Feruza Turan; Demir, Bilgehan; Erdogan, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    A great number of zoonotic diseases with high mortality rate are transmitted by ticks. We performed this study in order to investigate patients admitted to emergency department following a tick bite. We examined the patients and get knowledge about the infestation and we followed up them for possible tick-conducted disease symptoms and laboratory findings both clinically and serologically. The study presented was hold for one year, between 01.01.2012 and 31.12.2012. 200 tick infested cases, admitted to Emergency Department of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, were subjected in the study. Demographic patterns of the patients and the region they come from, infested area on body, admission time and blood analyzing results were detected. Rate of adult patients to pediatric was 2:1; gender distribution was similar to each other. The most common body areas that ticks were removed from were lower extremity. The highest tick bite incidence was in summer and on weekends. No tick bite incident of Istanbul surrounding from the year 2012 progressed to a zoonotic disease. Although non-of the patients of our study has been diagnosed with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever we informed all of them for the incubation period and call for observation during the time. Tick borne infections may present with vary of symptoms, the most sever of which is hemorrhagic diathesis and patients should be informed for the risks. Knowledge of local area fauna risks may guide physicians so studies on this topic are essential.

  1. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  2. Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbick, Nathan M.

    Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm

  3. [Human pediculosis, or how to treat lice infestations?].

    PubMed

    García Sanchón, Carlos

    2004-05-01

    The author reports on relevant aspects of pediculosis humanus, citing the lice species implicated, their location in the zones affected by lice infestations on human bodies and in their clothing; furthermore, he describes the most frequent lesions produced by lice, the adequate handling of lice infestations and their treatment. Lice are not a recent phenomenon; probably the lice which we encounter today acting as a parasite on humans is very similar to lice which infested humans centuries ago.

  4. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  5. High infestation levels of Schizotetranychus oryzae severely affects rice metabolism.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Édina A R; Buffon, Giseli; Rativa, Angie G S; Lopes, Mara C B; Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R; Schwambach, Joséli; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Sperotto, Raul A

    2017-12-01

    High levels of Schizotetranychus oryzae phytophagous mite infestation on rice leaves can severely affect productivity. Physiological characterization showed that S. oryzae promotes a decrease in chlorophyll concentration and the establishment of a senescence process in rice leaves. Late-infested leaves also present high levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide accumulation, along with high levels of membrane integrity loss, which is indicative of cell death. To better understand the rice molecular responses to high levels of mite infestation, we employed the Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach to identify differentially expressed proteins. We identified 83 and 88 proteins uniquely present in control and late-infested leaves, respectively, along with 11 and one proteins more abundant in control and late-infested leaves, respectively. S. oryzae infestation induces a decreased abundance of proteins related to translation, protease inhibition, and photosynthesis. On the other hand, infestation caused increased abundance of proteins involved in protein modification and degradation. Our results also suggest that S. oryzae infestation interferes with intracellular transport, DNA structure maintenance, and amino acid and lipid metabolism in rice leaves. Proteomic data were positively correlated with enzymatic assays and RT-qPCR analysis. Our findings describe the protein expression patterns of late-infested rice leaves and suggest several targets which could be tested in future biotechnological approaches aiming to avoid the population increase of phytophagous mite in rice plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. [Management of lice infestations, recommendations for 2012].

    PubMed

    Maillard, Alexia; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Eicher, Nicole; Michaud, Mélanie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2012-04-04

    Pediculosis is the most frequent and contagious ectoparasitic infestation in human, particularly in children from 3 to 8 years of age. Epidemics are observed from time to time, in schools or in adults in prisons. Even though benign, these infections remain unpleasant and can have an important psyco-social impact. Since a few years, caregivers have to face increasing problems while treating lice: appearance of insecticide resistances, lindane's withdrawal from the market and the marketing of new products which are not always well evaluated. This article offers first recalls about pediculoses and then a sum up of the different available treatments with an evidence based management strategy.

  7. Skin infections and infestations in prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Oninla, Olumayowa A; Onayemi, Olaniyi

    2012-02-01

    Skin infections and infestations are common in a prison environment. The prison is in dynamic equilibrium with the larger society. Hence, it serves as a reservoir of infections which can spread to the larger society. The study sets out to find out how rampant these infections might be in the prison and the factors responsible. Inmates at a Nigerian prison in Ilesha, Osun State, were examined for skin infections. Personal hygiene and living conditions were critically examined. The overall prevalent rate of infectious dermatoses was 49.2% (150/305). There were 178 infections. Dermatophytes accounted for 64%, pityriasis versicolor 27%, bacterial infections 3.4%, and others 5.6%. Only frequency of soap use and accommodation arrangement significantly contributed to the overall prevalence. However, infectious dermatoses were significantly affected by prison status (PP = 0.04), frequency of bath (PP = 0.025), changing of clothing (PP = 0.05), accommodation arrangement (P = 0.0001), frequency of soap usage (P = 0.005), and toilet facility (P = 0.001). The HIV status of the inmates was unknown. Hence, effect of HIV infection cannot be ascertained. Skin infections and infestations are common in prison. A change in living conditions and personal hygiene will definitely help in reducing these infections. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Treesearch

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  9. Scabies in Sheffield: a family infestation.

    PubMed Central

    Church, R E; Knowelden, J

    1978-01-01

    From June 1972 to May 1973 the medical officer of health and general practitioners in Sheffield referred all suspected cases of scabies to the Hallamshire Hospital skin department. Contact tracing, similar to that in VD departments, was carried out by a specially trained state registered nurse. In all, 1482 cases were found in 609 households. This was ten times the number referred to the skin department in 1971. Infestation was introduced to households mainly by schoolchildren and teenagers, especially by girls. The commonest sources were friends and relatives outside the home. Schools did not play an appreciable part in spread. The secondary attack rate in households was 38%. Notification of cases, adequate treatment within the home, and contact tracing are recommended to halt the present epidemic of scabies. PMID:630337

  10. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  11. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  12. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  13. Leech (Hirudinea) infestations among waterfowl near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, James C.; Trauger, David L.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen species of aquatic birds, including 11 species of ducks, were infested with leeches Theromyzon rude and Placobdella ornata near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Leeches infested 88% of 41 American Wigeon (Anas americana) and 31% of 86 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) examined after death. Lesser Scaup captured by drive-trapping contained significantly more leeches than undisturbed ducks. Leeches were attached to the host within the mucosa of the nasal chamber, to the conjunctiva of the eye and on the skin of the body. Although only two deaths of ducklings were directly attributed to leech infestations, other birds probably died as a result of parasitism by leeches.

  14. Mite Infestations of Man Contracted from Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Thomsett, L. R.

    1968-01-01

    Acarine infestations of the dog and cat are transmissible to man. The relation between age incidence in the host, duration of disease, and circumstances under which the animal is kept are stated. Fifty out of 65 human contacts at risk to 42 infected dogs and cats showed lesions of mite infestation; 48% of these lesions were confined to the arms and torso. It is important to consider animal mite infestation in the differential diagnosis of human pruritic and papular skin disease. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4969550

  15. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    .... APHIS-2012-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal and Plant... Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in...- 0075), we amended Sec. 301.45-3(a) by adding portions of Wisconsin to the list of generally infested...

  16. Infestation of the human kidney with Dioctophyma renale.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Ivan; Stojkovic, Ivica; Kutlesic, Cedo; Tasic, Suzana

    2003-01-01

    Human infestation with Dioctophyma renale is presented. Clinical signs and diagnostic findings are unspecific. They are discussed and a conservative therapeutic approach is suggested. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-10-19

    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  18. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638–710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications. PMID:29048342

  19. Oral ivermectin for the treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Sanchezruiz, Wendy L; Nuzum, Donald S; Kouzi, Samir A

    2018-05-22

    Published literature describing the use of oral ivermectin for the treatment of head lice infestation is reviewed. In the United States and globally, head lice infestation, or pediculosis capitis, remains a public health issue with both social and medical implications. Treatment with oral or topical medications is typically required for head lice eradication. Resistance to traditional topical therapies for head lice infestation is increasing, creating a need for consideration of additional treatment options. A growing body of data describing the potential role of oral ivermectin for the treatment or prevention of head lice infestation is available. A literature search identified 5 clinical trials that evaluated safety and/or effectiveness outcomes of oral ivermectin use as an alternative to malathion, other topical prescription medications, and traditional, nonprescription remedies; those studies were conducted in various parts of the world (e.g., Australia, Brazil, Mexico, Egypt) and likely involved varying types and degrees of lice resistance. Clinical research findings to date, while not consistently robust, suggest that oral ivermectin is comparable or superior in effectiveness to other topical treatment options for head lice infestation while being well tolerated and favorably perceived by patients and caretakers. Oral ivermectin is an option for the treatment of head lice infestation, especially in individuals who have experienced a treatment failure. Published evidence from clinical trials indicates that oral ivermectin is as effective as currently available topical treatments. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  1. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides.

  2. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia ( T. ) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium . A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  3. Common Child and Adolescent Cutaneous Infestations and Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alter, Sherman J; McDonald, Megan B; Schloemer, Julie; Simon, Ryan; Trevino, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Cutaneous infections and infestations are common among children and adolescents. Ectoparasitic infestations affect individuals across the globe. Head lice, body lice, scabies, and infestations with bed bugs are seen in individuals who reside in both resource poor areas and in developed countries. Superficial cutaneous and mucosal candida infections occur throughout the life cycle. Dermatophyte infections of keratin-containing skin and skin structures result in tinea capitis (scalp), tinea corporis (body), tinea pedis (foot), and tinea unguium (nails). Less frequent endemic fungal infections such as blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, and histoplasmosis may present with skin findings. This article will describe the epidemiology and transmission of these conditions as well as their clinical manifestations. The approach to diagnosis will be addressed as well as primary prevention and current therapies. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  5. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery.

  6. Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.

    PubMed

    Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S

    2015-03-01

    The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum.

  7. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  8. Prevalence and reproduction of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the fecundity of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite genera. Resu...

  9. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  10. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  11. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the...

  12. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the...

  13. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  14. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw, grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the...

  15. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment and...

  16. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  17. Infestation Trends of Balsam Woolly Aphid in an Abies Alba Plantation in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Gerhard F. Fedde

    1971-01-01

    Infestations of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.), on European silver fir trees in a plantation were observed over a 7-year period. Infestations were usually light, but occasionally increased to heavy. Heavy infestations declined within 1 or 2 years without killing the trees or causing them apparent damage.

  18. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Artemis; Valari, Manthoula

    2011-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative. We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire. Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38%, and wet combing in parallel was employed by 79% of them. Preventive measures were employed by 66% of the respondents, and 54% applied botanical and synthetic products commercially available for this purpose. There is a trend towards the use of natural oils for either prevention or treatment. More needs to be done to promote public education and rational use of either pediculicides or non-pharmacological agents for pediculosis capitis infestation. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites

    Treesearch

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  20. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  1. Kraft pulp from budworm-infested jack pine

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; Gary C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of kraft pulp from bud-worm-infested jack pine. The logs were classified as merchantable live, suspect, or merchantable dead. Raw materials were evaluated through visual inspection, analysis of the chemical composition, SilviScan measurement of the density, and measurement of the tracheid length. Unbleached pulps were then refined using...

  2. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  3. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  4. A case report of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in three cats.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Antonella; Leone, Federico; Albanese, Francesco; Beccati, Massimo

    2018-04-30

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a major threat for the poultry industry; these mites also feed on the blood of many other birds, small mammals and potentially humans. Three cats with dermatitis attributed to D. gallinae infestation. Two 40-day-old kittens, living in a rural area, and one 7-year-old female indoor cat, were presented with a pruritic skin condition. Mite specimens were collected from the cats and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Cytological and histological examinations of the skin lesions were performed. A diagnosis of D. gallinae infestation was made after identification of the mites. Histological findings were compatible with eosinophilic dermatitis. Clinical improvement was noted two weeks after treatment. The two kittens showed chronic blood loss which reflects the ability of D. gallinae mites to switch host. For the indoor cat, mites were presumed to be carried by birds regularly present on the balcony of the apartment. This demonstrates that mite infestation is possible even in urban areas, through contact with birds or their abandoned nests. When birds are not present, cats or other small mammals as well as humans, can be infested. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

  6. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  7. Single- versus Multiple-Pest Infestation Affects Differently the Biochemistry of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig').

    PubMed

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Drungowski, Mario; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2015-11-25

    Tomato is susceptible to pest infestations by both spider mites and aphids. The effects of each individual pest on plants are known, whereas multiple-pest infestations have received little interest. We studied the effects of single- versus multiple-pest infestation by Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae on tomato biochemistry (Solanum lycopersicum) by combining a metabolomic approach and analyses of carotenoids using UHPLC-ToF-MS and volatiles using GC-MS. Plants responded differently to aphids and mites after 3 weeks of infestation, and a multiple infestation induced a specific metabolite composition in plants. In addition, we showed that volatiles emissions differed between the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermes and identified compounds emitted particularly in response to a multiple infestation (cyclohexadecane, dodecane, aromadendrene, and β-elemene). Finally, the carotenoid concentrations in leaves and stems were more affected by multiple than single infestations. Our study highlights and discusses the interplay of biotic stressors within the terpenoid metabolism.

  8. Exploring the Psychological Profile of Patients with Delusional Infestation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Reena; Taylor, Ruth E; Bewley, Anthony

    2017-01-04

    Delusional infestation (DI) is an uncommon psychiatric disorder in which patients present with the false and fixed belief (i.e. a delusion) that their skin and/or their environment is infested despite objective evidence to the contrary. Within psychodermatology specialist clinics there is a high rate of DI referrals. What is not known is the level of psychiatric and psychological co-morbidities associated with DI and whether psychiatric or psychological assessment would be warranted. One-hundred and thirty-eight adult patients with DI attending an outpatient psychodermatology clinic were given 3 standardised questionnaires. The results showed that 81% had a poor quality of life; 52% with anxiety, 41.6% with depression and 49% with appearance-related concerns. This study indicates high levels of psychiatric and psychological disorders in DI which require assessment and appropriate intervention.

  9. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials. Copyright 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  11. Thelazia callipaeda infestation in Bangladesh: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akhanda, A H; Akonjee, A R; Hossain, M M; Rahman, M A; Mishu, F A; Hasan, M F; Akhanda, T H

    2013-07-01

    A 5 years old girl was admitted to Ophthalmology department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh with excessive watering, redness and movement of something in her right eye for last 2 months. She had unaided visual acuity- 6/6, matted eye lashes and mucoid discharge in right eye. Follicles were present on the fornices and lower palpebral conjunctiva of the same eye. On eversion of the right upper lid there were silicon tube like coiled moving structures seen at the lateral part of the upper fornics. Six nematodes were seen in the upper fornics around the duct of lacrimal glands. After removing the nematodes, one specimen was sent to parasitology department of Bangladesh Agriculture University for species identification. They reported that sending specimen is an adult "Thelazia Callipaeda". By the present study, the presence of human ocular T. callipaeda infestation is second reported case in Bangladesh. Ophthalmologists should be aware about parasitic infestation of conjunctiva.

  12. [On Cheyletiella infestation in domestic cats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H

    1979-06-13

    Two Persian cats kept in common, 3 months and 2 years old, presented a heavy infestation with Cheyletiella mites. The cats showed itching and loss of hair. The animals' owners suffered from severe itching and redish papulae, particularly on those parts of the body which frequently got in contact with the cats. After three treatments with Alugan powder (Hoechst) the cats were freed from the mite infestation. The owners' skin affection disappeared soon without any treatment. This is the first recovery of Cheyletiella mites on cats in Austria. The mites were identified as C. blakei, although obvious differences between the first description and our material were encountered. C. blakei could be primarily separated from C. parasitivorax according to the female tectum and the peritremata. Typically the sense organs on the genua of the first pair of legs are ovoid in shape. This feature, although morphologically variable, could be used as a diagnostic aid, if enough adult specimens are available.

  13. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C

    1985-12-01

    An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed.

  14. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Nidhi; Mitra, J D; Ali, S A; Srivastava, Roshni

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence and frequency distribution patterns of 10 phthirapteran species infesting house sparrows, Indian parakeets, common mynas, and white breasted kingfishers were recorded in the district of Rampur, India, during 2004-05. The sample mean abundances, mean intensities, range of infestations, variance to mean ratios, values of the exponent of the negative binomial distribution, and the indices of discrepancy were also computed. Frequency distribution patterns of all phthirapteran species were skewed, but the observed frequencies did not correspond to the negative binomial distribution. Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased.

  15. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  16. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites.

    Treesearch

    Christopher Peterson; P. D. Gerard; Terence Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought about by fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris. The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in the laboratory and field. Eastern subterranean termites,...

  17. Efficacy of Ivermectin against Cheyletiella yasguri Infestation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Manon; Villeneuve, Alain

    1988-01-01

    Twenty adult dogs (11 Cocker spaniels and 9 miniature Poodles) with naturally occurring cheyletiellosis were treated twice, at a three-week interval, with subcutaneous injections of ivermectin at the dose rate of 300 μg/kg. Ivermectin proved to be very effective against Cheyletiella yasguri infestation in dogs. All treated animals were completely cured after one or two treatments. No adverse reactions were noted. Ivermectin should be avoided in Collies and Collie crosses. PMID:17423097

  18. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA AND DEMODEX INFESTATION

    PubMed Central

    Zari, Javidi; Abdolmajid, Fata; Masood, Maleki; Vahid, Mashayekhi; Yalda, Nahidi

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically (P = 0.0787). Most of patients (85.4%) had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex. PMID:19881989

  19. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Is Enterobius vermicularis infestation associated with acute appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Akkapulu, N; Abdullazade, S

    2016-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis might be seen in specimens of patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis. There is still debate as to E. vermicularis infestation causes acute appendicitis. The primary aim of this study is to determine the incidence of E. vermicularis infestation, and the secondary aim is to determine the possible role of E. vermicularis in pathogenesis of appendicitis as well as the adequacy of demographic data and laboratory values in predicting infestation preoperatively. A retrospective investigation was conducted with all patients who underwent appendectomy due to acute appendicitis in a secondary care center. Patients with E. vermicularis were compared with 24 controls that underwent appendectomy during the same time period. Demographic data, preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count, eosinophil counts, and histopathological findings for both groups were analyzed and compared. Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the appendectomy materials in 9 of 1446 patients (0.62 %). Histopathologically, only one of nine patients had acute appendicitis while the others were diagnosed with lymphoid hyperplasia. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups except WBC count. However, the WBC count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the group which was detected E. vermicularis. Enterobius vermicularis is rarely associated with the histopathological findings of acute appendicitis. Also eosinophil count and elevation of white blood counts are inadequate for predicting preoperative E. vermicularis.

  1. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kmiec, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Lagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michalek, W

    2016-12-01

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Microfilarial periodicity of Dirofilaria repens in naturally infested dogs.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Otranto, Domenico; Di Giulio, Emanuela; Simonato, Giulia; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; La Torre, Francesco; Coccia, Giorgio; Traversa, Donato

    2013-12-01

    In the past years, canine and human cases of infestation by Dirofilaria repens (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) have been increasingly reported in several European countries. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis by D. repens may either be asymptomatic in dogs or may be characterized by subcutaneous nodules and other symptoms. Information on the periodicity of D. repens microfilariae in naturally infested animals is scant, and this might impair the accurate diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariosis and appropriate control plans. In the present study, eight dogs infested with D. repens were sampled twice daily at 12-h intervals for ten consecutive days, and the dog with the highest mean value of microfilariaemia was further sampled every 4 h for four consecutive days. The blood was microscopically and molecularly examined for microfilariae, and, additionally, negative samples were also subjected to a real-time PCR to evaluate the level of circulating DNA. The results demonstrated significant variations in circadian rhythms of D. repens larvae, with higher values of microfilariae per milliliter in the evening samples. A significant variation was also found at the individual level for the dogs with the highest values of microfilariaemia. All samples which were negative at the light microscopy and positive at the real-time PCR displayed levels of circulating parasite DNA <1 microfilaria per milliliter. Biological and clinical implications have been here discussed.

  3. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  4. Self-reported bed bug infestation among New York City residents: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nancy; Jones, Heidi E; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2013-01-01

    Bed bug infestations have risen precipitously in urban areas. Little is known about risk factors for infestations or health outcomes resulting from these infestations. In the 2009 Community Health Survey, which is a representative population-based survey, 9,934 noninstitutionalized adults in New York City reported on bed bug infestations requiring an exterminator in the past year. The authors estimated infestation prevalence and explored predictors of infestation and associations between infestations and health outcomes using logistic regression. Seven percent of adults in New York City reported bed bug infestations. Significant individual and household risk factors were younger age, increased household poverty, and having three or more adults in the household. Environmental risk factors included living in high poverty neighborhoods and in buildings with more housing units, suggesting apartment-to-apartment transmission. Bed bug infestations were not associated with stress-related outcomes of alcohol consumption or recent depression, and, unlike cockroach infestation, were not associated with recent asthma episodes caused by allergens or contaminants.

  5. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  6. Sarcoptic mange infestation in rabbits in an organized farm at Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Arul Prakash, M; Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Tensingh Gnanaraj, P; Ramesh Saravanakumar, V

    2017-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33.33 %) were heavily infested than the grower (21.88 %) whereas, suckling had no infestation of mange. Among the sex, males (21.95 %) were heavily infested than the females (14.89 %). Lesions were mostly found on the edges of ear, nose, face and legs and characterized by loss of hair, thickening of the skin, irregular dried dirty encrusted scabs with erythema and disfigurement of face and ear.

  7. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omudu, E A; Kuse, C N

    2010-12-01

    The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbug infestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Government area in Benue state, Nigeria. Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquito nets and bamboo beds) were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-picking technique. Data were analysed using chi- square analysis for differences in the infestation levels in harbourages and sampling locations. Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation as egg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestation rate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other study locations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (x2 = 7.92, df = 6, p >0.05). Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%, while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestation rates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher than other items inspected (x2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05). This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidences of infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detection and education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  8. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  9. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  10. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  11. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    PubMed Central

    Cahon, Thomas; Caillon, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes. PMID:29538342

  12. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  13. Scabies infestation: the effect of intervention by public health education.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. F.; Thorne, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of scabies in an infested village; to educate the residents on self-treatment and prevention by the use of 5% monosulfiram soap; to evaluate the short term effectiveness of this intervention by determining, 2 weeks later, the compliance to self-treatment and prevention; and to determine the prevalence rate on the second visit. In 59 households (96.7% of the village) containing 313 persons, an educational session was held and a leaflet distributed on the use and availability of the soap. Thirteen persons (4.2%) from eight households (13.6%) had scabies. After 2 weeks, 7 persons (2.2%) (2 persisting and 5 new cases) from 5 households (8.5%) were infested. Thus a cure rate of 85% was obtained though the prevalence rate showed no statistically significant difference. Among the under 15 year olds, the numbers infected decreased from 10 to 3 while among the over 15 years olds, the numbers infected increased from 3 to 4, neither reading significance at the 5% level. PMID:2249723

  14. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll Weevil Infestation, 1892-1930.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892-1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil's arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans' opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations.

  15. Black Turpentine Beetle Infestations After Thinning in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Treesearch

    D.P. Feduccia; W.F. Mann

    1975-01-01

    Black turpentine beetle infestations can be reduced substantially by minimizing injuries to residual trees during logging and avoiding harvesting on waterlogged soils to prevent excessive root damage. After thinning, losses can be minimized by spraying visibly injured trees with lindane immediatly, checking susceptible stands frequently for infestations, and applyling...

  16. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728

  17. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  18. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  19. Changes in Wood Processing and Use Have Influenced the Likelihood of Beetle Infestations in Seasoned Wood

    Treesearch

    Lonnie H. Williams

    1980-01-01

    Fewer houses are being built with crawl spaces and more houses have central heating and air-conditioning, so the number of anobiid beetle infestations should decline. The likelihood of lyctid infestations in domestic hardwoods has been decreased by improved processing and marketing, but increased imports of tropical hardwoods likely will increase the frequency of...

  20. 7 CFR 301.52-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. 301.52-2a Section 301.52-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas...

  1. 7 CFR 301.52-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. 301.52-2a Section 301.52-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas...

  2. 7 CFR 301.52-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. 301.52-2a Section 301.52-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas...

  3. 7 CFR 301.52-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. 301.52-2a Section 301.52-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas...

  4. 7 CFR 301.52-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. 301.52-2a Section 301.52-2a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas...

  5. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 1. Sapling growth.

    Treesearch

    James W. Barrett; Lewis F. Roth

    1985-01-01

    Observations of thinned ponderosa pine infested with dwarf mistletoe over a 17-year period suggests that on average or better Sites most infested stands can be managed to produce usable wood products in reasonable time, if trends found in juvenile stands continue.

  6. Infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) is associated with housing characteristics in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Justin M; Wilson, Mark L; Cruz-Celis, Adriana; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Ramsey, Janine M

    2006-11-01

    Long-term control of Chagas disease requires not only interruption of the human transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Schyzotrypanum, Chagas, 1909 by controlling its domestic triatomine vectors but also surveillance to prevent reinfestation of residences from sylvatic or persistent peridomestic populations. Although a number of potential risk factors for infestation have been implicated in previous studies, the explanatory power of resulting models has been low. Two years after cessation of triatomine vector control efforts in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, 78 environmental, socioecological, and spatial variables were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis Stal 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), the principal vector of T. cruzi. We studied 712 residences in this rural community to identify specific intradomestic and peridomestic risk factors that predicted infestation with T. pallidipennis. From numerous characteristics that were identified as correlated with infestation, we derived multivariate logistic regression models to predict residences that were more or less likely to be infested with T. pallidipennis. The most important risk factors for infestation included measurements of house age, upkeep, and spatial location in the town. The effects of certain risk factors on infestation were found to be modified by spatial characteristics of residences. The results of this study provide new information regarding risk factors for infestation by T. pallidipennis that may aid in designing sustainable disease control programs in rural Mexico.

  7. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway.

    PubMed

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-02-01

    Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6-12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth

    Treesearch

    John T. Nowak; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices arid insect infestation, maximum growth potential...

  9. Sea lice infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon in Scotland and the use of ectoparasitic treatments.

    PubMed

    Revie, C W; Gettinby, G; Treasurer, J W; Grant, A N; Reid, S W J

    A recently compiled national database on sea lice infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, contains detailed records for the period 1996 to 2000 from over 30 commercial sites on the west coast of Scotland. The data indicate that the two prevalent species of lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, have different trends in abundance and distinctive seasonal patterns of infestation on farmed salmon. For the economically important species L salmonis, its abundance on fish varies with the time of the production cycle, the time of year and the particular year. Weekly fluctuations in sea lice counts indicate that treatment can be very effective in controlling infestations but that the counts recover rapidly and regular treatments are necessary to ensure control. A comparison of sites using medium or large numbers of treatments suggests that they do not reduce sea lice infestations to the same levels. There is also evidence that sites using treatments based on different chemical constituents had significantly different levels of infestation.

  10. Tick infestation in human beings in the Nilgiris and Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    Thirteen human beings were infested with ticks at Sandynallah and Gudalur of the Nilgiris district and Mottur Suruvakkam of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu from January 2016 to December 2016. The collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides , Otobius megnini and Hyalomma isaaci. The tick infestation was observed more on the persons working with animals (sheep and goats) than those working in tea estate. The person infested with R. haemaphysaloides revealed erythematous papule (2 mm size) and inflammatory lesion up to 16 days whereas, the people infested with H. isaaci showed continuous itching and irritation for > 6 months and wound formation (0.5 cm) at the biting site. The people infested with O. megnini showed irritation, vomiting sensation and fever.

  11. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  12. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  13. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions.

  14. Pterygosomatidae and Trombiculidae mites infesting Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) (Tropiduridae) lizards in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Delfino, M M S; Ribeiro, S C; Furtado, I P; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O

    2011-05-01

    Parasitism of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus by Geckobiella sp. and by larvae of Eutrombicula alfreddugesi was examined in a mountainous area in Chapada do Araripe (07° 16' S and 39° 26' W), southern Ceará State, Brazil. Of the 56 lizards collected (26 females, 27 males, and 3 juveniles), 40 (total prevalence of 71.42%) were infested by mites. Mite-pockets were the sites most heavily infested by E. alfreddugesi larvae, while Geckobiella sp. was found uniformly distributed under scales over the host's entire body. The female specimens of T. hispidus parasitised by E. alfreddugesi had an average infestation rate of 8.57 ± 3.62, 1-27, while the males had an average infestation rate of 11.90 ± 2.63, 1-25. The female specimens parasitised by Geckobiella sp. had an average infestation rate of 5.91 ± 2.28, 1-25, while the males had an average infestation rate of 5.43 ± 1.52, 1-23. Seven specimens were also infested by eggs and immature forms of unidentified mites (average 2.28 ± 0.89, 1-7). There were no significant differences between the total prevalence of mites on adult male (70.4%) and adult female (65.4%) lizards. The body sizes of the hosts did not influence their infestation rates. The average infestation intensity by E. alfreddugesi (10.2 ± 8.7) was significantly greater than the average infestation intensity by Geckobiella sp. (5.9 ± 6.8). T. hispidus is the new host record to Geckobiella mites.

