Science.gov

Sample records for zone 22-chicago il

  1. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 3-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting... authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), located in Bolingbrook, Illinois. The...

  2. 75 FR 65448 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Application for Subzone Baxter Healthcare Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 60-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Application for Subzone Baxter Healthcare Corporation (Pharmaceutical and Biological Product... Healthcare Corporation (Baxter), located near Round Lake (Lake County), Illinois. The application was...

  3. 76 FR 9743 - Foreign-Trade Zone Subzone 22- Chicago, IL, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [T-1-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone Subzone 22-- Chicago, IL, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Baxter Healthcare Corporation (Pharmaceutical and... Healthcare Corporation (Baxter) to manufacture pharmaceutical and biological intravenous (I.V.) products...

  4. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority LG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-1-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL Application for Temporary/ Interim Manufacturing Authority LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc... Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (LGEMU) facility, located in Bolingbrook, Illinois. The application was filed...

  5. 75 FR 27983 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 33-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago... submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the Illinois International Port District, grantee of FTZ 22, requesting authority to reorganize and expand the zone under the alternative site...

  6. 78 FR 5773 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Electronics), Aurora, IL The Illinois International Port District, grantee of FTZ 22, submitted a notification... facility is used for the kitting of consumer electronics parts into retail packages. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400...

  7. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-91-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc...

  8. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-6-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics) Aurora, Illinois On January 11, 2013, the Illinois International Port District, grantee of FTZ 22...

  9. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ..., 12/18/2009, 75 FR 340-341, 1/5/2010). A minor boundary modification under 15 CFR 400.38 of the Board's regulations was approved, effective August 1, 2012, transferring two sites from SZ 22F at the... derivatives; other protein substances and their derivatives; and heterocyclic compounds, aromatic compounds...

  10. 75 FR 41760 - Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... vessels from the hazards associated with the filming of the major motion picture, Transformers 3. The... Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL (a) Location. The safety zone will...

  11. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Winnetka, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Sherman Private Party Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Winnetka, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Michigan near Winnetka, IL. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake...

  12. 76 FR 19746 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1749] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 133; Quad-Cities, IL/IA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order...

  13. 78 FR 79391 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 22-Chicago, Illinois, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...; cable clamps; locks; belts; O-rings; sealing gaskets; support packages; filter bags; disposable bags; assembly bags; dust bags; maintenance packs; paper bags; dirt tube kits; paper adaptor bags; filters...; wire racks; bake pans; pizza pans; coffee water filters; water filters; base assemblies; dust cup...

  14. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action is necessary to accurately reflect the enforcement dates and times for this safety zone due to changes made in this year's air show...

  15. 78 FR 46810 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River; Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... portion of the Chicago River due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones are..., rigging, and other hazards involved in the filming of a motion picture. DATES: This rule will be enforced...

  16. 75 FR 34936 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of Lake Michigan within Chicago Harbor, Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict... CWO2 Jon Grob, U.S. Coast Guard, Sector Lake Michigan, telephone (414)747-7188, e-mail [email protected

  17. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is... soil sampling efforts. DATES: This rule is effective from 7 a.m. on March 1, 2011, until 5 p.m. on...

  18. 76 FR 58108 - Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard... Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot event takes place on the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois from 4... reasons: the safety zone will only be in effect for one hour on a single day and vessels will be allowed...

  19. 78 FR 37712 - Safety Zone; Chicago Match Cup Race; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Zone; Chicago Match Cup Race; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago... the Captain of the Port, Lake Michigan. DATES: This regulation will be enforced at the dates and times...

  20. 75 FR 73962 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition; Illinois River, Seneca, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition; Illinois River, Seneca, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... due to the demolition of the Seneca Highway Bridge. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect... Highway Bridge. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on November 30, 2010 through 6 a.m. on December...

  1. 78 FR 37963 - Safety Zone; Chicago to Mackinac Race; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Zone; Chicago to Mackinac Race; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of..., Illinois for the 105th Race to Mackinac. This zone will be enforced from 2 p.m. until 4:30 p.m. on July 12... of life on the navigable waters during the 105th Race to Mackinac. During the aforementioned periods...

  2. 75 FR 73960 - Safety Zone; “Contagion” Movie Filming, Calumet River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; ``Contagion'' Movie Filming, Calumet River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Calumet River due to the filming of a movie involving high speed boat chases and other dangerous stunts on... movie. DATES: This rule is effective from 7 a.m. on December 11, 2010 until 7 a.m. on December 12, 2010...

  3. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... affect your small business, organization, or governmental jurisdiction and you have questions concerning...-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard... with a large scale, international political event. DATES: This rule is effective between 8 a.m. on May...

  4. 75 FR 45478 - Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... portion of the Chicago River due to the filming of a major motion picture, Transformers 3. These temporary..., Transformers 3. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that the stunts associated with...

  5. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0052] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard..., the BPYC described itself as a non-profit organization that provides tender services, mast stepping...

  6. 78 FR 36429 - Safety Zone; Private Party Fireworks; Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... not raise any novel legal or policy issues. The safety zone created by this rule will be small and... the safety zone when permitted by the Captain of the Port. 2. Impact on Small Entities Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601-612), we have considered the impact of this rule on small entities...

  7. 78 FR 27304 - Safety Zone; Melrose Pyrotechnics Fireworks Display; Chicago Harbor, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... any novel legal or policy issues. The safety zone created by this rule will be small and enforced for... through the safety zone when permitted by the Captain of the Port. 2. Impact on Small Entities Under the... entities. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605(b) that this proposed rule will not have a...

  8. 77 FR 59749 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... lines. C. Discussion of Rule With the aforementioned hazards in mind, the Captain of the Port, Sector... significant effect on the human environment. This rule involves the establishment of a safety zone and...

  9. 76 FR 78159 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... negative way. In the event that this temporary safety zone affects shipping, commercial vessels may request... implications for federalism under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on... implications for federalism. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C...

  10. 78 FR 44436 - Safety Zone; Joint Operations Exercise, Lake Michigan, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... grant or loan recipients, and will not raise any novel legal or policy issues. The safety zone created... Port. 2. Impact on Small Entities Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601-612), we have considered the impact of this temporary rule on small entities. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605...

  11. 78 FR 54576 - Safety Zone; LK Events Fireworks; Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... of any grant or loan recipients, and will not raise any novel legal or policy issues. The safety zone... Port. 2. Impact on Small Entities Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601-612), we have considered the impact of this temporary rule on small entities. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605...

  12. 33 CFR 165.T09-1080 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels are prohibited from transiting the safety zone with any non-potable water on board if they intend to release that water in any form within, or on the other side of the safety zone. Non-potable water includes but is not limited to any water taken on board to control or maintain trim, draft, stability or...

  13. 33 CFR 165.T09-1054 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safety zone with any non-potable water on board if they intend to release that water in any form within, or on the other side of the safety zone. Non-potable water includes but is not limited to any water taken on board to control or maintain trim, draft, stability or stresses of the vessel, or taken on...

  14. The expression of Helicobacter pylori tfs plasticity zone cluster is regulated by pH and adherence, and its composition is associated with differential gastric IL-8 secretion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno; Nunes, Alexandra; Vale, Filipa F; Rocha, Raquel; Gomes, João Paulo; Dias, Ricardo; Oleastro, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori virulence is associated with different clinical outcomes. The existence of an intact dupA gene from tfs4b cluster has been suggested as a predictor for duodenal ulcer development. However, the role of tfs plasticity zone clusters in the development of ulcers remains unclear. We studied several H. pylori strains to characterize the gene arrangement of tfs3 and tfs4 clusters and their impact in the inflammatory response by infected gastric cells. The genome of 14 H. pylori strains isolated from Western patients, pediatric (n=10) and adult (n=4), was fully sequenced using the Illumina platform MiSeq, in addition to eight pediatric strains previously sequenced. These strains were used to infect human gastric cells, and the secreted interleukin-8 (IL-8) was quantified by ELISA. The expression of virB2, dupA, virB8, virB10, and virB6 was assessed by quantitative PCR in adherent and nonadherent fractions of H. pylori during in vitro co-infection, at different pH values. We have found that cagA-positive H. pylori strains harboring a complete tfs plasticity zone cluster significantly induce increased production of IL-8 from gastric cells. We have also found that the region spanning from virB2 to virB10 genes constitutes an operon, whose expression is increased in the adherent fraction of bacteria during infection, as well as in both adherent and nonadherent fractions at acidic conditions. A complete tfs plasticity zone cluster is a virulence factor that may be important for the colonization of H. pylori and to the development of severe outcomes of the infection with cagA-positive strains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  17. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... USCG-2008-1113 Chicago, IL Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 11/4/2008 USCG-2008-1114 San Diego, CA Safety...)...... 1/10/2009 USCG-2008-1228 Chicago, IL Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/27/2008 USCG-2008-1242 San... USCG-2009-0079 Chicago, IL Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 2/8/2009 USCG-2009-0085 Chicago, IL Security...

  18. Deletion of IL-33R attenuates VEGF expression and enhances necrosis in mammary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pejnovic, Nada N.; Mitrovic, Slobodanka L. J.; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N.; Simovic Markovic, Bojana J.; Lukic, Miodrag L.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33)/IL-33 receptor (IL-33R, ST2) signaling pathway promotes mammary cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting anti-tumor immunity. However, the role of IL-33/IL-33R axis in neoangiogenesis and tumor necrosis is not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33/IL-33R axis in mammary tumor necrosis. Deletion of IL-33R (ST2) gene in BALB/c mice enhanced tumor necrosis and attenuated tumor growth in 4T1 breast cancer model, which was associated with markedly decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-33 in mammary tumor cells. We next analyzed IL-33, IL-33R and VEGF expression and microvascular density (MVD) in breast tumors from 40 female patients with absent or present tumor necrosis. We found significantly higher expression of IL-33, IL-33R and VEGF in breast cancer tissues with absent tumor necrosis. Both, IL-33 and IL-33R expression correlated with VEGF expression in tumor cells. Further, VEGF expression positively correlated with MVD in perinecrotic zone. Taking together, our data indicate that IL-33/IL-33R pathway is critically involved in mammary tumor growth by facilitating expression of pro-angiogenic VEGF in tumor cells and attenuating tumor necrosis. These data add an unidentified mechanism by which IL-33/IL-33R axis facilitates tumor growth. PMID:26919112

  19. Deletion of IL-33R attenuates VEGF expression and enhances necrosis in mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Milos Z; Jovanovic, Ivan P; Pejnovic, Nada N; Mitrovic, Slobodanka L J; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N; Simovic Markovic, Bojana J; Lukic, Miodrag L

    2016-04-05

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33)/IL-33 receptor (IL-33R, ST2) signaling pathway promotes mammary cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting anti-tumor immunity. However, the role of IL-33/IL-33R axis in neoangiogenesis and tumor necrosis is not elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-33/IL-33R axis in mammary tumor necrosis. Deletion of IL-33R (ST2) gene in BALB/c mice enhanced tumor necrosis and attenuated tumor growth in 4T1 breast cancer model, which was associated with markedly decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-33 in mammary tumor cells. We next analyzed IL-33, IL-33R and VEGF expression and microvascular density (MVD) in breast tumors from 40 female patients with absent or present tumor necrosis. We found significantly higher expression of IL-33, IL-33R and VEGF in breast cancer tissues with absent tumor necrosis. Both, IL-33 and IL-33R expression correlated with VEGF expression in tumor cells. Further, VEGF expression positively correlated with MVD in perinecrotic zone. Taking together, our data indicate that IL-33/IL-33R pathway is critically involved in mammary tumor growth by facilitating expression of pro-angiogenic VEGF in tumor cells and attenuating tumor necrosis. These data add an unidentified mechanism by which IL-33/IL-33R axis facilitates tumor growth.

  20. Sex Difference in Link between IL-6 and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jankord, Ryan; Turk, James R.; Schadt, James C.; Casati, Jennifer; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Price, Elmer M.; Keisler, Duane H.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to disease development, and the neuro-immuno-endocrine interface is a potential site of action for inflammatory products like IL-6 to affect health. Although plasma IL-6 can stimulate the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, the precise role, if any, for IL-6 in the HPA response to non-immunological stressors is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 in the stalk median eminence (SME) can be directly involved in stimulating ACTH secretion in response to acute stress in female swine. This study was undertaken as a result of finding IL-6 localized to the external zone of the stalk median eminence (SME) next to the hypophyseal portal vessels. Results indicate that content of IL-6 in the SME decreases in response to acute stress along with an increase in phosphorylation of STAT3 in the anterior pituitary and a simultaneous increase in plasma concentrations of IL-6 and ACTH. Furthermore, we show that females concomitantly display greater SME content of IL-6 and greater HPA responsiveness to stress, thereby suggesting that IL-6 release from the SME is an integral factor contributing to enhanced stress responsiveness in females. Our results provide evidence for a direct link between IL-6 and ACTH release and reveal a sex difference in this relationship. PMID:17510233

  1. IL-17 for therapy.

    PubMed

    Kurschus, Florian C; Moos, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    The cytokine IL-17 is now a target for an array of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies supposed to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. The forerunner Secukinumab, an IL-17A neutralizing antibody, is meanwhile approved as first-line treatments for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and as second-line treatment for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ixekizumab and Brodalumab, both also targeting the IL-17 pathway, were also recently approved by the FDA for plaque psoriasis. Using mice overexpressing IL-17A in a tissue of choice, we showed that the ectopic expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes resulted in a spontaneous and very strong form of psoriasis-like dermatitis. Interestingly, this model showed some typical comorbidities found in humans with psoriasis. In this review, we will discuss why IL-17 is a good target especially in psoriasis and what we learned from mouse models about its functions in pathological situations. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections alter interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-10 and IL-6 and IL-7 receptor mRNA in CNS and spleen.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Figlewicz, Dianne P; Beuca, Timothy Petru; Bullock, Kristin; Hansen, Kim; Banks, William A; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2017-07-04