  15. PREVALENCE OF HEAD LICE INFESTATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PORT HARCOURT.

    PubMed

    Okoh, B A N; Alikor, E A D

    2013-08-01

    Head lice infestation affects mainly school-aged children and prevalence varies from region to region. Head lice infestation is of public health concern and screening is integrated into the School Health Programme. To determine the prevalence of head lice infestation in primary school-aged children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A stratified multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit pupils between six and 12 years of age, from thirteen primary schools located in three School Districts in the area. The heads of the pupils were inspected for head lice and nits with the aid of a battery operated Robi lice comb, magnifying glass and a torch as light source. A total of 1350 pupils were studied, 743 (55%) females and 607 (45%) males giving a female to male ratio of 1.2:1. Ten (0.7%) of the pupils had head lice infestation while five (0.4%) had evidence of past head lice infestation. The number of infested pupils among the younger age group (six to nine years) was seven (0.8%) and is higher, though not statistically significant, than that in the older age group (ten to twelve years) which was three (0.6%) (p = 0.453). No male was found to be infested while ten (1.3%) females were infested and the observed gender difference was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Head lice infestation still exists in Primary School children in Nigeria, therefore, screening for head lice infestation should still remain a part of the School Health Programme.

  16. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by the...

  17. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be...

  1. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  2. Ventilation in homes infested by house-dust mites.

    PubMed

    Sundell, J; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, S L

    1995-02-01

    Thirty single-family homes with either high (> or = 2000 ng/g) or low (< or = 1000 ng/g) house-dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in mattress dust were examined for ventilation, thermal climate, and air quality (formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Elevated concentrations of HDM allergen in mattress and floor dust were associated with the difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air, as well as with low air-change rates of the home, particularly the bedroom. No correlation was found between concentration of TVOC or formaldehyde in bedroom air and HDM allergen concentration. In regions with a cold winter climate, the air-change rate of the home and the infiltration of outdoor air into the bedroom appear to be important for the infestation of HDM.

  3. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  4. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  5. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of helminth infestation during pregnancy and its association with maternal anemia and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Aderoba, Adeniyi K; Iribhogbe, Oseihie I; Olagbuji, Biodun N; Olokor, Oghenefegor E; Ojide, Chiedozie K; Ande, Adedapo B

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of helminth infestation during pregnancy and the associated risks of adverse maternal and infant outcomes. A cross-sectional study of women with a singleton pregnancy of at least 34 weeks was conducted at a teaching hospital in Benin City, Nigeria, between April 1 and September 30, 2010. Socioeconomic and clinical data were obtained. Stool samples were used to determine helminth infection. Birth weight was recorded at delivery. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the link between helminth infestation and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Among 178 women, 31 (17.4%) had a helminth infestation (15 [8.4%] had ascariasis, 8 [4.5%] trichuriasis, and 25 [14.0%] hookworm infestation). Multivariate analysis found that helminth infestations was associated with maternal anemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4; 95% confidence interval 4.2-36.3) and low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 6.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-21.9). Approximately one in five women had a helminth infestation in the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal helminth infestation significantly increased the risks of maternal anemia and low birth weight, indicating that routine administration of anthelminthic drugs during early pregnancy might improve perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tecia solanivora infestation increases tuber starch accumulation inPastusa Suprema potatoes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Garrido, Etzel; Zhao, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Alseekh, Saleh; Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fei, Zhangjun; Poveda, Katja; Jander, Georg

    2018-06-11

    In response to infestation with larvae of the Guatemalan tuber moth (Tecia solanivora), some Solanum tuberosum (potato) varieties exhibit an overcompensation response, whereby the total dry mass of uninfested tubers is increased. Here, we describe early responses, within the first few days, of T. solanivora feeding, in the Colombian potato variety Pastusa Suprema. Non-targeted metabolite profiling showed significant secondary metabolism changes in T. solanivora-infested tubers, but not in uninfested systemic tubers. In contrast, changes in primary metabolism were greater in uninfested systemic tubers than in the infested tubers, with a notable 80% decline in systemic tuber sucrose levels within one day of T. solanivora infestation. This suggested either decreased sucrose transport from the leaves or increased sink strength, i.e. more rapid sucrose to starch conversion in the tubers. Increased, sucrose synthesis was indicated by higher rubicso activase and lower starch synthase gene expression in the leaves of infested plants. Elevated sink strength was demonstrated by 45% more total starch deposition in systemic tubers of T. solanivora-infested plants compared to uninfested control plants. Thus, rather than investing in increased defense of uninfested tubers, Pastusa Suprema promotes deposition of photoassimilates in the form of starch as a response to T. solanivora infestation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

  9. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.

  10. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Pearls in the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra caused by polydorin polychaetes (Spionidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Diez, M E; Vázquez, N; Cremonte, F

    2016-10-01

    Aulacomya atra populations of the San Jose gulf, Northern Patagonia, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, are infested by two polydorin species, Polydora rickettsi and Dipolydora cf. giardi. The infestation by these boring polychaetes causes the formation of pearls which is evidenced by the presence of capsules containing polydorin tissue debris and the elemental composition of organic material inside the pearls. Moreover, a positive relationship between the abundance of perforations of polydorin polychaetes and abundance of pearls was found by applying generalized lineal model analysis. These results constitute the first evidence of pearls formation due to infestation by polychaete. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Duygu; Pekmezci, Didem; Meral, Yücel; Gokalp, Güvenç; Acici, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    With this case report, we describe Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was brought to our clinics by the Directorship of Environmental and Forestry authorities of Samsun, Turkey in April, 2007. The male Little Bittern (I. minutus), with a black back and crown, and black wings with a large white patch on each wing, had thick Trombiculidae larvae infestation both on its legs. There were neither dermatological nor general conditional changes observed, except its superficial larval attachments to the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trombiculidae larvae (N. autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (I. minutus) in Turkey.

  13. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  14. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  15. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    PubMed

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. The civil divisions and parts of civil divisions described below are designated as golden nematode...

  18. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. The civil divisions and parts of civil divisions described below are designated as golden nematode...

  19. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. The civil divisions and parts of civil divisions described below are designated as golden nematode...

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Nematode Quarantine and Regulations § 301.85-2a Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas. The civil divisions and parts of civil divisions described below are designated as golden nematode...

  1. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the... hay or straw, grass, or similar materials shall not be imported unless such material is first...

  2. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., grass, or similar material from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises may disseminate the... hay or straw, grass, or similar materials shall not be imported unless such material is first...

  3. Microbial control of the gypsy moth in recently infested states: experiences and expectations

    Treesearch

    Timothy C. Tigner

    1985-01-01

    Experiences and expectations concerning microbial control of the gypsy moth in recently infested states are summarized. Initial experience included mixed results, but expectations remain optimistic. Public sentiment assures continued pressure for improvement in microbial control technology.

  4. Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil--(S)-methoprene--eprinomectin--praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Emilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m(2) room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day -1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day -1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  5. Factors promoting infestation of newly planted, nonbearing apple orchards by dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2005-12-01

    The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage.

  6. Seasonal infestation of birds with immature stages of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola.

    PubMed

    Kocianová, Elena; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika; Haruštiaková, Danka; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the parasitization of cavity-nesting birds and ground-nesting/foraging birds with larvae and nymphs of two Ixodes species, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola. Totals of 679 (52.3%) I. ricinus and 619 (47.7%) I. arboricola ticks were collected from 15 species of passerine birds which were caught during the nesting and non-nesting periods of 2003-2006, in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic, the Drahanská Vrchovina Uplands. In the non-nesting period from October to March, 6.8% (101/1492) of birds were infested with ticks, mainly with I. arboricola larvae. In the non-nesting period, the average intensity of infestation by I. arboricola and I. ricinus was 8.5 and 1.5 individuals per infested bird, respectively. In the nesting period from April to June, 21.6% (50/232) of birds were infested by both tick species but mainly with I. ricinus nymphs. The average intensity of infestation by I. ricinus and I. arboricola was 13.3 and 10.8 individuals per infested bird, respectively. Altogether, 23.2% of the infested birds were parasitized by both immature life stages of one or both tick species. From an enzootic perspective, co-feeding and co-infestation of I. ricinus and I. arboricola subadults on passerine birds might happen and may be important for the dissemination of tick-borne agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of defense-related gene expression in grapevine infested by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Javadi Khederi, Saeid; Khanjani, Mohammad; Gholami, Mansur; Bruno, Giovanni Luigi

    2018-05-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to study the expression of some marker genes involved in the interaction between grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and the erineum mite Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher (Acari: Eriophyidae). Potted vines of cultivars Atabaki (resistant to C. vitis), Ghalati (susceptible to C. vitis) and Muscat Gordo (moderately resistant to C. vitis) were infested at the six-leaf stage. The expression of protease inhibitor (PIN), beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU), polygalacturonase inhibitor (PGIP), Vitis vinifera proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1), stilbene synthase (STS), and lipoxygenase (LOX) genes was assessed on young leaves collected 96, 120 and 144 h after mite infestation (hami). As a control, non-infested leaves collected 24 h before mite infestations were used. Differences were detected in expression of the selected genes during the C. vitis-grapevine interaction. The resistant cultivar Atabaki increased the expression of LOX, STS, GLU, PGIP and PRP1 genes during the first 120 hami. On the contrary, in the susceptible Ghalati, all selected genes showed an expression level similar or lower than non-infested leaves. Muscat Gordo increased the expression of all selected genes in comparison with non-infested leaves, but it was lower than in Atabaki. Significant transcript accumulation of PIN gene was detected for Muscat Gordo whereas it was slightly up-regulated in Ghalati and Atabaki. LOX, STS, PIN, GLU, PGIP and PRP1 genes were clearly expressed in response to C. vitis infestation. We therefore infer that expression of PGIP, PIN and PRP1 genes could represent a defense strategy against C. vitis infestations in grapevine leaves.

  8. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  9. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites < 1 mm in size were found on the patient's body. The family were residing in the city centre and had no pets, but there were pigeon nests in close proximity to the house. Most dermatologists have difficulties identifying ectoparasitosis. In the case of D. gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments. © The Author(s) CED © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  11. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Louse and mite infestation in domestic animals in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    George, J B; Otobo, S; Ogunleye, J; Adediminiyi, B

    1992-05-01

    Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17.3%) and 247 (31.1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded were Linognathus vituli (66.7%) on cattle, L. ovillus (83.3%) on sheep, Haematopinus suis (100%) on pigs and Menacanthus stramineus (54.5%) on poultry. Other lice species recorded included Haematopinus bovis and Solenopotes capillatus on cattle, Damalinia ovis on sheep, Linognathus stenopsis and Menacanthus stramineus on goats, Goniocotes sp. on a horse, Linognathus setosus and Menacanthus stramineus on dogs, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis, Menopon gallinae and Chelopistes meleagrides on poultry. The most common mite species were Demodex folliculorum on cattle (96.9%) and on dogs (80.8%), Sarcoptes scabiei on pigs (100%) and Notoedres cati (80.3%) on rabbits. Other mite species included Psoroptes communis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ornithonyssus gallinae and Dermanyssus gallinae.

  13. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  14. The Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Puerto Rico: Distribution, Infestation, and Population per Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Victor J.; García, José M.; Verle Rodrigues, José C.; García, Noelia M.; Bayman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation, and population per fruit. The CBB was well-established throughout the coffee-growing area of Puerto Rico, but was not evenly distributed. Infestation (or percentages of fruits perforated) in sites sampled ranged from 0 to 95%, and CBB number per infested fruit varied from 1 to 34 individuals. CBB infestation and total population per fruit were positively correlated with altitude. Highest infestation and total population were observed in sites located >400 masl; most of the coffee-producing area in Puerto Rico is above this altitude. Coffea arabica (L.) had higher CBB infestation and population per fruit than Coffea canephora (Pierre ex A. Froehner) (robusta coffee). Based on these results, management tools should be implemented to mitigate the severe damage that CBB is causing in Puerto Rico. These management tools should include the removal of all fruits that remain on the plants after harvest and the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balls.) Vuill. for biocontrol, especially on coffee farms at higher elevations. PMID:28931153

  15. The Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Puerto Rico: Distribution, Infestation, and Population per Fruit.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Yobana A; Vega, Victor J; García, José M; Verle Rodrigues, José C; García, Noelia M; Bayman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation, and population per fruit. The CBB was well-established throughout the coffee-growing area of Puerto Rico, but was not evenly distributed. Infestation (or percentages of fruits perforated) in sites sampled ranged from 0 to 95%, and CBB number per infested fruit varied from 1 to 34 individuals. CBB infestation and total population per fruit were positively correlated with altitude. Highest infestation and total population were observed in sites located >400 masl; most of the coffee-producing area in Puerto Rico is above this altitude. Coffea arabica (L.) had higher CBB infestation and population per fruit than Coffea canephora (Pierre ex A. Froehner) (robusta coffee). Based on these results, management tools should be implemented to mitigate the severe damage that CBB is causing in Puerto Rico. These management tools should include the removal of all fruits that remain on the plants after harvest and the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balls.) Vuill. for biocontrol, especially on coffee farms at higher elevations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  17. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  18. Physiological and molecular alterations promoted by Schizotetranychus oryzae mite infestation in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Buffon, Giseli; Blasi, Édina A. R.; Adamski, Janete M.; Ferla, Noeli J.; Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R.; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O.; Sperotto, Raul A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation of phytophagous mite Schizotetranychus oryzae in rice causes critical yield losses. To better understand this interaction, we employed Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach to identify differentially expressed proteins. We detected 18 unique proteins in control and 872 in infested leaves, respectively, along with 32 proteins more abundant in control leaves. S. oryzae infestation caused decreased abundance of proteins related to photosynthesis (mostly photosystem II-related), carbon assimilation and energy production, chloroplast detoxification, defense, fatty acid and gibberellin synthesis. On the other hand, infestation caused increased abundance of proteins involved in protein modification and degradation, gene expression at the translation level, protein partitioning to different organelles, lipid metabolism, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and synthesis of jasmonate, amino acid and molecular chaperones. Our results also suggest that S. oryzae infestation promotes cell wall remodeling and interferes with ethylene biosynthesis in rice leaves. Proteomic data were positively correlated with enzymatic assays and RT-qPCR analysis. Our findings describe the protein expression patterns of infested rice leaves, and suggest that the acceptor side of PSII is probably the major damaged target in the photosynthetic apparatus. These data will be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to induce phytophagous mite resistance in rice. PMID:26667653

  19. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Circulating oxidative stress caused by Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sumit; Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Dan, Ananya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Mahendran, K; Maurya, P S

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports the circulating oxidative stress associated with Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. Three non-descriptive water buffaloes, age ranging between 4 and 9 years, presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, IVRI, for treatment served as clinical subject. The infested animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously and Amitraz topically along with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and selenium. The level of lipid peroxidase was significantly higher (3.94 ± 0.34) in Psoroptes infested buffalo and was reduced significantly ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment (1.56 ± 0.40). The significantly higher levels of MDA before treatment signify the role of lipid peroxide mediated skin lesions in P. natalensis infested buffaloes. Similarly the activities of the body antioxidant like GSH and CAT were significantly higher ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment. The less level of the body antioxidant (GSH) and reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes like CAT and SOD before treatment imply that Psoroptes mite-infested buffaloes were in a state of significant oxidative stress. The study provides information on oxidative stress indices in P. natalensis infested buffaloes and gives additional insight regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its management.

  1. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    PubMed

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  3. Branchial cymothoids infesting the marine food fishes of Malabar coast.

    PubMed

    Panakkool-Thamban, Aneesh; Ameri Kottarathil, Helna; Kappalli, Sudha

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence of cymothoid isopods parasitizing the branchial chamber of marine food fishes along the Malabar coast was investigated. Live and fresh fishes collected from the Ayyikkara fish landing center (Lat. 11°51'N, Long. 75°22'E; Malabar coast, India) were subjected to the thorough observation for the presence of branchial cymothoids for 3 consecutive years (November 2009-November 2012). Among the recovered cymothoids, 11 species were branchial residents belonging to 6 genera; the species include Agarna malayi, Catoessa gruneri, C. boscii, Joryma hilsae, J. brachysoma, J. engraulidis, J. sawayah, Mothocya collettei, M. renardi, Norileca indica and Ryukyua circularis ; highest prevalence being exhibited by two species of Mothocya , ( M. renardi and M. collettei ) parasitizing the belonidaen fishes, Strongylura leiura (92.15 %) and Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (87.2 %) respectively. Except Mothocya species, which preferred the branchial floor for infestation, all recovered branchial cymothoids were found attached the inner wall of the operculum. In several instances, the parasites appeared in male-female pairs, one in each branchial cavity. Ovigerous female members of all species of branchial cymothoids except R. circularis showed remarkable bending either towards left or right depending on whether they are located in right or left branchial cavity of their respective host fishes. The deleterious effects of parasitization by all recovered branchial cymothoids include the formation of a pit like depression in the branchial chamber and atrophy of the gill filament; the damage was more pronounced in the gill cavity of parasitized host fishes where the ovigerous female member was accommodated.

  4. Delusional infestation: clinical presentation in 147 patients seen at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Foster, Ashley A; Hylwa, Sara A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    Delusional infestation is the conviction that one's skin is infested with foreign organisms or materials despite contradictory objective evidence. To delineate clinical characteristics of patients presenting with delusional infestation. We performed a retrospective study of patients meeting delusional infestation criteria who were seen for diagnosis and treatment in our tertiary care academic medical center (2001-2007). Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographic, historical, and physical findings and treatment. Over 7 years, 147 patients presented with delusional infestation; 87% (123/142) for another opinion. Mean age was 57 years; female-to-male ratio was 2.89 to 1; 82 (56%) were married. Mean duration of symptoms was 31 months. Employment data were available for 145 patients: 48 (33%) were self-described as disabled, 16 of whom cited delusions as their disability; 41 (28%) were retired; and 38 (26%) were employed. Reported infestations included multiple materials (45% [64/143]), not limited to insects (79% [113/143]), worms (27% [39/143]), and fibers (20% [29/143]). Most patients presented initially to dermatology or other specialties; only 3 presented to psychiatry. A high proportion (81%) had prior psychiatric conditions. Thirty-eight (26%) of the 147 patients had a shared psychotic disorder. The retrospective nature of the study and the incompleteness of some data because not all the characteristics that were analyzed were documented for every patient. Patients were predominantly female, had a long history of symptoms, and had been seen previously at many medical centers. A large proportion were disabled or retired. Patients reported skin infestation with both animate and inanimate objects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular recognition of emerald ash borer infestation using leaf spray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Caitlin E; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-06-15

    The introduction of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) from Asia to Michigan, USA, in the 1990s caused the widespread death of ash trees in two Canadian provinces and 24 US states. The three current methods for the detection of emerald ash borer infestation, visual surveys, tree girdling and artificial traps, can be unreliable, and there is clearly a need for a rapid, dependable technique for the detection of emerald ash borer infestation. Leaf spray, an ambient ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS), gives direct chemical information on a leaf sample by applying a high voltage to a naturally or artificially sharply pointed leaf piece causing ions to be generated directly from the leaf tip for MS analysis. Leaflets from 23 healthy and EAB-infested ash trees were analyzed by leaf spray mass spectrometry in an attempt to distinguish healthy and EAB-infested ash trees. In negative ion mode, healthy ash trees showed an increased abundance of ions m/z 455.5, 471.5 and 487.5, and ash trees infested with the EAB displayed an increased abundance of ions m/z 181 and 217. The identities of the chemical discriminators ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in healthy ash trees, and six-carbon sugar alcohols in infested ash trees, were determined by tandem mass spectrometry and confirmed with standards. This preliminary study suggests that leaf spray mass spectrometry of ash tree leaflets provides a potential tool for the early detection of ash tree infestation by the emerald ash borer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Intestinal helminth infestation is associated with increased bronchial responsiveness in children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Peter D; de Pereira, Marilyn U; Pinto, Leonardo A; Jones, Marcus H; Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T

    2008-07-01

    Non-atopic asthma is the predominant phenotype in non-affluent parts of Latin America. We recently reported that infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides increased the risk of non-atopic asthma in less affluent areas of Brazil but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether helminth infestation is associated with heightened bronchial responsiveness (BHR), a common finding in asthma. A random sample of 50 asthmatic and 50 non-asthmatic controls (mean age 10.1 years) were selected from a larger cohort (n = 1,011) without knowledge of their helminth infestation status. Three stool samples were collected from each child on different days and each sample was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for quantitative determination of helminth eggs. Bronchial provocation tests were performed with inhaled 4.5% hypertonic saline using the ISAAC Phase II standardized protocol. There was no difference between the prevalence of positive BHR in the asthmatics (20.4%) compared with the controls (14.6%) (P = 1.0). Helminth infestation was detected in 24.0% of children, with A. lumbricoides being the most common. Children with high load infestation (>or=100 eggs/g) were five times more likely to have BHR than children with low load or no infestation. Despite the small sample size the results of the present study suggest that the link between high load helminth infestation and non-atopic asthma may be mediated via heightened bronchial responsiveness, possibly due to an inflammatory response to the pulmonary phase of the helminth life cycle.

  7. Distribution, Predictors, and Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Infestation of White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Donnie L; Cipollini, Don

    2017-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America that was recently found infesting white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus L.). Initial reports of the infestation of white fringetree by emerald ash borer occurred in southwestern Ohio and Chicago, IL. We examined white fringetrees at additional sites in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania in Summer and Fall 2015 and Winter 2016 for emerald ash borer infestation. Our aim was to examine white fringetrees at a limited number of sites with emerald ash borer infestation and to relate tree size, crown dieback, epicormic sprouting, tree sex, and adjacency to ash or white fringetrees with the likelihood of beetle infestation. A higher proportion of infested trees exhibited epicormic sprouting and the likelihood that a tree was infested increased with increasing crown dieback, variables that may be both predictors and responses to attack. The proportion of trees infested with emerald ash borer increased with increasing tree size. Signs consistent with emerald ash borer infestation were found in 26% of 178 white fringetrees, with at least one host infested at each site in all states. Infestation rates of white fringetrees increased with the density of white fringetrees at each site. The Chicago Botanic Garden site had a significantly lower infestation (3.7%) than other sites, which may be due to proactive management of ash. Overall, these data indicate white fringetree has been utilized by emerald ash borer throughout their overlapping ranges in the United States in ornamental settings likely due to ecological fitting. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The effect of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; King, Annie J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-05-01

    The northern fowl mite (NFM),Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is the most common ectoparasite of laying hens in North America. Infestation can cause a reduction in egg production, egg weights, and feed conversion efficiency. However, there is a lack of information on the effects of NFM on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality. Singly caged beak-trimmed White Leghorn hens (N=32) were infested with mites at 25 wk of age. The condition of each hen was assessed at wk 0 (infestation) and wk 5 and 7 post-infestation to determine comb temperatures and feather, skin, and comb condition. Heterophil-lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and body weight (BW) were evaluated at wk 0 and wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infestation. Egg weight, egg specific gravity, yolk color, Haugh unit (HU), and eggshell thickness were determined prior to infestation (wk -1) and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-infestation. The H/L ratio (P<0.0001), HU (P<0.0001), and egg specific gravity (P=0.001) were lowest, and the egg yolk color was lightest (P=0.087) at wk 5, the peak of infestation. At wk 5 and 7, more than 65% of the hens had red skin and more than 75% had scabs on the vent; in addition more than 84% had grey-black vent feathers. There were no effects of infestation on comb color, comb temperature, feather cover, BW, or eggshell thickness. It was concluded that infestation with NFM has negative effects on interior egg quality and hen integument. A decrease in H/L ratio was also observed at the peak of infestation. However, the effects of NFM on the immune system are unclear, and H/L ratio might not be a good stress measure in hens highly infested with NFM. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence.

  10. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  11. Influence of household rat infestation on leptospira transmission in the urban slum environment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2014-12-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13-11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06-7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28-6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21-6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71-0.84). Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control

  12. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes

    PubMed Central

    Santangelo, Richard G.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust). Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment. PMID:29432483

  13. Head lice infestations (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Saudi and non-Saudi school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bosely, Hanan Aboalkasem; El-Alfy, Nadia M

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence and human risk factors associated with head lice infestation was studied. A total of 860 children, 474 (55.1%) boys and 386 (44.9%) girls, with ages ranged from 6-13 years were critically examined. They were randomly selected from two schoolchildren (one for boys and one for girls) in Jazan Province. The children or their parents were subjected to questionnaire and physical examination by visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and/or eggs (nits). A total of 114 children (13.3%) were infested with head lice, 73 (18.9%) girls and 41 (8.6%) boys. The highest infestation rate was recorded in rural area (20.5%). Pediculosis had a negative association with father's education level and frequency of hair washing (p > 0.01). The results indicated that rural residence, sex, long hair, age- group 6- < 8 years old, positive history of previous infestation, sharing of beds and combs, uneducated mother and family overcrowding might be the risk factors for the head lice infestation.

  14. Changes induced by infestation on some chemical properties of cowpea seeds.

    PubMed

    Ojimelukwe, P C

    2002-01-01

    Three cowpea varieties were used in the present study, Insect susceptible popular variety, 'Ife-brown' (IFB), an improved variety for insect resistance IT 81D-975 (1975) and a local black cowpea variety with a white hilium adapted to diverse habitats, 'Akidi' (AKD). Cowpea seeds were infested with Callosobruchus maculatus. Crude protein content of infested and uninfested whole cowpea flour and protein concentrate was determined. Prolamin contents of flour and protein concentrates were evaluated. Fat content, free fatty acid and peroxide values of cowpea seeds were also determined. All determinations were carried out in infested and uninfested cowpea seeds in 3 replicates for each determination. Emulsion properties of cowpea seeds stored in 3 containers, plastic cans (PC) and polyethylene bags (white and black WPB/BPB) were monitored on a biweekly basis for 24 weeks. Varietal differences existed in the protein, fat and prolamin contents of cowpeas. Infestation reduced the contents of these nutrients in all cases. Free fatty acid contents and peroxide values were increased by > 100%. Infestation reduced the prolamin content by > 25% in all cases. Varietal differences also existed in emulsion capacities of cowpea flours; IFB and 975 formed better and more stable emulsions than AKD flour. Storage in plastic cans led to better retention of the emulsion properties of the cowpeas.

  15. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust). Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  16. Exclusion Netting Delays and Reduces Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Infestation in Raspberries.

    PubMed

    Leach, Heather; Van Timmeren, Steven; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-14

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a new frugivorous pest of raspberries and other soft fruits in North America, causing infestation of fruit at harvest time. Control of this pest has primarily been through the application of broad-spectrum insecticides to prevent oviposition and larval development, and there is an urgent need for alternative approaches. Over two growing seasons, we compared D. suzukii control in a research planting with insecticide and exclusion treatments in a factorial design, monitoring first-, second-, and third-instar Drosophila larvae in ripening, ripe, and overripe berries. Each of the two control approaches provided significant reduction of infestation in raspberry fruit, but the combination treatment had the lowest overall abundance of larvae in fruit. This pattern was seen for all larval instars in both years. The combination treatment also delayed the first detected larval infestation by 10 d compared to the untreated plots. Exclusion netting applied to commercial size high tunnels resulted in a significant reduction in overall D. suzukii infestation in raspberries, as well as a 3-wk delay in the average first detectable fruit infestation. Raspberry size and quality were not affected by the exclusion treatments, indicating that this approach can be an important component of growers' response to invasion by D. suzukii in temperate climates. We discuss the opportunities and limitations for implementing exclusion netting in raspberry production. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  18. Probability of detecting nematode infestations for quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peichen; Liu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Hung-I; Chen, Tse-Wei

    2011-01-01

    For quarantine sampling, it is of fundamental importance to determine the probability of finding an infestation when a specified number of units are inspected. In general, current sampling procedures assume 100% probability (perfect) of detecting a pest if it is present within a unit. Ideally, a nematode extraction method should remove all stages of all species with 100% efficiency regardless of season, temperature, or other environmental conditions; in practice however, no method approaches these criteria. In this study we determined the probability of detecting nematode infestations for quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy. Also, the required sample and the risk involved in detecting nematode infestations with imperfect extraction efficacy are presented. Moreover, we developed a computer program to calculate confidence levels for different scenarios with varying proportions of infestation and efficacy of detection. In addition, a case study, presenting the extraction efficacy of the modified Baermann's Funnel method on Aphelenchoides besseyi, is used to exemplify the use of our program to calculate the probability of detecting nematode infestations in quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy. The result has important implications for quarantine programs and highlights the need for a very large number of samples if perfect extraction efficacy is not achieved in such programs. We believe that the results of the study will be useful for the determination of realistic goals in the implementation of quarantine sampling. PMID:22791911

  19. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves. PMID:27124300

  20. Targeted versus standard bait station placement affects subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestation rates.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C

    2003-10-01

    A major challenge to termite baiting in soil habitats is the prolonged time that it may take for subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to infest stations. The objective of this research study was to determine whether the location of food sources (Sentricon in-ground monitoring stations and wooden monitors) influences the likelihood of infestation by termites. In field trials conducted at 15 structures in central Ohio, standard placement of stations at 3-4.5 m intervals was compared with targeted placements based on evidence of termite activity indoors and outdoors as well as conducive moisture conditions. Termites infested significantly more targeted placements (70/374) than standard placements (35/372) around structures. At the targeted placement sites, termites infested more wooden monitors than Sentricon stations, but this was not statistically significant. This implies that placement, rather than cellulose composition, was the more important factor. Termites first infested stations/monitors an average of 38 d sooner at targeted sites than standard placement sites. This research indicates that evidence of termite activity indoors and outdoors should be a prime consideration when placing in-ground stations.

  1. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  2. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-03

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants.

  3. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid and Removal With Forceps and Punch Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongyeop; Suh, Eoksoo

    2016-11-01

    Ocular tick infestation can occur in any age group or sex with exposure in an endemic setting. All parts of the ocular tissue have been reported to be susceptible to tick infestation. The authors present a rare patient with tick infestation of eyelid.An 88-year-old woman was referred for a yellowish lesion of the right upper eyelid. She had a history of sting 2 days before presentation, and developed eyelid swelling with mucopurulent discharge the next day. Slit lamp examination showed blepharitis and revealed that the lesion was the body of a hard tick, firmly attached to eyelid. First, blunt forceps were used for removal of the tick under a surgical microscope. However, attempted removal resulted in the disembodiement of the parasite and retention of the mouthparts in the skin. The retained tick parts were excised en bloc by skin punch biopsy. The tick was identified as Ixodes nipponensis. Subsequent treatment was given for blepharitis and skin lesion.This case introduces a rare patient with tick infestation of eyelid, and the proper management. Less than 20 documented patients with tick infestation of eyelid have been reported worldwide, and this is the first patient from South Korea in ophthalmological society.

  4. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  5. A remote sensing assessment of pest infestation on sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Sao, R.; Singh, K. P.

    The damage caused by the pest to crop is well known. The major aspects of remote sensing are timely estimates of agriculture crop yield, prediction of pest. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility and potential application of microwave remote sensing for detection of pest infestation within sorghum field. The studies were made on crop sorghum (Meethi Sudan) that is a forage variety and the pest observed was a species of grasshopper. The beds of crop sorghum were specially prepared for pests as well as microwave scattering measurements. In first phase of study, dependence of occurrence of pests on sorghum plant parameters (i.e., crop covered moist soil (SM), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), percentage biomass (BIO), total chlorophyll (TC)) have been observed and analyzed and it was noticed that pests were more dependent on sorghum chlorophyll than other plant parameters, while climatic conditions were taken as constant. An empirical relationship has been developed between occurrence of pests and TC with quite significant values of coefficient of determination ( r2 = 0.82). These crop parameters are easily assessable through microwave remote sensing and therefore they can form the basis for prediction of pest remotely. In the second phase of this study, several observations were carried out for various growth stages of sorghum using scatterometer for both like polarizations (i.e., HH- and VV-) and different incidence angles at X-band (9.5 GHz). Linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain the best suitable incidence angle and polarization to assess the sorghum TC. VV-pol gives better results than HH-pol and incidence angle should be more than 40° for both like polarizations for assessing the sorghum TC at X-band. A negative correlation has been obtained between TC and scattering coefficient with the r2 values (0.69 and 0.75 for HH- and VV-pol, respectively). The TC assessed by the microwave measurements was

  6. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  7. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and

  8. Ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in indigenous communities of the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Sol Gaspe, M; Provecho, Yael M; Cardinal, M Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-03-01

    The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles'. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles' (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved

  9. Ectopic Enterobius Vermicularis Infestation; An Extremely Rare Cause Of Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Tuberculous Lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Summaiya; Tariq, Muhammad Usman; Ahmed, Zubair

    2018-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is a pinworm which commonly resides in the lumen of the intestinal tract and lays eggs on the perianal skin. However, rarely the worm can infest various other sites in the body and cases with infestation of such ectopic sites have been reported in literature. Rare cases of mesenteric lymph node involvement have also been reported. We report a case in a young male who presented with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. During surgery, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were identified. Histological examination revealed adult worm in the appendiceal lumen. Histological examination of mesenteric lymph node revealed degenerated worm surrounded by caseating chronic granulomatous inflammation. We conclude that EV infestation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of enlarged mesenteric lymph node with chronic granulomatous inflammation, especially in young patients and when accompanying bowel tissue also reveal the helminth.

  10. Assessment of acquired immune response to Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick infestation in different goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gopalraj, Jeyanthi B P; Clarke, Francoise C; Donkin, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response) elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni), Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni]) under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni) response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats.

  11. Cheyletiella blakei, an Ectoparasite of Cats, as Cause of Cryptic Arthropod Infestations Affecting Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Robert S.; Shachter, Sherry P.; Keh, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Cheyletiella blakei, an ectoparasitic mite of domestic cats, can cause an extremely annoying, persistent and pruritic dermatosis of obscure origin (cryptic infestation) in susceptible persons having close contact with infested cats. Although the prevalence of cheyletiellosis in humans and cats appears to be low, evidence of its occurrence in California is increasing. Cheyletiellosis is often underdiagnosed in both its natural host and in humans. The small size of the mite, lack of publicity about the disease, frequent absence of symptoms in infested cats and failure to recover the mite from humans contribute to its delayed recognition. When C blakei or other mites are suspected of being the cause of a dermatosis, medical entomologists may help to hasten the diagnosis by examining the patient's physical surroundings, potential vertebrate hosts and other sources for the presence of mites. After C blakei has been eliminated from cats with an appropriate pesticide, the disease in humans is self-limiting. PMID:3825118

  12. Cheyletiella blakei, an ectoparasite of cats, as cause of cryptic arthropod infestations affecting humans.

    PubMed

    Keh, B; Lane, R S; Shachter, S P

    1987-02-01

    Cheyletiella blakei, an ectoparasitic mite of domestic cats, can cause an extremely annoying, persistent and pruritic dermatosis of obscure origin (cryptic infestation) in susceptible persons having close contact with infested cats. Although the prevalence of cheyletiellosis in humans and cats appears to be low, evidence of its occurrence in California is increasing. Cheyletiellosis is often underdiagnosed in both its natural host and in humans. The small size of the mite, lack of publicity about the disease, frequent absence of symptoms in infested cats and failure to recover the mite from humans contribute to its delayed recognition. When C blakei or other mites are suspected of being the cause of a dermatosis, medical entomologists may help to hasten the diagnosis by examining the patient's physical surroundings, potential vertebrate hosts and other sources for the presence of mites. After C blakei has been eliminated from cats with an appropriate pesticide, the disease in humans is self-limiting.

  13. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning more from nature, i

  14. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  15. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Oddie, Melissa A Y; Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera , are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor , that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera , is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor , we suggest learning more from nature, i.e., identifying the obviously

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Fang, Xianping; Yang, Yong; Xue, Gang-Ping; Chen, Xian; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Xuming; Yu, Chulang; Zhou, Jie; Mei, Qiong; Fang, Wang; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH) is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant) and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible), were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05) at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT) activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and physiological

  17. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed.

  18. Recognition of mite-infested brood by honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers may involve thermal sensing.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Daniel; Wegener, Jakob; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2018-05-01

    Hygienic behavior, i.e. the removal of diseased or damaged brood by worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), is seen as one of the principal behavioral elements of this species' social immunity. Identification of the stimuli that trigger it would be helpful in searching for biochemical and molecular markers of this important breeding trait. While many studies at the genomic, transcriptomic, and behavioral level have pointed to the implication of chemical cues, we here hypothesized that thermal cues are alternatively/additionally involved. To test this hypothesis, we first measured whether infestation by the mite Varroa destructor (a condition known to induce hygienic behavior) leads to a thermal gradient between affected and unaffected brood. We found that infested brood cells were between 0.03 and 0.19 °C warmer than uninfested controls. Next, we tested whether artificially heating an area of a brood comb would increase the removal of infested or uninfested brood as compared to an unheated control area, and found that this was not the case. Finally, we investigated whether the heating of individual brood cells, as opposed to comb areas, would influence brood removal from cells adjacent to the heated one. This was the case for uninfested, though not for infested cells. We conclude that infestation by V. destructor leads to a heating of brood cells that should be perceivable by bees, and that small-scale temperature gradients can influence brood removal. This makes it appear possible that thermal cues play a role in triggering hygienic behavior of honey bees directed at varroa-infested larvae/pupae, although our results are insufficient to prove such an involvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  20. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  1. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  2. Enterobius vermicularis infestation leading to Meckel's diverticulitis in an adolescent boy: An extremely rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manupriya; Kaul, Rashmi; Chander, Bal

    2018-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode commonly affecting children worldwide. Its transmission is by feco-oral route. Meckel's diverticulitis due to E. vermicularis infestation is an extremely rare presentation. An 11-year-old boy presented with acute abdomen. During surgery inflamed Meckel's diverticulum (M.D) was seen. Histopathology examination of specimen revealed E. vermicularis . Till date, only one case of E. vermicularis infestation of M.D is reported around five decades ago. This histopathological confirmation is extremely important as the required treatment (Mebendazole) of the infected case along with household contacts can prevent the spread of infection and may avoid surgery in known contacts.

  3. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  4. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    PubMed Central

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older

  5. Ectoparasite (louse, mite and tick) infestations on female turkeys (Galliformes, Phasianidae. Meleagris gallopavo) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rassouli, Maryam; Darvishi, Mohammad Mahdi; Lima, Seyed Rasoul Rosstami

    2016-12-01

    Wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) were evaluated as potential hosts of ectoparasites. Different lice, ticks and mites can infest turkeys and cause direct and/or indirect harms and in some cases can also be fatal. Samples (feathers) were collected from lateral parts of 15 and 7 female turkeys' body of two different turkey flocks, in Rasht, Gilan province and Piranshahr, Western Azerbaijan province, Iran, respectively. Feathers were inspected for ectoparasites, the collected ectoparasites were decolorized and mounted then identified by identification keys in parasitology laboratory. In this research, four new lice, one mite and one tick on 13 infested turkeys were identified and discussed.

  6. Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

  7. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, risk factors related to infestations.

    PubMed

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-03-27

    Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older ships. HACCP system aids in the

  8. Treatment of pediculosis capitis infested children with 1% permethrin shampoo in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Suleyman; Sahin, Izzet

    2005-10-01

    Pediculosis capitis (head lice) is an infestation that affects many children. Although, there are a number of different treatment modalities, at the present study, we investigated the efficacy of permethrin in the treatment of pediculosis capitis in children. This study was carried out in 3 village primary schools in the Kayseri region involving 185 of 712 school children infested with Pediculus humanus capitis during a survey conducted in March 2001. It was found that 173 (97.29%) of the 178 students who applied the prescribed medications were cured, indicating that interestingly 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada) is an effective and safe treatment choice for pediculosis capitis.

  9. Effect of a herbal compound for treatment of sarcoptic mange infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Das, S S

    1996-06-01

    Charmil gel, a herbal product was tried against Sarcoptes scabei var canis on dogs and its efficacy was compared with that of amitraz. Mite scrapings examined at scheduled intervals after the topical application of Charmil gel caused complete recovery after 14 days in severe infestation and 7 to 10 days in mild to moderate infestations with regrowth of hair on Day 28 post-treatment. No adverse reactions were observed except mild irritation and restlessness, which persisted for a few hours soon after application.

  10. Gene expression and plant hormone levels in two contrasting rice genotypes responding to brown planthopper infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Zaihui; Wang, Rui; Ling, Fei; Xiao, Langtao; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-28

    The brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a destructive piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important roles in plant-pest interactions. Many isolated rice genes that modulate BPH resistance are involved in the metabolism or signaling pathways of SA, JA and ethylene. 'Rathu Heenati' (RH) is a rice cultivar with a high-level, broad-spectrum resistance to all BPH biotypes. Here, RH was used as the research material, while a BPH-susceptible rice cultivar 'Taichung Native 1' (TN1) was the control. A cDNA microarray analysis illuminated the resistance response at the genome level of RH under BPH infestation. The levels of SA and JA in RH and TN1 seedlings after BPH infestation were also determined. The expression pattern clustering indicated that 1467 differential probe sets may be associated with constitutive resistance and 67 with the BPH infestation-responsive resistance of RH. A Venn diagram analysis revealed 192 RH-specific and BPH-inducible probe sets. Finally, 23 BPH resistance-related gene candidates were selected based on the expression pattern clustering and Venn diagram analysis. In RH, the SA content significantly increased and the JA content significantly decreased after BPH infestation, with the former occurring prior to the latter. In RH, the differential genes in the SA pathway were synthesis-related and were up-regulated after BPH infestation. The differential genes in the JA pathway were also up-regulated. They were jasmonate ZIM-domain transcription factors, which are important negative regulators of the JA pathway. Comparatively, genes involved in the ET pathway were less affected by a BPH infestation in RH. DNA sequence analysis revealed that most BPH infestation-inducible genes may be regulated by the genetic background in a trans-acting manner, instead of by their promoters. We profiled the analysis of the global gene expression in RH and TN1 under BPH infestation

  11. Exuberant granulation tissue response associated with Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) infestation in two cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, J; Harms, C; Christiansen, E; Clarke, E; Law, J

    2016-03-01

    Monogenean parasite infestations are common in captive marine teleosts, and are generally found on the skin and gills. This report describes an unusual pathological presentation of exuberant granulation tissue of the gills, suspected to be related to Neobenedenia infestation in two cobia housed together at a North Carolina aquarium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M.; Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a) identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b) predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation) of Dubas bug infestations. PMID:28558069

  13. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Filbert Weevil Infested Acorns in an Oak Woodland in Marin County, California

    Treesearch

    Vernard R. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Two-hundred shoots contained within randomly selected locations from each of thirty-six coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, trees were sampled to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of acorns infested by the filbert weevil, Curculio occidentis in northern California during 1989. The seasonal abundance of infested acorns...

  14. Pilot program (proof of concept) to mitigate Phytophthora ramorum at an infested nursery based on a systems approach

    Treesearch

    Gary Chastagner; Marianne Elliott

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this program was to demonstrate proof of concept of certain mitigation approaches at a repeat P. ramorum-positive nursery site in Washington. Approaches included steam treatment of infested soil areas; creating a gravel “sandwich” above steam-treated and potentially infested soil surfaces; improving drainage systems; required...

  15. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  16. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  17. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...

  18. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal for purposes other than human food. 314.10 Section... ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for... livers condemned because of telangiectasis, angioma, “sawdust” condition, cirrhosis, carotenosis, or...

  19. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal for purposes other than human food. 314.10 Section... ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for... livers condemned because of telangiectasis, angioma, “sawdust” condition, cirrhosis, carotenosis, or...

  20. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal for purposes other than human food. 314.10 Section... ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for... livers condemned because of telangiectasis, angioma, “sawdust” condition, cirrhosis, carotenosis, or...

  1. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal for purposes other than human food. 314.10 Section... ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.10 Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for... livers condemned because of telangiectasis, angioma, “sawdust” condition, cirrhosis, carotenosis, or...

  2. Early Impact and Control of Aphid (Chaitophorus populicola Thomas) Infestations on Young Cottonwood Plantations in the Mississippi Delta

    Treesearch

    J.D. Solomon

    1999-01-01

    A very heavy infestation of the aphid Chaitophorus populicola Thomas developed primarily on growing shoots in commercial cottonwood plantations and caused serious injury to terminals. Terminal mortality in heavily infested fields averaged 92.5 percent, and shoot dieback averaged 4.3 inches. Many of the surviving terminals were weakened to the...

  3. Discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2-8 from southern corn rootworm infested maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A common paradigm of infestation by chewing insects is a jasmonic acid (JA) cascade that results in the induction of JA responsive genes. However examination of several maize genes induced by Southern corn rootworm (SCR) infestation, an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, ...

  4. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a) identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b) predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation) of Dubas bug infestations.

  5. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  6. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks [Boophilus...

  7. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality associated with the Douglas-fir beetle in the Colorado Front Range

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron

    1998-01-01

    Infested and uninfested areas within Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.. Franco, stands affected by the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk. were sampled in the Colorado Front Range, CO. Classification tree models were built to predict probabilities of infestation. Regression trees and linear regression analysis were used to model amount of tree...

  8. Hemlock declines rapidly with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation: impacts on the carbon cycle of the Southern Appalachian forests

    Treesearch

    April E. Nuckolls; Nina Wurzburger; Chelcy R. Ford; Ronald L. Hendrick; James M. Vose; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2008-01-01

    The recent infestation of southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is expected to have dramatic and lasting effects on forest structure and function. We studied the short-term changes to the carbon cycle in a mixed stand of hemlock and hardwoods, where hemlock was declining due to either girdling or HWA infestation. We expected that...

  9. Attributes associated with probability of infestation by the pinon ips, Ips confusus, (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in pinon pine, Pinus edulis

    Treesearch

    Jose E. Negron; Jill L. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    We examined attributes of pinon pine (Pinus edulis) associated with the probability of infestation by pinon ips (Ips confusus) in an outbreak in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona. We used data collected from 87 plots, 59 infested and 28 uninfested, and a logistic regression approach to estimate the probability ofinfestation based on plotand tree-level attributes....

  10. Attributes associated with probability of infestation by the pinon Ips, Ips confusus, (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in pinon pine, Pinus edulis

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Jill L. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) We examined attributes associated with the probability of infestation by pinon ips (Ips confusus), in pinon pine (Pinus edulis), in an outbreak in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona. We used data collected from 87 plots, 59 infested and 28 uninfested, and a logistic regression approach to estimate the probability of...

  11. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  12. Needle terpenoid composition of Pinus halepensis (Mill.) Trees infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica (Genn.) in Greece

    Treesearch

    Athanassios Gallis; Carlos Arrabal; Aristotle C. Papageorgiou; Maria C. Garcia-Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Needle terpenoid composition was determined by using GLC-MS in Pinus halepensis (Mill.) trees that were infested and not infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica. The study area was within the Forest National Park of the Cape Sounion, southern Attica region, Greece. A total of 43 compounds, 32 of which were identified...

  13. Automatic image analysis and spot classification for detection of fruit fly infestation in hyperspectral images of mangoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An algorithm has been developed to identify spots generated in hyperspectral images of mangoes infested with fruit fly larvae. The algorithm incorporates background removal, application of a Gaussian blur, thresholding, and particle count analysis to identify locations of infestations. Each of the f...

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in the Toro Toro municipality, Potosi, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Espinoza Echeverria, Jorge; Rodriguez, Antonio Nogales; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves; Gorla, David E

    2017-02-02

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Bolivia. The species is present both in domestic and peridomestic structures of rural areas, and in wild ecotopes of the Andean valleys and the Great Chaco. The identification of areas persistently showing low and high house infestation by the vector is important for the management of vector control programs. This study aimed at analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of house infestation by T. infestans in the Toro Toro municipality (Potosi, Bolivia) between 2009 and 2014, and its association with environmental variables. House infestation and T. infestans density were calculated from entomological surveys of houses in the study area, using a fixed-time effort sampling technique. The spatial heterogeneity of house infestation was evaluated using the SatScan statistic. Association between house infestation with Bioclim variables (Worldclim database) and altitude was analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM) with a logit link. Model selection was based on the Akaike information criteria after eliminating collinearity between variables using the variable inflation factor. The final model was used to create a probability map of house infestation for the Toro Toro municipality. A total of 73 communities and 16,489 house evaluation events were analyzed. Presence of T. infestans was recorded on 480 house evaluation events, giving an overall annual infestation of 2.9% during the studied period (range 1.5-5.4% in 2009 and 2012). Vector density remained at about 1.25 insects/ house. Infestation was highly aggregated in five clusters, including 11 communities. Relative risk of infestation within these clusters was 1.7-3.9 times the value for the regional average. Four environmental variables were identified as good descriptors of house infestation, explaining 57% of house infestation variability. The model allowed the estimation of a house infestation surface for the Toro Toro municipality. This

  15. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  16. Infestation and morphological identification of the stalked epizoic barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab Portunus pelagicus from the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi Khattab, Rafat

    2017-09-01

    The intensity of infestation of the epizoic stalked barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab was calculated for a total of 180 individuals collected around Jeddah, the western Red Sea Saudi coast. More than 90% of the crabs were found bearing the Octolasmis at a prevalence rate of 92% and mean intensity of 18.5±18.6 (0-127 epibiont per host). The intensity of infestation increased with host size in the range 90-135 mm. Generally, females were more infested (69%) than the males (31%). Octolasmis angulata occurred mostly on the gills, and the lower side of the gill chambers was more infested (84%) than the upper side (16%) and the left side of gills was also more infested than the right side in both males and females. Further studies are still needed to examine the commensal relationship and its impact on the fishery market of the Red Sea blue crab populations.

  17. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline(®) Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect(®) for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22-53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001) from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection

  18. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001) from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection

  19. Suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes with the predatory bug Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Treesearch

    Sharlene E. Sing

    1997-01-01

    Biological control of pest Bruchidae may provide an important management strategy against infestation of stored grain legumes, a key source of dietary protein in developing countwies. Previous related research has focused on the potential of parasitoids to contwol bruchids; the role of generalist predators in this application has not yet been extensively explored....

  20. Ecohydrological consequences of drought- and infestation-triggered tree die-off: Insights and hypotheses

    Treesearch

    Henry D. Adams; Charles H. Luce; David D. Breshears; Craig D. Allen; Markus Weiler; V. Cody Hale; Alistair M. S. Smith; Travis E. Huxman

    2012-01-01

    Widespread, rapid, drought-, and infestation-triggered tree mortality is emerging as a phenomenon affecting forests globally and may be linked to increasing temperatures and drought frequency and severity. The ecohydrological consequences of forest die-off have been little studied and remain highly uncertain. To explore this knowledge gap, we apply the extensive...

  1. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Treesearch

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  2. Dengue in Araraquara, state of São Paulo: epidemiology, climate and Aedes aegypti infestation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline Chimello; Chiaravalloti, Francisco; Mondini, Adriano

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of dengue in a medium-sized city in the state of São Paulo. METHODS Data, such as circulating serotypes, severe cases and deaths, age group, sex, among others, were obtained on reported and confirmed dengue cases in Araraquara, state of São Paulo, between 1991 and 2015. Climatic and infestation data were also analyzed. These variables were evaluated descriptively, using statistical measures such as frequencies, averages, minimum and maximum. Dengue incidence rates were calculated according to month, year, age and sex, and time series of dengue cases, infestation, and climatic variables. RESULTS Approximately 16,500 cases of dengue fever were reported between 1991 and 2015. The highest number of reports was recorded in 2015 (7,811 cases). In general, the age group with the highest number of reports is between 20 and 59 years old. The highest incidences, generally between March and May, occurred after the increase in rainfall and infestation in January. CONCLUSIONS Increased levels of infestation due to rainfall are reflected in incidence rates of the disease. It is fundamental to know the epidemiology of dengue in medium-sized cities. Such information can be extended to diseases such as Zika and Chikungunya, which are transmitted by the same vector and were reported in the city. The intensification of surveillance efforts in periods before epidemics could be a strategy to be considered to control the viral spread. PMID:29489994

  3. Solar treatments for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle in infested ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Wayne A. Shepperd; Steve A. Mata; John B. Popp; Lance A. Asherin; Anna W. Schoettle; John M. Schmid; David A. Leatherman

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of solar radiation for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle populations in infested logs. Ponderosa pine logs were used in experiments 1 and 2 and lodgepole pine logs were used in experiment 3. Experiment 1 comprised three treatments: (1) one-layer solar treatment without plastic sheeting and logs rotated one-...

  4. Stand conditions associated with roundheaded pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestations in Arizona and Utah

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Jill L. Wilson; John A. Anhold

    2000-01-01

    Stand conditions associated with outbreak populations of the roundheaded pine beetle, Dendroctonus adjunctus Blandford, in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests were studied in the Pinaleno Mountains, AZ, and the Pine Valley Mountains, UT. Classification tree models to estimate the probability of infestation based on stand attributes were built for...

  5. Is there an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children?

    PubMed

    Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria; da Silva, Carolina Brunelli Alvares; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Pereira Saraiva, Maria da Conceição; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Multiple factors have been considered in the etiology of bruxism in pediatric patients, among which are infestations by intestinal parasites suggested by some authors. No empirical evidence exists, however, of such association. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the existence of an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children. Fifty-seven 6- to 11-year-olds (30 cases and 27 controls) who had not used anthelminthics 2 months before the baseline examination were enrolled in the study. A diagnosis of bruxism was based on an intraoral clinical examination performed by a single trained examiner and on the parent/guardian's report of any perceived parafunctional habits (questionnaire-based interview). Bruxism cases were defined as those children with a report of currently perceived habits of eccentric or centric bruxism (tooth-grinding and tooth-clenching, respectively) combined with clinical evidence of nonphysiologic wear facets. The volunteers were required to collect 3 fecal samples (1 every 2 to 3 days). Parasitologic analysis was performed using the spontaneous sedimentation method. Data gathered from the intraoral clinical examination, questionnaire, and parasitologic analysis were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis using the chi-square test and student's t test. Intestinal parasitic infestation was observed in 30% (N=9) of cases and 41% (N=11) of controls, but no statistically significant association was observed (P=.40). This study's findings do not support the existence of an association between intestinal parasitic infestation and bruxism among the evaluated pediatric population.

  6. Disease risk of potting media infested with Phytophthora ramorum under nursery conditions

    Treesearch

    S.A. Tjosvold; D.L. Chambers; E.J. Fichtner; S.T. Koike; S.R. Mori

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum has been found in potting media of containerized plants; however, the role of infested media on disease development under nursery conditions is unknown. This study assesses pathogen survival, sporulation, and infectivity to rhododendron plants in nursery pots with infected leaf litter that were maintained under greenhouse and...

  7. Repeatability of measurements of removal of mite-infested brood to assess Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Varroa Sensitive Hygiene is a useful resistance trait that bee breeders could increase in different populations with cost-effective and reliable tests. We investigated the reliability of a one-week test estimating the changes in infestation of brood introduced into highly selected and unselected co...

  8. Termite infestation associated with type of soil in pulau pinang, malaysia (isoptera: rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-12-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil.

  9. Termite Infestation Associated with Type of Soil in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil. PMID:24575252

  10. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Kevin C. Ryan

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the...

  11. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  12. Mental health effects from urban bed bug infestation (Cimex lectularius L.): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Susser, Stephanie Rebecca; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Jacques, Louis; Denis, Geoffroy; Tessier, François; Roberge, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether bed bug infestation was linked to sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Exploratory cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of tenants recruited in apartment complexes from Montreal, Canada. 39 bed bug-exposed tenants were compared with 52 unexposed tenants. The effect of bed bug-exposed tenants on sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression symptoms measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 5th subscale, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item, respectively. In adjusted models, bed bug infestation was strongly associated with measured anxiety symptoms (OR (95% CI)=4.8 (1.5 to 14.7)) and sleep disturbance (OR (95% CI)=5.0 (1.3-18.8)). There was a trend to report more symptoms of depression in the bed bug-infested group, although this finding was not statistically significant ((OR (95% CI)=2.5(0.8 to 7.3)). These results suggest that individuals exposed to bed bug infestations are at risk of experiencing sleep disturbance and of developing symptoms of anxiety and possibly depression. Greater clinical awareness of this problem is needed in order for patients to receive appropriate mental healthcare. These findings highlight the need for undertaking of deeper inquiry, as well as greater collaboration between medical professionals, public health and community stakeholders.

  13. Methods to assess landscape-scale risk of bark beetle infestation to support forest management decisions

    Treesearch

    T. L. Shore; A. Fall; W. G. Riel; J. Hughes; M. Eng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to provide practitioners with suggestions on how to select appropriate methods for risk assessment of bark beetle infestations at the landscape scale in order to support their particular management decisions and to motivate researchers to refine novel risk assessment methods. Methods developed to assist and inform management decisions for...