    Neuroinflammation is proposed to be an important component in the development of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including depression, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury. However, exactly how neuroinflammation leads to, or contributes to, these central disorders is unclear. The objective of the study was to examine and compare the expression of mRNAs for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-10 and the receptors for IL-6 (IL-6R) and IL-7 (IL-7R) using in situ hybridization in discrete brain regions and in the spleen after multiple injections of 3mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a model of neuroinflammation. In the spleen, LPS significantly elevated IL-6 mRNA expression, then IL-10 mRNA, with no effect on IL-7 or IL-7R mRNA, while significantly decreasing IL-6R mRNA expression. In the CNS, LPS administration had the greatest effect on IL-6 and IL-6R mRNA. LPS increased IL-6 mRNA expression only in non-neuronal cells throughout the brain, but significantly elevated IL-6R mRNA in neuronal populations, where observed, except the cerebellum. LPS resulted in variable effects on IL-10 mRNA, and had no effect on IL-7 or IL-7R mRNA expression. These studies indicate that LPS-induced neuroinflammation has substantial but variable effects on the regional and cellular patterns of CNS IL-6, IL-7 and IL-10, and for IL-6R and IL-7R mRNA expression. It is apparent that administration of LPS can affect non-neuronal and neuronal cells in the brain. Further research is required to determine how CNS inflammatory changes associated with IL-6, IL-10 and IL-6R could in turn contribute to the development of CNS neurological disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  4. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    PubMed

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  5. Helping You Buy ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  6. il_50mwind

    Science.gov Websites

    : June, 2001 Title: il_50mwind Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data Description information on the wind resource development potential within Illinois. Supplemental_Information: This data . Theme_Keyword: Wind potential, wind resource Access_Constraints: None Use_Constraints: This GIS data was

  7. IL233, A Novel IL-2 and IL-33 Hybrid Cytokine, Ameliorates Renal Injury.

    PubMed

    Stremska, Marta E; Jose, Sheethal; Sabapathy, Vikram; Huang, Liping; Bajwa, Amandeep; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Sharma, Poonam R; Mohammad, Saleh; Rosin, Diane L; Okusa, Mark D; Sharma, Rahul

    2017-09-01

    CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) protect the kidney during AKI. We previously found that IL-2, which is critical for Treg homeostasis, upregulates the IL-33 receptor (ST2) on CD4 + T cells, thus we hypothesized that IL-2 and IL-33 cooperate to enhance Treg function. We found that a major subset of Tregs in mice express ST2, and coinjection of IL-2 and IL-33 increased the number of Tregs in lymphoid organs and protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) more efficiently than either cytokine alone. Accordingly, we generated a novel hybrid cytokine (IL233) bearing the activities of IL-2 and IL-33 for efficient targeting to Tregs. IL233 treatment increased the number of Tregs in blood and spleen and prevented IRI more efficiently than a mixture of IL-2 and IL-33. Injection of IL233 also increased the numbers of Tregs in renal compartments. Moreover, IL233-treated mice had fewer splenic Tregs and more Tregs in kidneys after IRI. In vitro , splenic Tregs from IL233-treated mice suppressed CD4 + T cell proliferation better than Tregs from saline-treated controls. IL233 treatment also improved the ability of isolated Tregs to inhibit IRI in adoptive transfer experiments and protected mice from cisplatin- and doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxic injury. Finally, treatment with IL233 increased the proportion of ST2-bearing innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) in blood and kidneys, and adoptive transfer of ILC2 also protected mice from IRI. Thus, the novel IL233 hybrid cytokine, which utilizes the cooperation of IL-2 and IL-33 to enhance Treg- and ILC2-mediated protection from AKI, bears strong therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. IL-22R Ligands IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 Promote Wound Healing in Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Wu, Xiumin; Lee, Wyne P; Hackney, Jason A; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Gandham, Vineela; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Arora, Puneet; Wang, Xiaoting; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, when compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU.

  9. IL-22R Ligands IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 Promote Wound Healing in Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Wu, Xiumin; Lee, Wyne P.; Hackney, Jason A.; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Gandham, Vineela; Danilenko, Dimitry M.; Arora, Puneet; Wang, Xiaoting; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, when compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU. PMID:28125663

  10. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  11. Enhanced Expression of IL-18 and IL-18BP in Plasma of Patients with Eczema: Altered Expression of IL-18BP and IL-18 Receptor on Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yalin; Wang, Junling; Zhang, Huiyun; Xie, Hua; Song, Weiwei; Jiang, Qijun; Zhao, Nan; He, Shaoheng

    2017-01-01

    IL-18 has been found to be associated with eczema. However, little is known of the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in eczema. We therefore investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R on mast cells by using flow cytometry analysis and mouse eczema model. The results showed that plasma free IL-18 and free IL-18BP levels in eczema patients were higher than those in healthy controls. IL-18 provoked up to 3.1-fold increase in skin mast cells. IL-18 induced also an increase in IL-18BP+ mast cells, but a reduction of IL-18R+ mast cells in mouse eczema skin. It was found that house dust mite allergen Der p1 and egg allergen OVA induced upregulation of the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R mRNAs in HMC-1 cells following 2 and 16 h incubation. In conclusion, correlation of IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema plasma suggests an important balance between IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema. The decrease in molar concentration ratio of plasma IL-18BP/IL-18 and allergen-induced upregulated expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in skin mast cells of the patients with eczema suggests that anti-IL-18 including IL-18BP therapy may be useful for the treatment of eczema.

  12. Enhanced Expression of IL-18 and IL-18BP in Plasma of Patients with Eczema: Altered Expression of IL-18BP and IL-18 Receptor on Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    IL-18 has been found to be associated with eczema. However, little is known of the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in eczema. We therefore investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R on mast cells by using flow cytometry analysis and mouse eczema model. The results showed that plasma free IL-18 and free IL-18BP levels in eczema patients were higher than those in healthy controls. IL-18 provoked up to 3.1-fold increase in skin mast cells. IL-18 induced also an increase in IL-18BP+ mast cells, but a reduction of IL-18R+ mast cells in mouse eczema skin. It was found that house dust mite allergen Der p1 and egg allergen OVA induced upregulation of the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R mRNAs in HMC-1 cells following 2 and 16 h incubation. In conclusion, correlation of IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema plasma suggests an important balance between IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema. The decrease in molar concentration ratio of plasma IL-18BP/IL-18 and allergen-induced upregulated expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in skin mast cells of the patients with eczema suggests that anti-IL-18 including IL-18BP therapy may be useful for the treatment of eczema. PMID:28839348

  13. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... 41[deg]44'29.4'' N, 087[deg]31'33.9'' W and 41[deg]44'21'' N, 087[deg]31'47.12'' W (NAD 83). (2) All..., then approximately 1380 yards south to position 41[deg]51'36.5'' N, 087[deg]38'04.7'' W (NAD 83). (3....8'' W (NAD 83). (4) All waters of the Chicago River from the West Lake Street Bridge in position 41...

  14. 78 FR 55219 - Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... event has been scheduled by a commercial entity to take place from 11 a.m. until 4 p.m. on September 21... adversely alter the budget of any grant or loan recipients, and will not raise any novel legal or policy...-scene representative. 2. Impact on Small Entities The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (RFA), 5 U.S.C...

  15. Role of periostin, FENO, IL-13, lebrikzumab, other IL-13 antagonist and dual IL-4/IL-13 antagonist in asthma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swati; Townley, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity, absences from work or school and hospitalizations. Patients with severe asthma which are not controlled despite taking effective therapy are most in need of new treatment approaches. IL-13 was demonstrated as 'central mediator of allergic asthma'. IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. IL-13 levels in the sputum and bronchial biopsy samples remain elevated in severe asthma despite the use of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids. Thus, IL-13 is a mediator involved in corticosteroid resistance. Periostin enhances profibrotic TGF-β signaling in subepithelial fibrosis associated with asthma. IL-13 induces bronchial epithelial cells to secrete periostin. Periostin may be a biomarker for Th2 induced airway inflammation. Lebrikizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-13. Lebrikizumab improved lung function in asthmatics who were symptomatic despite treatment with long acting beta agonist and inhaled corticosteroids and provided benefit in the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma. Lebrikizumab block IL-13 signaling through the IL-13Rα1/IL-4Rα receptor. There was a larger reduction in FENO in the high periostin subgroup than in the low periostin subgroup (34.4 vs 4.3%). Serum CCL17, CCL13 and total IgE levels decreased in the lebrikizumab group.

  16. IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in gyneco-obstetric infections.

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Beatriz; Giménez, Francisco; López, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy. METHODS: The selected patients were: healthy or control group (n = 52), those with bacterial vaginosis (n = 47), those with vaginitis (n = 37), those with asymptomatic urinary infection (n = 15) and post-treatment. The level of cytokines was assayed by ELISA test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The IL-1beta levels in vaginal discharge were: control 103.5 +/- 24.2 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 1030 +/- 59.5, vaginitis 749.14 +/- 66.7l ( p < 0.0001), post-treatment 101.4 +/- 28.7. IL-6 values were similar in both control and infected groups, and there were no patients with chorioamnionitis. In vaginal discharge IL-6: control 14.2 +/- 3.9 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 13.2 +/- 3.8, vaginitis 13 +/- 4.2. IL-8 levels were: control 1643 +/- 130.3 pg/ml, bacterial vaginosis 2612.7 +/- 257.7, vaginitis 3437 +/- 460 (p < 0.0001), post-treatment 1693 +/- 126.6. In urine the results were: control 40.2 +/- 17 pg/ml, asymptomatic urinary infection 1200.7 +/- 375 (p < 0.0001). In patients with therapeutic success both IL-1beta and IL-8 returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Genitourinary infections induce a significant increase in IL-1beta and IL-8 levels in vaginal secretions, and IL-8 in urine as well. Both cytokines could be useful as evolutive markers of infection. PMID:16338780

  17. Role of IL-18 in atopic asthma is determined by balance of IL-18/IL-18BP/IL-18R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Junling; Wang, Ling; Xie, Hua; Chen, Liping; He, Shaoheng

    2018-01-01

    It is recognized that IL-18 is related to development of asthma, but role of IL-18 in asthma remains controversial and confusing. This is largely due to lack of information on expression of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in asthma. In this study, we found that plasma levels of IL-18 and IL-18BP were elevated in asthma. The ratio between plasma concentrations of IL-18 and IL-18BP was 1:12.8 in asthma patients. We demonstrated that 13-fold more monocytes, 17.5-fold more neutrophils and 4.1-fold more B cells express IL-18BP than IL-18 in asthmatic blood, suggesting that there is excessive amount of IL-18BP to abolish actions of IL-18 in asthma. We also discovered that more IL-18R+ monocytes, neutrophils and B cells are located in asthmatic blood. Once injected, IL-18 eliminated IL-18R+ monocytes in blood, but up-regulated expression of IL-18R in lung macrophages of OVA-sensitized mice. Our data clearly indicate that the role of IL-18 in asthma is very likely to be determined by balance of IL-18/IL-18BP/IL-18R expression in inflammatory cells. Therefore, IL-18R blocking or IL-18BP activity enhancing therapies may be useful for treatment of asthma. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. IL-10 and pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Azizieh, F Y; Raghupathy, R

    2017-01-01

    Successful pregnancy depends on the ability of the mother's immune system to undergo a process of immunoregulation in order to tolerate the fetus, and also to create and sustain a nurturing environment during all the stages of pregnancy. Several reports point to interleukin 10 (IL-10) as being vital for normal pregnancy, and low IL-10 levels as being associated with preg- nancy complications. This study aimed to compare IL-10 levels in normal and complicated pregnancy conditions. The authors compared levels of IL-10 produced upon stimulation of maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from women at different stages of normal gestation with those produced by women with pregnancy complications, such as recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM), preterm delivery (PTD), premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), pre-eclampsia, and intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR). Median levels of IL-10 are statistically significantly lower in pathological conditions as com- pared to matching gestational ages of normal pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy is associated with higher levels of IL-10, while pathologic pregnancies are associated with lower levels of IL-10.

  19. IL-17 Promotes Angiogenic Factors IL-6, IL-8, and Vegf Production via Stat1 in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; Duan, Limin; Qian, Xin; Fan, Jinshuo; Lv, Zhilei; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Han, Jieli; Wu, Feng; Guo, Mengfei; Hu, Guorong; Du, Jiao; Chen, Caiyun; Jin, Yang

    2016-11-07

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are two hallmarks of carcinoma. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) facilitates angiogenesis in lung cancer; however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, tumour microvessel density (MVD) was positively associated with IL-17, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and it was increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice. Importantly, positive correlations were also detected between IL-17 expression and IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF production, as well as STAT1 phosphorylation, were increased in tumour tissues of A549-IL-17 cell-bearing nude mice in vivo and in A549 and H292 cells following IL-17 stimulation in vitro. In addition, STAT1 knockdown using an inhibitor and siRNA attenuated the IL-17-mediated increases in IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF expression in A549 and H292 cells. In conclusion, IL-17 may promote the production of the angiogenic inducers IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF via STAT1 signalling in lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels as "bioumoral bridges" between dyslipidemia and atopy.

    PubMed

    Manti, S; Leonardi, S; Panasiti, I; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies suggest a possible link between dyslipidemia and atopy, literature findings are still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and atopy in a pediatric population affected by dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia/atopic predisposition. Children with dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia and atopy as well as healthy children were recruited. Serum total IgE, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 levels as well as fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) were performed on all enrolled children. The present study evaluated 23 patients affected by dyslipidemia, 26 patients affected by atopy and dyslipidemia and, 22healthy children. Serum total IgE levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: positively with total cholesterol (p<0.05), LDL (p<0.05), and tryglicerides (p<0.001), but negatively with HDL (p<0.05). Serum levels of IL-10 were lower in children with atopy and dyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (p<0.001). Serum IL-10 levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: negatively with total cholesterol (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.05), and triglycerides (p<0.05), but positively with HDL (p<0.05). Serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels showed the same trend. They were significantly higher in children with atopy and dyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (p<0.001). In particular, serum IL-17 and IL-23 values positively correlated with serum total IgE levels (p<0.05); serum total cholesterol levels (p<0.001); serum LDL levels (p<0.001); serum triglycerides levels (p<0.05). Although not statistically significant, an inverse correlation has been noted between serum IL-17, IL-23 and HDL levels. These findings support the notion that dyslipidemia and atopic predisposition share the same immune pathways as well as they offer new insights in the complex crosstalk between hyperlipidemia and atopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct regulation of IL-2 by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin-Gyo; Hwang, Da-Jeong; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a crucial growth factor for both regulatory and effector T cells. Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the stimulation and suppression of immune responses. Recently, anti-IL-2 antibodies (Abs) have been shown to possess strong IL-2 modulatory activities by affecting the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. In this study, we screened an herbal library to identify a compound that regulates IL-2, which resulted in the identification of curcumin as a direct binder and inhibitor of IL-2. Curcumin is a phytochemical with well-known anti-cancer properties. In this study, curcumin mimicked or altered the binding pattern of anti-IL-2 Abs against IL-2 and remarkably inhibited the interaction of recombinant IL-2 with the IL-2 receptor α, CD25. Interestingly, curcumin neutralized the biological activities of IL-2 both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we elucidated the unsolved mechanism of the anti-cancer effect of curcumin by identifying IL-2 as a direct molecular target. Curcumin, as a small molecule IL-2 modulator, has the potential to be used to treat IL-2 related pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  4. The Roles of IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1RA in Obesity and Insulin Resistance in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Doumatey, Ayo; Huang, Hanxia; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Guanjie; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, IL-10, measures of obesity, and insulin resistance in African-Americans. Research Design and Methods: Nondiabetic participants (n = 1025) of the Howard University Family Study were investigated for associations between serum IL (IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10), measures of obesity, and insulin resistance, with adjustment for age and sex. Measures of obesity included body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and percent fat mass. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Data were analyzed with R statistical software using linear regression and likelihood ratio tests. Results: IL-1RA and IL-6 were associated with measures of obesity and insulin resistance, explaining 4–12.7% of the variance observed (P values < 0.001). IL-1RA was bimodally distributed and therefore was analyzed based on grouping those with low vs. high IL-1RA levels. High IL-1RA explained up to 20 and 12% of the variance in measures of obesity and HOMA-IR, respectively. Among the IL, only high IL-1RA improved the fit of models regressing HOMA-IR on measures of obesity. In contrast, all measures of obesity improved the fit of models regressing HOMA-IR on IL. IL-10 was not associated with obesity measures or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: High IL-1RA levels and obesity measures are associated with HOMA-IR in this population-based sample of African-Americans. The results suggest that obesity and increased levels of IL-1RA both contribute to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:21956416

  5. Salivary Concentrations of Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17A, and IL-23 Vary in Relation to Periodontal Status.

    PubMed

    Liukkonen, Joonas; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Pussinen, Pirkko J; Suominen, Anna L; Könönen, Eija

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23-induced T helper (Th) 17 pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This study's aim is to determine levels of IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in saliva, and to examine whether their salivary concentrations are associated with periodontal health status. Saliva samples originated from 220 participants; 76 had generalized periodontitis (GP) and 65 had localized periodontitis (LP), whereas 79 without periodontitis were used as controls. Cytokine analyses were performed by a flow cytometry-based technique and LPS analyses from pellet by commercially optimized assay coupled with chromogenic substrate. Salivary concentrations of IL-17A and IL-23 were elevated significantly in patients with LP compared with controls and patients with GP. Salivary IL-1β concentrations were significantly higher in patients with GP than in patients with LP, whereas no difference was found between LP and control groups. Significant correlation was found between concentrations of IL-17A and IL-23 or IL-1β. LPS concentrations did not have significant associations with any of the tested ILs. Elevated salivary IL-1β concentrations are related to GP, whereas distinct elevation and reduction profiles of IL-17A and IL-23 are detected in saliva of patients with LP and GP.

  6. 7 Steps to ILS Procurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisman, Gerald J.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines seven factors that should be considered in the selection of an integrated learning system (ILS): the vendor's educational philosophy; provision of courseware updates; courseware offerings, management systems, customization, and online tools; availability and cost of maintenance support; reasonable terms of procurement; the personnel and…

  7. Dreaming of a Better ILS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    What would technological librarians like to see in the next generation of Integrated Library Systems (ILS)? This question was asked of several well- known library technology experts, and their responses are presented in this article. Survey respondents expressed a clear desire for the following features and functionality: (1) Direct, read-only…

  8. Production of Mice Deficient in Genes for Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-1α/β, and IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Shows that IL-1β Is Crucial in Turpentine-induced Fever Development and Glucocorticoid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Horai, Reiko; Asano, Masahide; Sudo, Katsuko; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Masugi; Takahashi, Michio; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    1998-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and exerts pleiotropic effects on the neuro-immuno-endocrine system. To elucidate pathophysiological roles of IL-1, we have first produced IL-1α/β doubly deficient (KO) mice together with mice deficient in either the IL-1α, IL-1β, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) genes. These mice were born healthy, and their growth was normal except for IL-1ra KO mice, which showed growth retardation after weaning. Fever development upon injection with turpentine was suppressed in IL-1β as well as IL-1α/β KO mice, but not in IL-1α KO mice, whereas IL-1ra KO mice showed an elevated response. At this time, expression of IL-1β mRNA in the diencephalon decreased 1.5-fold in IL-1α KO mice, whereas expression of IL-1α mRNA decreased >30-fold in IL-1β KO mice, suggesting mutual induction between IL-1α and IL-1β. This mutual induction was also suggested in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in vitro. In IL-1β KO mice treated with turpentine, the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (EC 1.14.99.1) in the diencephalon was suppressed, whereas it was enhanced in IL-1ra KO mice. We also found that glucocorticoid induction 8 h after turpentine treatment was suppressed in IL-1β but not IL-1α KO mice. These observations suggest that IL-1β but not IL-1α is crucial in febrile and neuro-immuno-endocrine responses, and that this is because IL-1α expression in the brain is dependent on IL-1β. The importance of IL-1ra both in normal physiology and under stress is also suggested. PMID:9565638

  9. Production of mice deficient in genes for interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1alpha/beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist shows that IL-1beta is crucial in turpentine-induced fever development and glucocorticoid secretion.

    PubMed

    Horai, R; Asano, M; Sudo, K; Kanuka, H; Suzuki, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M; Iwakura, Y

    1998-05-04

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and exerts pleiotropic effects on the neuro-immuno-endocrine system. To elucidate pathophysiological roles of IL-1, we have first produced IL-1alpha/beta doubly deficient (KO) mice together with mice deficient in either the IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) genes. These mice were born healthy, and their growth was normal except for IL-1ra KO mice, which showed growth retardation after weaning. Fever development upon injection with turpentine was suppressed in IL-1beta as well as IL-1alpha/beta KO mice, but not in IL-1alpha KO mice, whereas IL-1ra KO mice showed an elevated response. At this time, expression of IL-1beta mRNA in the diencephalon decreased 1.5-fold in IL-1alpha KO mice, whereas expression of IL-1alpha mRNA decreased >30-fold in IL-1beta KO mice, suggesting mutual induction between IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. This mutual induction was also suggested in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in vitro. In IL-1beta KO mice treated with turpentine, the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (EC 1.14.99.1) in the diencephalon was suppressed, whereas it was enhanced in IL-1ra KO mice. We also found that glucocorticoid induction 8 h after turpentine treatment was suppressed in IL-1beta but not IL-1alpha KO mice. These observations suggest that IL-1beta but not IL-1alpha is crucial in febrile and neuro-immuno-endocrine responses, and that this is because IL-1alpha expression in the brain is dependent on IL-1beta. The importance of IL-1ra both in normal physiology and under stress is also suggested.

  10. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This proposed safety zone will cover 77.... This TIR established a 77 mile long safety zone from Brandon Road Lock to Lake Michigan in Chicago, IL...

  11. IL-13 working through IL-13Ra1 mediates critical functional responses to nematode infection in the gastrointestinal tract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nematode infection up-regulates IL-4 and IL-13 and induces STAT6-dependent changes in epithelial function and smooth muscle contractility that promote worm clearance. IL-4 and IL-13 share the same type II IL-4R that contains the IL-13R'1 and the IL-4R' chain linked to STAT6. The role of IL-13 workin...

  12. 77 FR 6057 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 22, Baxter Healthcare Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1810] Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 22, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, (Pharmaceutical and Biological Intravenous Product Manufacturing), Chicago, IL Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18...

  13. Of Inflammasomes and Alarmins: IL-1β and IL-1α in Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kidney injury implies danger signaling and a response by the immune system. The inflammasome is a central danger recognition platform that triggers local and systemic inflammation. In immune cells, inflammasome activation causes the release of mature IL-1β and of the alarmin IL-1α. Dying cells release IL-1α also, independently of the inflammasome. Both IL-1α and IL-1β ligate the same IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) that is present on nearly all cells inside and outside the kidney, further amplifying cytokine and chemokine release. Thus, the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system is a central element of kidney inflammation and the systemic consequences. Seminal discoveries of recent years have expanded this central paradigm of inflammation. This review gives an overview of arising concepts of inflammasome and IL-1α/β regulation in renal cells and in experimental kidney disease models. There is a pipeline of compounds that can interfere with the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system, ranging from recently described small molecule inhibitors of NLRP3, a component of the inflammasome complex, to regulatory agency–approved IL-1–neutralizing biologic drugs. Based on strong theoretic and experimental rationale, the potential therapeutic benefits of using such compounds to block the inflammasome-IL-1α/IL-β-IL-1R system in kidney disease should be further explored. PMID:27516236

  14. Development of an interleukin (IL)-33 sandwich ELISA kit specific for mature IL-33.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsom; Kwak, Areum; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Lee, Siyoung; Jo, Seunghyun; Lee, Jongho; Kang, Tae-Bong; Her, Erk; Bae, Suyoung; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is an inflammatory cytokine and belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines. There are eleven members of the IL-1 family of cytokines and all have important roles in host defense against infections. Their levels are increased during infection and in various auto-inflammatory diseases. IL-33 is also associated with autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. IL-33 receptors consist of IL-1R4 and IL-1R3 to induce both Th1 and Th2 type immune response. Here we present the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human mature IL-33. Recombinant human mature IL-33 protein was expressed in E. coli and purified by multi-step affinity chromatography. The human IL-33 activity was examined in HMC-1 and Raw 264.7 cells. Mice were immunized with the biologically active mature IL-33 to generate mAb against IL-33. The anti-IL-33 mAb (clone/4) was used as a capture antibody for a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This assay detects mature IL-33 with a high sensitivity (80 pg/mL) but does not recognize the biologically inactive precursor IL-33. This article describes the methods for a newly developed IL-33 ELISA kit that is specific for mature IL-33 and may be used to analyze bioactive mature IL-33 in various immunological diseases.

  15. A Novel Immunoregulatory Function for IL-23: Inhibition of IL-12 Dependent IFN-γ Production

    PubMed Central

    Sieve, Amy N.; Meeks, Karen D.; Lee, Suheung; Berg, Rance E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Most studies investigating the function of IL-23 have concluded that it promotes IL-17 secreting T cells. While some reports have also characterized IL-23 as having redundant pro-inflammatory effects with IL-12, we have instead found that IL-23 antagonizes IL-12 induced secretion of IFN-γ. When splenocytes or purified populations of T cells are cultured with IL-23, IFN-γ secretion in response to IL-12 is dramatically reduced. The impact of IL-23 is most prominent in CD8 T cells, but is also observed in NK and CD4 T cells. Mechanistically, the IL-23 receptor is not required for this phenomenon, and IL-23 inhibits signaling through the IL-12 receptor by reducing IL-12 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) phosphorylation. IL-23 is also able to reduce IFN-γ secretion by antagonizing endogenously produced IL-12 from Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infected macrophages. In vivo, LM infection induces higher serum IFN-γ levels and a greater percentage of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells in IL-23p19 deficient mice as compared to wild-type mice. This increase in IFN-γ production coincides with increased LM clearance at days 2–3 post-infection. Our data suggest that IL-23 may be a key factor in determining the responsiveness of lymphocytes to IL-12 and their subsequent secretion of IFN-γ. PMID:20458705

  16. Improved IL-2 immunotherapy by selective stimulation of IL-2 receptors on lymphocytes and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Carsten; Létourneau, Sven; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Boyman, Onur

    2010-01-01

    IL-2 immunotherapy is an attractive treatment option for certain metastatic cancers. However, administration of IL-2 to patients can lead, by ill-defined mechanisms, to toxic adverse effects including severe pulmonary edema. Here, we show that IL-2–induced pulmonary edema is caused by direct interaction of IL-2 with functional IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) on lung endothelial cells in vivo. Treatment of mice with high-dose IL-2 led to efficient expansion of effector immune cells expressing high levels of IL-2Rβγ, including CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells, which resulted in a considerable antitumor response against s.c. and pulmonary B16 melanoma nodules. However, high-dose IL-2 treatment also affected immune cell lineage marker-negative CD31+ pulmonary endothelial cells via binding to functional αβγ IL-2Rs, expressed at low to intermediate levels on these cells, thus causing pulmonary edema. Notably, IL-2–mediated pulmonary edema was abrogated by a blocking antibody to IL-2Rα (CD25), genetic disruption of CD25, or the use of IL-2Rβγ–directed IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes, thereby interfering with IL-2 binding to IL-2Rαβγ+ pulmonary endothelial cells. Moreover, IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes led to vigorous activation of IL-2Rβγ+ effector immune cells, which generated a dramatic antitumor response. Thus, IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes might improve current strategies of IL-2–based tumor immunotherapy. PMID:20547866

  17. Dexamethasone antagonizes IL-4 and IL-10-induced release of IL-1RA by monocytes but augments IL-4-, IL-10-, and TGF-beta-induced suppression of TNF-alpha release.