  14. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  15. Southern pine beetle infestation probability mapping using weights of evidence analysis

    Treesearch

    Jason B. Grogan; David L. Kulhavy; James C. Kroll

    2010-01-01

    Weights of Evidence (WofE) spatial analysis was used to predict probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) (SPB) infestation in Angelina, Nacogdoches, San Augustine and Shelby Co., TX. Thematic data derived from Landsat imagery (1974–2002 Landsat 1–7) were used. Data layers included: forest covertype, forest age, forest patch size...

  16. Spectral evidence of early-stage spruce beetle infestation in Engelmann spruce

    Treesearch

    Adrianna C. Foster; Jonathan A. Walter; Herman H. Shugart; Jason Sibold; Jose Negron

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreaks cause widespread mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm)) within the subalpine forests of the western United States. Early detection of infestations could allow forest managers to mitigate outbreaks or anticipate a response to tree mortality and the potential effects on ecosystem...

  17. Suppression of Phytophthora ramorum infestations through silvicultural treatment in California's north coast

    Treesearch

    Yana Valachovic; Chris Lee; Brendan Twieg; David Rizzo; Richard Cobb; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, three forested sites infested with Phytophthora ramorum in Humboldt County, California were subjected to different combinations of treatments designed to reduce inoculum and control spread. One treatment, consisting of removal of all California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak...

  18. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F; Brown, Christine M; Lee, Peter N

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4% dimeticone lotion for treatment of head louse infestation. Design Randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting Community, with home visits. Participants 214 young people aged 4 to 18 years and 39 adults with active head louse infestation. Interventions Two applications seven days apart of either 4.0% dimeticone lotion, applied for eight hours or overnight, or 0.5% phenothrin liquid, applied for 12 hours or overnight. Outcome measures Cure of infestation (no evidence of head lice after second treatment) or reinfestation after cure. Results Cure or reinfestation after cure occurred in 89 of 127 (70%) participants treated with dimeticone and 94 of 125 (75%) treated with phenothrin (difference -5%, 95% confidence interval -16% to 6%). Per protocol analysis showed that 84 of 121 (69%) participants were cured with dimeticone and 90 of 116 (78%) were cured with phenothrin. Irritant reactions occurred significantly less with dimeticone (3/127, 2%) than with phenothrin (11/125, 9%; difference -6%, -12% to -1%). Per protocol this was 3 of 121 (3%) participants treated with dimeticone and 10 of 116 (9%) treated with phenothrin (difference -6%, -12% to -0.3%). Conclusion Dimeticone lotion cures head louse infestation. Dimeticone seems less irritant than existing treatments and has a physical action on lice that should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. PMID:15951310

  19. Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I

    2015-02-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

  20. Factors affecting the survival of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; John P. Brown; Robert P. Long

    2013-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB), an Asian woodboring beetle accidentally introduced in North America, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees and is spreading rapidly. This study examined the effects of tree- and site-level factors on the mortality of ash trees in stands infested by EAB in OH, USA. Our data...

  1. Chemical control of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting avocado (Persea americana) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three trials were undertaken to determine the effectiveness of insecticides against Scolytinae infesting avocado between 2010 and 2011. These included contact and systemic insecticides applied either to trees or to avocado logs. Efficacy of the insecticides was determined either by the number of ent...

  2. 9 CFR 72.1 - Interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. 72.1 Section 72.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  3. Optimal control of an invasive species with imperfect information about the level of infestation

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Haight; Stephen Polasky

    2010-01-01

    The presence of invasive species is often not realized until well after the species becomes established. Discovering the location and extent of infestation before the invasive species causes widespread damage typically requires intensive monitoring efforts. In this paper, we analyze the problem of controlling an invasive species when there is imperfect information...

  4. Growth and refoliation of koa trees infested by the koa moth, Scotorythra Paludicola (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Treesearch

    John D. Stein; Paul G. Scowcroft

    1984-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, four major infestations of the koa moth, Scotorythra paludicola (Butler), have defoliated koa (Acacia koa Gray) stands on the island of Maui. After trees on 7564 ha of the Makawao Forest Reserve were damaged in 1977, a study was begun to determine growth and refoliation response of completely defoliated...

  5. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  6. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Virginia, and Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of... amended the regulations to add areas in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin to..., West Virginia, and Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas. \\1\\ To view the interim rule and...

  7. Dengue in Araraquara, state of São Paulo: epidemiology, climate and Aedes aegypti infestation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aline Chimello; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Mondini, Adriano

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of dengue in a medium-sized city in the state of São Paulo. METHODS Data, such as circulating serotypes, severe cases and deaths, age group, sex, among others, were obtained on reported and confirmed dengue cases in Araraquara, state of São Paulo, between 1991 and 2015. Climatic and infestation data were also analyzed. These variables were evaluated descriptively, using statistical measures such as frequencies, averages, minimum and maximum. Dengue incidence rates were calculated according to month, year, age and sex, and time series of dengue cases, infestation, and climatic variables. RESULTS Approximately 16,500 cases of dengue fever were reported between 1991 and 2015. The highest number of reports was recorded in 2015 (7,811 cases). In general, the age group with the highest number of reports is between 20 and 59 years old. The highest incidences, generally between March and May, occurred after the increase in rainfall and infestation in January. CONCLUSIONS Increased levels of infestation due to rainfall are reflected in incidence rates of the disease. It is fundamental to know the epidemiology of dengue in medium-sized cities. Such information can be extended to diseases such as Zika and Chikungunya, which are transmitted by the same vector and were reported in the city. The intensification of surveillance efforts in periods before epidemics could be a strategy to be considered to control the viral spread.

  8. Infestation dynamics of the Asian longhorned beetle in the United States

    Treesearch

    Alan Sawyer

    2007-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an exotic pest of Asian origin, first discovered in North America (Brooklyn, NY) in 1996. That infestation has now spread to Queens, Manhattan and Long Island, NY and Jersey City, NJ. Based on DNA profiles (Carter et al. 2005) and other evidence, independent...

  9. Do bark beetles and wood borers infest lumber following heat treatment? The role of bark

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Pascal Nzokou

    2007-01-01

    Wood packing material (WPM) is an important pathway for the movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects (Haack 2006). New international standards for treating WPM, often referred to as "ISPM 15," were adopted in 2002 (FAO 2002). The two approved WPM treatments are heat treatment (56? C core temperature for 30 min) and fumigation with methyl bromide. These...

  10. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  11. Role of herbicide treatments and application times in cogongrass eradication under open field infestation scenario

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Cogongrass eradication project was conducted from spring 2008 through fall 2011 on natural, open-field Cogongrass infestations at two locations near Tilman's Corner and Bayou La Batre in southwestern Alabama. Treatments consisted of glyphosate alone (4 lb/acre), imazapyr alone (0.75 lb/acre) and ...

  12. Restoration outplantings of nursery-origin Californian flora are heavily infested with Phytophthora

    Treesearch

    Tyler B. Bourret; Heather K. Mehl; David M. Rizzo; Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Janell M. Hillman

    2017-01-01

    A survey of areas previously anthropogenically disturbed and revegetated with woody nursery-reared native Californian vegetation was conducted in Santa Clara County between August and December of Previous sampling of revegetation sites had found nursery-origin transplants to be infested withPhytophthora species. Samples of roots and soil were...

  13. A case report of Cheyletiella infestation on a Whippet dog in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1996-12-01

    A clinical case of Cheyletiella infestation on a dog born and raised in Korea is reported. A three-year old female Whippet was hospitalized due to a multiple fracture and displacement of the left scapula caused by a recent car accident. The mite infestation was not noticed at the time of hospitalization. The dog underwent multiple operations involving internal fixation of the fractured scapula with wire and a plate, followed by extensive chemotherapy with antibiotics and prednisolone. After two months of hospitalization, a pruritic dermatitis near the left scapula developed. Multiple white dandruff-like flakes were seen on the hair coat, especially over the dorsal spine and neck, and the dog expressed increased pruritus by frequently licking and scratching the affected areas. Local dense accumulations of skin debris that became crusty were also observed. Microscopic examination of a skin scraping revealed a heavy infestation of cheyletiella yasguri, as identified by the presence of hoks of the palpi and the heart-shaped sensory organ on genu I. Immunosuppression elicited by the extensive administration of prednisolone was suspected for the initiation of the generalized mite infestation.

  14. Stand characteristics and Ips typographus (L.) (Col., Curculionidae, Scolytinae) infestation during outbreak in northeastern Poland

    Treesearch

    Jacek Hilszczanski; Wojciech Janiszewski; Jose Negron; A. Steve Munson

    2006-01-01

    The study included field data collected from outbreak areas of Norway spruce beetle Ips typographus L., which were used to identify stand conditions associated with outbreak populations. In 2001-2002 data from 100 infested and 100 uninfested plots were collected from eight Forest Districts of State Forests and three National Parks in northeastern Poland. Among 17...

  15. Site Productivity and Tree Mortality on New Frontiers of Gypsy Moth Infestation

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1987-01-01

    Recent analysis of forest stand losses to gypsy moth has provided basic information for analyzing the relationship between forest site productivity and tree mortality on new frontiers of infestation. Poor timber-growing sites had the lowest rates of mortality. Oak mortality (number of trees) amounted to 18 percent on poor sites compared with 26 percent on medium and 28...

  16. Attraction of acorn-infesting Cydia latiferreana (lepidoptera:tortricidae) to pheromone-baited traps

    Treesearch

    J.W. Peacock; S.L. Wright; J.R. Galford

    1988-01-01

    Males of acorn-infesting Cydia latiferreana are attracted to an equilibrium mixture of the four isomers of 8, I10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate, the virgin female-produced pheromone. Trap height relative to the height of trees in which traps are placed seems to be a significant factor influencing moth catches at attractant-baited traps. In an oak woodlot...

  17. Revegetation Strategies and Technologies for Restoration of Aridic Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) Infestation Sites

    Treesearch

    Kenneth D. Lair

    2006-01-01

    Critical knowledge gaps exist regarding vegetative recovery in aridic, monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) stands with no desirable understory plants. Formulation of revegetation strategies that provide site stabilization, resistance to further saltcedar and secondary weed infestation, and acceptable habitat values for affected wildlife species...

  18. First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Associated with Psyllid-Infested Carrots in Germany

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carrot plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in commercial carrot fields in Lower Saxony, Germany in September 2014. The fields were infested with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the infection rate was about 50...

  19. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Urmia city, Iran: First report

    PubMed Central

    Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh; Pour-Reza, Behzad; Naem, Soraya; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70%) were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus). Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%). There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05) but found in fleas (p < 0.05). The prevalence of infestation in sexes and the body condition of hedgehogs (small, medium and large) with ticks and fleas did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05). The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran. PMID:25653796

  20. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  1. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  2. Towards efficient multi-scale methods for monitoring sugarcane aphid infestations in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We discuss approaches and issues involved with developing optimal monitoring methods for sugarcane aphid infestations (SCA) in grain sorghum. We discuss development of sequential sampling methods that allow for estimation of the number of aphids per sample unit, and statistical decision making rela...

  3. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. L. Ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Halajian, Ali; Booysen, Shalaine; Smit, Willem J

    2017-02-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province. All the ticks were identified by means of a stereoscopic microscope. Horses were infested with 17 tick species, 72.1% with Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 19.4% with Amblyomma hebraeum and 15.6% with Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was recovered from horses in all nine provinces of South Africa and R. decoloratus in eight provinces. Donkeys were infested with eight tick species, and 81.6% were infested with R. evertsi evertsi, 23.7% with A. hebraeum and 10.5% with R. decoloratus. Several tick species collected from the horses and donkeys are the vectors of economically important diseases of livestock. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is the vector of Theileria equi, the causative organism of equine piroplasmosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale, the causative organism of anaplasmosis in cattle. Amblyomma hebraeum is the vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative organism of heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats, whereas R. decoloratus transmits Babesia bigemina, the causative organism of babesiosis in cattle.

  4. Effects of thinning on development of southern pine beetle infestations in old growth stands

    Treesearch

    Peter Turchin; James Davidson; Jane Leslie. Hayes

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the relationship between southern pine beetle infestation growth and the intertree spacing in old growth pine stands. The problem with extrapolating the results of previous studies to old growths tands is that it is unclear whether the same mechanism will operate in stands of older trees characterized by double the diameter (20-25 cm...

  5. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  6. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2 •− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2 •− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  7. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  8. Hemlock infestation and mortality: impacts on nutrient pools and cycling in Appalachian forests

    Treesearch

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Barry Clinton; Nark D. Hunter

    2011-01-01

    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] trees serve an important ecological role in riparian ecosystems in the southern Appalachians. Significant hemlock mortality is occurring due to infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), a non-native invasive pest. Our objective was to quantify the impacts of HWA and hemlock mortality on...

  9. Triatomine Infestation in Guatemala: Spatial Assessment after Two Rounds of Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Jennifer; Nakagawa, Jun; Yamagata, Yoichi; Goehler, Alexander; Brownstein, John S.; Castro, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the Guatemalan Ministry of Health initiated a Chagas disease program to control Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata by periodic house spraying with pyrethroid insecticides to characterize infestation patterns and analyze the contribution of programmatic practices to these patterns. Spatial infestation patterns at three time points were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi*(d) test. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of reinfestation after pyrethroid insecticide administration. Spatial analysis showed high and low clusters of infestation at three time points. After two rounds of spray, 178 communities persistently fell in high infestation clusters. A time lapse between rounds of vector control greater than 6 months was associated with 1.54 (95% confidence interval = 1.07–2.23) times increased odds of reinfestation after first spray, whereas a time lapse of greater than 1 year was associated with 2.66 (95% confidence interval = 1.85–3.83) times increased odds of reinfestation after first spray compared with localities where the time lapse was less than 180 days. The time lapse between rounds of vector control should remain under 1 year. Spatial analysis can guide targeted vector control efforts by enabling tracking of reinfestation hotspots and improved targeting of resources. PMID:22403315

  10. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (p<0.001). The ticks were mainly present in the posterior limbs compared to other body regions (p<0.05). There was no significance variation of length and weight of tortoises according to sex (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the tortoises' size (length and weight) and tick infestation. This study showed high tick burdens of spur-thighed tortoises in Tunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [Lice in Mali: frequency of infestation, genotyping, infection rate and case management].

    PubMed

    Sangaré, A K; Doumbo, S N; Koné, A K; Thera, M A; Dabo, A; Brouqui, P; Raoult, D; Doumbo, O K

    2015-01-01

    Because lice-transmitted infections are a real public health problem, epidemiological studies in different ecoclimatic zones of Africa are useful. This article aims to describe the frequency of lice infestation, their genotypes, and their infection by pathogens in the regions of Koulikoro and Mopti. A cross-sectional survey allowed us to collect lice from rural populations. Techniques of molecular biology (real-time PCR, standard PCR, and genotyping) were used for analysis of lice samples. Infestation rates were 57% (12/21) among subjects in Diankabou, in the Sahelian zone; 91% (39/43) in Doneguebougou, and 86% (59/69) in Zorocoro, in a savanna zone. The overall lice infestation rate in the samples in the three localities was 83% (110/133). Real-time PCR showed 3% (4/92) of Acinetobacter baumanii but no B. quintana in Diankabou. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene (Cytb) showed that head lice in Mali belong to genotype C. The high frequency of lice infestation in the study population indicates that it would be useful to conduct national epidemiological surveys to estimate the magnitude of this public health problem.

  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths Infestation in Children Attending Princess Marie Louise Children's Hospital in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Mirisho, Robert; Neizer, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    The deworming exercise program does not cover all children who are not in school. This study determined the prevalence and species type of helminth infestation and associated factors among children attending Princess Marie Louise Children's Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Children (225) below the age of 10 who have not taken antihelminthic drugs prior to the study period were recruited between May and June 2015. Children or guardians were interviewed using structured questionnaires and fresh stools were collected and processed for helminths species identification using microscopy. Data were analyzed using Stata version 12. Overall helminths infestation prevalence was 17.33% (39/225). The identified species were hookworm (10.22% (23/225)) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.11% (16/225)). No double infestation was observed. Significant associations were observed between infestation and age group beyond 4 years (48 months) (aOR = 16.72, 95% CI 1.00–279.72), place of residence (aOR = 7.35, 95% CI 1.68–32.11), washing hands after using toilet (0.04, 95% CI 0.01–0.20), and dirt on fingernails of children (7.96, 95% CI 1.73–36.65). This study demonstrates high prevalence of helminths parasites, hookworm, and Ascaris lumbricoides in children attending PMLCH. Deworming exercise should be extended to children hospitals in developing countries. PMID:29057116

  13. Variation in Sharwil avocado maturity during the harvest season and resistance to fruit fly infestation.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: Avocados cannot be exported from Hawaii without a quarantine treatment to prevent the spread of fruit flies. Research on the maturity and infestability of ‘Sharwil’ avocados was conducted to support development of a systems approach for quarantine security of exported fruit. Th...

  14. Mapping burn severity, pine beetle infestation, and their interaction at the High Park Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Brandon

    North America's western forests are experiencing wildfire and mountain pine beetle (MPB) disturbances that are unprecedented in the historic record, but it remains unclear whether and how MPB infestation influences post-infestation fire behavior. The 2012 High Park Fire burned in an area that's estimated to have begun a MPB outbreak cycle within five years before the wildfire, resulting in a landscape in which disturbance interactions can be studied. A first step in studying these interactions is mapping regions of beetle infestation and post-fire disturbance. We implemented an approach for mapping beetle infestation and burn severity using as source data three 5 m resolution RapidEye satellite images (two pre-fire, one post-fire). A two-tiered methodology was developed to overcome the spatial limitations of many classification approaches through explicit analyses at both pixel and plot level. Major land cover classes were photo-interpreted at the plot-level and their spectral signature used to classify 5 m images. A new image was generated at 25 m resolution by tabulating the fraction of coincident 5 m pixels in each cover class. The original photo interpretation was then used to train a second classification using as its source image the new 25 m image. Maps were validated using k-fold analysis of the original photo interpretation, field data collected immediately post-fire, and publicly available classifications. To investigate the influence of pre-fire beetle infestation on burn severity within the High Park Fire, we fit a log-linear model of conditional independence to our thematic maps after controlling for forest cover class and slope aspect. Our analysis revealed a high co-occurrence of severe burning and beetle infestation within high elevation lodgepole pine stands, but did not find statistically significant evidence that infected stands were more likely to burn severely than similar uninfected stands. Through an inspection of the year-to-year changes in

  15. Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hantsch, Lydia; Bien, Steffen; Radatz, Stine; Braun, Uwe; Auge, Harald; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which plant pathogen infestation occurs in a host plant is expected to be strongly influenced by the level of species diversity among neighbouring host and non-host plant species. Since pathogen infestation can negatively affect host plant performance, it can mediate the effects of local biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. We tested the effects of tree diversity and the proportion of neighbouring host and non-host species with respect to the foliar fungal pathogens of Tilia cordata and Quercus petraea in the Kreinitz tree diversity experiment in Germany. We hypothesized that fungal pathogen richness increases while infestation decreases with increasing local tree diversity. In addition, we tested whether fungal pathogen richness and infestation are dependent on the proportion of host plant species present or on the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species. Leaves of the two target species were sampled across three consecutive years with visible foliar fungal pathogens on the leaf surface being identified macro- and microscopically. Effects of diversity among neighbouring trees were analysed: (i) for total fungal species richness and fungal infestation on host trees and (ii) for infestation by individual fungal species. We detected four and five fungal species on T. cordata and Q. petraea, respectively. High local tree diversity reduced (i) total fungal species richness and infestation of T. cordata and fungal infestation of Q. petraea and (ii) infestation by three host-specialized fungal pathogen species. These effects were brought about by local tree diversity and were independent of host species proportion. In general, host species proportion had almost no effect on fungal species richness and infestation. Strong effects associated with the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species on fungal species richness and infestation were, however, recorded. Synthesis. For the first time, we experimentally

  16. Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation.

    PubMed

    Hantsch, Lydia; Bien, Steffen; Radatz, Stine; Braun, Uwe; Auge, Harald; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-11-01

    The degree to which plant pathogen infestation occurs in a host plant is expected to be strongly influenced by the level of species diversity among neighbouring host and non-host plant species. Since pathogen infestation can negatively affect host plant performance, it can mediate the effects of local biodiversity on ecosystem functioning.We tested the effects of tree diversity and the proportion of neighbouring host and non-host species with respect to the foliar fungal pathogens of Tilia cordata and Quercus petraea in the Kreinitz tree diversity experiment in Germany. We hypothesized that fungal pathogen richness increases while infestation decreases with increasing local tree diversity. In addition, we tested whether fungal pathogen richness and infestation are dependent on the proportion of host plant species present or on the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species.Leaves of the two target species were sampled across three consecutive years with visible foliar fungal pathogens on the leaf surface being identified macro- and microscopically. Effects of diversity among neighbouring trees were analysed: (i) for total fungal species richness and fungal infestation on host trees and (ii) for infestation by individual fungal species.We detected four and five fungal species on T. cordata and Q. petraea , respectively. High local tree diversity reduced (i) total fungal species richness and infestation of T. cordata and fungal infestation of Q. petraea and (ii) infestation by three host-specialized fungal pathogen species. These effects were brought about by local tree diversity and were independent of host species proportion. In general, host species proportion had almost no effect on fungal species richness and infestation. Strong effects associated with the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species on fungal species richness and infestation were, however, recorded. Synthesis . For the first time, we experimentally

  17. Sarcoptes scabiei infestation does not alter the stability of ectoparasite communities.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, João; Serrano, Emmanuel; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Granados, José E; Habela, Miguel A; Olmeda, Sonia; Fonseca, Carlos; Pérez, Jesús M

    2016-07-01

    The host represents a heterogeneous ecosystem where multiple parasite species co-occur and interact with each other for space and resources. Although these interactions may rule the features of an infracommunity and may shape the infracommunity response to external perturbations, the resilience of ectoparasite communities to new infestations remains poorly explored. We analysed the composition of the ectoparasite communities found on 214 individual Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting the Sierra Nevada Natural Space, southern Spain. Using classification and regression trees, we explored how the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei (a highly contagious mite), the off-host environment and the host sex govern the prevalence and abundance of lice and ticks. Null model analysis was applied to assess the impact of S. scabiei on the structure of the ectoparasite communities. Our results suggest that S. scabiei infestation acts in tandem with off-host environment and host sex to define the prevalence and abundance of lice and ticks. We also provided evidence for differences in species co-occurrence only at the early stages of S. scabiei infestation. Regarding species diversity, we recorded that ectoparasite communities in scabietic ibexes reached a high richness faster than those in healthy individuals. Even though we show that ectoparasite burden is correlated with S. scabiei infestation, off-host environment and host sex, the species response to S. scabiei infestation and climate seem to be highly variable and influenced by ectoparasite life-history traits. Ectoparasite communities also appear resilient to perturbations which is in agreement with what was previously reported for endoparasites. Future refinement of sample collection and the incorporation of ecological and epidemiological-related variables may allow us to establish causal effects and deepen the knowledge about the mechanisms and consequences of ectoparasite interactions.

  18. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  19. Thysanoptera infestation on skin and periorbital cellulitis in ostriches (Struthio camelus) aged 14 months.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G

    2007-06-01

    To report the infestation of Thysanoptera (Limothrips denticornis) on ostriches (Struthio camelus) and to determine their relative density. A farm in Poland was studied on which ostriches aged 14 months were severely infested with L. denticornis (thrips). Thrips were collected and their density on the neck, torso and legs (10 cm2) of 85 ostriches determined at 0600, 1200 and 1800 h, respectively, over 7 days. At the same times, apparent densities of thrips/m2 were determined in adjacent grassy areas (120 m2) on a muslin cloth impregnated with permethrin. Thrips were mounted onto slides in Hoyer's medium, for identification. The apparent density of thrips was greatest at 1200 h, and was greater on the neck than the torso and legs (p=0.03). In adjacent surroundings, densities were also highest at 1200 h (mean 199 (SE 9.3) thrips/m2) and were similar to the maximum densities recorded on the necks of ostriches at that time (mean 205 (SE 6.4) thrips/m2). Ostriches engaged in excessive preening and attempted to scratch their head/neck with their feet. Numerous small, pale red papules were observed on the skin. Observations of periorbital cellulitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, watery discharge, inflammation, and sclerotic discolouration were noted in 65 ostriches. Observations were commensurate with L. denticornis infestation. Infestation may exacerbate stress levels and subsequently lead to a reduction in feed intake and performance. The infestation and subsequent irritation from thrips impacts negatively on the general health of ostriches by damaging skin and irritating eyes.

  20. Occurrence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera, Oestridae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Oryan, A; Razavi, S M; Bahrami, S

    2009-12-03

    Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) by the larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus is endemic in goats of semi-hilly and mountainous regions of Iran. This myiasis has severe economic impact on tanning industries, and it is responsible for impaired milk and meat production, growth retardation and carcass depreciation. To estimate the prevalence of GWFI in the southern areas of Iran, from October 2006 to December 2008, the carcasses of 8000 goats at a Shiraz slaughterhouse and 1000 each at Marvdasht and Darab cities were examined weekly for the presence of P. silenus larvae. In addition, appropriate sections from the skin and subcutaneous tissues were processed for histopathological investigation. The prevalence rate of infestation in different cities varied from 7.0% to 18.9% and the minimum and maximum infestation rate was 3 and 78, with an average rate of infestation of 26.2 warbles per animal. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence among different age groups with no significant difference between male and female animals. First instar larvae (L(1)) were found on infected animals from early August to end of September, second larval stage (L(2)) from early October to end of November and third-stage larvae (L(3)) from early December to mid-March. No larvae were found on skin or subcutaneous tissues from end of March to late July. Live L(1) initiated mild lymphocyte, macrophage and eosinophil infiltration while dead L(1) initiated granulomatous or pyogranulomatous reactions. Live L(2) induced severe inflammatory reaction and massive tissue necrosis, which continued for L(3) and until the end of infestation phase. The subcutaneous tissues, dermis and epidermis became necrotic and fragmented, and L(3) penetrated the necrotic area to start its aerobic life cycle.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding head lice infestations in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Ugbomoiko, Uade Samuel

    2011-09-14

    Head lice infestations are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but knowledge, attitudes and practices have never been studied in this region. This population-based study was conducted in a small rural community (population = 590) in Kwara State, Central Nigeria. Inhabitants of the community were interviewed regarding head lice infestations, using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, and examined regarding the presence of active pediculosis. Of the 496 participants included, 367 (74.0%) had experienced head lice infestations, but only 26 (11.1%) of the individuals older than 15 years knew the correct mode of transmission. Of 142 individuals with active pediculosis, only 1 (0.7%) felt ashamed. Treatment was most commonly done by grooming (46.3%), followed by combing (27.2%). Only 4.6% used pediculicides, and 21.8% did not apply any treatment. Opinions about difficulties in controlling head lice were asked in three groups: biological, technical and social. In the first group, the most common difficulty noted was detecting head lice (52.1%), followed by possible resistance that would lengthen the time of infestation (38.9%). Technical constraints included concerns on the safety and effectiveness of products (48.7%) and difficulties in obtaining treatment (46.2%). Social contraints included difficulty in treating children (24.4%), lack of knowledge (23.5%), and the social behavior of children (22.2%). Head lice were not perceived as an important disease in a rural Nigerian community, and feelings about the infestation were mostly indifferent. Despite its common occurrence, knowledge on head lice was limited.  

  2. A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Biomass is nearly carbon neutral and can be used for the production of various liquid fuels and chemicals. Decisions on biomass utilization should be based on the most economical and mature route. This study analyzes mountain pine beetle (MPB) killed wood as the feedstock for production of bio-ethanol and bio-oil and compares it with the direct combustion route to produce electricity. The MPB infestation of British Columbia's (BC), a western province of Canada, forest has reached an epidemic proportion and is spread over an area of 10 millionha. According to the current estimates of BC's Ministry of Forests and Range, about 1 billion m(3) of trees would be killed by MPB by 2013. This infestation would result in large scale loss of jobs and the standing dead trees are a fire hazard and if left unharvested will decay and release carbon back to the atmosphere. The cost of bio-ethanol production from a 2100dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for two locations (one remote and other near the industry) in BC is in the range of C$0.37-C$0.40/l (C$1.40-C$1.51/gallon). Similarly, cost of bio-oil production from a 220dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for same two locations in BC is in the range of C$0.27-C$0.29/l (C$1.02-C$1.09/gallon). The cost of producing electricity using this bio-oil is above C$100/MWh which is higher than the current power price in BC. This cost is also higher than the cost of production of electricity by direct combustion of infested wood in a boiler (C$68-C$74/MWh).

  3. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of ash tree metabolites following Emerald Ash Borer infestation.

    PubMed

    Stock, Naomi L; Doran, Michael C; Bonners, Ron F; March, Raymond E

    2018-03-15

    The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an invasive insect detected in the USA and Canada in 2002, is a threat to ash trees with both ecological and economic implications. Early detection of EAB-infestation is difficult due to lack of visible signs and symptoms in the early stages of attack, but is essential to prevent ash mortality. An efficient and reliable tool for the early detection of EAB-infestation would be advantageous. A mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), has been used to investigate the leaf metabolites of both healthy and EAB-infested trees. Leaves from 40 healthy and 40 EAB-infested trees were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS. Resulting data were examined to differentiate between foliage from healthy and EAB-infested trees. Possible biomarkers of EAB attack have been detected. Twenty-one metabolites with increased average ion intensity in EAB-infested ash tree samples and nine metabolites with increased average ion intensity in healthy ash tree samples were identified. Results of this study indicate that metabolomic screening of leaf samples using LC/MS can be useful as a potential tool for the early detection of EAB-infestation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Rat infestation associated with environmental deficiencies in an urban slum community with high risk of leptospirosis transmission.

    PubMed

    Santos, Norlan de Jesus; Sousa, Erica; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Costa, Federico

    2017-03-09

    We analyzed environmental factors that provide food, water and harborage to rodents and the risk of household rodent infestation in a slum community with a high risk of leptospirosis transmission. Detailed environmental surveys were performed in 221 households. Multivariate regression models evaluated the association between rodent infestation and socioeconomic status and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys. The general household infestation rate was 45.9%. Rattus norvegicus signs were the most prevalent, present in 74% of the infested households. The risk for rodent infestation was associated with environmental factors supporting harborage for rats, such as dilapidated fences/walls (OR: 8.95; 95%CI: 2.42-33.12) and households built on an earthen slope (OR: 4.68; 95%CI: 2.23-9.81). An increase of 1 meter from the nearest sewer was associated with a 3% (95%CI: 1%-5%) decrease in the risk of rodent infestation. A lack of sanitation where poor people live provides factors for rat infestation and could the target of educational interventions.

  5. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in

  8. Tick infestation and prophylaxis of dogs in northeastern Germany: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephanie; Schreiber, Cécile; Schein, Eberhard; Krücken, Jürgen; Baldermann, Claudia; Pachnicke, Stefan; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Kohn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Ticks transmit various important pathogens to humans and animals, and dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation. The objective of this study was to examine tick infestation and the characteristics of tick prophylaxis of dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. A total of 441 dogs (392 owners) was examined from March 2010 to April 2011. The dog owners participated in the study for a period of 1-13 months (10.33±2.85; median 11.00). The prevalences of a total of 1728 ticks collected from 251 (57%) of these dogs were: 46.0% Ixodes ricinus, 45.1% Dermacentor reticulatus, 8.8% Ixodes hexagonus, and 0.1% Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The ticks were 75.2% adult females and 24.4% adult males, and 0.4% were nymphs. The average prevalence of apparent infestation of tick-positive dogs was 0.78 ticks/month (median 0.38). Tick infestation was highest in October (5.9±5.8 ticks/dog) and lowest in December (1±0 tick/dog). The highest frequency of infestation was observed during May (117 dogs). The number of ticks found on dogs by owners on a single day varied from one to 70 (median 1). The scutal index indicated that more than 60% of I. ricinus and more than 40% of D. reticulatus had been removed after they had fed for more than 2 days. The heads, necks, chests, and limbs of the dogs were the most common attachment sites. Data for tick prophylaxis with substances licensed for dogs by the Medicinal Products Act (MPA) were available for 124 dogs; a total of 1195 ticks was obtained from these dogs. About two-thirds of the ticks were collected from dogs that were treated incorrectly (n=96) or were not treated (n=60). One third of the ticks were collected from dogs (n=96) that had been treated correctly. Dog-specific characteristics such as length of coat (p=0.011) and body size (p=0.040) played significant roles in tick infestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  10. Impacts of human-related practices on Ommatissus lybicus infestations of date palm in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; Andrew, Nigel R; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB) (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS), geographically weighted regression (GRW), and exploratory regression (ER) were applied to (a) model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b) predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman. Firstly, we extracted row spacing and palm tree density information from remote sensed satellite images. Secondly, we collected data on irrigation practices and management by using a simple questionnaire, augmented with spatial data. Thirdly, we conducted our statistical analyses using all possible combinations of values over a given set of candidate variables using the chosen predictive modelling and regression techniques. Lastly, we identified the combination of human-related practices that are most conducive to the survival and spread of DB. Our results show that there was a strong correlation between DB infestations and several human-related practices parameters (R2 = 0.70). Variables including palm tree density, spacing between trees (less than 5 x 5 m), insecticide application, date palm and farm service (pruning, dethroning, remove weeds, and thinning), irrigation systems, offshoots removal, fertilisation and labour (non-educated) issues, were all found to significantly influence the degree of DB infestations. This study is expected to help reduce the extent and cost of aerial and ground sprayings, while facilitating the allocation of

  11. Head louse infestations: epidemiologic survey and treatment evaluation in Argentinian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Chouela, E; Abeldaño, A; Cirigliano, M; Ducard, M; Neglia, V; La Forgia, M; Colombo, A

    1997-11-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate that the treatment of individual cases is effective, but not sufficient, to control endemic Pediculus capitis, and that eradication of the epidemiologic school focus may lower significantly the prevalence of infestation. Statistical data on the degree of infestation relating to socio-economic and cultural variables were also updated. Therapeutic effects and educational impact were evaluated. An educational and motivational program was designed for pupils, parents, and teachers: 326 children and 15 adults were subjected to clinical and parasitologic evaluation. The recorded parameters included the age, sex, hair style and length, presence of other dermatologic diseases, degree of infestation, clinical remission, parasitologic remission, dwelling type and features, need to share a bed with co-dwellers, availability of home tap water supply, level of family income, and periodic medical controls. The entire population received treatment with neutral shampoo and rinsing cream containing 1% permethrin. Exclusion criteria were the presence of acute scalp inflammation and a history of pyrethrin and/or pyrethroid sensitivity. Statistical analysis was performed as required on data expressed as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations by chi-square and Fisher exact tests. The overall infestation prevalence rate was 81.5%, the highest values corresponding to children from 6 to 11 years of age, with a slight predominance in males (55.4% vs. 44.6%). A significantly greater rate of clinical remission was observed in subjects enjoying home tap water supplies (p < 0.01). The model of research plus action adopted allows the following conclusions to be drawn: (i) individual and isolated treatments for pediculosis are useful, but will not by themselves allow for the epidemiologic control of this parasitosis; (ii) massive, complete, and simultaneous treatments lead to a significant decrease in infestation prevalence; (iii) educational measures

  12. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  13. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M.; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F.; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7–9 and 9–10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade. PMID:28130456

  14. Diversity of containers and buildings infested with Aedes aegypti in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Fattore, Gladys; Abril, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main domestic vector of the dengue virus. Control measures to prevent dengue transmission focus on the treatment and elimination of this vector's oviposition sites. There is limited biological information on Ae. aegypti in Argentina. The aim of this study was to characterize Ae. aegypti oviposition sites in the city of Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We surveyed an area covering nine neighborhoods in 2005. We identified 191 premises as positive for Ae. aegypti, giving a general house index of 9.6%. Premises classified as residential and vacant lots presented the highest number of infested premises, with 9% and 22% respectively. The total number of surveyed containers was 29,600. The overall container index (CI) was 1.1. The most frequently infested containers were water tanks (CI = 37). These preliminary results suggest that vacant lots and water tanks provide suitable breeding areas and environmental conditions, improving the chances of Ae. aegypti survival in Puerto Iguazú.

  15. Hematological changes in Eleginops maclovinus during an experimental Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rehbein, Patricio; Ruiz, Karin; Ortloff, Alexander; Pizarro, María Isabel; Navarrete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Eleginops maclovinus has been an important fishery resource in Chile since 1957. Caligus rogercresseyi is one of the most prevalent ectoparasite species found on E. maclovinus. Hematocrit, hemoglobin level, red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and differential white blood cell count were determined before and after an experimental infestation with C. rogercresseyi. We found significant differences in the hemoglobin level, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, hematocrit level and RBC between infested and uninfested fish. Furthermore correlations between number of C. rogercresseyi with hematocrit, MCHC, neutrophil, eosinophil and lymphocyte counts were found. Hematological reference ranges of E. maclovinus in captivity conditions were also established.

  16. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  17. Sensations of skin infestation linked to abnormal frontolimbic brain reactivity and differences in self-representation.

    PubMed

    Eccles, J A; Garfinkel, S N; Harrison, N A; Ward, J; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P; Critchley, H D

    2015-10-01

    Some patients experience skin sensations of infestation and contamination that are elusive to proximate dermatological explanation. We undertook a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain to demonstrate, for the first time, that central processing of infestation-relevant stimuli is altered in patients with such abnormal skin sensations. We show differences in neural activity within amygdala, insula, middle temporal lobe and frontal cortices. Patients also demonstrated altered measures of self-representation, with poorer sensitivity to internal bodily (interoceptive) signals and greater susceptibility to take on an illusion of body ownership: the rubber hand illusion. Together, these findings highlight a potential model for the maintenance of abnormal skin sensations, encompassing heightened threat processing within amygdala, increased salience of skin representations within insula and compromised prefrontal capacity for self-regulation and appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demodex spp. Infestation Associated with Treatment-Resistant Chalazia and Folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Akçınar, Ulviye Güvendi; Ünal, Emine; Akpınar, Metin

    2016-12-01

    Demodecidosis is an ectoparasitosis of pilosebaceous unit caused by demodex mites. The disease may be a primary skin disease or a secondary disease to inflammatory dermatoses such as folliculitis and rosacea. Demodex spp. blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease that is common but always neglected. These mites contain lipase enzymes that help carry bacteria on the surface. The infestation of Demodex spp. has increasingly become a public health concern. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to our dermatology clinic with a complaint of papules and pustules on his face, which started 4 years ago. A standardized skin biopsy specimen was evaluated in our microbiology laboratory, and we detected Demodex folliculorum mites on his face (3+). There was pruritus of his eyes. A total of four eyelashes were epilated and were then examined under a light microscope for the presence of Demodex infestation. In this study, we discussed the association between acne rocacea, blepharitis, and demodex mites.

  19. Extension of echinococcal spinal infestation extra- and intradurally after a decade of extinction.

    PubMed

    Samadian, M; Alavi, E; Sharifi, G; Rezaee, O; Faramarzi, F

    2010-12-01

    Simultaneous intradural, extradural, vertebral and paravetebral invasion of hydatid cyst, pathologic fracture, and multiple vertebral involvement are all rare encountered conditions in echinococcal infestation. A 48-year-old man who had experienced a falling down trauma, 10 years ago, and at that time, because of L1 burst fracture, undergone on Harrington rod placement, admitted in our ward for newly started urinary retention and mild paresis of lower extremities. With imaging analysis and during surgery, we discovered the extension of echinococcal spinal infestation extra- and intradurally after a decade of extinction. We performed a double stage circumferential reconstruction and adjuvant long term chemotherapy. We closely monitor our patient neurologically and radiologically and believe that aggressive surgical treatment and sustained cyclical albendazole therapy can increase the quality of life and life expectancy.

  20. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-12-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec ® ) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative after 30 days of the first treatment. The entire colony was given preventive dose of ivermectin spray (2 mg/ml solution) following the same schedule. Strict hygienic measures were followed. New hair growth in the severely affected animals was evidenced on 30th day of treatment.

  2. Les infestations par les poux de tête : une mise à jour clinique.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Carl; Finlay, Jane C; MacDonald, Noni E

    2018-02-01

    Les infestations par les poux de tête ( Pediculus humanus capitis ) ne constituent ni un risque sanitaire primaire ni un vecteur de maladie, mais représentent plutôt un problème de société au coût impor- tant. Pour diagnostiquer une infestation, il faut déceler un pou vivant. Même si les pyréthines et la perméthrine demeurent les traitements de première intention au Canada, la solution de myristate d'isopropyle et de ST-cyclométhicone et la diméticone peuvent être envisagées en deuxième intention après un échec thérapeutique démontré.

  3. Variable clinical presentations of secondary delusional infestation: an experience of six cases from a psychodermatology clinic.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Ilknur K; Ates, Bilge; Mercan, Sibel; Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Kayaoglu, Semra

    2012-01-01

    Delusional Infestation (DI) is a relatively rare condition with a fixed belief of being infested with living organisms, despite a lack of medical evidence of such infestation. Although it seems to be a psychiatric disease, patients commonly are admitted to dermatology clinics because of skin findings. Psychiatrists can underestimate its prevalance, whereas dermatologists can miss the diagnosis. It should be managed as a psychodermatological disease. Our aim in the study was to evaluate six patients with different clinical presentations of DI and to emphasize some clinical features. All patients were internalized in the psychodermatology clinic for this study. Medical history and clinical data from dermatologic and psychiatric examinations were noted; Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus) and laboratory investigations including blood and urine analyses, microscopic analysis of so-called pathogens, and skin biopsy if needed, were performed. The diagnosis was made based on detailed history, dermatologic and psychiatric examinations, and laboratory investigations. All patients had symptoms of itching, burning, or crawling sensations dermatologically and thus were admitted to dermatology clinic. They were all considered secondary DI to another medical condition or to psychiatric illness. Vitamin B12 deficiency, diabetes, and hypothyroidism were the underlying medical conditions. Related psychiatric illnesses were trichotillomania and schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, shared pychotic disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. Two patients had delusions of inanimate materials; four patients had partial and complete remissions; and two patients have dropped out. Each patient had different clinical characteristics creating diagnostic challenges. All complaints were related to the infestation of the skin. The presence of different psychiatric comorbidities is remarkable. It seems that both psychiatrists and dermatologists can face diagnostic and

  4. Treatment of human head lice infestations in a single application with a new galenic lotion.

    PubMed

    Militão de Sousa, F; Vasconcelos, A W; de Nadon, J; Duhot, P-Y

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of a new galenic meta-emulsion for the treatment of human head lice (Pediculus capitis) in a single application. A controlled clinical study was conducted comparing lice infestation and nit hatching observed before and after a treatment in a single application. Eighty-two of the 87 children included completed the study. An infestation control was performed on 36 and 46 children, 8 and 24 h respectively after application. Five days later, a meticulous hair examination was carried out to check that the lice infestation was completely cured. After a single application of the lotion being tested, an examination of the scalp with a head lice detection comb, as well as an examination of the rinsing water and the towel used for drying after washing, showed that out of the total 1285 lice, there were no live lice. The percentage of nits hatching before treatment was close to 70%. In comparison, after an 8-h treatment (t(+8)), the percentage of nits hatching was 2.1%, with only 0.35% of living nymphs. After a 24-h treatment (t(+24)), 1.9% hatched with 0.38% living nymphs. Nymphs were revealed to be non-viable. After 5 days (t(+120)), no living adult or immature lice were found on the subjects tested. Moreover, observation of tolerance levels to this treatment at days 1, 5 and 12 showed no side effects. The specific galenic lotion completely cured head lice infestation in the population studied in a single application. The lotion, a patented meta-emulsion, has a mechanical action that asphyxiates lice and nits. Considering the advantages of the single application, the possibility of complete concomitant therapeutics for a whole school population within only 1 day and the high level of tolerance to this treatment, this approach seems simple and promising.

  5. Integrated management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V

    2005-01-01

    An integrated approach with the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans and nematicides was assessed for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine. Seedlings of tomato cv. Co3 were transplanted into pots filled with sterilized soil and inoculated with nematodes (5000 juveniles/pot). The root powder of P. penetrans at 10 mg/pot was applied alone and in combination with carbofuran at 6 mg/pot. Application of P. penetrans along with carbofuran recorded lowest nematode infestation (107 nematodes/200 g soil) compared to control (325 nematodes/200 g soil). The rate of parasitization was 83.1% in the carbofuran and P. penetrans combination treatment as against 61.0% in the P. penetrans treatment only. The plant growth was also higher in the combination treatment compared to all other treatments. A field trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of P. penetrans and nematicides viz., carbofuran and phorate in the management of root-knot nematode, M. incognita infestation of grapevine cv. Muscat Hamburg. A nematode and P. penetrans infested grapevine field was selected and treatments either with carbofuran or phorate at 1 g a.i/vine was given. The observations were recorded at monthly interval. The results showed that the soil nematode population was reduced in nematicide treated plots. Suppression of nematodes was higher under phorate (117 nematodes/200 g soil) than under carbofuran (126.7 nematodes/200 g soil) treatment. The number of juveniles parasitized was also influenced by nematicides and spore load carried/juvenile with phorate being superior and the increase being 17.0 and 29.0% respectively over the control. The results of these experiment confirmed the compatibility of P. penetrans with nematicides and its biological control potential against the root-knot nematode.

  6. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    PubMed

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How do land management practices affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange of an invasive plant infestation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentag, O.; Detto, M.; Runkle, B.; Kelly, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem gas and energy exchanges of invasive plant infestations under different land management practices have been subject of few studies and thus little is known. Our goal is to characterize seasonal changes in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) through the processes of photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) of a grassland used as pasture yet infested by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. We analyze eddy-covariance supported by environmental and canopy-scale hyperspectral reflectance measurements acquired in 2007-2009. Our study covers three summer drought periods with slightly different land management practices. Over the study period the site was subject to year-round grazing, and in 2008 the site was additionally mowed. Specific questions we address are a) how does pepperweed flowering affect GEP, b) does a mowing event affect NEE mainly through GEP or Reco, and c) can the combined effects of phenology and mowing on pepperweed NEE potentially be tracked using routinely applied remote sensing techniques? Preliminary results indicate that pepperweed flowering drastically decreases photosynthetic CO2 uptake due to shading by the dense arrangement of white flowers at the canopy top, causing the infestation to be almost CO2 neutral. In contrast, mowing causes the infestation to act as moderate net CO2 sink, mainly due to increased CO2 uptake during regrowth. We demonstrate that spectral regions other than commonly-used red and near-infrared might be more promising for pepperweed monitoring because of its spectral uniqueness during the flowering phase. Our results have important implications for land-use land-cover (LULC) change studies when biological invasions and their management alter ecosystem structure and functioning but not necessarily the respective LULC class.

  8. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  9. [Tick infestation and tick prophylaxis in dogs in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg--results of a questionnaire study].

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephanie; Schein, Eberhard; Baldermann, Claudia; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Kohn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Ticks can transmit different pathogens to humans and animals. Dogs are frequently exposed to tick infestation, which underscores the importance of tick control measures. The objective of this study was to examine the awareness of dog owners regarding tick infestation and tick prophylaxis by a questionnaire survey. During the period from March to December 2010 a total of 616 owners of 670 dogs completed the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire results, 92% of the dogs were previously infested by ticks; 31% of these showed a moderate tick infestation (1-2 ticks a month), almost one in ten dogs was infested by eight or more ticks a month. 17% of the dogs were examined for ticks by the respective owner not at all or only at irregular intervals, 61% of the dogs were examined at least once a day. A tick prophylaxis was performed in 469 dogs (71%). In 353 dogs (53%), registered pharmaceutical products with appropriate label claims were employed. Spot-on products were used most frequently (93%), followed by collars (5%) and sprays (1%).These products were not used as recommended in 56% of the dogs. For further 33% of the dogs, it was not possible to decide if the products were used correctly or not. According to the dog owner statements, tick borne diseases were diagnosed in approximately 2% of the dogs. Dog specific characters, such as coat length, size, age, and walking habits were significant factors influencing the frequency of tick infestation. In summary it can be concluded that nearly every dog in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg is infested by ticks. In the majority of cases the prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures to prevent infestation are not performed correctly.

  10. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata) populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  11. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infestation in a child presenting with symptoms of acute appendicitis: a wriggly tale!

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Louise; Clark, Zoe; Raja, Mazhar H

    2017-10-06

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency worldwide. However, it can still present a challenging diagnosis especially in the young, elderly and those individuals of reproductive age, thus encompassing a wide spectrum of varied clinical presentations. Parasitic infections of the appendix are a rare cause of acute appendicitis. However, they must be considered in children presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of Enterobius vermicularis infestation mimicking the features of acute appendicitis in a 10-year-old girl. This case is a cautionary reminder of the importance of considering E. vermicularis infestation in children presenting with abdominal pain, but who do not have a significantly raised white cell count or high Alvarado scores. A history of anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Prompt recognition and a high clinical index of suspicion are required to prevent an unnecessary appendicectomy. Caution is advised when performing a laparoscopic appendectomy, as in our case, to prevent contamination of the peritoneum. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazole. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  13. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  14. Modulation of Atlantic salmon miRNome response to sea louse infestation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    MicroRNAs are non-coding RNA that plays a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation and immune system regulation. On other hand, sea lice are prevalent parasites that affect salmon farming, generating different degrees of immune suppression depending on the salmon and sea louse species. Caligus rogercresseyi for example, which affects the salmon industry in Chile, decreases Th1 response, macrophage activation, TLR-mediated response and iron regulation in infected fish. In this study, we explore Atlantic salmon miRNome during infestation by C. rogercresseyi. Using small RNA sequencing, we annotated 1718 miRNAs for skin and head kidney from infected Atlantic salmon. The most abundant families identified were mir-10, mir-21, mir-30, mir-181 and let7. Significant differences were found between tissue, with 1404 annotated miRNA in head kidney and 529 in skin. Differential analysis of transcript expression indicated that at an early stage of infestation miRNA expression was higher in head kidney than in skin tissue, revealing tissue-specific expression patterns. In parallel, miRNA target prediction using 3'UTRs from highly regulated immune-related genes and iron metabolism showed that mir-140-4 and mir-181a-2-5 modulate the expression of TLR22 and Aminolevulinic acid synthase, respectively. This study contributes knowledge about the immune response of Atlantic salmon during infestation with sea lice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Density-dependent effects of Caligus rogercresseyi infestation on the immune responses of Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Sanchez, Marcos; Valenzuela, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-12-01

    Sea lice infestations are a particular concern in the salmonid aquaculture industry due to damaging effects on fish growth, disease/infection susceptibility, and survival. Despite the impacts of sea lice parasitism, few studies have determined corresponding physiological thresholds, or the quantity of sea lice that can trigger measurable effects in the host immune response. The present study evaluated the mRNA expressions of immune-related genes in Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) under infestation challenges with contrasting loads of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Specifically, two groups of S. salar were infected with either 35 (i.e. low parasitic load) or 100 (i.e. high parasitic load) copepodids per fish. At 14 days post-infestation, the mRNA levels of immune-related genes (e.g. related to oxidative stress, pro- and inflammatory responses, and the adaptive T H 1/T H 2 pathways) were assessed through RT-qPCR. Significant differences were found in relation to parasitic load, suggesting density-dependent effects that activated the S. salar immune system. Higher parasitic load promoted strong inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that were correlated with the T H 1 immune response. This study highlights the molecular signatures for distinct parasitic loads, providing new perspectives towards fully understanding parasite-host interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K.; Andrewes, Samuel W.; Wu, Christopher S.; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J.

    2015-01-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  17. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  18. House-level risk factors for Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Cardona, Ángela Segura; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Angulo, Víctor; Alexander, Neal

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, are Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. T. dimidiata is present in the east region of Colombia as domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic populations, resulting in difficulties for its control. A cost-effective way to prioritize houses for treatment is to stratify houses based on risk factors. In this study, risk factors were evaluated for potential associations with domicile infestation of T. dimidiata. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation associated with the presence of mixed roofs (odds ratio [OR] = 36.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 12.21-106.97), cats (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.36-11.38), rock piles (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.64-16.98), and bushes with height above 10 m (OR = 11.21, 95% CI = 2.08-60.45). These factors could be used to target surveillance and control of T. dimidiata to houses with an increased risk of being infested. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. House-Level Risk Factors for Triatoma dimidiata Infestation in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Cardona, Ángela Segura; Quirós-Gómez, Oscar; Angulo, Víctor; Alexander, Neal

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, are Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. T. dimidiata is present in the east region of Colombia as domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic populations, resulting in difficulties for its control. A cost-effective way to prioritize houses for treatment is to stratify houses based on risk factors. In this study, risk factors were evaluated for potential associations with domicile infestation of T. dimidiata. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation associated with the presence of mixed roofs (odds ratio [OR] = 36.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 12.21–106.97), cats (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.36–11.38), rock piles (OR = 5.28, 95% CI = 1.64–16.98), and bushes with height above 10 m (OR = 11.21, 95% CI = 2.08–60.45). These factors could be used to target surveillance and control of T. dimidiata to houses with an increased risk of being infested. PMID:25349372

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Topical Lime Sulfur in Mice Infested with Myocoptes musculinus

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer S; Courtney, Cynthia L; Lieber, Karen A; Lee, Vanessa K

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment options for murine fur mites have limitations in safety and efficacy. This study evaluated whether topical lime sulfur (LS) is an adjunct or alternative to traditional treatment options for Myocoptes musculinus. To evaluate the safety of topical LS, mice were dipped in a 3% LS solution at 34 and 41 d of age. Mice were observed daily for side effects and mortality, with blood work and necropsy at 42 d of age to evaluate for pathologic changes. To determine the efficacy of topical LS, postweanling mice infested with M. musculinus were treated with LS once weekly for 2 wk and then housed with uninfested sentinel mice for 4 wk. Weekly tape tests and postmortem tape tests and skin scrapings were performed on all mice. Treated postweanling mice had significantly lower Hgb levels and higher BUN levels than did control animals. In mite-infested mice, the number of positive cages at euthanasia was the same between treated and control animals. Although topical LS did not cause gross or microscopic changes to organ systems, it may cause clinicopathologic changes, and topical LS is not effective as a sole treatment for M. musculinus infestation of postweanling mice. PMID:23849408

  1. Cheyletiella infestation in the dog: observations on diagnostic methods and clinical signs.

    PubMed

    Saevik, B K; Bredal, W; Ulstein, T L

    2004-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the ability of diagnostic methods to detect naturally occurring Cheyletiella infestation in dogs, and to quantify and relate the number of mites and eggs present to clinical signs. Privately owned dogs with skin problems were eligible for inclusion in the study. Four diagnostic tests were performed on each dog in the following order: tape impression, hair plucking, skin scraping and vacuum cleaning. Dogs with positive test results for Cheyletiella infestation in at least one of the tests under evaluation were included in the study (n=27). The severity of pruritus and scaling was graded on a four-point fixed scale. The diagnostic findings in vacuum cleaning samples provided a semiquantitative measure of the grade of infestation. The vacuum cleaning test gave a positive test result in all dogs and was significantly more efficient than the other tests evaluated (P<0.01). The number of diagnostic findings varied considerably among the different vacuum samples. No significant relationship between the number of diagnostic findings and severity of clinical signs was detected.

  2. Surveys for Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated parasitoids infesting avocados in Perú.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2012-04-01

    Surveys for Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, the avocado seed moth, and its associated larval parasitoids were conducted in the Departments of Junín, Huánuco, Cusco, and Madre de Dios in Perú. Fruit infestation levels in some areas ranged from 0 to 58%, and parasitism of S. catenifer larvae in Junín and Huánuco was 23%. Five species of hymenopteran parasitoid in two families, Braconidae (Apanteles sp., Hypomicrogaster sp., and Chelonus sp.) and Ichneumonidae (Pristeromerus sp. and Xiphosomella sp.), were reared from larvae, and one species of tachinid fly (Chrysodoria sp.) emerged from pupae. The dominant larval parasitoid, a gregarious Apanteles sp., accounted for 55% of parasitized hosts. Branch and twig tunneling by S. catenifer larvae in a commercial Hass avocado orchard was observed in Cusco. The field attractiveness of the sex pheromone of S. catenifer was demonstrated with 73% of monitoring traps deployed in three departments (Junín, Huánuco, and Cusco) catching male moths. Approximately 55% of avocado fruit sourced from the Province of Chanchamayo (Junin) and purchased at the Mercado Modelo de Frutas in La Victoria, in central Lima were infested with larvae of S. catenifer. Infested avocado fruit sold at this market could represent a potential incursion threat to coastal Hass avocado production regions in Perú that are reportedly free of this pest.

  3. A survey of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chee, Jeong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Kee; Cho, Ho Seong; Cho, Kyoung Oh; Lee, Yu Jin; Abd El-Aty, A M; Abdel-Aty, A M; Shin, Sung Shik

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.3%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%).