    PubMed

    Joyce, D A; Steer, J H; Kloda, A

    1996-07-01

    The activities of monocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta are potentially modified by IL-1RA and soluble receptors for TNF (sTNF-R), which are themselves monocyte products. IL-4, IL-10, TGF-beta, and glucocorticoids (GC) all suppress the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta but vary in their effects on IL-1RA and sTNF-R. This raises the prospect of interactions between the cytokines and glucocorticoids, which may be antagonistic or additive on IL-1 and TNF activity. We, therefore, studied the interactions of the GC dexamethasone (Dex) with IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta on the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1RA by human monocytes and the monocytic THP-1 cell line. Low concentration of Dex (10(-8)-10(-7)M) acted additively with low concentrations of IL-4 (0.01-1 ng/ml), IL-10 (0.01-0.1 U/ml), or TGF-beta (0.01-1 ng/ml) to profoundly suppress LPS-stimulated release of TNF-alpha by whole blood and, to a lesser degree, THP-1 cells. Dex also suppressed spontaneous release of IL-1RA from PBMC and THP-1 cells, whereas IL-4 and IL-10, but not TGF-beta, stimulated release. Dex antagonized the enhanced release in IL-4 and IL-10-stimulated cultures. The capacity to stimulate release of IL-1RA may contribute to the anti-inflammatory potential of IL-4 and IL-10 in monocyte/macrophage-mediated disease. GC, therefore, do not uniquely enhance the suppressive functions of IL-4 and IL-10 on monokine activity. The therapeutic benefit of combinations of GC and IL-4, IL-10 or TGF-beta in disease may depend on the roles of the individual monokines and antagonists in pathogenesis.

  18. ILS Scattering Problem and Signal Detection Model

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-02-01

    The construction of a mathematical model of The Instrument Landing System (ILS) multipath problem was undertaken. This report presents the theoretical basis for any such model, a critique of previous models and newly achieve developments in ILS model...

  19. IL-27 Regulates IL-18 binding protein in skin resident cells.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Miriam; Doble, Rosella; Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Werfel, Thomas; Mühl, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    IL-18 is an important mediator involved in chronic inflammatory conditions such as cutaneous lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and chronic eczema. An imbalance between IL-18 and its endogenous antagonist IL-18 binding protein (BP) may account for increased IL-18 activity. IL-27 is a cytokine with dual function displaying pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we provide evidence for a yet not described anti-inflammatory mode of action on skin resident cells. Human keratinocytes and surprisingly also fibroblasts (which do not produce any IL-18) show a robust, dose-dependent and highly inducible mRNA expression and secretion of IL-18BP upon IL-27 stimulation. Other IL-12 family members failed to induce IL-18BP. The production of IL-18BP peaked between 48-72 h after stimulation and was sustained for up to 96 h. Investigation of the signalling pathway showed that IL-27 activates STAT1 in human keratinocytes and that a proximal GAS site at the IL-18BP promoter is of importance for the functional activity of IL-27. The data are in support of a significant anti-inflammatory effect of IL-27 on skin resident cells. An important novel property of IL-27 in skin pathobiology may be to counter-regulate IL-18 activities by acting on keratinocytes and importantly also on dermal fibroblasts.

  20. Targeting IL-17A attenuates neonatal sepsis mortality induced by IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James Lawrence; Wilson, Chris S.; Hawiger, Jacek; Scumpia, Philip O.; Marshall, Andrew F.; Liu, Jin-Hua; Zharkikh, Irina; Wong, Hector R.; Lahni, Patrick; Benjamin, John T.; Plosa, Erin J.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik; Sherwood, Edward R.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Ungaro, Ricardo; Baker, Henry V.; Lopez, M. Cecilia; McElroy, Steven J.; Colliou, Natacha; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Moore, Daniel Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important effector of innate and adaptive immunity, but its expression must also be tightly regulated because it can potentiate lethal systemic inflammation and death. Healthy and septic human neonates demonstrate elevated serum concentrations of IL-18 compared with adults. Thus, we determined the contribution of IL-18 to lethality and its mechanism in a murine model of neonatal sepsis. We find that IL-18–null neonatal mice are highly protected from polymicrobial sepsis, whereas replenishing IL-18 increased lethality to sepsis or endotoxemia. Increased lethality depended on IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) signaling but not adaptive immunity. In genome-wide analyses of blood mRNA from septic human neonates, expression of the IL-17 receptor emerged as a critical regulatory node. Indeed, IL-18 administration in sepsis increased IL-17A production by murine intestinal γδT cells as well as Ly6G+ myeloid cells, and blocking IL-17A reduced IL-18–potentiated mortality to both neonatal sepsis and endotoxemia. We conclude that IL-17A is a previously unrecognized effector of IL-18–mediated injury in neonatal sepsis and that disruption of the deleterious and tissue-destructive IL-18/IL-1/IL-17A axis represents a novel therapeutic approach to improve outcomes for human neonates with sepsis. PMID:27114524

  1. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage lead to systemic upregulation of IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory axis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Güresir, Erdem; Vatter, Hartmut; Kinfe, Thomas M; Dietrich, Dirk; Lamprecht, Alf; Muhammad, Sajjad

    2017-09-01

    IL-23 and IL-17 are pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-23 is secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells, while IL-17 by Th17 cells. Serum IL-23 and IL-17 are known to be elevated in numerous inflammatory diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. The role of serum IL-23 and IL-17 in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has still not been investigated. The present work investigates the serum IL-23 and IL-17 levels and their association with post hemorrhagic complications and clinical outcome in patients with aSAH. In this study, 80 patients with aSAH (Hunt and Hess grade I-V) were prospectively recruited. We enrolled 24 control patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Peripheral venous blood was withdrawn from controls and from aSAH patients at day 1 and day 7, allowed to clot and centrifuged to obtain serum. Enzyme linked immunoassay kits were employed to quantify the serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 by applying 50µL of serum samples. Post hemorrhagic complications and clinical outcome were documented prospectively from patient's hospital record. Serum IL-23 and IL-17 levels were significantly elevated in aSAH patients at day 1 and day 7 (n=80) as compared to control patients (n=24). Further analysis after dichotomy of patients who suffered from post hemorrhagic complications including cerebral vasospasm, chronic hydrocephalus, seizures, cerebral ischemia, delayed neurological deficits showed differential correlations with different post hemorrhagic complications (Table 1). Serum IL-23 and IL-17 levels did not correlate with clinical outcome. Serum IL-23 and IL-17 levels were elevated in patients with aSAH showing upregulation of IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory axis after aSAH. Serum IL-23 and IL-17 showed differential correlations with post hemorrhagic complications and no correlation with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  4. IL10 -1082, IL10 -819 and IL10 -592 polymorphisms are associated with chronic periodontitis in a Macedonian population.

    PubMed

    Atanasovska-Stojanovska, Aneta; Trajkov, Dejan; Popovska, Mirjana; Spiroski, Mirko

    2012-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the interleukin 10 (IL10) gene have been reported to influence the host response to microbial challenge by altering levels of cytokine expression. We analyzed nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL10 gene and its relation with periodontal disease in a Macedonian population. The study population consisted of 111 unrelated subjects with chronic periodontitis and 299 healthy controls. DNA was isolated and IL10 genotyping performed by PCR-SSP (Heidelberg kit) for the alleles and genotypes of IL10 -1082, IL10 -819 and IL10 -592. Frequencies of IL10 haplotypes and the haplotype zygotes were also examined. Comparisons between groups were tested using the Pearson's p-value. After Bonferroni adjustment, significant associations were detected between subjects with chronic periodontitis and IL10 genotypes (IL10 -1082/A:G was negative or protective and IL10 -1082/G:G was positive or susceptible). Cytokine polymorphism on the IL10 gene appears to be associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in Macedonians. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    previously de- cribed.27 Groups of mice (n 6) were dministered acetyl salicylic acid (ASA; 00 mg/kg; Sigma, St Louis, MO), phos- hate-buffered saline...indicates P .05. SA, acetyl salicylic acid ; IL6R, interleukin-6 receptor. ath. IL-6 receptor in ovarian tumors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010. ause they are...tumor cell proper to increase this effect . Published studies examining IL6-/- and IL6R-/- mice demonstrated a complexity of IL6 signaling for wound

  6. IL-10 -1082 SNP and IL-10 in primary CNS and vitreoretinal lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Shen, De Fen; Tuo, Jingsheng; Braziel, Rita M; Coupland, Sarah E; Smith, Justine R; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2012-10-01

    Most primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary vitreoretinal lymphomas (PVRLs) are B-cell lymphomas that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10, which is linked to rapid disease progression. The IL-10 (-1082) G → A polymorphism (IL-10 SNP) is associated with improved survival in certain non-CNS lymphoma patients. PDCD4 is a tumor suppressor gene and upstream regulator of IL-10. This study examined the correlation between the IL-10 SNP, PDCD4 mRNA expression, and IL-10 expression (at transcript and protein levels) in these lymphoma cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing at IL-10 (-1082) was performed after microdissecting cytospun PVRL cells from 26 specimens. Vitreal IL-10 and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. PCNSL cells from 52 paraffin-embedded sections were microdissected and SNP typed on genomic DNA. RT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of IL-10 and PDCD4 mRNA. IL-10 (-1082) SNP typing was performed on blood samples of 96 healthy controls. We measured IL-10 (-1082) SNP expression in 26 PVRLs and 52 PCNSLs and examined its relationship with IL-10 protein and gene expression, respectively. More PVRL patients expressed one copy of the IL-10 ( -1082 )  G → A SNP with the GA genotype compared to controls. The frequencies of the three genotypes (AA, AG, GG) significantly differed in PVRL versus controls and in PCNSL versus controls. In PVRLs, the vitreal IL-10/IL-6 ratio was higher in IL-10 (-1082) AG and IL-10 (-1082) AA patients, compared to IL-10 (-1082) GG patients. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in IL-10 (-1082) AG and IL-10 (-1082) AA PCNSLs, compared to IL-10 (-1082) GG PCNSLs. No correlation was found between IL-10 and PDCD4 expression levels in 37 PCNSL samples. PVRL and PCNSL patients had similar IL-10 (-1082) A allele frequencies, but genotype distributions differed from healthy controls. The findings suggest that the IL-10 (-1082) A allele is a risk factor for higher IL-10 levels in PVRLs and

  7. IL-10 -1082 SNP and IL-10 in primary CNS and vitreoretinal lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Hema L.; Shen, De Fen; Tuo, Jingsheng; Braziel, Rita M.; Coupland, Sarah E.; Smith, Justine R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Most primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary vitreoretinal lymphomas (PVRLs) are B-cell lymphomas that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10, which is linked to rapid disease progression. The IL-10-1082G→A polymorphism (IL-10 SNP) is associated with improved survival in certain non-CNS lymphoma patients. PDCD4 is a tumor suppressor gene and upstream regulator of IL-10. This study examined the correlation between the IL-10 SNP, PDCD4 mRNA expression, and IL-10 expression (at transcript and protein levels) in these lymphoma cells. Materials and methods Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing at IL-10-1082 was performed after micro-dissecting cytospun PVRL cells from 26 specimens. Vitreal IL-10 and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. PCNSL cells from 52 paraffin-embedded sections were microdissected and SNP typed on genomic DNA. RT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of IL-10 and PDCD4 mRNA. IL-10-1082 SNP typing was performed on blood samples of 96 healthy controls. We measured IL-10-1082 SNP expression in 26 PVRLs and 52 PCNSLs and examined its relationship with IL-10 protein and gene expression, respectively. Results More PVRL patients expressed one copy of the IL-10-1082G→A SNP with the GA genotype compared to controls. The frequencies of the three genotypes (AA, AG, GG) significantly differed in PVRL versus controls and in PCNSL versus controls. In PVRLs, the vitreal IL-10/IL-6 ratio was higher in IL-10-1082 AG and IL-10-1082 AA patients, compared to IL-10-1082 GG patients. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in IL-10-1082 AG and IL-10-1082 AA PCNSLs, compared to IL-10-1082 GG PCNSLs. No correlation was found between IL-10 and PDCD4 expression levels in 37 PCNSL samples. Conclusions PVRL and PCNSL patients had similar IL-10-1082 A allele frequencies, but genotype distributions differed from healthy controls. The findings suggest that the IL-10-1082 A allele is a risk factor for higher IL-10 levels in PVRLs and PCNSLs

  8. IL-17A, IL-17RC polymorphisms and IL17 plasma levels in Tunisian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chahbi, Mayssa; Haouami, Youssra; Sfar, Imen; Abdelmoula, Leila; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gorgi, Yousr

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a cytokine mainly secreted by Th17 cells, seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional genetic polymorphisms in IL-17 and its receptor genes can influence either qualitatively or quantitatively their functions. Therefore, we aimed to study the impact of IL17-A and IL17RC polymorphisms on plasma level of IL-17 and RA susceptibility and severity. Methods In this context, IL-17A*rs2275913 and IL-17RC*rs708567 polymorphisms were investigated together with the quantification of IL17 plasma level in 115 RA patients and 91 healthy control subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic origin. Results There were no statistically significant associations between IL-17A and IL-17RC studied polymorphisms and RA susceptibility. In contrast, IL-17A plasma levels were significantly higher in patients (55.07 pg/ml) comparatively to controls (4.75 pg/ml), p<10E-12. A ROC curve was used to evaluate the performance of plasma IL-17 in detecting RA. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity of plasma IL-17A was 61.7% at a cut-off value of 18.25 pg/ml; p < 10E-21, CI = [0.849–0.939]. Analytic results showed that the IgM-rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies were significantly less frequent in patients with the IL-17RC*A/A genotype than those carrying *G/G and *G/A genotypes; p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively. Otherwise, IL-17 plasma levels’ analysis showed a significant association with the activity of RA (DAS28≥5.1 = 74.71 pg/ml vs. DAS28<5.1 = 11.96 pg/ml), p<10E-6. Conclusion IL-17A*rs2275913 (G/A) and IL-17RC*rs708567 (G/A) polymorphisms did not seem to influence RA susceptibility in Tunisian population. This result agrees with those reported previously. Plasma IL-17A level seems to be predictive of severe RA occurrence. PMID:29584788

  9. Expression of IGF-1, IL-27 and IL-35 Receptors in Adjuvant Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis Model.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Elham; Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash; Dabiri, Shahriar; Esmaeli-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasloo, Elham; Houshmandi, Nasrin; Afsharipour, Abbas

    2018-03-01

    IGF-1 and certain other cytokines have been shown to exert inflammatory/anti-inflammatory roles in chronic joint diseases. To assess the effect of IGF-1, IL-27 and IL-35, their interaction and their receptor expression in a rheumatoid arthritis model. Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic joint inflammation was operated on 160 male rats. Animals were divided into histopathology and receptor expression groups, each composed of 10 subgroups including; control, vehicle, IGF-1, IL-27, IL-35, their antagonists, IGF-1+IL-27 antagonist and IGF-1+IL-35 antagonist. After two weeks, vehicle or agonist/antagonists were injected into the joint space every other day until day 28 where joint histopathology was performed. The expression of IGF-1, IL-27 and IL-35 receptors were assessed by western blot analysis. IGF-1 did not show pro- or anti- inflammatory functions; endogenous IL-27 and IL-35, on the other hand, exerted inflammatory effects. IL-27 and IL-35 antagonists exerted the highest anti-inflammatory effects. The total inflammation scores were 0.55 ± 0.06, 4.63 ± 0.40, 3.63 ± 0.60, 2.50 ± 0.38 and 1.63 ± 0.40 regarding control, vehicle, IGF-1 Ant., IL-27 Ant. and IL-35 Ant., respectively. IGF-1 receptor expression was reduced in chronic joint inflammation and all three antagonists augmented the IGF-1 receptor expression. IL-27 and IL-35 receptors were up-regulated by chronic joint inflammation. Overall, the results demonstrated the pro-inflammatory role of endogenous IL-27 and IL-35 along with the over expression of their receptors in chronic joint inflammation. IL-27 and IL-35 antagonists exerted the most anti-inflammatory effects and increased IGF-1 receptor expression. These two antagonists may be potential agents for new treatment strategies in chronic joint inflammatory diseases.

  10. Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA) development. Interleukins (IL) represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ), control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Methods Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c) stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ2 tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. Results IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0047 and p = 0.0085, respectively) and to significantly higher extents (p = 0.0051, p = 0.0310 and p = 0.0205, respectively) in early stage PCA than in BPH tissues. Corresponding proteins could be detected to significantly higher amounts in sera from patients with localized PCA, than in those from patients with BPH (p = 0.0153, p = 0.0174 and p = 0.0064, respectively). Analysis of ROC curves indicates that IL-7 (p = 0.0039), but not IL-6 (p = 0.2938) or IL-15 (p = 0.1804) titres were able to distinguish sera from patients with malignancy from those from patients with benign

  11. Serum amyloid A is an endogenous ligand that differentially induces IL-12 and IL-23.

    PubMed

    He, Rong; Shepard, Larry W; Chen, Jia; Pan, Zhixing K; Ye, Richard D

    2006-09-15

    The acute-phase proteins, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA), are biomarkers of infection and inflammation. However, their precise role in immunity and inflammation remains undefined. We report in this study a novel property of SAA in the differential induction of Th1-type immunomodulatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-23. In peripheral blood monocytes and the THP-1 monocytic cell line, SAA induces the expression of IL-12p40, a subunit shared by IL-12 and IL-23. SAA-stimulated expression of IL-12p40 was rapid (< or = 4 h), sustainable (> or = 20 h), potent (up to 3380 pg/ml/10(6) cells in 24 h), and insensitive to polymyxin B treatment. The SAA-stimulated IL-12p40 secretion required de novo protein synthesis and was accompanied by activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and C/EBP. Expression of IL-12p40 required activation of the p38 MAPK and PI3K. Interestingly, the SAA-induced IL-12p40 production was accompanied by a sustained expression of IL-23p19, but not IL-12p35, resulting in preferential secretion of IL-23, but not IL-12. These results identify SAA as an endogenous ligand that potentially activates the IL-23/IL-17 pathway and present a novel mechanism for regulation of inflammation and immunity by an acute-phase protein.

  12. IL-21 sustains CD28 expression on IL-15-activated human naive CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Alves, Nuno L; Arosa, Fernando A; van Lier, René A W

    2005-07-15

    Human naive CD8+ T cells are able to respond in an Ag-independent manner to IL-7 and IL-15. Whereas IL-7 largely maintains CD8+ T cells in a naive phenotype, IL-15 drives these cells to an effector phenotype characterized, among other features, by down-regulation of the costimulatory molecule CD28. We evaluated the influence of the CD4+ Th cell-derived common gamma-chain cytokine IL-21 on cytokine-induced naive CD8+ T cell activation. Stimulation with IL-21 did not induce division and only slightly increased IL-15-induced proliferation of naive CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, however, IL-15-induced down-modulation of CD28 was completely prevented by IL-21 at the protein and transcriptional level. Subsequent stimulation via combined TCR/CD3 and CD28 triggering led to a markedly higher production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in IL-15/IL-21-stimulated cells compared with IL-15-stimulated T cells. Our data show that IL-21 modulates the phenotype of naive CD8+ T cells that have undergone IL-15 induced homeostatic proliferation and preserves their responsiveness to CD28 ligands.

  13. Expanding Diversity in Molecular Structures and Functions of the IL-6/IL-12 Heterodimeric Cytokine Family

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hideaki; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Chiba, Yukino; Ohashi, Mio; Xu, Mingli; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines have pleiotropic functions and play critical roles in multiple immune responses. This cytokine family has very unique characteristics in that they comprise two distinct subunits forming a heterodimer and each cytokine and receptor subunit shares with each other. The members of this cytokine family are increasing; currently, there are more than six cytokines, including the tentatively named cytokines IL-Y (p28/p40), IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 [p28/Epstein–Barr virus-induced protein 3 (EBI3)], IL-35 (p35/EBI3), and IL-39 (p19/EBI3). This family of cytokines covers a very broad range of immune responses, including pro-inflammatory responses, such as helper T (Th)1, Th2, and Th17, to anti-inflammatory responses, such as regulatory T (Treg) cells and IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-12 is the first member of this family, and IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 are mainly produced by activated antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. IL-12 plays a critical role in the promotion of Th1 immune responses by inducing interferon-γ production to combat pathogens and malignant tumors. IL-23 induces IL-17 production and is necessary to maintain pathogenic Th17 cells that cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-27 was initially reported to play a critical role in promotion of Th1 differentiation; however, subsequent studies revealed that IL-27 has broader stimulatory and inhibitory roles by inducing IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-35 is produced by forkhead box P3+ Treg cells and activated B cells and has immunosuppressive functions to maintain immune tolerance. The most recently identified cytokine, IL-39, is produced by activated B cells and has pro-inflammatory functions. The cytokine tentatively named IL-Y seems to have anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, individual cytokine subunits were also shown to have self-standing activities. Thus

  14. Identification of the functional interleukin-22 (IL-22) receptor complex: the IL-10R2 chain (IL-10Rbeta ) is a common chain of both the IL-10 and IL-22 (IL-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor, IL-TIF) receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Kotenko, S V; Izotova, L S; Mirochnitchenko, O V; Esterova, E; Dickensheets, H; Donnelly, R P; Pestka, S

    2001-01-26

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-related T cell-derived inducible factor (IL-TIF; provisionally designated IL-22) is a cytokine with limited homology to IL-10. We report here the identification of a functional IL-TIF receptor complex that consists of two receptor chains, the orphan CRF2-9 and IL-10R2, the second chain of the IL-10 receptor complex. Expression of the CRF2-9 chain in monkey COS cells renders them sensitive to IL-TIF. However, in hamster cells both chains, CRF2-9 and IL-10R2, must be expressed to assemble the functional IL-TIF receptor complex. The CRF2-9 chain (or the IL-TIF-R1 chain) is responsible for Stat recruitment. Substitution of the CRF2-9 intracellular domain with the IFN-gammaR1 intracellular domain changes the pattern of IL-TIF-induced Stat activation. The CRF2-9 gene is expressed in normal liver and kidney, suggesting a possible role for IL-TIF in regulating gene expression in these tissues. Each chain, CRF2-9 and IL-10R2, is capable of binding IL-TIF independently and can be cross-linked to the radiolabeled IL-TIF. However, binding of IL-TIF to the receptor complex is greater than binding to either receptor chain alone. Sharing of the common IL-10R2 chain between the IL-10 and IL-TIF receptor complexes is the first such case for receptor complexes with chains belonging to the class II cytokine receptor family, establishing a novel paradigm for IL-10-related ligands similar to the shared use of the gamma common chain (gamma(c)) by several cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15.

  15. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.

  16. IL-23/IL-17 axis in spondyloarthritis-bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Siba P; Raychaudhuri, Smriti K

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other types of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Besides IFN-γ and TNF-α; IL-23/IL-17 cytokines play a dominant role in the inflammatory and proliferative cascades of SpA. Recently, in a series of elegant experiments using mouse models and human tissues, it has been demonstrated that IL-23-induced Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) can contribute to following pathologic events associated with SpA: development of psoriatic plaque, pannus formation in the joint, joint erosion, and new bone formation. In this review article, we have discussed the contributing role of the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine axis in the pathogenesis of PsA and AS. IL-23/IL-17-targeted therapies are very promising for SpA, and we have provided an outline about usefulness of these new groups of biologics in SpA.

  17. Altered serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 in depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ni; Luo, Yayan; Ou, Yufen; He, Hongbo

    2017-07-01

    Depressive disorder is associated with abnormal changes in cytokines levels. This study aimed to assess serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL-18 in depressive patients. The correlations between these three cytokine concentrations and the patients' clinical characteristics were also assessed. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 concentrations were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from 64 depressive patients and 80 healthy control subjects. Depressive symptoms of patients were assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale-17. Depressive patients had increased serum TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations but decreased IL-18 concentrations than controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were significantly positively associated with Hamilton Depression Scale-17 scores in depressive patients. These findings provided additional evidence that altered TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-18 activities may contribute to the pathophysiology of depressive disorder. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Chung-Hao; Wang, Lin; Huang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ko; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-06-01

    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were collected from every patient. We investigated IL-28 and IL-29 levels in serum by ELISA. The concentrations of serum IL-28 and IL-29 were significantly higher in subjects with dengue when compared to those of control group. The patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels had significantly lower ALAT and peripheral blood neutrophil percentage, but higher peripheral platelet, total white blood cell (WBC), monocyte, and lymphocyte counts. Patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels also had more flu-like symptoms, but less vomiting. Increased level of IL-28 and IL-29 was associated with better liver function, platelet and WBC numbers and clinical symptom in subjects with dengue and could potentially serve as a protective marker.

  19. IL-15 Deficient Tax Mice Reveal a Role for IL-1α in Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Daniel A.; Harding, John C.; Ratner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15−/− TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma. PMID:24416335

  20. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence. PMID:29535706

  1. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  2. Interleukin (IL)-18 Binding Protein Deficiency Disrupts Natural Killer Cell Maturation and Diminishes Circulating IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Robert Z.; Creer, Austin J.; Lorenzo-Arteaga, Kristina M.; Ostlund, Katie R.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2017-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is a crucial amplifier of natural killer (NK) cell function. IL-18 signaling is regulated by the inhibitory effects of IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Using mice deficient in IL-18BP (IL-18BPKO), we investigated the impact of mismanaged IL-18 signaling on NK cells. We found an overall reduced abundance of splenic NK cells in the absence of IL-18BP. Closer examination of NK cell subsets in spleen and bone marrow using CD27 and CD11b expression revealed that immature NK cells were increased in abundance, while the mature population of NK cells was reduced. Also, NK cells were polarized to greater production of TNF-α, while dedicated IFN-γ producers were reduced. A novel subset of IL-18 receptor α− NK cells contributed to the expansion of immature NK cells in IL-18BPKO mice. Splenocytes cultured with IL-18 resulted in alterations similar to those observed in IL-18BP deficiency. NK cell changes were associated with significantly reduced levels of circulating plasma IL-18. However, IL-18BPKO mice exhibited normal weight gain and responded to LPS challenge with a >10-fold increase in IFN-γ compared to wild type. Finally, we identified that the source of splenic IL-18BP was among dendritic cells/macrophage localized to the T cell-rich regions of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that IL-18BP is required for normal NK cell abundance and function and also contributes to maintaining steady-state levels of circulating IL-18. Thus, IL-18BP appears to have functions suggestive of a carrier protein, not just an inhibitor. PMID:28900426

  3. Variola Virus IL-18 Binding Protein Interacts with Three Human IL-18 Residues That Are Part of a Binding Site for Human IL-18 Receptor Alpha Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Leman, Michael; Xiang, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL-18 binding proteins (IL-18BP) that neutralize IL-18 activity. Here, we examined whether IL-18BP neutralizes IL-18 activity by binding to the same region of IL-18 where IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) binds. We introduced alanine substitutions to known receptor binding sites of human IL18, and found that only the substitution of Leu5 reduced the binding affinity of IL-18 with IL-18BP of variola virus (varvIL-18BP) by more than 4-fold. The substitutions of Lys53 and Ser55, which were not previously known to be part of the receptor binding site but that are spatially adjacent to Leu5, reduced the binding affinity to varvIL-18BP by approximately 100- and 7-fold, respectively. These two substitutions also reduced the binding affinity with human IL-18R alpha subunit (hIL-18Rα) by 4- and 2-fold, respectively. Altogether, our data shows that varvIL-18BP prevents IL-18 from binding to IL-18R by interacting with three residues that are part of the binding site for hIL-18Rα. PMID:16979683

  4. Potential of IL-1, IL-18 and Inflammasome Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fenini, Gabriele; Contassot, Emmanuel; French, Lars E.