  4. Infestation and Quantification of Ochratoxigenic Fungi in Barley and Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie; Hegstad, Justin; Lee, Hyun Jung; Simons, Kristin; Ryu, Dojin; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    Cereal grains are a significant source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the human diet. Multiple ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. have been reported as contaminants on various cereal grains around the world, although relatively few species dominate in any given location. Efforts to mitigate the risk of fungal contamination and OTA accumulation can be made pre- and postharvest. Still, a rapid and reliable screening method is sought that can be used to predict the OTA level of a sample and to inform risk assessments prior to processing. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of two OTA-related indices for OTA level prediction. Infestation rates were determined by direct plating for freshly harvested and stored barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples (n = 139) with known OTA levels. Presumptive ochratoxigenic isolates were tested for their ability to produce OTA. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (otanpsPN) involved in OTA biosynthesis was used to quantify ochratoxigenic fungi in barley and wheat. Viable Penicillium verrucosum was present in 45% of the samples. In total, 62.7% (n = 110) of the P. verrucosum isolates tested produced OTA on dichloran yeast extract sucrose 18% glycerol agar. Both OTA level and infestation rate (r = 0.30), as well as OTA level and otanpsPN concentration (r = 0.56), were weakly correlated. Neither infestation rate nor otanpsPN concentration is a reliable predictor of OTA level in a sample.

  5. Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole in Controlling Structural Infestations of the Eastern Subterranean Termite in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Susan C.; Vargo, Edward L.; Keefer, T. Chris; Labadie, Paul; Scherer, Clay W.; Gallagher, Nicola T.; Gold, Roger E.

    2017-01-01

    Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset® (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony’s footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0–4) and North Carolina (0–5) as compared to 0–1 in Ohio, the most northern state. PMID:28858226

  6. Evaluation of an intervention program for head lice infestation in school children.

    PubMed

    Sarov, B; Neumann, L; Herman, Y; Naggan, L

    1988-03-01

    In order to investigate the point prevalence rate of pediculosis capitis (human head lice) among children in the southern region of Israel, 1431 elementary school children (6 to 15 years old), representing rural and urban environments, were examined and characterized by sociodemographic variables. An intervention program was initiated immediately after the first examination, which included "health education" for children and parents and free medicated shampoo (with pediculocides) provided for each child detected as "positive." The intervention program was evaluated by a second examination performed on the same population after an interval of 1 month. Fifty-five percent of the children (793 of 1431) were found to be infested with one of the markers of head lice, with the highest rate in kibbutz children (80%) and the lowest rate (37%) among children who live in an urban neighborhood of high socioeconomic status. Analysis of various characteristics (related to the children screened in this study) revealed that crowding was the main factor contributing to the variation in the rates of infestation. Evaluation of the intervention program revealed a significant success in reducing head lice infestation that was not influenced by variation in socioeconomic status or place of residence.

  7. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, C E M; van Beek, T A; Dicke, M

    2002-12-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested in an olfactometer. The predatory mites were significantly attracted to the spider mite-infested leaves of all test plant species. No differences in attractiveness of the infested plant leaves were found for predatory mites reared on spider mites on the different test plants or on lima bean. Thus, experience with the spider mite-induced plant volatiles did not affect the predatory mites. Jasmonic acid was applied to ginkgo leaves to induce a mimic of a spider mite-induced volatile blend, because the spider mites did not survive when incubated on ginkgo. The volatile blend induced in ginkgo by jasmonic acid was slightly attractive to predatory mites. Plants with a high degree of direct defence were thought to invest less in indirect defence than plants with a low degree of direct defence. However, plants that had a strong direct defence such as ginkgo and sweet pepper, did emit induced volatiles that attracted the predatory mite. This indicates that a combination of direct and indirect defence is to some extent compatible in plant species.

  8. Unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation in a child during occlusion therapy for amblyopia: Case report.

    PubMed

    Biler, Elif Demirkilinc; Selver, Ozlem Barut; Palamar, Melis; Uner, Ahmet; Uretmen, Onder

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old mentally retarded boy is brought to the hospital because of itching and burning at his right eye for 10 days. He was on full time right eye occlusion therapy for left amblyopia. Slit lamp examination revealed nits and adult lice anchored to the eyelashes in his occluded eye. Eyelashes and all detected lice and nits were mechanically trimmed, and sent for parasitological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis. Upon familial evaluation for additional infestation, the father was also found to have genital phthiriasis pubis and received appropriate treatment. While phthiriasis palpebrarum in children may signify sexual abuse, a detailed investigation by a child psychiatrist was performed and revealed no sign of abuse. Since the infestation was at only on occluded eye, the most possible explanation for the transmission was evaluated as the misusage of the adhesive patch in our case. In conclusion, sexual abuse should be excluded in children with phthiriasis palpebrarum and parents of amblyopic children on occlusion therapy should be warned about the importance of the hygiene of the patching in order to avoid any kind of infection and infestation.

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K; Andrewes, Samuel W; Wu, Christopher S; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Severe head lice infestation in an Andean mummy of Arica, Chile.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Bernardo; Orellana, Nancy C; Barbosa, Helene S; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Araújo, Adauto; Standen, Vivien

    2012-04-01

    Pediculus humanus capitis is an ancient human parasite, probably inherited from pre-hominid times. Infestation appears as a recurrent health problem throughout history, including in pre-Columbian populations. Here, we describe and discuss the occurrence of pre-Columbian pediculosis in the Andean region of the Atacama Desert. Using a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy, we studied a highly infested Maitas Chiribaya mummy from Arica in northern Chile dating to 670-990 calibrated years A.D. The scalp and hair of the mummy were almost completely covered by nits and adult head lice. Low- and high-vacuum scanning electron microscopy revealed a well-preserved morphology of the eggs. In addition, the excellent preservation of the nearly 1,000-yr-old adult head lice allowed us to observe and characterize the head, antennae, thorax, abdomen, and legs. Leg segmentation, abdominal spiracles, and sexual dimorphism also were clearly observed. The preservation of the ectoparasites allowed us to examine the micromorphology using scanning electron microscopy; the opercula, aeropyles, and spiracles were clearly visible. This case study provides strong evidence that head lice were a common nuisance for Andean farmers and herders. Head lice are transmitted by direct head-to-head contact; thus, this ancient farmer and herder was potentially infesting other people. The present study contributes to the body of research focusing on lice in ancient populations.

  11. Influence of environmental factors on activity patterns of Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in naturally infested logs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Vernard R; Leighton, Shawn; Tabuchi, Robin; Baldwin, James A; Haverty, Michael I

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) activity patterns were measured from seven loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] logs, five containing live western drywood termite [Incisitermes minor (Hagen)] infestations, and two without an active drywood termite infestation. AE activity, as well as temperature, were monitored every 3 min under unrestricted ambient conditions in a small wooden building, under unrestricted ambient conditions but in constant darkness, or in a temperature-controlled cabined under constant darkness. Logs with active drywood termite infestations displayed similar diurnal cycles of AE activity that closely followed temperature with a peak of AE activity late in the afternoon (1700-1800 hours). When light was excluded from the building, a circadian pattern continued and apparently was driven by temperature. When the seven logs were kept at a relatively constant temperature (approximately 23 +/- 0.9 degrees C) and constant darkness, the pattern of activity was closely correlated with temperature, even with minimal changes in temperature. Temperature is the primary driver of activity of these drywood termites, but the effects are different when temperature is increasing or decreasing. At constant temperature, AE activity was highly correlated with the number of termites in the logs. The possible implications of these findings on our understanding of drywood termite biology and how this information may affect inspections and posttreatment evaluations are discussed.

  12. A Survey of Ectoparasite Infestations in Stray Dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Jeong-Hyun; Kwon, Jung-Kee; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Lee, Yu-Jin; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%). PMID:18344673

  13. The Dynamics of the Defense Strategy of Pea Induced by Exogenous Nitric Oxide in Response to Aphid Infestation.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Bilman, Piotr; Grześkiewicz, Katarzyna; Bednarski, Waldemar; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Mai, Van Chung; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Gabryś, Beata; Morkunas, Iwona

    2017-02-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO), i.e., S -nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on the metabolic status of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski leaves infested by Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, population demographic parameters and A. pisum feeding activity. A reduction in the level of semiquinone radicals in pea seedling leaves pretreated with exogenous NO occurred 24 h after A. pisum infestation, which was earlier than in non-pretreated leaves. A decrease in the level of O₂ •- was observed in leaves pretreated with GSNO and infested by aphids at 48 and 72 h post-infestation (hpi). Directly after the pretreatment with GSNO, an increase in the level of metal ions was recorded. NO considerably induced the relative mRNA levels for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in 24-h leaves pretreated with NO donors, both non-infested and infested. NO stimulated the accumulation of pisatin in leaves until 24 h. The Electrical Penetration Graph revealed a reduction in the feeding activity of the pea aphid on leaves pretreated with NO. The present study showed that foliar application of NO donors induced sequentially defense reactions of pea against A. pisum and had a deterrent effect on aphid feeding and limited the population growth rate.

  14. Chagas' disease: risk factors for house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata, the major vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Starr, M D; Rojas, J C; Zeledón, R; Hird, D W; Carpenter, T E

    1991-04-01

    The reduction of domiciliary infestation by insect vectors, the key to controlling Chagas' disease, depends on identification of housing features associated with infestation. In this study, log-linear modeling was used to reanalyze data collected in 1964-1968 from 371 houses on characteristics potentially associated with infestation by the vector Triatoma dimidiata in a Costa Rican town with endemic Chagas' disease. A possible increased risk of infestation was observed for houses with a dirt floor (as compared with houses with another floor type) and for houses in poor sanitary condition (as compared with houses in good sanitary condition). A new risk factor for house infestation, the presence of roof tiles, was identified; the odds of infestation for houses with a tile roof were 2.4 times greater than the odds for houses with a galvanized metal roof. This significantly increased risk is probably due to the harboring of T. dimidiata in stacks of spare tiles next to house walls rather than to the tile roofs themselves.

  15. Dynamics of bed bug infestations in three low-income housing communities with various bed bug management programs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Eiden, Amanda; Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Wang, Desen; Cooper, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Infestations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., have become common in low-income communities in the USA over the last 15 years. We evaluated community-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs for reducing bed bug infestations. Two housing authorities (Bayonne and Hackensack) implemented bed bug IPM programs. A third housing authority (Paterson) was used as the control site. Building-wide surveys were conducted in all communities, three times, to evaluate the effectiveness of the IPM programs. From 0 to 24 months, the infestation rate at Bayonne, Hackensack, and Paterson decreased by 49, 64, and 26%, respectively. The two sites that adopted IPM achieved faster bed bug elimination than the control site. The bed bug introduction rate over a 24-month period at Bayonne, Hackensack, and Paterson was 7, 3, and 11%, respectively. The introduction rate was positively associated with the initial infestation rate. Residents from buildings enrolled in IPM programs were more satisfied with the bed bug control services than residents from the control site. IPM programs were more effective in reducing bed bug infestations than traditional pest control services, but many factors contributed to the lower than desired level of reduction in infestation rate. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Dynamics of the Defense Strategy of Pea Induced by Exogenous Nitric Oxide in Response to Aphid Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Bilman, Piotr; Grześkiewicz, Katarzyna; Bednarski, Waldemar; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Mai, Van Chung; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Gabryś, Beata; Morkunas, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO), i.e., S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on the metabolic status of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski leaves infested by Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, population demographic parameters and A. pisum feeding activity. A reduction in the level of semiquinone radicals in pea seedling leaves pretreated with exogenous NO occurred 24 h after A. pisum infestation, which was earlier than in non-pretreated leaves. A decrease in the level of O2•− was observed in leaves pretreated with GSNO and infested by aphids at 48 and 72 h post-infestation (hpi). Directly after the pretreatment with GSNO, an increase in the level of metal ions was recorded. NO considerably induced the relative mRNA levels for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in 24-h leaves pretreated with NO donors, both non-infested and infested. NO stimulated the accumulation of pisatin in leaves until 24 h. The Electrical Penetration Graph revealed a reduction in the feeding activity of the pea aphid on leaves pretreated with NO. The present study showed that foliar application of NO donors induced sequentially defense reactions of pea against A. pisum and had a deterrent effect on aphid feeding and limited the population growth rate. PMID:28165429

  17. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  18. Information to Act: Household Characteristics are Predictors of Domestic Infestation with the Chagas Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Dulce María Bustamante; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Escobar, María Carlota Monroy

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation in the region. The models had moderate ability to predict infested houses (sensitivity, 0.32–0.54) and excellent ability to predict noninfested houses (specificity higher than 0.90). Predictive ability was improved by including random village effects and presence of signs of infestation (insect feces, eggs, and exuviae) as fixed effects. Multimodel inference results varied depending on factors included, but house wall materials (adobe, bajareque, and palopique) and signs of infestation were among the most important predictive factors. Reduced models were not supported suggesting that all factors contributed to predictions. Previous knowledge and information from this study show that we have evidence to prioritize rural households for improvement to prevent house infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in Central America. House improvement will most likely have other health co-benefits. PMID:25870430

  19. Information to act: household characteristics are predictors of domestic infestation with the Chagas vector Triatoma dimidiata in Central America.

    PubMed

    Bustamante Zamora, Dulce María; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Monroy Escobar, María Carlota

    2015-07-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation in the region. The models had moderate ability to predict infested houses (sensitivity, 0.32-0.54) and excellent ability to predict noninfested houses (specificity higher than 0.90). Predictive ability was improved by including random village effects and presence of signs of infestation (insect feces, eggs, and exuviae) as fixed effects. Multimodel inference results varied depending on factors included, but house wall materials (adobe, bajareque, and palopique) and signs of infestation were among the most important predictive factors. Reduced models were not supported suggesting that all factors contributed to predictions. Previous knowledge and information from this study show that we have evidence to prioritize rural households for improvement to prevent house infestation with Triatoma dimidiata in Central America. House improvement will most likely have other health co-benefits. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Lynxacarus radovskyi mites in feral cats: a study of diagnostic methods, preferential body locations, co-infestations and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Ketzis, Jennifer K; Dundas, James; Shell, Linda G

    2016-10-01

    Lynxacarus radovskyi (fur mites) are ectoparasites found on the hair shafts of cats living in tropical environments. Diagnosis is via microscopic examination of hairs. Various anatomical areas have been reported to harbour these mites. To assess adhesive tape impressions and trichograms for detecting L. radovskyi and co-infestations; to determine host body predilection sites and affected gender; to determine prevalence of L. radovskyi in a feral cat population. 121 feral cats in a trap, neuter and release programme. After cats were premedicated for surgical sterilization, hairs from seven to nine body sites were removed from each cat using adhesive tape impression and trichogram techniques. Samples were examined at 10-100× magnification using compound or stereo microscopes. The prevalence of L. radovskyi was 71% (86 of 121) within the feral cat population. Tape impressions identified 75 cats; trichograms identified 56 cats. There were fewer false negative results with tape impressions. Caudal body sites were more likely to be positive, with the perianal area being the most commonly affected. Males and females were infested equally. Tape impressions identified more Cheyletiella blakei infestations and both methods identified some Felicola felis infestations. Tape impressions were easier to perform and identified more L. radovskyi positive cats and more co-infestations. Hairs from the perianal area and other caudal body sites are most likely to harbour L. radovskyi. Within this feral cat population, L. radovskyi was a common infestation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Critical swimming speed of brown trout (Salmo trutta) infested with freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) glochidia and implications for artificial breeding of an endangered mussel species.

    PubMed

    Taeubert, Jens-Eike; Geist, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    Unionid freshwater mussels need to attach to a host fish for completion of their life cycle. It remains unclear whether the relationship between these mussels and their host fishes can be considered parasitic, mutualistic, or commensal. Herein, we studied the effects of Margaritifera margaritifera infestation on Salmo trutta, the most important host of this endangered mussel species in Central Europe. Glochidial load of host fish increased with increasing glochidial concentration, but the highest ratios of encysted glochidia to exposed glochidia were found at low concentration (15,000 glochidia L(-1)) during infestation. Host fish mortality occurred at infestation rates of ~350 glochidia per g fish weight and was highest (60%) at the highest infestation rates (~900 glochidia per g fish weight). On a sublethal level, swimming performance of hosts was inversely related to infestation rates, with infestation of ~900 glochidia per g fish weight reducing critical swimming speed of S. trutta significantly by ~20% compared to infestation with 6 glochidia per g fish weight. The high mortality and the impaired swimming capability of highly infested hosts indicate a parasitic interaction between M. margaritifera and its host. For conservation and reintroduction of M. margaritifera via glochidia-infested S. trutta, we recommend glochidial loads of 5-100 glochidia per g fish weight, while for artificial breeding of juvenile M. margaritifera under laboratory conditions, higher infestation rates of up to 300 glochidia per g fish weight are ideal to balance high yields of mussels and welfare of host fishes.

  2. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  3. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Infestation status of head louse and treatment with lindane shampoo in children of primary school and kindergarten in Chinju-shi, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jung Min; Kim, Hyung Joon; Go, Gi Moon; Lee, Sang Jeong; Jeong, Song Hoan; Ahn, Seung In; Kim, Min Cheol; Kim, Jeong Eun; Song, Hyee Young; Park, Jeong Woon; Kim, Byung Sung; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2000-01-01

    The infestation status of head louse among children attending primary schools and kindergartens in Chinju-shi, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea, was investigated between June and July 1999. Out of 2,288 children examined, 3.9% of boys (48/1,242) and 23.5% of girls (246/1,046) were infested with nits or adult/nymphs of lice. The effectiveness of lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride solution) was evaluated after one or two time applications to all the children infested. The negative conversion rate of pediculosis was 93.5%. Effective control measures are needed to control and prevent such ectoparasite infestation amongst children. PMID:10743359

  5. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Use of oral fluralaner for the treatment of Psoroptes cuniculi in 15 naturally infested rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sheinberg, Galia; Romero, Camilo; Heredia, Rafael; Capulin, Miguel; Yarto, Enrique; Carpio, Juan

    2017-08-01

    Psoroptes cuniculi, a nonburrowing ear mite, is a common ectoparasite of rabbits. Constant irritation of the auditory canal by the presence of this mite can lead to otitis externa or otoacariasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluralaner on rabbits naturally infested with P. cuniculi and exhibiting clinical signs. Fifteen female New Zealand domestic rabbits with otitis due to naturally occurring infestation with P. cuniculi. The external ears and ear canals of each individual were examined; samples of otic exudate were extracted with cotton swabs and examined microscopically for identification of the ectoparasite. Each animal was treated with a single 25 mg/kg oral dose of fluralaner. The amount of otic exudate/cerumen was assessed and samples were obtained from the ears to evaluate for presence or absence of mites at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 90 days after receiving treatment. Post-treatment, the amount of otic exudate decreased rapidly in all animals; by Day 12 and until the end of the study all rabbits were judged to have low amount of exudate with normally visible canals. The percentage of ears positive for P. cuniculi decreased to 13.3% of ears sampled by Day 4, and by Day 12 all rabbits were negative for the parasite. Administration of a single oral dose of fluralaner was effective for the treatment of naturally occurring P. cuniculi infestation in rabbits during a 90 day period. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Sarcoptes infestation in two miniature pigs with zoonotic transmission - a case report.

    PubMed

    Grahofer, Alexander; Bannoehr, Jeanette; Nathues, Heiko; Roosje, Petra

    2018-03-13

    Scabies is a contagious skin disease rarely described in miniature pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a zoonotic transfer from infected pet pigs to humans has not been reported previously. This case report describes the infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei mites in two miniature pigs presenting with unusual clinical signs, and disease transmission to a child. Two 7-month-old male castrated miniature pig siblings were examined. Both had developed skin lesions, one animal was presented for neurological signs and emaciation. They were housed together in an indoor- and outdoor enclosure. Dermatological examination revealed a dull, greasy coat with generalized hypotrichosis and multifocal erythema. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings, impression smears of affected skin and ear swabs revealed high numbers of Sarcoptes mites in both animals as well as bacterial overgrowth. A subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 0.3 mg/kg was administered to both animals and repeated after 2 weeks. Both miniature pigs received subcutaneous injections with butafosfan and cyanocobalamin, were washed with a 3% chlorhexidine shampoo and were fed on a well-balanced diet. Pig enclosures were cleaned. The infested child was examined by a physician and an antipruritic cream was prescribed. Both miniature pigs and the child went into clinical remission after treatment. Sarcoptic mange is rare or even eradicated in commercial pig farming in many countries but miniature pigs may represent a niche for Sarcoptes scabiei infections. This case report indicates that miniature pigs kept as pets can efficiently transmit zoonotic disease to humans. In addition, these animals may represent a niche for Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in countries where sarcoptic mange in commercial pig farms has been eradicated and could therefore pose, a hazard for specific pathogen free farms.

  8. Characterization of the immunological response to Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Harrington, D; Robinson, K; Guy, J; Sparagano, O

    2010-04-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite of birds, which adversely affects both production and welfare of commercial poultry. Poultry in commercial production systems chronically exposed to D. gallinae do not appear to develop immunity to the mite. The objective of the current study was to determine the initial immune response of domestic fowl following exposure to D. gallinae. Two groups of birds (11 birds/group) had mite chambers secured to their backs. Controls received no mites, while infested birds received 200 unfed female D. gallinae on day 0 which were then removed on day 1 or 2. Spleen samples were collected on days -1, 1, 2 and 5. The expression of Th1 (IFNgamma, CXCLi2, IL6 and IL18), Th2 (IL4, IL10 and IL13) cytokines/chemokines normalized against a reference gene, GAPDH, were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Although there were no significant differences between treatments, numerical trends were observed. Th2 cytokine expression was not detected in any birds on any day. IL6, CXCLi2, IFNgamma and IL18 expression was increased on day 1 in the infested group, while on day 2 CXCLi2 and IFNgamma were lower and IL6 and IL18 levels were similar between treatments. The IL18 expression was similar between treatments on day 5, while IL6 and IFNgamma levels were increased and CXCLi2 expression was decreased in the infested group. Data suggest that D. gallinae feeding stimulates Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines initially (day 1) followed by their subsequent down regulation. This study is the first report of the characterization of the immunological response of the domestic fowl to controlled numbers of D. gallinae.

  9. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  10. A strategy for emergency treatment of Schistosoma japonicum-infested water

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by contact with Schistosoma japonicum cercaria-infested water when washing, bathing or production, remains a major public-health concern in China. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a suspension concentrate of niclosamide (SCN) on killing cercaria of S. japonicum that float on the water surface, and its toxicity to fish, so as to establish an emergency-treatment intervention for rapidly killing cercaria and eliminating water infectivity. Results At 30 min after spraying 100 mg/L SCN, with niclosamide dosages of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 g/m2, the water infectivity reduced significantly and no infectivity was found at 60 min after spraying SCN. The surface of static water was sprayed with 100 mg/L SCN, the peak concentration was found at 0 min, and the solution diffused to site with a water depth of 10 cm after 10 min. 30 min later, SCN diffused to the whole water body, and distributed evenly. After spraying 100 mg/L SCN onto the surface of the water with a volume of(3.14 × 202×50)cm3, with niclosamide dosages of 0.02 g/m2, 96 h later, no death of zebra fish was observed. Conclusions By spraying 100 mg/L SCN, with a niclosamide dosage of 0.02 g/m2 onto the surface of S. japonicum-infested water, infectivity of the water can be eliminated after 30-60 min, and there is no evident toxicity to fish. This cercaria-killing method, as an emergency-treatment intervention for infested water, can be applied in those forecasting and early warning systems for schistosomiasis. PMID:22047607

  11. Nutritional status and parasitic infestation among working children in a village in Egypt: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shoman, Ahmed E; Mostafa, Nayera S; Musslem, Amira A

    2015-06-01

    Work poses potential threats to the physical, emotional, economic, and academic health of teenagers. Like their adult coworkers, teenagers face exposure to a variety of health and safety hazards that can lead to injury and illness. Children's increased vulnerability puts them at a high risk of work-related health problems. The aim of this study was to compare growth parameters of working children in contrast to nonworking students, and to compare the frequency of anemia and parasitic infestations among the two groups. A comparative cross-sectional study among 75 working boys in small industrial workshops in Arab Gohaina village in Qaliuobia governorate and 75 students of the same residence was conducted. All children were interviewed and were subjected to physical examination. Their BMI and hemoglobin were measured, and stool samples were examined for parasites. Only 11 and 15% of the workers working children eat vegetables and fruits on daily basis compared with 25 and 49% of students respectively (P<0.001). Mean BMI of the working group was 21.62±2.56 compared with 23.29±3.09 among the students. Students showed more frequency of obesity and overweight than the working group (13.33 and 29.33% compared with 2.67 and 20%, respectively, P=0.009). The hemoglobin level of working children (10.27±0.53 g/dl) was less than that of students (11.31±0.75 g/dl, P<0.001). The frequency of having parasitic infestations among working children was significantly higher than the students (P<0.001). Labor was a factor that negatively affected the health of children. More working children in this village had anemia and parasitic infestations than nonworking ones. It is recommended to pay more attention to health problems among working children, with controlling child labor, especially in hazardous occupations and performing periodic medical examination to monitor their health and development.

  12. Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored.

  13. Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by potassium ferrate(VI) treatment.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Wang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Qian-Fu; Li, Ming; Ye, Ling-Tong; Gong, Xiao-Ning

    2010-03-25

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important freshwater teleost pathogen that often leads to significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of potassium ferrate(VI) to I. multifiliis theront and the concentration needed to prevent I. multifiliis infestation in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Five hundred theronts were exposed to concentrations of potassium ferrate(VI) in each well of a 96-well microtiter plate and observed for 4h to determine the acute toxicity. Results showed that the exposure of I. multifiliis theronts to potassium ferrate(VI) at concentrations of 4.80mg/L or more resulted in 100% mortality by 4h; the LC(50) value was estimated to be 1.71mg/L. Aqueous static renewal 96-h bioassays were carried out to determine the acute toxicity of potassium ferrate(VI) to goldfish. The LC(50) value for potassium ferrate(VI) in goldfish was 42.51mg/L. Goldfish were exposed to 4000 theronts/fish in aerated tap water (a dose previously shown to result in consistent infestation) and treated with a single dose of potassium ferrate(VI) after 30min contact with theronts. Infection level and prevalence were recorded everyday after exposure. The results revealed that potassium ferrate(VI) at the 4.80mg/L or more concentrations can significantly reduce not only the number of trophonts on the fin of goldfish on day 3 (P<0.05), but also the prevalence of ichthyophthiriasis (P<0.05). Potassium ferrate(VI) at a concentration of 4.80mg/L was considered to be the lowest effective dose to prevent infestation of I. multifiliis in goldfish.

  14. Ectoparasitic copepod infestation on a wild population of Neotropical catfish Sciades herzbergii Bloch, 1794: Histological evidences of lesions on host.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Deborah; Fuentes, José Luis; Soto, Luz Marina; Lafuente, Wilson; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; López, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed the infestation of the attached copepod species Lepeophtheirus sp on a wild population of Sciades herzbergii . The infestation and occurrence of attached copepods were related to body size, maturity and sex of host and the presence of lesions on fish skin were described. In 61 fish specimens (37 males and 24 females), total of 218 ectoparasitic copepods, including 204 mature and 14 immature stages were found. Copepods were attached to different regions of fish body without any regular pattern. The prevalence of infestation was 80.3% and intensity between 1 and 15 copepods/fish. No significant differences were found between sex or maturity and the presence of attached Lepeophtheirus sp. However, a contingency table including both sex and maturity status, and the total number of attached copepod per combined category showed a significant association. A positive correlation was found between body length of fish and intensity of infestation. Similarly, when comparing the infested fish according to group size, we found more copepods on larger individual. Attached copepods were associated with the presence of lesions visible to the naked eye. Histological analyses showed changes in cell architecture when sections of copepod-free tissues and attached copepods were compared.

  15. A First Report of Infestation by Pseudolynchia canariensis in a Herd of Pigeons in Shahrekord (Southwest of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani-Samani, Amir; Ahmadi-Baberi, Nader; Najafzadeh, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pigeons (Columba livia) have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae. Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males. Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate. PMID:27308301

  16. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Infestation and Container Productivity Measured Using Pupal and Stegomyia Indices in Northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, F. M.; Espinosa, M. O.; Weinberg, D.; Coto, H. D.; Gaspe, M. S.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with ≈2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65–84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline. PMID:19769052

  17. Eco-bio-social determinants for house infestation by non-domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dumonteil, Eric; Nouvellet, Pierre; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gamboa-León, Rubi; Cruz-Chan, Vladimir; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease of major importance in the Americas. Disease prevention is mostly limited to vector control. Integrated interventions targeting ecological, biological and social determinants of vector-borne diseases are increasingly used for improved control. We investigated key factors associated with transient house infestation by T. dimidiata in rural villages in Yucatan, Mexico, using a mixed modeling approach based on initial null-hypothesis testing followed by multimodel inference and averaging on data from 308 houses from three villages. We found that the presence of dogs, chickens and potential refuges, such as rock piles, in the peridomicile as well as the proximity of houses to vegetation at the periphery of the village and to public light sources are major risk factors for infestation. These factors explain most of the intra-village variations in infestation. These results underline a process of infestation distinct from that of domiciliated triatomines and may be used for risk stratification of houses for both vector surveillance and control. Combined integrated vector interventions, informed by an Ecohealth perspective, should aim at targeting several of these factors to effectively reduce infestation and provide sustainable vector control.