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, intracellular protein complexes known as the inflammasomes were discovered and were shown to have a crucial role in the sensing of intracellular pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs). Activation of the inflammasomes results in the processing and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Several autoinflammatory disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes and Familial Mediterranean Fever have been associated with mutations of genes encoding inflammasome components. Moreover, the importance of IL-1 has been reported for an increasing number of autoinflammatory skin diseases including but not limited to deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist, mevalonate kinase deficiency and PAPA syndrome. Recent findings have revealed that excessive IL-1 release induced by harmful stimuli likely contributes to the pathogenesis of common dermatological diseases such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. A key pathogenic feature of these diseases is IL-1β-induced neutrophil recruitment to the skin. IL-1β blockade may therefore represent a promising therapeutic approach. Several case reports and clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of IL-1 inhibition in the treatment of these skin disorders. Next to the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) Anakinra and the soluble decoy Rilonacept, the anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody MABp1 and anti-IL-1β Canakinumab but also Gevokizumab, LY2189102 and P2D7KK, offer valid alternatives to target IL-1. Although less thoroughly investigated, an involvement of IL-18 in the development of cutaneous inflammatory disorders is also suspected. The present review describes the role of IL-1 in diseases with skin involvement and gives an overview of the relevant studies discussing the therapeutic potential of modulating the secretion and activity of IL-1 and IL-18 in such diseases. PMID:28588486

  5. Counterbalancing of TH2-driven allergic airway inflammation by IL-12 does not require IL-10.

    PubMed

    Tournoy, K G; Kips, J C; Pauwels, R A

    2001-03-01

    Asthma is characterized by allergen-induced airway inflammation orchestrated by TH2 cells. The TH1-promoting cytokine IL-12 is capable of inhibiting the TH2-driven allergen-induced airway changes in mice and is therefore regarded as an interesting strategy for treating asthma. The antiallergic effects of IL-12 are only partially dependent of IFN-gamma. Because IL-12 is a potent inducer of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo whether the antiallergic effects of IL-12 are mediated through IL-10. C57BL/6J-IL-10 knock-out (IL-10(-/-)) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently exposed from day 14 to day 21 to aerosolized OVA (1%). IL-12 was administered intraperitoneally during sensitization, subsequent OVA exposure, or both. IL-12 inhibited the OVA-induced airway eosinophilia, despite the absence of IL-10. Moreover, a shift from a TH2 inflammatory pattern toward a TH1 reaction was observed, with concomitant pronounced mononuclear peribronchial inflammation after IL-12 treatment. Allergen-specific IgE synthesis was completely suppressed only when IL-12 was administered along with the allergen sensitization. Furthermore, treating the animals with IL-12 at the time of the secondary allergen challenge resulted not only in a significant suppression of the airway responsiveness but also in an important IFN-gamma-associated toxicity. These results indicate that IL-12 is able to inhibit allergen-induced airway changes, even in the absence of IL-10. In addition, our results raise concerns regarding the redirection of TH2 inflammation by TH1-inducing therapies because treatment with IL-12 resulted not only in a disappearance of the TH2 inflammation but also in a TH1-driven inflammatory pulmonary pathology.

  6. Evidence for Involvement of IL-9 and IL-22 in Cows' Milk Allergy in Infants.

    PubMed

    Barros, Karina V; Flor Silveira, Vera L; Laranjeira, Marisa S; Wandalsen, Neusa F; Passeti, Susana; de Oliveira, Roberta; Munekata, Regina V; Noakes, Paul S; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2017-09-21

    Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th) 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We evaluated plasma cytokine profiles in infants with cows' milk allergy (CMA), who were being treated with an elimination diet. In a prospective, randomized and controlled study, infants (aged 8.4 ± 3.9 months) with CMA were treated with an elimination diet for 120 days, which replaced cows' milk with a hydrolysed soy protein formula ( n = 26) or a free amino acid formula ( n = 20). Blood samples were collected before treatment during active disease (T0) and after 120 days, when symptoms were absent (T1). Plasma cytokine concentrations were measured. Infants with CMA had higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and lower concentrations of IL-9, IL-17A and interferon-γ, compared with healthy breast-fed infants. At T0, there was a positive correlation between blood eosinophil numbers and plasma concentrations of IL-4, IL-9, IL-17A and IL-22. Treatment with a cows' milk elimination diet resulted in a decrease in plasma IL-4, IL-9, IL-13 and IL-22 and an increase in plasma IL-17A. We conclude that IL-4 and IL-13 are elevated in active CMA. The association of IL-9 and IL-22 with eosinophilia, and the decrease in these two cytokines with cows' milk elimination, suggests that they both play a role in the symptoms observed in CMA and may be important targets for future interventions.

  7. IL-TIF/IL-22: genomic organization and mapping of the human and mouse genes.

    PubMed

    Dumoutier, L; Van Roost, E; Ameye, G; Michaux, L; Renauld, J C

    2000-12-01

    IL-TIF is a new cytokine originally identified as a gene induced by IL-9 in murine T lymphocytes, and showing 22% amino acid identity with IL-10. Here, we report the sequence and organization of the mouse and human IL-TIF genes, which both consist of 6 exons spreading over approximately 6 Kb. The IL-TIF gene is a single copy gene in humans, and is located on chromosome 12q15, at 90 Kb from the IFN gamma gene, and at 27 Kb from the AK155 gene, which codes for another IL-10-related cytokine. In the mouse, the IL-TIF gene is located on chromosome 10, also in the same region as the IFN gamma gene. Although it is a single copy gene in BALB/c and DBA/2 mice, the IL-TIF gene is duplicated in other strains such as C57Bl/6, FVB and 129. The two copies, which show 98% nucleotide identity in the coding region, were named IL-TIF alpha and IL-TIF beta. Beside single nucleotide variations, they differ by a 658 nucleotide deletion in IL-TIF beta, including the first non-coding exon and 603 nucleotides from the promoter. A DNA fragment corresponding to this deletion was sufficient to confer IL-9-regulated expression of a luciferase reporter plasmid, suggesting that the IL-TIF beta gene is either differentially regulated, or not expressed at all.

  8. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  9. Role of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Olivier; Rivière, Elodie; Seror, Raphaèle; Nocturne, Gaetane; Boudaoud, Saida; Ly, Bineta; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Le Guern, Véronique; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Nititham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Chanson, Philippe; Dieudé, Philippe; Criswell, Lindsey A; Jagla, Bernd; Thai, Alice; Mingueneau, Michael; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2017-09-12

    An interferon signature is involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), but whether the signature is type 1 or type 2 remains controversial. Mouse models and genetic studies suggest the involvement of T H 1 and type 2 interferon pathways. Likewise, polymorphisms of the IL-12A gene (IL12A), which encodes for IL-12p35, have been associated with pSS. The IL-12p35 subunit is shared by 2 heterodimers: IL-12 and IL-35. We sought to confirm genetic association of the IL12A polymorphism and pSS and elucidate involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with pSS by using functional studies. The genetic study involved 673 patients with pSS from 2 French pSS cohorts and 585 healthy French control subjects. Functional studies were performed on sorted monocytes, irrespective of whether they were stimulated. IL12A mRNA expression and IL-12 and IL-35 protein levels were assessed by using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA and a multiplex kit for IL-35 and IL-12, respectively. We confirmed association of the IL12A rs485497 polymorphism and pSS and found an increased serum protein level of IL-12p70 in patients with pSS carrying the risk allele (P = .016). Serum levels of IL-12p70 were greater in patients than control subjects (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05); conversely, IL-35 levels were decreased in patients (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05). In blood cellular subsets both IL12p35 and EBV-induced gene protein 3 (EBI3) mRNAs were detected only in B cells, with a trend toward a lower level among patients with pSS. Our findings emphasize involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in the pathogenesis of pSS. Serum IL-35 levels were associated with low disease activity, in contrast with serum IL-12p70 levels, which were associated with more active disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TLR2/4 ligand-amplified liver inflammation promotes initiation of autoimmune hepatitis due to sustained IL-6/IL-12/IL-4/IL-25 expression.

    PubMed

    Chi, Gang; Feng, Xin-Xia; Ru, Ying-Xia; Xiong, Ting; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Han; Luo, Zhen-Long; Mo, Ran; Guo, Fang; He, Yong-Pei; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Tian, De-An; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2018-05-21

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl 4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4. The amplified inflammation resulted in the increase of multiple cytokines and chemokines in the liver. Among them, the sustained increase of IL-6/IL-12 resulted in the activation of STAT3 and STAT4 in hepatic CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells, thus suppressing Foxp3 gene expression to reduce the suppressive function of Treg cells in the liver, but not those in the spleen. The increase of IL-12 and the impairment of Treg function promoted Th1 response in presence of self-mimicking antigen (human CYP2D6). Intriguingly, the amplified inflammation resulted in the increase of IL-4 and IL-25 in the liver. The moderate increase of IL-4 was sufficient for cooperating with IL-25 to initiate Th2 response, but inefficient in suppressing Th1 response, favoring the initiation of autoimmune response. Consequently, either adenovirus/CYP2D6 or CCl 4 /CYP2D6 could induce the autoimmune response and AIH in the mice, leading to hepatic fibrosis. The findings in this study suggest that the amplified non-AIH inflammation in the liver could be a driving force for the initiation of autoimmune response and AIH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eccrine Sweat Contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and Activates Epidermal Keratinocytes as a Danger Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  12. The Interplay of IL-21 and BAFF in the Formation and Maintenance of Human B Cell Memory

    PubMed Central

    Karnell, Jodi L.; Ettinger, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    To date, IL-21 stands out as the most influential cytokine for human B cell activation and differentiation. Indeed, when compared to other important B cell tropic cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10, IL-21 is clearly the most potent in terms of its ability to influence humoral immune responses in humans. IL-21 has wide reaching actions in determining how B cells will respond to co-stimulation ranging from induction of cell death upon BCR crosslinking to potent induction of class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation when CD40 molecules are co-engaged. Another crucial B cell factor, exemplified in recent clinical trials, is BAFF/BLys. BAFF plays a critical role in the survival of human B cells and plasma blasts and influences B cell expansion and migration. Recent evidence has shown that IL-21 and BAFF can work in concert to promote and perhaps maintain humoral immunity in humans. Notably, BAFF has the unique ability to substitute for CD40L activities in regard to IL-21-co-stimulation and differentiation of a specific B cell subpopulation located in the human splenic marginal zone. However, and perhaps surprisingly, BAFF signals do not have the capability to override IL-21-driven cell death events when BCR is engaged. In stark contrast, anti-CD40 ligation of B cells co-activated with IL-21 and anti-IgM not only reverses this aforementioned activation-induced cell death, but transforms this death signal into one that drives plasma cell differentiation. Here we will discuss these two critical B cell factors, IL-21 and BAFF, and their distinct and complimentary effects on human B cell responses. PMID:22566888

  13. Functional expression of IL-12 receptor by human eosinophils: IL-12 promotes eosinophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nutku, E; Zhuang, Q; Soussi-Gounni, A; Aris, F; Mazer, B D; Hamid, Q

    2001-07-15

    In murine models of allergic inflammation, IL-12 has been shown to decrease tissue eosinophilia, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We evaluated the expression of IL-12R and the effect of IL-12 on eosinophil survival. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits in human peripheral blood eosinophils. Surface expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits on freshly isolated human eosinophils was optimally expressed after incubation with PMA. To determine the functional significance of IL-12R studies, we studied cell viability and apoptosis. Morphological analysis and propidium iodide staining for cell cycle demonstrated that recombinant human IL-12 increased in vitro human eosinophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of IL-5 together with IL-12 abrogated eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting that IL-12 and IL-5 have antagonistic effects. Our findings provide evidence for a novel role for IL-12 in regulating eosinophil function by increasing eosinophil apoptosis.

  14. Interleukin (IL)-1A and IL-6: Applications to the predictive diagnostic testing of radiation pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yuhchyau; Hyrien, Ollivier; Williams, Jacqueline

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To explore the application of interleukin (IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 measurements in the predictive diagnostic testing for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and materials: In a prospective protocol investigating RP and cytokines, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 values were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from serial weekly blood samples of patients receiving chest radiation. We analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) over selected threshold values for both cytokines in the application to diagnostic testing. Results: The average coefficient of variation was 51% of the weekly mean IL-1{alpha} level and 39% of the weekly mean IL-6 value.more » Interleukin 1{alpha} and IL-6 became positively correlated with time. Specificity for both cytokines was better than sensitivity. IL-6 globally outperformed IL-1{alpha} in predicting RP, with higher PPV and NPV. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate the feasibility of applying IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 measurements of blood specimens to predict RP. Interleukin-6 measurements offer stronger positive predictive value than IL-1{alpha}. This application might be further explored in a larger sample of patients.« less

  15. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  16. Targeting the IL-23/IL-17 axis for the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Alunno, Alessia; Carubbi, Francesco; Cafaro, Giacomo; Pucci, Giacomo; Battista, Francesca; Bartoloni, Elena; Giacomelli, Roberto; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Gerli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of data supporting the pathogenic role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammatory/autoimmune disorders has provided the rationale to target the system for therapeutic purpose. Several compounds have been and are currently under intense investigation in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) yielding impressive results. In this review article, we provide an overview of currently available data on the IL-23/IL-17 system as a target for treatment for psoriasis and PsA. We searched MEDLINE for articles on drug therapy for psoriasis and PsA published between 1 January 2010 and 31 May 2015. One of these agents, ustekinumab, has been recently approved for the treatment of psoriasis and PsA, and a number of IL-23/IL-17-targeted compounds under investigation in these diseases. As our knowledge of the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and PsA deepens, it enables the development of more targeted therapies in the management of these conditions. Early data on IL-23/IL-17 targeting drugs appear promising, although incomplete. Given the key role IL-23/IL-17 in host defence, the safety profile of targeted drugs should be thoroughly assessed in future studies.