  18. Eco-Bio-Social Determinants for House Infestation by Non-domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dumonteil, Eric; Nouvellet, Pierre; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gamboa-León, Rubi; Cruz-Chan, Vladimir; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease of major importance in the Americas. Disease prevention is mostly limited to vector control. Integrated interventions targeting ecological, biological and social determinants of vector-borne diseases are increasingly used for improved control. Methodology/principal findings We investigated key factors associated with transient house infestation by T. dimidiata in rural villages in Yucatan, Mexico, using a mixed modeling approach based on initial null-hypothesis testing followed by multimodel inference and averaging on data from 308 houses from three villages. We found that the presence of dogs, chickens and potential refuges, such as rock piles, in the peridomicile as well as the proximity of houses to vegetation at the periphery of the village and to public light sources are major risk factors for infestation. These factors explain most of the intra-village variations in infestation. Conclusions/significance These results underline a process of infestation distinct from that of domiciliated triatomines and may be used for risk stratification of houses for both vector surveillance and control. Combined integrated vector interventions, informed by an Ecohealth perspective, should aim at targeting several of these factors to effectively reduce infestation and provide sustainable vector control. PMID:24086790

  19. Landscape characteristics influence helminth infestations in a peri-domestic rodent--implications for possible zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Froeschke, Götz; Matthee, Sonja

    2014-08-26

    Anthropogenic habitat change often results in altered landscapes that can provide new environments where hosts, parasites and pathogens can interact. The latter can have implications for human and animal health when in close proximity to developed areas. We recorded the helminth species richness and level of infestation in the peri-domestic rodent, Rhabdomys pumilio, in three different human linked landscapes. The aim was, to investigate the potential of R. pumilio to act as a reservoir host for zoonotic helminths and to compare the effect of anthropogenic habitat change on its parasite infestation patterns. Rodents (n = 518) were trapped in natural areas (nature reserves) and in three human linked landscapes (crop, livestock and urban fragments). Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were recovered and helminths identified from each animal. Generalized linear models were applied to investigate the effect of different landscape types on helminth infestation. Rhabdomys pumilio was the most abundant rodent species within each landscape type. Eight helminths species were recovered and overall helminth prevalence was 86.68%. Mean helminth species richness, prevalence and abundance were significantly higher in crop fragments compared to natural landscapes and overall lower for nematodes in livestock and urban areas. Cestode prevalence showed a tendency to be elevated at anthropogenic linked landscape types. Host parameters and parasite infestations were strongly influenced by landscape characteristics. Resource-rich landscapes (crop fragments) provide favorable conditions for helminth infestations, while landscapes that are more closely associated with humans (livestock and urban landscapes) pose a larger risk by zoonotic species.

  20. Temporal distribution and weather correlates of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) infestations in the city of Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Uria, Ibon; Mateu Mahiques, Jorge; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway rats are challenging pests, posing significant health and economic threats. Implementing ecologically based integrated rodent management (EBIRM) programmes relies primarily on the understanding of ecological relationships between rodents and their environments, with emphasis on the processes influencing rodent populations in the target ecosystem. We investigated the temporal distribution of urban Norway rat infestations in Madrid, Spain, and tested for the association of such infestations with temperature, relative humidity and precipitation by fitting a multivariate Poisson generalized linear model to a 3-year (2006-2008) daily time series of 4,689 Norway rat sightings. Norway rat infestations showed a marked seasonality, peaking in the summer. Most Norway rat sightings were reported on Mondays. Minimum temperature and relative humidity were positively associated with Norway rat infestation, whereas the association with precipitation was negative. The time series was adequately explained by the model. We identified previously unrecognized time periods that are more prone to Norway rat infestation than others and generated hypotheses about the association between weather, human outdoor activity, resource availability, rodent activity and population size. This provided local authorities engaged in preserving urban ecosystem health with basic research information to predict future rodent outbreaks and support the implementation of EBIRM programmes in urban areas.

  1. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.

  2. A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales infesting a primitive wasp in Myanmar amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-12-01

    A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mosquito larval productivity in rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwingira, V S; Mayala, B K; Senkoro, K P; Rumisha, S F; Shayo, E H; Mlozi, M R S; Mboera, L E G

    2009-01-01

    Azolla (Salviniales: Azollaceae) is known to reduce oviposition and adult emergence of a number of mosquito species. Several species of Azolla are reportedly indigenous to Tanzania. However, the potential of Azolla as a biocontrol agent against malaria mosquitoes has not been evaluated in the country. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess mosquito larval productivity in irrigated rice-fields infested with Azolla in Mvomero District, Tanzania. A systematic larval sampling covering all open water bodies along designed transect was carried in rice-fields. Larval density was estimated by dipping water bodies with or without Azolla. The degree of Azolla coverage was categorized as 0%, <50%, 50%, and >80%. Larvae densities were categorised as low (<50/m2), medium (50-500/m2) and high (> or = 500/m2) productivity. A total of 120 water bodies were surveyed and 105 (87.5%) had Azolla microphyla and A. pinnata at varying degrees of coverage. Of the total 105 water bodies with Azolla, 80 (76.2%) had a green Azolla mat, and 25 (23.8%) a brown Azolla mat. Eighty-eight (73.3%) of the sites were infested with anophelines and 109 (90.8%) with culicine larvae. Seventy percent of all water bodies contained anophelines and culicines in sympatric breeding, while 20.8% and 3.3% had only culicines and anophelines, respectively. The majority (82%) of mosquito breeding sites were found in area with Azolla substrate. Mosquito larva productivity was low in sites with highest (>80%) Azolla coverage. Seventy-two (81.8%) of the anopheline and 90 (82.6%) culicine breeding sites were infested with Azolla. Water bodies infested with green Azolla were more productive than those covered by brown coloured Azolla substrates for both culicines (13%) and anophelines (8%). Of the 1537 field collected larvae that hatched to adult stage, 646 (42.03%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 42 (2.73%) were An. funestus and 769 (50.03%) were Culex quinquefasciatus. These findings suggest that the

  4. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Thresiamma; Shaiju, P; Laluraj, C M; Balachandran, K K; Nair, M; George, Rejomon; Nair, K K C; Sahayak, Satish; Prabhakaran, M P

    2008-08-01

    The bloom-infested waters along the southwest coast of India were assessed to bring about the probable cause related to the excessive algal production. Low nitrate and silicate concentrations were concomitant with slightly higher levels of phosphate. The silicate depletion in the bloom area is possibly an indication of community succession (diatom to dinoflagellate), since it was completely utilized by the preceding diatom blooms. The dinoflagellates in this region could have been advected from the northern regions where it was noticed during the previous months.

  5. First Record of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Infesting Withania somnifera in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740

  6. Taxonomical studies of ticks infesting wild rodents from Asir Province in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2008-04-01

    Ticks infesting rodents in Asir Province, which is about 3000 meter above sea level, were surveyed in Wadi Dalaghan and Wadi Bin Hachbal. They were examined from September to December 2006, where ten local life baited traps were distributed for 3 days each month. The rodents were Acomys c. dimitatus (20), Meriones rex (19) & one Gerbillus cheesmani. Fifty three nymphs were dropped off from the rodents in the laboratory 3 to 12 days post-trapping. Forty eight nymphs were reared to adults for identification and 5 ones died. The reared ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus. The medical and veterinary importance was discussed.

  7. A case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation involving the left eye.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad; Waris, Abdul; Kumar, Ashwini; Akhtar, Nahid

    2014-06-06

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is a rare cause of eyelid infestation. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum. A 28-year-old man presented with moderate itching associated with lacrimation and irritation in the left eye. The initial evaluation of the patient revealed multiple white dots on the left upper eyelashes. Slit-lamp examination revealed multiple nits attached to the base and shaft of the cilia. There was no hyperaemia or discharge present in the conjunctiva and the cornea was clear and shiny. The right eye was perfectly normal. The patient was treated with moxifloxacin eye ointment and was completely cured in 1 week. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Lethal Temperature for Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Infested Wood Using Microwave Energy

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Kelli; Uzunovic, Adnan; Gething, Brad; Dale, Angela; Leung, Karen; Ostiguy, Nancy; Janowiak, John J.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the risks associated with global transport of wood infested with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, microwave irradiation was tested at 14 temperatures in replicated wood samples to determine the temperature that would kill 99.9968% of nematodes in a sample of ≥ 100,000 organisms, meeting a level of efficacy of Probit 9. Treatment of these heavily infested wood samples (mean of > 1,000 nematodes/g of sapwood) produced 100% mortality at 56 °C and above, held for 1 min. Because this “brute force” approach to Probit 9 treats individual nematodes as the observational unit regardless of the number of wood samples it takes to treat this number of organisms, we also used a modeling approach. The best fit was to a Probit function, which estimated lethal temperature at 62.2 (95% confidence interval 59.0-70.0) °C. This discrepancy between the observed and predicted temperature to achieve Probit 9 efficacy may have been the result of an inherently limited sample size when predicting the true mean from the total population. The rate of temperature increase in the small wood samples (rise time) did not affect final nematode mortality at 56 °C. In addition, microwave treatment of industrial size, infested wood blocks killed 100% of > 200,000 nematodes at ≥ 56 °C held for 1 min in replicated wood samples. The 3rd-stage juvenile (J3) of the nematode, that is resistant to cold temperatures and desiccation, was abundant in our wood samples and did not show any resistance to microwave treatment. Regression analysis of internal wood temperatures as a function of surface temperature produced a regression equation that could be used with a relatively high degree of accuracy to predict internal wood temperatures, under the conditions of this study. These results provide strong evidence of the ability of microwave treatment to successfully eradicate B. xylophilus in infested wood at or above 56 °C held for 1 min. PMID:22736846

  9. Variability in snowpack accumulation and ablation associated with mountain pine beetle infestation in western forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Reed, D.; Brooks, P. D.

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal snowcover is a primary source of water to urban and agricultural regions in the western United States, where Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) has caused rapid and extensive changes to vegetation in montane forests. Levels of MPB infestation in these seasonally snow-covered systems are unprecedented, and it is unknown how this will affect water yield, especially in changing climate conditions. To address this unknown we ask: How does snow accumulation and ablation vary across forest with differing levels of impact? Our study areas in the Rocky Mountains of CO and WY are similar in latitude, elevation and forest structure before infestation, but they vary in the intensity and timing of beetle infestation and tree mortality. We present a record for winter 2010 that includes continuous snow depth as well as stand-scale snow surveys at maximum accumulation. Additional measurements include snowfall, net radiation, temperature and wind speed as well as characterization of forest structure by leaf area index. In a stand uninfested by MPB, maximum snow depth was fairly uniform under canopy (mean = 86 cm, coefficient of variation = 0.021), while canopy gaps showed greater and more variable depth (mean = 117 cm, CV = 0.111). This is consistent with several studies demonstrating that snowfall into canopy gaps depends upon gap size, orientation, wind speed and storm size. In a stand impacted in 2007, snow depth under canopy was less uniform, and there were smaller differences in both mean depth and variability between canopy (mean = 93 cm, CV = 0.072) and gaps (mean = 97 cm, CV = 0.070), consistent with decreased canopy density. In a more recently infested (2009) stand with an intermediate level of MPB impact, mean snow depths were similar between canopy (96 cm, CV = 0.016) and gaps (95 cm, CV = 0.185) but gaps showed much greater variability, suggesting controls similar to those in effect in the uninfested stand. We further use these data to model snow accumulation and

  10. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa . Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  11. Massive infestation by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) of fish in a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, B I; Matey, V E

    1999-12-22

    Persistent fish infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was found at a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA. The seasonal dynamics of the infestation of young tilapia was traced in 1997-1998. First appearing in May, it became maximal in June-August, decreased in October and was not detectable in November. Outbreak of the infestation and subsequent mortality of young fish was registered at the Sea at a water temperature and salinity of 40 degrees C and 46 ppt, respectively. Some aspects of the ultrastructure of parasitic trophonts of A. ocellatum and their location on the fish from different size groups are considered. The interactions of parasitological and environmental factors and their combined effect upon fish from the Salton Sea are discussed.

  12. Self-diagnosis of active head lice infestation by individuals from an impoverished community: high sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Daniel; Khakban, Adak; Heukelbach, Jorg; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    To compare sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of self-diagnosis for head lice infestation with visual inspection, we conducted a study in an urban slum in Brazil. Individuals were asked about active head lice infestation (self-diagnosis); we performed visual inspection and thereafter wet combing (gold standard). Of the 175 individuals included, 77 (44%) had an active head lice infestation. For self-diagnosis, sensitivity (80.5%), specificity (91.8%), PPV (88.6%) and NPV (85.7%) were high. Sensitivity of visual inspection was 35.1%. Public health professionals can use self-diagnosis as a diagnostic tool, to estimate accurately prevalence of pediculosis in a community, and to monitor ongoing intervention strategies.

  13. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported. PMID:28890657

  14. The head and body lice of humans are genetically distinct (Insecta: Phthiraptera, Pediculidae): evidence from double infestations.

    PubMed

    Leo, N P; Hughes, J M; Yang, X; Poudel, S K S; Brogdon, W G; Barker, S C

    2005-07-01

    Little is known about the population genetics of the louse infestations of humans. We used microsatellite DNA to study 11 double infestations, that is, hosts infested with head lice and body lice simultaneously. We tested for population structure on a host, and for population structure among seven hosts that shared sleeping quarters. We also sought evidence of migration among louse populations. Our results showed that: (i) the head and body lice on these individual hosts were two genetically distinct populations; (ii) each host had their own populations of head and body lice that were genetically distinct to those on other hosts; and (iii) lice had migrated from head to head, and from body to body, but not between heads and bodies. Our results indicate that head and body lice are separate species.

  15. Tick-borne pathogens in tick species infesting humans in Sibiu County, central Romania.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin O; Marga, Georgeta; Banu, Teofilia; Dobler, Gerhard; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2018-05-01

    Romania has a highly diverse tick fauna. Consequently, a high diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens might be a potential threat to humans. However, only a limited number of tick species regularly infest humans, and pathogens present in such species are therefore of particular interest from a medical perspective. In this study, 297 ticks were collected from humans during 2013 and 2014. Ixodes ricinus was the predominant tick species, accounting for 272 specimens or 91.6% of the ticks in the study. Nevertheless, other tick species were also found to infest humans: Dermacentor marginatus constituted 7% of the ticks found on humans (21/297), Haemaphysalis punctata 1% (3/297), and Haemaphysalis concinna 0.3% (1/297). Ticks were tested by PCR for a wide range of tick-borne pathogens. In total, 11.8% of the ticks carried human pathogenic bacteria, while no viral or protozoan pathogens were detected. The most frequently detected pathogen was Rickettsia spp., occurring in 5.4% of the ticks (16/297) and comprising three species: Rickettsia (R.) raoultii, R. monacensis, and R. helvetica. Borrelia s.l. occurred in 3% (9/297) of the ticks. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" occurred in 1.7% (5/297) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.3% (4/297). Anaplasma bovis was detected in an H. punctata and Borrelia miyamotoi in an I. ricinus. These results point to the need for further studies on the medical importance of tick-borne pathogens in Romania.

  16. Flea species infesting dogs in Spain: updated spatial and seasonal distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, R; Montoya, A; Checa, R; Martín, O; Marino, V; Miró, G

    2017-03-01

    This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11.4%, 347 fleas); Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (6.9%, 208 fleas), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.03%, one flea). Variables observed to have effects on flea abundance were animal weight, sex, length of hair and habitat. In the seasonal survey conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, 1014 fleas were collected from 239 dogs at 30 veterinary practices across Spain. Peaks in C. felis abundance were observed in early summer and late autumn, whereas high numbers of P. irritans and C. canis were recorded in autumn. Numbers of fleas detected in winter were low overall. Based on these findings, the present study updates the spatial and seasonal distributions of flea species in Spain and assesses the impacts of host and habitat variables on flea infestation. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Brain metabolomic profiling of eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) infested with the mite Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Li; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Wu, Peng-Jie; Xu, Jin; Guo, Yue-Qin; Xue, Fei; Getachew, Awraris; Xu, Shu-Fa

    2017-01-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is currently the greatest threat to apiculture as it is causing a global decrease in honey bee colonies. However, it rarely causes serious damage to its native hosts, the eastern honey bees Apis cerana. To better understand the mechanism of resistance of A. cerana against the V. destructor mite, we profiled the metabolic changes that occur in the honey bee brain during V. destructor infestation. Brain samples were collected from infested and control honey bees and then measured using an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based global metabolomics method, in which 7918 and 7462 ions in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively, were successfully identified. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied, and 64 dysregulated metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, carboxylic acid, and phospholipids, amongst others, were identified. Pathway analysis further revealed that linoleic acid metabolism; propanoate metabolism; and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism were acutely perturbed. The data obtained in this study offer insight into the defense mechanisms of A. cerana against V. destructor mites and provide a better method for understanding the synergistic effects of parasitism on honey bee colonies.

  18. Brain metabolomic profiling of eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) infested with the mite Varroa destructor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng-Jie; Xu, Jin; Guo, Yue-Qin; Xue, Fei; Getachew, Awraris; Xu, Shu-Fa

    2017-01-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is currently the greatest threat to apiculture as it is causing a global decrease in honey bee colonies. However, it rarely causes serious damage to its native hosts, the eastern honey bees Apis cerana. To better understand the mechanism of resistance of A. cerana against the V. destructor mite, we profiled the metabolic changes that occur in the honey bee brain during V. destructor infestation. Brain samples were collected from infested and control honey bees and then measured using an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based global metabolomics method, in which 7918 and 7462 ions in ESI+ and ESI- mode, respectively, were successfully identified. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied, and 64 dysregulated metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, carboxylic acid, and phospholipids, amongst others, were identified. Pathway analysis further revealed that linoleic acid metabolism; propanoate metabolism; and glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism were acutely perturbed. The data obtained in this study offer insight into the defense mechanisms of A. cerana against V. destructor mites and provide a better method for understanding the synergistic effects of parasitism on honey bee colonies. PMID:28403242

  19. Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

  20. Demodex Species Infestation in Patients with Ear Itching and Its Relationship to Itch Severity.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Nagihan; Kirişci, Özlem; Özkaya, Esra

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate Demodex species infestation in patients with ear itching. The relationship between the severity of ear itching and Demodex spp. positivity has not been previously reported in the literature, and we believe that our study will make a significant contribution to the understanding of the etiology of ear itching. Fifty patients with itching ears and 54 healthy control patients were asked to use a visual analogue scale (VAS) to rate the itch, the itching period, and the medication used for the itching. All samples were evaluated for Demodex spp. under a light microscope. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of numbers of Demodex spp. (p=0.154), and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of Demodex spp. positivity (p=0.054). Despite the lack of statistically significant differences, Demodex spp. infestations were more common in the affected group than in the control group. A positive and strongly significant relationship was observed between the number of Demodex spp. and severity of ear itch in the patient group based on VAS scores (p=0.0001; r=0.724). We found that an increased number of Demodex spp. was strongly related to increased severity of ear itching.

  1. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (<10 mm long) that could rapidly grow and cover unionids. At present, we do not know how zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  2. Residual infestation and recolonization during urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Corentin M; Buttenheim, Alison M; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003-2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009-2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35-138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control.

  3. Can herbicide safeners allow selective control of weedy rice infesting rice crops?

    PubMed

    Busi, Roberto; Nguyen, Nghia K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Vidotto, Francesco; Tabacchi, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a major field crop of paramount importance for global food security. However, the increased adoption of more profitable and resource-efficient direct-seeded rice (DSR) systems has contributed to greater weed infestations, including weedy rice, which has become a severe problem in several Asian regions. In this study we have developed a conceptually novel method to protect rice plants at high doses of clomazone and triallate. The insecticide phorate applied to rice seeds provided a substantial level of protection against the herbicides clomazone or triallate. A quantity of 15 kg phorate ha -1 significantly increased the LD 50 values, which were more than twofold greater than for rice plants treated only with clomazone. A quantity of 20 kg phorate ha -1 in combination with 2000 g triallate ha -1 safened rice plants (80% survival) with LD 50 >3.4-fold greater than in phorate-untreated rice. Weed control efficacy was not lowered by the presence of phorate-treated rice seeds. Weedy rice is one of the most damaging global weeds and a major threat to DSR systems. In this study we have developed a proof-of-concept method to allow selective weedy rice control in rice crops. We call for herbicide discovery programmes and research to identify candidate safener and herbicide combinations to achieve selective herbicide control of weedy rice and alleviate weed infestations in global rice crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The mental health impact of bed bug infestations: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Rachelle; Seko, Yukari; Chan, Lai Fong; Dere, Jessica; Kim, Jaemin; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mental health effects associated with bed bugs. We employed a five-stage scoping review framework, to systematically identify and review eligible articles. Eligibility criteria included a focus on bed bug infestations and reference to mental health impacts. Descriptive information was then extracted from each article, including the specific mental health effects cited. An initial search yielded 920 unique articles on the topic of bed bugs. Of these, 261 underwent abstract review, and 167 underwent full-text review. Full-text review and subsequent review of reference lists yielded a final sample of 51 articles. Numerous mental health effects were linked to bed bug infestations, including severe psychiatric symptoms. However, the majority (n = 31) of the articles were commentary papers; only five original research articles were identified. Although significant mental health effects are often linked to bed bugs, such discussions remain largely anecdotal. Despite recognition that the impact of bed bugs constitutes an important public health concern, little empirical evidence currently exists on this topic.

  5. A study on rate of infestation to Sarcocystis cysts in supplied raw hamburgers.

    PubMed

    Nematollahia, Ahmad; Khoshkerdar, Afsaneh; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Shahbazi, Parisa; Hassanzadeh, Parviz

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried on for determination of presence of Sarcocystis cysts in raw hamburgers in Tabriz North West of Iran. Ninety-six samples of industrial (70 % meat content) and traditional (30 % meat content) hamburgers (80 samples industrial and 16 samples traditional) were obtained from retail fast food stores. The samples were examined by gross examination, and microscopic examination methods consist impression smear and peptic digestion. Macroscopic cysts did not observed in any of the samples in gross examination. Microscopic study showed that from 96 samples 54 (56.25 %) samples were infected by at least one bradyzoites of Sarcocystis. From 54 infected samples, 45 industrial hamburgers and nine traditional hamburgers samples were infected. Statistical analysis showed that there was not significant differences between industrial and traditional hamburgers in infection to Sarcocystis. Infestation of hamburgers to Sarcocystis in summer was higher than other seasons but this difference was not significant. In Iran, beef meat is used for preparation of 70 % of hamburger and infestation of cattle to sarcocystosis was reported in many investigations in Iran. With regard to the high prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in meat products such as hamburgers in this study, it is strongly recommended to avoid eating raw or under-cooked hamburgers or keep them at freezing temperature for at least 3-5 days.

  6. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    PubMed

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  7. Spergilli on Building Partitions Infested with Moulds in Residential Housing and Public Utility Premises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, Marlena; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Lechów, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    Aspergilli constitute a serious risk to the health of the inhabitants of infested rooms. Mycological analysis conducted in buildings infected with moulds in the area of the Lubuskie province (Poland) demonstrated the presence of 9 species of Aspergillus moulds: A. carbonarius A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A ustus and A. versicolor. The highest frequency (4 - frequently) was observed in the case of A. versicolor, while frequency 3 (fairly frequently) was characteristic of such species as A. flavus and A. niger. A. ustus was encountered with frequency 2 (individually), while frequency 1 (sporadically) referred to four species: A. carbonarius, A. clavatus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus. Because Aspergillus versicolor occurs with the highest frequency in buildings, and as a consequence of this, synthesizes toxic and carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST), it constitutes the greatest risk to the inhabitants of the infested premises. All species of Aspergillus present on building partitions are able to synthesise mycotoxins, are pathogens and may cause allergies.

  8. Residual Infestation and Recolonization during Urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru1

    PubMed Central

    Buttenheim, Alison M.; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E. Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S. Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003–2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009–2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35–138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15–2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53–0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control. PMID:25423045

  9. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  10. Identification and Characterization of Trichoderma Species Damaging Shiitake Mushroom Bed-Logs Infested by Camptomyia Pest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Young; Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-05-28

    The shiitake mushroom industry has suffered from Camptomyia (gall midges) pest, which feeds on the mycelium of shiitake mushroom during its cultivation. It has been postulated that fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs is associated with infestation by the insect pest, but this is not well understood. To understand the fungal damage associated with Camptomyia pest, various Trichoderma species were isolated, identified, and characterized. In addition to two previously known Trichoderma species, T. citrinoviride and T. deliquescens, two other Trichoderma species, T. harzianum and T. atroviride, were newly identified from the pestinfested bed-log samples obtained at three mushroom farms in Cheonan, Korea. Among these four species, T. harzianum was the most evident. The results of a chromogenic media-based assay for extracellular enzymes showed that these four species have the ability to produce amylase, carboxyl-methyl cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase, thus indicating that they can degrade wood components. A dual culture assay on PDA indicated that T. harzianum, T. atroviride, and T. citrinoviride were antagonistic against the mycelial growth of a shiitake strain (Lentinula edodes). Inoculation tests on shiitake bed-logs revealed that all four species were able to damage the wood of bed-logs. Our results provide evidence that the four green mold species are the causal agents involved in fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs infested by Camptomyia pest.

  11. Population density and distribution of wheat bugs infesting durum wheat in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m²), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m²). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread.

  12. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  13. Response of Solanum tuberosum to Myzus persicae infestation at different stages of foliage maturity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Adriana E; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M; Tjallingii, W Fred; Dicke, Marcel; Vosman, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Young leaves of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Kardal contain resistance factors to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and normal probing behavior is impeded. However, M. persicae can survive and reproduce on mature and senescent leaves of the cv. Kardal plant without problems. We compared the settling of M. persicae on young and old leaves and analyzed the impact of aphids settling on the plant in terms of gene expression. Settling, as measured by aphid numbers staying on young or old leaves, showed that after 21 h significantly fewer aphids were found on the young leaves. At earlier time points there were no difference between young and old leaves, suggesting that the young leaf resistance factors are not located at the surface level but deeper in the tissue. Gene expression was measured in plants at 96 h postinfestation, which is at a late stage in the interaction and in compatible interactions this is long enough for host plant acceptance to occur. In old leaves of cv. Kardal (compatible interaction), M. persicae infestation elicited a higher number of differentially regulated genes than in young leaves. The plant response to aphid infestation included a larger number of genes induced than repressed, and the proportion of induced versus repressed genes was larger in young than in old leaves. Several genes changing expression seem to be involved in changing the metabolic state of the leaf from source to sink. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D

    1988-10-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae.

  15. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; De Waele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae. PMID:19290263

  16. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll WeevilInfestation, 1892–1930

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900–1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889–1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892–1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil’s arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans’ opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations. PMID:28466435

  17. Rootstock Effects on Pistachio Trees Grown in Verticillium dahliae-Infested Soil.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V. dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V. dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica 'KAC' x P. integerrima) hybrid UCBI rootstock grew and yielded as well as those on P. integerrima. Trees on the hybrid PGII yielded the least. Analysis of variance and log-linear models indicate that in soil infested with V. dahliae, three associations significantly affect pistachio nut yield. Rootstock affects scion vigor and extent of infection. Third, the extent of infection and scion vigor are inversely associated. Although trees on the P. integerrima rootstock had the highest ratings in a visual assessment of vigor, 65% were infected with V. dahliae in the trunk in the graft region compared with 73% in P. atlantica and 25% in UCBI. Thus, P. integerrima and UCBI have at least one different mechanism for resistance to V. dahliae.

  18. Urban stray cats infested by ectoparasites with zoonotic potential in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lefkaditis, Menelaos A; Sossidou, Anna V; Panorias, Alexandros H; Koukeri, Smaragda E; Paştiu, Anamaria I; Athanasiou, Labrini V

    2015-10-01

    A large population of stray cats is encountered in many urban areas sharing the same environment with people, usually being in a close direct contact with them. A variety of ectoparasites can infest such cats, causing mild dermatological abnormalities to more severe systemic disorders. In order to determine the extent of which stray cats carry ectoparasites, particularly those of zoonotic potential, 341 stray cats originating from the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece, were examined between 2012 and 2014. The signalment of each cat such as gender, hair length, and roughly estimated age were recorded. From a total of 341 examined stray cats, 127 (37.24%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.14-42.64) were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasites: mites-Otodectes cynotis (15.8%), Notoedres cati (2.35%), Cheyletiella blakei (2.05%); fleas-Ctenocephalides felis (24.3%); ticks-Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.88%); and lice-Felicola subrostratus (0.59%). A significantly higher prevalence of ectoparasites was observed in long-haired individuals (p < 0.00001). The above ectoparasites may either cause or transmit diseases not only in cats but also in humans Therefore, antiparasitic control should be included in stray cat neutering campaigns while public health education for taking preventive measures will decrease the risk of transmission to humans.

  19. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda; Puiu, Adriana

    2010-11-01

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  20. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  1. Molecular identification of hard ticks (Ixodes sp.) infesting rodents in Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Siti Nabilah; Shiang, Lim Fang; Taib, Farah Shafawati Mohd; Jing, Khoo Jing; Nor, Shukor Md; Yusof, Muhammad Afif; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Sitam, Frankie Thomas; Japning, Jeffrine Rovie Ryan

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify hard ticks (Ixodes sp.) infesting rodents in three different sites in Selangor, Malaysia using a molecular approach. A total of 11 individual ticks infesting four different host species (Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus ratus, Maxomys surifer and Sundamys muelleri) were examined based on its morphological features, followed by molecular identification using mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene. Confirmation of the species identity was accomplished by using BLAST program. Clustering analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences was carried out by constructing Neighbour-joining (NJ) and Maximum parsimony (MP) tree using MEGA 7 to clarify the genetic identity of Ixodes sp. Based on morphological features, all individual ticks were only able to be identified up to genus level as most of the samples were fully engorged, damaged and lacked morphological characters. However, molecular analysis of samples revealed 99% similarity with Ixodes granulatus from the GenBank database. Thus, the result of this study showed that all these ticks (Ixodes granulatus) were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogenous sequences.

  2. Antimicrobial drugs encapsulated in fibrin nanoparticles for treating microbial infested wounds.

    PubMed

    Alphonsa, B Maria; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Praveen, G; Biswas, Raja; Chennazhi, K P; Jayakumar, R

    2014-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs encapsulated fibrin nanoparticles to prove their potential prospect of using these nanocomponent for effective treatment of microbial infested wounds. Surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsification-diffusion method was adopted to encapsulate 1 mg/ml each of antimicrobial drugs (Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole) in 4 ml of aqueous fibrinogen suspension and subsequent thrombin mediated cross linking to synthesize drug loaded fibrin nanoparticles. Ciprofloxacin loaded fibrin nanoparticles (CFNPs) showed size range of 253 ± 6 nm whereas that of Fluconazole loaded fibrin nanoparticles (FFNPs) was 260 ± 10 nm. Physico chemical characterizations revealed the firm integration of antimicrobial drugs within fibrin nanoparticles. Drug release studies performed at physiological pH 7.4 showed a release of 16% ciprofloxacin and 8% of fluconazole while as the release of ciprofloxacin at alkaline pH 8.5, was 48% and that of fluconazole was 37%. The antimicrobial activity evaluations of both drug loaded systems independently showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E.coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro toxicity of the prepared drug loaded nanoparticles were further analyzed using Human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and showed adequate cell viability. The efficacies of both CFNPs and FFNPs for sustained delivery of encapsulated anti microbial drugs were evaluated in vitro suggesting its potential use for treating microbial infested wounds (diabetic foot ulcer).

  3. Silicon Supplementation Alters the Composition of Herbivore Induced Plant Volatiles and Enhances Attraction of Parasitoids to Infested Rice Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhu, Jiwei; Zhang, Pengjun; Han, Liwei; Reynolds, Olivia L; Zeng, Rensen; Wu, Jinhong; Shao, Yue; You, Minsheng; Gurr, Geoff M

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is important in plant defenses that operate in a direct manner against herbivores, and work in rice ( Oryza sativa ) has established that this is mediated by the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant defenses also operate indirectly, by the production of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract predators and parasitoids of herbivores. These indirect defenses too are mediated by the jasmonate pathway but no earlier work has demonstrated an effect of Si on HIPVs. In this study, we tested the effect of Si supplementation versus Si deprivation to rice plants on subsequent HIPV production following feeding by the important pest, rice leaffolder ( Cnaphalocrocis medinalis ). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed lower production of α-bergamotene, β-sesquiohellandrene, hexanal 2-ethyl, and cedrol from +Si herbivore-infested plants compared with -Si infested plants. These changes in plant chemistry were ecologically significant in altering the extent to which parasitoids were attracted to infested plants. Adult females of Trathala flavo-orbitalis and Microplitis mediator both exhibited greater attraction to the HIPV blend of +Si plants infested with their respective insect hosts compared to -Si infested plants. In equivalent studies using RNAi rice plants in which jasmonate perception was silenced there was no equivalent change to the HIPV blend associated with Si treatment; indicating that the effects of Si on HIPVs are modulated by the jasmonate pathway. Further, this work demonstrates that silicon alters the HIPV blend of herbivore-infested rice plants. The significance of this finding is that there are no earlier-published studies of this phenomenon in rice or any other plant species. Si treatment to crops offers scope for enhancing induced, indirect defenses and associated biological control of pests because parasitoids are more strongly attracted by the HIPVs produced by +Si plants.

  4. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    PubMed Central

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  5. Considérations nosographiques sur le délire d'infestation parasitaire à travers trois observations cliniques

    PubMed Central

    Berhili, Nabil; Bout, Amine; Hlal, Hayat; Aarab, Chadya; Aalouane, Rachid; Rammouz, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Ekbom, ou délire d'infestation parasitaire, est une pathologie rare, caractérisée par la conviction inébranlable d'avoir une peau infestée d'insectes ou de parasites. Il s'agit d'un délire monothématique à mécanisme hallucinatoire qui touche typiquement les femmes d’âge avancé. Nous rapportons les cas de trois patients qui présentent un délire d'infestation parasitaire dans des contextes cliniques différents. Le premier patient souffre d'un délire d'infestation isolé correspondant à la forme décrite par Karl Ekbom. Le deuxième cas présente un délire d'infestation secondaire, s'inscrivant dans le cadre d'une leuco-encéphalopathie de type CADASIL. Enfin, le troisième patient se présente dans un tableau évocateur d'un épisode dépressif avec une caractéristique psychotique qui intègre le délire d'infestation. Ces trois vignettes cliniques illustrent parfaitement le caractère trans-nosographique de ce syndrome ainsi que les difficultés de prise en charge de ces patients, tant au niveau de l'alliance thérapeutique que sur le plan des choix en matière de traitement pharmacologiques. PMID:27642468

  6. Association of Housing Disrepair Indicators with Cockroach and Rodent Infestations in a Cohort of Pregnant Latina Women and Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Chevrier, Jonathan; Tager, Ira; Lipsett, Michael; Sedgwick, Jaqueline; Macher, Janet; Vargas, Ana B.; Cabrera, Elvia B.; Camacho, Jose M.; Weldon, Rosana; Kogut, Katherine; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    Health burdens associated with poor housing and indoor pest infestations are likely to affect young children in particular, who spend most of their time indoors at home. We completed environmental assessments in 644 homes of pregnant Latina women and their children living in the Salinas Valley, California. High residential densities were common, with 39% of homes housing > 1.5 persons per room. Housing disrepair was also common: 58% of homes had peeling paint, 43% had mold, 25% had water damage, and 11% had rotting wood. Evidence of cockroaches and rodents was present in 60% and 32% of homes, respectively. Compared with representative national survey data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, homes in our sample were more likely to have rodents, peeling paint, leaks under sinks, and much higher residential densities. The odds of rodent infestations in homes increased in the presence of peeling paint [odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–3.1], water damage (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7), and mold (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.1). The odds of cockroach infestation increased in the presence of peeling paint (OR 3.8; 95% CI, 2.7–5.6), water damage (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.9), or high residential density (OR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.8). Homes that were less clean than average were more prone to both types of infestations. Pesticides were stored or used in 51% of households, partly to control roach and rodent infestations. These data indicate that adverse housing conditions are common in this community and increase the likelihood of pest infestations and home pesticide use. Interventions to improve housing and promote children’s health and safety in this population are needed. PMID:16330367

  7. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania: infestation with arthropod ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0

  8. Comparison of percent hatch and fungal infestation in channel catfish eggs after copper sulfate, diquat bromide, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced survival is often a result of fungal (Saprolegnia spp.) infestation of fish eggs. However, timely chemical treatments often limit these infestations and increase survival. The effect of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP - 10 mg/L), diquat bromide (25 mg/L diquat cation), formalin (433 mg/L)...

  9. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation ofsusceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicalsfrom a less susceptible host

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as tick repellents. We report th...

  10. An overview of University of Alaska Anchorage, ENRI research on the spruce bark beetle infestation, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 1997-2002

    Treesearch

    Vernon J. LaBau

    2006-01-01

    In the mid 1990s, one of the largest bark beetle infestations seen anywhere in the world occurred on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. In one year, the infestation affected over one million acres of spruce in Alaska. This paper presents a coalescence of several aspects of study on the problem, including tree inventory and mortality, regeneration, understory response, a...

  11. Detection of lesser grain borer larvae in internally infested kernels of brown rice and wheat using an electrically conductive roller mill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modifications were made to a small laboratory mill to enable the detection of rice kernels infested by immature, hidden stored-grain insects. The mill, which was originally designed for wheat, monitors the electrical conductance through the grain and detects kernels that are infested with live inse...

  12. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction. PMID:26905564

  13. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  14. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-08-17

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm.

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infestation in Combatants and Their Families: A Hospital-Based Study in Mid-Western Regional Police Hospital, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Damodar; Aung, Myo Nyein; Sharma, Bindhya; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the scenario of intestinal parasitic infestation in combatants and their families in the setting of Mid-Western Regional Police Hospital (MWRPH), Nepal. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: All 2005 patients presented with the complaint of abdominal pain, diarrhoea, frequent defecation, blood in stool, or black stool from August 2007 to February 2011 were offered a stool examination. About 10g of fresh stool was collected in a clean, dry bottle. Two slides from each specimen were examined applying light microscope in 10 and 40 uvf at Banke, Nepalgunj hospital laboratory. Result: Among 2005 patients, 928 (46.28%) were infested with either helminths and/or protozoa. 96% were single infestation. The most common infestation was Ascaris lumbricoides (48.06%) and the second was hook worm (18.97%). Most common protozoal infestations were Entamoeba histolytica (12.92%) and Giardia lamblia (9.49%). Helminthic infestations peaked in cool months and protozoal infestations were rather steady throughout the year. Conclusion: Very high parasitic infestation in least developed mid- western Nepal may need urgent public health intervention. PMID:24762341

  16. Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Deirdre; Grainger, Rachel J; Reid, Alex

    2014-02-24

    Scabies, caused by Sarcoptes scabiei variety hominis or the human itch mite, is a common parasitic infection. While anyone can become infected, it causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts and it spreads easily between human hosts where there is overcrowding or poor sanitation. The most common symptom reported is itch which is worse at night. As the symptoms are attributed to an allergic reaction to the mite, symptoms usually develop between four to six weeks after primary infection. Therefore, people may be infected for some time prior to developing symptoms. During this time, while asymptomatic, they may spread infection to others they are in close contact with. Consequently, it is usually recommended that when an index case is being treated, others who have been in close contact with the index case should also be provided with treatment. To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for contacts of people with scabies to prevent infestation in the contacts. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, OpenGrey and WHO ICTRP) up to November 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared prophylactic interventions which were given to contacts of index cases with scabies infestation. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. Both drug treatments and non-drug treatments were acceptable. Two authors intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions and report this as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. We did not include any trials in this review. Out of 29 potentially-relevant studies, we excluded 16 RCTs as the data for the contacts were either not reported or were reported only in combination with the outcomes

  17. Can Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emerge from logs two summers after infested trees are cut?

    Treesearch

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Much of EAB's range expansion has been attributed to human-assisted movement of infested items such as ash logs and firewood. It is unclear the amount of time that logs cut...

  18. Applying the successional weed management model for revegetating a yellow starthistle-infested dryland pasture in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Treesearch

    William D. Sommers; Larry D. Howery; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Richard D. Lee; Burton K. Pendleton

    2011-01-01

    A three-year study was conducted in the Chihuahuan Desert in Southwestern New Mexico to evaluate the effectiveness of revegetating a dryland pasture that was heavily infested with yellow starthistle within the context of the successional weed management model. A prescribed burn treatment of the entire study site (designed disturbance) was followed by single-entry...

  19. Modelling the current distribution and predicted spread of the flea species Ctenocephalides felis infesting outdoor dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Rosa; Musella, Vicenzo; Descalzo, Miguel A; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Marino, Valentina; Martín, Oihane; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Miró, Guadalupe

    2017-09-19

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015. Bioclimatic zones, covering broad climate and vegetation ranges, were surveyed in relation to their size. The models builded were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables to show impacts on C. felis infestation prevalence: land cover, bioclimatic zone, mean summer and autumn temperature, mean summer rainfall, distance to urban settlement and normalized difference vegetation index. In the face of climate change, we also simulated the future distributions of C. felis for the global climate model (GCM) "GFDL-CM3" and for the representative concentration pathway RCP45, which predicts their spread in the country. Predictive models for current climate conditions indicated the widespread distribution of C. felis throughout Spain, mainly across the central northernmost zone of the mainland. Under predicted conditions of climate change, the risk of spread was slightly greater, especially in the north and central peninsula, than for the current situation. The data provided will be useful for local veterinarians to design effective strategies against flea infestation and the pathogens transmitted by these arthropods.

  20. Patterns of infestation by chigger mites in four diurnal lizard species from a Restinga habitat (Jurubatiba) of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Barros, M; Van Sluys, M; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Hatano, F H; Rocha, C F

    2003-08-01

    We studied the parasitism by larvae of the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on the lizard community of Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. We investigated the patterns of infestation (prevalence and intensity) of chigger mites in four sympatric lizards: Tropidurus torquatus, Mabuya agilis, M. macrorhyncha and Cnemidophorus littoralis. All lizards collected were checked for the presence of mites, which were counted under stereomicroscope. We tested the relationship between intensity of infestation and lizard body size for each species using regression analysis. The prevalences and mean intensities (+ one standard deviation) of infestation on each host species were, respectively: 100%; 86.4 + 94.6 in T. torquatus (n = 62); 100%; 20.9 + 9.3 in M. agilis (n = 7); 100%; 11.1 + 13.1 in M. macrorhyncha (n = 12); and 95.2%; 19.1 + 16.8 in C. littoralis (n = 21). Only for C. littoralis did body size significantly affect the intensity of infestation (r = 0.27, p = 0.02). For all lizard species, the body parts where chiggers occurred with the highest intensity were those of skin folds and joint regions.

  1. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF...

  2. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE...

  3. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE...

  4. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  5. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use).

  6. Using aerial photography for mapping giant reed infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and...

  7. The frequency and intensity of bark beetle infestations recorded in Romanian forests affected by windfall in 1995

    Treesearch

    V. Mihalciuc; V. Danci; M. Bujila; D. Chira

    2003-01-01

    Research has been carried out during the past six years (1996-2001), to record the occurrence of wind damage in resinous stands and to monitor the evolution of pest infestations during this period. The level of pest attack has become moderate over time and depended on different types of damaged wood material (cut, broken and fallen trees). We also reported about the...

  8. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  9. Parameters for scale-up of lethal microwave treatment to eradicate cerambycid larvae infesting solid wood packing materials

    Treesearch

    Mary R. Fleming; John J. Janowiak; Joseph Kearns; Jeffrey E. Shield; Rustum Roy; Dinesh K. Agrawal; Leah S. Bauer; Kelli Hoover

    2004-01-01

    The use of microwave irradiation to eradicate insects infesting wood used to manufacture packing materials such as pallets and crateswas evaluated. The focus of this preliminary studywas to determinewhich microwave parameters, including chamber-volume to sample-volumeratios,variations ofpower and time, and energydensity (total microwavepower/woodvolume), affect the...

  10. Thinning Jeffrey pine stands to reduce susceptibility to bark beetle infestations in California, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Christopher J. Hayes; Karen J. Jones; Stephen R. McKelvey; Sylvia L. Mori; Sheri L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are commonly recognized as important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests of the western U.S.A.High stand density is consistently associated with bark beetle infestations in western coniferous forests, and therefore, thinning has long been advocated as a...

  11. Fuel loads and simulated fire behavior in "old-stage" beetle-infested ponderosa pine of the Colorado Plateau

    Treesearch

    E. Matthew Hansen; Morris C. Johnson; Barbara J. Bentz; James C. Vandygriff; A. Steven Munson

    2015-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have led to concerns regarding changes in fuel profiles and associated changes in fire behavior. Data are lacking for a range of infestation severities and time since outbreak, especially for relatively arid cover types. We surveyed fuel loads and simulated fire behavior for ponderosa pine stands of the...

  12. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  13. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-09-01

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.11 Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises...

  15. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India

    PubMed Central

    Shameem, K. M.; Prathapan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants. PMID:23653522

  16. Comparison of commercial lures and food baits for early detection of fruit infestation risk by Drosophila suzukii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drosophila suzukii is one of the most serious invasive pests of berries and cherries worldwide. Several adult monitoring systems are available to time foliar application of insecticides with the expectation of detecting the presence of D.suzukii before they infest susceptible crops. We tested this b...

  17. Reduced aggression and foraging efficiency of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) infested with non-native branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata).

    PubMed

    James, J; Davidson, K E; Richardson, G; Grimstead, C; Cable, J

    2015-11-17

    Biological invasions are a principal threat to global biodiversity and identifying the determinants of non-native species' success is a conservation priority. Through their ability to regulate host populations, parasites are increasingly considered as important in determining the outcome of species' invasions. Here, we present novel evidence that the common crayfish ecto-symbiont, Xironogiton victoriensis (Annelida: Clitellata) can affect the behaviour of a widespread and ecologically important invader, the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). To assess the signal crayfish-X. victoriensis relationship naïve crayfish were infested with an intensity of worms typically observed under natural conditions. Over a 10-week period the growth rate and survivorship of these animals was monitored and compared to those of uninfested counterparts. Complementary dyadic competition and foraging experiments were run to assess the behaviour of infested compared to uninfested animals. These data were analysed using General Linear Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Whilst X. victoriensis did not affect the growth rate or survivorship of signal crayfish under laboratory conditions, infested animals were significantly less aggressive and poorer foragers than uninfested individuals. Through reducing aggression and foraging efficiency, infestation with X. victoriensis may disrupt the social structure, and potentially growth rate and/or dispersal of afflicted crayfish populations, with potential effects on their invasion dynamics. This is important given the widespread invasive range of crayfish and their functional roles as ecosystem engineers and keystone species.

  18. Transcriptional signatures of parasitization and markers of colony decline in Varroa-infested honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Zanni, Virginia; Galbraith, David A; Annoscia, Desiderato; Grozinger, Christina M; Nazzi, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Extensive annual losses of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) reported in the northern hemisphere represent a global problem for agriculture and biodiversity. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in association with deformed wing virus (DWV), plays a key role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To elucidate these mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profile of uninfested and mite infested bees, under laboratory and field conditions, highlighting the effects of parasitization on the bee's transcriptome under a variety of conditions and scenarios. Parasitization was significantly correlated with higher viral loads. Honey bees exposed to mite infestation exhibited an altered expression of genes related to stress response, immunity, nervous system function, metabolism and behavioural maturation. Additionally, mite infested young bees showed a gene expression profile resembling that of forager bees. To identify potential molecular markers of colony decline, the expression of genes that were commonly regulated across the experiments were subsequently assessed in colonies experiencing increasing mite infestation levels. These studies suggest that PGRP-2, hymenoptaecin, a glucan recognition protein, UNC93 and a p450 cytocrome maybe suitable general biomarkers of Varroa-induced colony decline. Furthermore, the reliability of vitellogenin, a yolk protein previously identified as a good marker of colony survival, was confirmed here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi...

  20. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi...

  1. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi...

  2. How fast will trees die? A transition matrix model of ash decline in forest stands infested by emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Knight; Robert P. Long; Joanne Rebbeck; Annemarie Smith; Kamal Gandhi; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We recorded Fraxinus spp. tree health and other forest stand characteristics for 68 plots in 21 EAB-infested forest stands in Michigan and Ohio in 2005 and 2007. Fraxinus spp. were a dominant component of these stands, with more than 900 ash trees (including Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus profunda...

  3. Identification of Proteins Differentially Regulated in Response to Soybean Aphid Infestation of Soybean Near Isogenic Lines differing in Aphid Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid, a plant sap sucking insect, has become an important soybean pest in the USA and infestation of soybean by this insect can lead to significant yield losses. The Rag2 gene of soybean, providing resistance to soybean aphid biotypes I (IL) and II (OH), was identified by researchers in...

  4. Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infested with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Pino-Marambio, Jorge; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant threats to the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry is the ectoparasitic sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. To cope with sea lice infestations, functional diets have become an important component in strengthening the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular mechanisms activated through immunostimulation by in-feed plant-derived additives in Atlantic salmon infected with sea lice. Herein, a transcriptome-wide sequencing analysis was performed from skin and head kidney tissues, evidencing that the immune response genes were the most variable after the challenge, especially in the head kidney, while other genes involved in metabolism were highly expressed individuals fed with the immunostimulants. Interestingly, defensive enzymes such as Cytochrome p450 and serpins were down-regulated in infested individuals, especially in skin tissue. Additionally, MHC-I and MHC-II genes were differentially expressed after the incorporation of the in-feed additives, giving some cues about the protection mechanisms of plant-derived compound as immunostimulants for infested salmons. This is the first published study that evaluates the transcriptomic response of sea lice-infested Atlantic salmon fed with in-feed additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards

    Treesearch

    P. Charles Goebel; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Daniel A. Herms; Andrew. Sabula

    2010-01-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1°C (160°F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae...

  6. Association between severity of prescribed burns and subsequent activity of conifer-infesting beetles in stands of longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Christopher J. Fettig; William J. Otrosina; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    2003-01-01

    A randomized complete block experiment was performed to measure the effect of prescribed, dormant-season burns of three different levels of severity (measured as fuel consumption and soil surface heating) on subsequent insect infestation and mortality of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Multiple-funnel traps baited with a low release...

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki x aizawai applied to spruce flowers reduced Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation without affecting seed quality.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Carolyn; Weslien, Jan

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki x aizawai (Bt) on infestation levels of two lepidopteran insects as well as on seed quality in Norway spruce, Picea abies L. (Karst.) in central Sweden. Spruce flowers (female strobili) were sprayed with a 0.2% suspension (wt:wt) of the Bt preparation Turex 50 WP, 25,000 IU/mg in water. To expose even those lepidopteran larvae that feed exclusively embedded within the cone tissue, the Bt treatment was applied to open flowers, before they closed and developed into cones. The experimental design included three main factors: treatment (untreated control, water, or Bt), spruce genotype (three clones), and spraying time (spraying before, during, and after the phase of highest pollen receptivity). The Bt treatment reduced the proportion of cones infested by the cone worm Dioryctria abietella Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from approximately 30 to 15%. There was no statistically significant treatment effect on the infestation rate of Cydia strobilella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Bt variety kurstaki x aizawai treatment caused no reduction in seed quality as measured by seed weight or percentage of nonfilled seeds. There was no difference in number of seeds per cone between the Bt-treated and untreated control cones. There was a significant effect of genotype on insect infestation rates, as well as on number of seeds per cone and seed weight. Neither level of insect damage nor any seed quality parameters were affected by time of application of the treatments.

  8. Root herbivory: molecular analysis of the maize transcriptome upon infestation by Southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While many studies have characterized the transcriptome of plants attacked by herbivorous insect pests, few have undertaken an examination of the genes affected by root pests. We have subjected maize seedlings to infestation by southern corn rootworm (SCR) Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and usin...

  9. Soil moisture and temperature conditions affect survival and sporulation capacity of Rhododendron leaf disks infested with Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Ebba K. Peterson; Niklaus J. Grünwald; Jennifer L. ParkeSoil

    2017-01-01

    Soilborne inoculum (infested leaf debris which has become incorporated into the soil) may be an important contributor to the persistence of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in recurrently positive nurseries. To initiate new epidemics, soilborne inoculum must not only be able to survive over time, but also be capable of...

  10. Efficacy of commercial microwave equipment for eradication of pine wood nematodes and cerambycid larvae infesting red pine

    Treesearch

    Mary R. Fleming; John J. Janowiak; Jeffrey D. Kimmel; John M. Halbrendt; Leah S. Bauer; Kelli Hoover

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of using commercial 2.45-GHz microwave equipment to kill cerambycid larvae and pinewood nematodes(PWN) [Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle] infesting lumber was investigated. Research goals were to test a system of separating green material into moisture content(MC)ranges and to determine the feasibility of using...

  11. 9 CFR 314.10 - Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livers condemned because of parasitic infestation and for other causes; conditions for disposal for purposes other than human food. 314.10 Section 314.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY;...

  12. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  13. Effectiveness of polyethylene sheeting in controlling spruce beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in infested stacks of spruce firewood in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1993-01-01

    Covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central...

  14. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples.

    PubMed

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham Bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-12-14

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations.

  15. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations. PMID:27966602

  16. The reduced brood nursing by mite-infested honey bees depends on their accelerated behavioral maturation.

    PubMed

    Zanni, V; Değirmenci, L; Annoscia, D; Scheiner, R; Nazzi, F

    2018-06-19

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is regarded as the most important parasite of honey bees and plays a fundamental role in the decline of bee colonies observed in the last decade in the Northern hemisphere. Parasitization has a number of detrimental effects on bees, including reduced nursing, which can have important impacts on colony balance. In this work we investigated at the individual level the causes of this abnormal behavior and found that the reduced nursing activity in mite-infested workers is associated with impaired learning performance and a series of physiological traits that are typical of foragers, including reduced response to brood pheromone, limited development of hypopharyngeal glands and higher juvenile hormone titre in the haemolymph. Altogether our data confirm the premature transition to foraging already postulated based on previous genomics studies, from a physiological point of view. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infestation of Lymnaea stagnalis by digenean flukes in the Jeziorak Lake.

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Elzbieta; Kobak, Jarosław; Zbikowski, Janusz; Kaklewski, Jarosław

    2006-09-01

    The low number of articles on naturally trematode-infected snails results from the difficulty to obtain the quantitatively representative material. The main aim of our study was to check which age (size) groups of snails are the most susceptible to trematode invasion. Furthermore, we examined in which season the parasite prevalence is the highest. We collected Lymnaea stagnalis individuals in a nearshore zone of the Jeziorak Lake (the longest Polish lake located in northern Poland). The shell height of the snails was measured and the infestation by trematode larvae was determined. The logistic regression has shown that parasite prevalence increased significantly with the snail size (with the individuals >30 mm being the most infected), the distance from the beginning of the year (i.e., month) and the vicinity of summer.

  18. Extensive Myiasis infestation associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Biradar, Sudharani; Wankhede, Pranali; Munde, Anita; Shaikh, Safia

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is the condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots). The deposited eggs develop into larvae, which penetrate deep structures causing adjacent tissue destruction. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in tropical countries and hot climate regions, and associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions, alcoholism and senility. The diagnosis of Myiasis is basically made by the presence of larvae. The reported cases of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer in the literature are few. This paper reports two cases of oral and maxillofacial Myiasis involving larvae in patients with squamous cell carcinoma in adult males. The condition was managed by manual removal of the larvae, one by one, with the help of forceps and subsequent management through proper health care. PMID:25709682

  19. Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Radbea, Gabriel; Rubel, Franz; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  20. Endoliths in Lithophaga lithophaga shells--Variation in intensity of infestation and species occurrence.

    PubMed

    Peharda, Melita; Calcinai, Barbara; Puljas, Sanja; Golubić, Stjepko; Arapov, Jasna; Thébault, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Pronounced differences with respect to the extent of infestation and the degree of Lithophaga lithophaga shell damage inflicted by euendolithic taxa at two sites in the Adriatic Sea representing different productivity conditions, are described. Shells collected from the eastern part of Kaštela Bay, which is characterized by higher primary productivity, have significantly more shell damage then the shell collected from a site on the outer coast of the island of Čiovo exposed to the oligotrophic Adriatic Sea. The presence of endoliths and their perforations were detected in different layers of the shell, including solidly mineralized parts of the skeleton and within the organic lamellae incorporated into the shell. Phototrophic endoliths were not observed in the specimens. The most serious damage to L. lithophaga shells was the boring clionaid sponge Pione vastifica, which was more common in shells collected from Kaštela. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.