  17. IL-2 and Beyond in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wrangle, John M; Patterson, Alicia; Johnson, C Bryce; Neitzke, Daniel J; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Paulos, Chrystal M; Li, Zihai; Cole, David J; Rubinstein, Mark P

    2018-02-01

    The development of the T- and natural killer (NK) cell growth factor IL-2 has been a sentinel force ushering in the era of immunotherapy in cancer. With the advent of clinical grade recombinant IL-2 in the mid-1980s, oncologists could for the first time directly manipulate lymphocyte populations with systemic therapy. By itself, recombinant IL-2 can induce clinical responses in up to 15% of patients with metastatic cancer or renal cell carcinoma. When administered with adoptively transferred tumor-reactive lymphocytes, IL-2 promotes T cell engraftment and response rates of up to 50% in metastatic melanoma patients. Importantly, these IL-2-driven responses can yield complete and durable responses in a subset of patients. However, the use of IL-2 is limited by toxicity and concern of the expansion of T regulatory cells. To overcome these limitations and improve response rates, other T cell growth factors, including IL-15 and modified forms of IL-2, are in clinical development. Administering T cell growth factors in combination with other agents, such as immune checkpoint pathway inhibitors, may also improve efficacy. In this study, we review the development of T- and NK cell growth factors and highlight current combinatorial approaches based on these reagents.

  18. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  19. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from 9 p.m. until 6 a.m., from September 15 through September 29, 2013. This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on navigable waters...

  20. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  1. Increased IL-27/IL-27R expression in association with the immunopathology of murine ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xinxin; Chen, Shengjie; Zheng, Huanqin; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2018-05-19

    Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, and IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) consists of WSX-1 (the IL-27Rα subunit) and the signal-transducing subunit gp130. Human and mouse mast cells (MCs) express the IL-27R. To explore the expressions of IL-27/IL-27R subunits (WSX-1 and gp130) during acute ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), we established mouse model by intraocular injection of 500 Toxoplasma gondii RH strain tachyzoites. Histopathological changes were analyzed, MCs were counted by toluidine blue staining, and tryptase + /IL-27 + MCs were examined by immunofluorescence double-staining in the eyes and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of T. gondii-infected mice. The mRNA expressions of IL-27p28, WSX-1, gp130, and tachyzoite specific surface antigen 1 (SAG1) in the eyes and CLNs of T. gondii-infected mice, and the expressions of WSX-1 and gp130 in the murine mastocytoma cell line P815 infected with T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro were examined by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that, after T. gondii infection, severe histopathological changes, increased numbers of total MCs and degranulated MCs, elevated expressions of IL-27p28, WSX-1, and gp130 were found in the eyes and CLNs, and significant correlations between the levels of IL-27 and SAG1 existed in the eyes and CLNs of T. gondii-infected mice. In addition, increased levels of WSX-1 and gp130 were examined in T. gondii-infected P815 cells. Our data suggested that IL-27/IL-27R expression induced by T. gondii infection may regulate MC-mediated immune response during acute OT in mouse model.

  2. P2X receptor characterization and IL-1/IL-1Ra release from human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H L; Varcoe, R W; Stokes, L; Holland, K L; Francis, S E; Dower, S K; Surprenant, A; Crossman, D C

    2007-05-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, potentially via its release from vascular endothelium. Endothelial cells (EC) synthesize IL-1beta in response to inflammatory stimuli, but the demonstration and mechanism of release of IL-1 from ECs remains unclear. In activated monocytes, efficient release of bioactive IL-1beta occurred via activation of ATP-gated P2X(7) receptors (P2X(7)Rs). Activation of P2X(7)R in ECs from human umbilical vein (HUVECs) released IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative investigation of P2XR expression and function, in parallel with IL-1beta and IL-1Ra synthesis, processing and release, in HUVECs under pro-inflammatory conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, ELISA, flow cytometry, and whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to determine protein expression and receptor function. IL-8-luciferase-reporter was used as an IL-1 sensitive bioassay. HUVECs expressed P2X(4)R and P2X(7)R subtypes and both were significantly up-regulated under inflammatory conditions. P2X(7)R currents were increased 3-fold by inflammatory stimuli, whereas no P2X(4)R-mediated currents were detected. Caspase-1, but not IL-1beta, was present intracellularly under basal conditions; inflammatory stimuli activated the synthesis of intracellular pro-IL-1beta and increased caspase-1 levels. Activation of P2X(7)Rs resulted in low-level release of bioactive IL-1beta and simultaneous release of IL-1Ra. The net biological effect of release was anti-inflammatory. Endothelial P2X(7)Rs induced secretion of both pro- and anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor ligands, the balance of which may provide a means for altering the inflammatory state of the arterial vessel wall.

  3. Pregnancy, but not the allergic status, influences spontaneous and induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 responses.

    PubMed

    Amoudruz, Petra; Minang, Jacob Taku; Sundström, Yvonne; Nilsson, Caroline; Lilja, Gunnar; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery and at a non-pregnant state 2 years after delivery. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The spontaneous cytokine production, and the response following stimulation with agents that primarily activate the adaptive part of the immune system [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), allergen extracts from cat and birch], or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activate innate immunity was measured in vitro. There was a significantly higher spontaneous in vitro production of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PBMCs during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy, and this was not affected by the allergic status of the women. Conversely, in PHA-stimulated cell cultures there was a lower production of IL-10 and IL-12 during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy. LPS-induced IL-6 levels were significantly lower in PBMCs obtained during pregnancy than at 2 years after pregnancy. In addition, we made the interesting observation that in allergic women total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower 2 years after pregnancy compared to the levels during pregnancy. Taken together, our results indicate that while atopic allergy in women does not have a substantial effect on cytokine production, pregnancy has an obvious effect on the immune system in terms of cytokine production as well as on the total IgE levels.

  4. Strikingly higher interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and soluble interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA) but similar IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, sIL-6R, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interferon IFN-gamma urine levels in healthy females compared to healthy males: protection against urinary tract injury?

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, M; Daniel, V; Naujokat, C; Weimer, R; Opelz, G

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine gender-related differences of cytokines in the plasma and urine of healthy individuals that might provide a clue concerning the lower rate of chronic renal diseases in females. Soluble interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA), interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, sIL-6R, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(2) and interferon (IFN)-gamma were determined using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytokine levels were determined in simultaneously obtained plasma and urine samples of 18 male and 28 female healthy members of our laboratory staff. Urine cytokine levels were studied three times at 1-month intervals. All individuals had a negative urine nitrite test and showed no symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). Plasma levels of all studied cytokines were similar in males and females (P = n.s.). However, females had significantly higher urine IL-1alpha (P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001) and sIL-1RA (P = 0.0001; P = 0.0003; P = 0.0002) than males at three and higher IL-1beta at one of the three investigations (P = 0.098; P = 0.003; P = 0.073). Urine levels of the other cytokines were similar in males and females. Higher urine levels of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and sIL-1RA in females may result from stimulation of cells in the urinary tract. Increased sIL-1RA might block T lymphocyte activation. The elevated cytokines may play a role in the protection of the female urinary tract from certain renal diseases, such as pyelonephritis and other inflammatory and sclerotic kidney diseases.

  5. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  6. Structural Characterisation Reveals Mechanism of IL-13-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody Tralokinumab as Inhibition of Binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2.

    PubMed

    Popovic, B; Breed, J; Rees, D G; Gardener, M J; Vinall, L M K; Kemp, B; Spooner, J; Keen, J; Minter, R; Uddin, F; Colice, G; Wilkinson, T; Vaughan, T; May, R D

    2017-01-20

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic T helper type 2 cytokine frequently associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis. IL-13-mediated signalling is initiated by binding to IL-13Rα1, which then recruits IL-4Rα to form a heterodimeric receptor complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, considered as either a decoy or a key mediator of fibrosis. IL-13-neutralising antibodies act by preventing IL-13 binding to IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and/or IL-13Rα2. Tralokinumab (CAT-354) is an IL-13-neutralising human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with asthma. To decipher how tralokinumab inhibits the effects of IL-13, we determined the structure of tralokinumab Fab in complex with human IL-13 to 2 Å resolution. The structure analysis reveals that tralokinumab prevents IL-13 from binding to both IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. This is supported by biochemical ligand-receptor interaction assay data. The tralokinumab epitope is mainly composed of residues in helices D and A of IL-13. It is mostly light chain complementarity-determining regions that are driving paratope interactions; the variable light complementarity-determining region 2 plays a key role by providing residue contacts for a network of hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge in the core of binding. The key residues within the paratope contributing to binding were identified as Asp50, Asp51, Ser30 and Lys31. This study demonstrates that tralokinumab prevents the IL-13 pharmacodynamic effect by binding to IL-13 helices A and D, thus preventing IL-13 from interacting with IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of regulatory T cells requires IL-7Rα stimulation by IL-7 or TSLP

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucchelli, Renata; Hixon, Julie A.; Spolski, Rosanne; Chen, Xin; Li, Wen Qing; Hall, Veronica L.; Willette-Brown, Jami; Hurwitz, Arthur A.; Leonard, Warren J.

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7), a cytokine produced by stromal cells, is required for thymic development and peripheral homeostasis of most major subsets of T cells. We examined whether regulatory T (Treg) cells also required the IL-7 pathway by analyzing IL-7Rα−/− mice. We observed a striking reduction in cells with the Treg surface phenotype (CD4, CD25, GITR (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-like receptor), CD45RB, CD62L, CD103) or intracellular markers (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen-4, CTLA-4, and forkhead box transcription factor 3, Foxp3). Foxp3 transcripts were virtually absent in IL-7Rα−/− lymphoid tissues, and no Treg cell suppressive activity could be detected. There are 2 known ligands for IL-7Rα: IL-7 itself and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Surprisingly, mice deficient in IL-7 or the other chain of the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) developed relatively normal numbers of Treg cells. Combined deletion of IL-7 and TSLP receptor greatly reduced Treg cell development in the thymus but was not required for survival of mature peripheral Treg cells. We conclude that Treg cells, like other T cells, require signals from the IL-7 receptor, but unlike other T cells, do not require IL-7 itself because of at least partially overlapping actions of IL-7 and TSLP for development of Treg cells. PMID:18664628

  8. Divergence of IL-1, IL-18, and cell death in NLRP3 inflammasomopathies

    PubMed Central

    Brydges, Susannah D.; Broderick, Lori; McGeough, Matthew D.; Pena, Carla A.; Mueller, James L.; Hoffman, Hal M.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammasome is a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex that promotes proinflammatory cytokine maturation in response to host- and pathogen-derived signals. Missense mutations in cryopyrin (NLRP3) result in a hyperactive inflammasome that drives overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, leading to the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) disease spectrum. Mouse lines harboring CAPS-associated mutations in Nlrp3 have elevated levels of IL-1β and IL-18 and closely mimic human disease. To examine the role of inflammasome-driven IL-18 in murine CAPS, we bred Nlrp3 mutations onto an Il18r-null background. Deletion of Il18r resulted in partial phenotypic rescue that abolished skin and visceral disease in young mice and normalized serum cytokines to a greater extent than breeding to Il1r-null mice. Significant systemic inflammation developed in aging Nlrp3 mutant Il18r-null mice, indicating that IL-1 and IL-18 drive pathology at different stages of the disease process. Ongoing inflammation in double-cytokine knockout CAPS mice implicated a role for caspase-1–mediated pyroptosis and confirmed that CAPS is inflammasome dependent. Our results have important implications for patients with CAPS and residual disease, emphasizing the need to explore other NLRP3-mediated pathways and the potential for inflammasome-targeted therapy. PMID:24084736

  9. [Production of selected cytokines by monocytes (IL-1 beta, IL-6) and lymphocytes (IL-2, IL-4) in peripheral blood of patients with nonallergic bronchial asthma treated with Broncho-Vaxom].

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, T; Rutkowski, R; Chyrek-Borowska, S

    1995-01-01

    In 16 patients with nonallergic bronchial asthma treated with Broncho-vaxom and 10 healthy persons the mononuclear peripheral blood cells ability for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 production were studied. Nonallergic asthmatics were characterised by increased levels of IL-1 beta and IL-6 produced by monocytes. After Broncho-vaxom therapy a decreased for IL-1 beta and IL-6, and an increased production of IL-2 were observed. These findings indicate that orally administered Broncho-vaxom affects on biological activity of mononuclear peripheral blood cells.

  10. IL-13 and the IL-13 receptor as therapeutic targets for asthma and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jesse; Dimov, Vesselin; Townley, Robert G

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that T-helper 2 cell (Th2) cytokines play an important role in the maintenance of asthma and allergy. Emerging evidence has highlighted the role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In particular, IL-13 is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration, and has been associated with the regulation of certain chemokine receptors, notably CCR5. Thus, targeting IL-13 and its associated receptors may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and/or allergy. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are researching various strategies, based on this approach, aimed at binding IL-13, increasing the level of the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha2, or blocking the effect of the chemokine receptor CCR5. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-13 agents and their role in the treatment of asthma and allergy.

  11. Structural Activation of Pro-inflammatory Human Cytokine IL-23 by Cognate IL-23 Receptor Enables Recruitment of the Shared Receptor IL-12Rβ1.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Yehudi; Bouchareychas, Laura; Merceron, Romain; Składanowska, Katarzyna; Van den Bossche, Lien; Detry, Sammy; Govindarajan, Srinath; Elewaut, Dirk; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa; Adamopoulos, Iannis E; Savvides, Savvas N

    2018-01-16

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23), an IL-12 family cytokine, plays pivotal roles in pro-inflammatory T helper 17 cell responses linked to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Despite intense therapeutic targeting, structural and mechanistic insights into receptor complexes mediated by IL-23, and by IL-12 family members in general, have remained elusive. We determined a crystal structure of human IL-23 in complex with its cognate receptor, IL-23R, and revealed that IL-23R bound to IL-23 exclusively via its N-terminal immunoglobulin domain. The structural and functional hotspot of this interaction partially restructured the helical IL-23p19 subunit of IL-23 and restrained its IL-12p40 subunit to cooperatively bind the shared receptor IL-12Rβ1 with high affinity. Together with structural insights from the interaction of IL-23 with the inhibitory antibody briakinumab and by leveraging additional IL-23:antibody complexes, we propose a mechanistic paradigm for IL-23 and IL-12 whereby cognate receptor binding to the helical cytokine subunits primes recruitment of the shared receptors via the IL-12p40 subunit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  13. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  14. IL-9 expression by human eosinophils: regulation by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Gounni, A S; Nutku, E; Koussih, L; Aris, F; Louahed, J; Levitt, R C; Nicolaides, N C; Hamid, Q

    2000-09-01

    IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine that exhibits biologic activity on cells of diverse hemopoietic lineage. IL-9 stimulates the proliferation of activated T cells, enhances the production of IgE from B cells, and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of mast cells and hematopoietic progenitors. In this study we evaluated the expression of IL-9 messenger (m)RNA and protein by human peripheral blood eosinophils. We also investigated the role of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the release of IL-9 from human peripheral blood eosinophils. RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry were used to investigate the presence of IL-9 mRNA and protein in human peripheral blood eosinophils from asthmatic patients and normal control subjects. Furthermore, biologic assay was used to investigate the release of IL-9 protein from IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha-stimulated eosinophils in vitro. RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of IL-9 mRNA in human peripheral blood eosinophil RNA preparations from subjects with atopic asthma, as well as in the eosinophil-differentiated HL-60 cell line. By using in situ hybridization, a significant difference (P <.01) in IL-9 mRNA expression was detected in human peripheral blood eosinophils freshly isolated from asthmatic subjects compared with those isolated from normal control subjects. Furthermore, the percentage of IL-9 immunoreactive eosinophils from asthmatic patients was increased compared with that found in normal control subjects (P <.01). We also demonstrate that cultured human peripheral blood eosinophils from asthmatic subjects synthesize and release IL-9 protein, which is upregulated on stimulation with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Human eosinophils express biologically active IL-9, which suggests that these cells may influence the recruitment and activation of effector cells linked to the pathogenesis of allergic disease. These observations provide further evidence for the role of eosinophils in regulating airway immune responses.

  15. Predictive value of IL-35 and IL-17 in diagnosis of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Amira Ibrahim; Abd Almonaem, Eman Rateb; Behairy, Ola Galal; Gouda, Tahany Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of IL-17 and IL-35 and the presence and severity of childhood asthma. The study was performed on 60 diagnosed asthmatic children, who were further classified into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma Guidelines for Asthma Severity and Control (GINA) 2016, plus 30 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children. All participants were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and laboratory evaluation in the form of complete blood count (CBC), serum total IgE, IL-17 and IL-35 by ELISA. Our results revealed that eosinophils count, IgE and IL-17 were significantly higher in the asthmatic group than the control group (p < .001), while IL-35 levels were significantly lower in asthmatics than control (p < .001). A strong negative correlation was found between serum IL-17 and serum IL-35; a positive correlation was found between serum IL-17 and both of serum total IgE and eosinophils counts in atopic asthmatic patients, and serum IL-35 showed significant negative correlations with both. ROC analysis of the data showed that the cut-off value of IL-35 level was <189.5 pg/mL and for IL-17 level, it was >13.1 pg/mL; this value could predict childhood asthma with sensitivity of 81.7% and 83.3%, and specificity of 76.7% and 70%, respectively. A combination of both cytokines yielded an increase in sensitivity to 95%. In conclusion, in the current study, IL-17 is upregulated while IL-35 is downregulated in childhood asthma with a significant negative correlation between both. These results suggest that both may play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma.

  16. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus infection and IL-1Β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 polymorphisms in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Rogo, Lawal Dahiru; Rezaei, Farhad; Marashi, Seyed Mahdi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Naseri, Maryam; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was aimed to investigate the polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 genes to find the possibility of their association with the clinical outcome of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection among the infected patients in Iran. This is a Case-Control study in which influenza A/H3N2 virus positive confirmed with real-time PCR were the cases. DNA samples from groups were genotyped for polymorphisms in rs16944 (IL-1β), rs1800872 (IL-10), rs2275913 (IL-17), and rs8099917 (IL-28). Confidence interval (95%CI) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated. IL-17 rs2275913 (GG and AG) were associated with risk of infection with that were statistically significant (P < 0.05, OR = 2.08-2.94). IL-1β (rs16944) (GG) was associated with reduced risk of infection (P < 0.01, OR = 0.46). Genotype GG and GT of IL-10 (rs1800872) were associated with increased risk of infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus (P < 0.05, OR = 2.04-2.58). In addition, IL-28 (rs8099917) genotypes GG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.49) and TG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.59) were associated with reduced risk of ILI symptom while genotype TT (P < 0.01, OR = 4.31) was associated with increased risk of ILI symptom. The results of this study demonstrated that polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory process affect the outcome of disease caused by influenza A/H3N2 virus. Thorough insight on host immune response at the time of influenza A virus infection is required to ensure adequate patient care in the case of feature outbreaks. J. Med. Virol. 88:2078-2084, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  18. B cells produce less IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Vuslat; Oflazer, Piraye; Aysal, Fikret; Parman, Yeşim G; Direskeneli, Haner; Deymeer, Feza; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher

    2015-06-01

    B cells from myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with autoantibodies (Aab) against acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) or with no detectable Aab were investigated as cytokine producing cells in this study. B cells were evaluated for memory phenotypes and expressions of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12A. Induced productions of IL-10, IL-6, IL-12p40, TNF-α and LT from isolated B cells in vitro were measured by immunoassays. MG patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment had higher proportions of memory B cells compared with healthy controls and untreated patients. With CD40 stimulation MG patients produced significantly lower levels of IL-10, IL-6. With CD40 and B cell receptor stimulation of B cells, TNF-α production also decreased in addition to these cytokines. The lower levels of these cytokine productions were not related to treatment. Our results confirm a disturbance of B cell subpopulations in MG subgroups on immunosuppressive treatment. B cell derived IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α are down-regulated in MG, irrespective of different antibody productions. Ineffective cytokine production by B cells may be a susceptibility factor in dysregulation of autoimmune Aab production.

  19. Interleukin-33 (IL-33): A nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family.

    PubMed

    Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a tissue-derived nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, both during homeostasis and inflammation. It functions as an alarm signal (alarmin) released upon cell injury or tissue damage to alert immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor (IL-1RL1). The major targets of IL-33 in vivo are tissue-resident immune cells such as mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Other cellular targets include T helper 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, basophils, dendritic cells, Th1 cells, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, iNKT cells, B cells, neutrophils and macrophages. IL-33 is thus emerging as a crucial immune modulator with pleiotropic activities in type-2, type-1 and regulatory immune responses, and important roles in allergic, fibrotic, infectious, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The critical function of IL-33/ST2 signaling in allergic inflammation is illustrated by the fact that IL33 and IL1RL1 are among the most highly replicated susceptibility loci for asthma. In this review, we highlight 15 years of discoveries on IL-33 protein, including its molecular characteristics, nuclear localization, bioactive forms, cellular sources, mechanisms of release and regulation by proteases. Importantly, we emphasize data that have been validated using IL-33-deficient cells. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL)-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ) and 77 healthy control subjects (HC) for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease. PMID:22913567

  1. IL-1RN and IL-1β Polymorphism and ARV-Associated Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Dharmesh; Nema, Vijay; Gangakhedkar, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    The severity of hepatic injury depends upon cytokines. Previous studies associated IL-1RN allele 2 with IL-1β production. Hence, we examined the association of IL-1 RN and IL-1β polymorphisms with ARV-associated hepatotoxicity. Genotyping of IL-1RN (VNTR), IL-1β (-511C/T) polymorphisms was done in 162 HIV-infected patients, 34 with ARV hepatotoxicity, 128 without hepatotoxicity, and 152 healthy controls using PCR and PCR-RFLP method. The haplotypes 1T and 2C enhanced the risk for severe hepatotoxicity (OR = 1.41, P = 0.25; OR = 1.67, P = 0.31). IL-1β-511TT genotype significantly represented among tobacco using HIV-infected individuals compared to nonusers (OR = 3.74, P = 0.05). IL-1β-511TT genotype among alcohol users increased the risk for hepatotoxicity (OR = 1.80, P = 0.90). IL-1β-511CT and -511TT genotypes overrepresented in alcohol using HIV-infected individuals (OR = 2.29, P = 0.27; OR = 2.64, P = 0.19). IL-RN 2/2 and 1/3 genotypes represented higher in nevirapine using hepatotoxicity patients (OR = 1.42, P = 0.64, OR = 8.79, P = 0.09). IL-1β-511CT and -511 TT genotypes among nevirapine users enhanced the risk for severe hepatotoxicity (OR = 4.29, P = 0.20; OR = 1.95, P = 0.56). IL-1β-511CT and -511TT genotypes were overrepresented in combined nevirapine and alcohol using HIV-infected individuals as compared to nevirapine users and alcohol nonusers (OR = 2.56, P = 0.26; OR = 2.84, P = 0.24). IL-1β-511TT genotype with tobacco, alcohol, and nevirapine usage revealed a trend of risk for the development of ARV-associated hepatotoxicity and its severity.

  2. Analysis of Serum Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mende, Rachel; Vincent, Fabien B; Kandane-Rathnayake, Rangi; Koelmeyer, Rachel; Lin, Emily; Chang, Janet; Hoi, Alberta Y; Morand, Eric F; Harris, James; Lang, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by biological and clinical heterogeneity. The interleukin (IL)-1 superfamily is a group of innate cytokines that contribute to pathogenesis in many autoimmune diseases. IL-1β and IL-18 are two members that have been shown to play a role in murine lupus-like models, but their role in human SLE remains poorly understood. Here, IL-1β and IL-18 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of healthy controls (HCs) and SLE patients from a prospectively followed cohort. Disease activity and organ damage were assessed using SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and SLE damage index scores (SDI), respectively. 184 SLE patients (mean age 44.9 years, 91% female, 56% double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid positive) were compared to 52 HC. SLE patients had median [IQR] SLEDAI-2K of 4 [2,6], and SDI of 1 [0-2]. Serum IL-18 levels were statistically significantly higher in SLE patients compared to HCs. Univariable linear regression analyses showed that patients with active renal disease or irreversible organ damage had statistically significantly elevated serum IL-18 levels. The association between serum IL-18 and active renal disease was confirmed in multivariable analysis after adjusting for ethnicity and organ damage. High baseline serum IL-18 levels were associated with organ damage at the subsequent visit. Serum IL-1β levels were not significantly elevated in SLE patients when compared to HCs and had no association with overall or organ-specific disease activity or organ damage in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Our data suggest that serum IL-18 and IL-1β have different clinical implications in SLE, with IL-18 being potentially associated with active renal disease.

  3. Extracellular forms of IL-37 inhibit innate inflammation in vitro and in vivo but require the IL-1 family decoy receptor IL-1R8.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhao; Neff, C Preston; Barber, Kristina; Hong, Jaewoo; Luo, Yuchun; Azam, Tania; Palmer, Brent E; Fujita, Mayumi; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto; Kim, Soohyun; Dinarello, Charles Anthony

    2015-02-24

    Similar to IL-1α and IL-33, IL-1 family member IL-37b translocates to the nucleus and is associated with suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. Here we demonstrate an extracellular function of the IL-37 precursor and a processed form. Recombinant IL-37 precursor reduced LPS-induced IL-6 by 50% (P < 0.001) in highly inflammatory human blood-derived M1 differentiated macrophages derived from selective subjects but not M2 macrophages. In contrast, a neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-37 increased LPS-induced IL-6, TNFα and IL-1β (P < 0.01). The suppression by IL-37 was consistently observed at low picomolar but not nanomolar concentrations. Whereas LPS induced a 12-fold increase in TNFα mRNA, IL-37 pretreatment decreased the expression to only 3-fold over background (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, LPS-induced p38 and pERK were reduced by IL-37. Recombinant IL-37 bound to the immobilized ligand binding α-chain of the IL-18 receptor as well as to the decoy receptor IL-1R8. In M1 macrophages, LPS increased the surface expression of IL-1R8. Compared with human blood monocytes, resting M1 cells express more surface IL-1R8 as well as total IL-1R8; there was a 16-fold increase in IL-1R8 mRNA levels when pretreated with IL-37. IL-37 reduced LPS-induced TNFα and IL-6 by 50-55% in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, but not in dendritic cells derived from IL-1R8-deficient mice. In mice subjected to systemic LPS-induced inflammation, pretreatment with IL-37 reduced circulating and organ cytokine levels. Thus, in addition to a nuclear function, IL-37 acts as an extracellular cytokine by binding to the IL-18 receptor but using the IL-1R8 for its anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2014-09-04

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. ILS Glide Slope Performance Prediction. Volume B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    figures are identical in both volumes. 󈧔. Abottec A mathematical model for predicting the performance of ILS glide slope arrays in the presence of...irregularities on the performance of ILS Glide Slope antenna systems, a mathematical -electromagnetic scattering computer model has been developed. This work was...Antenna ........... 4-4 9. Test Case Results ..................................... r-3 ix PART I. IEO -j 1.INTRODUCTION IA mathematical model has been

  6. IL-1 Blockade in Autoinflammatory Syndromes1

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Adriana A.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes present with excessive systemic inflammation including fever, rashes, arthritis, and organ-specific inflammation and are caused by defects in single genes encoding proteins that regulate innate inflammatory pathways. Pathogenic variants in two interleukin-1 (IL-1)–regulating genes, NLRP3 and IL1RN, cause two severe and early-onset autoinflammatory syndromes, CAPS (cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes) and DIRA (deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist). The discovery of the mutations that cause CAPS and DIRA led to clinical and basic research that uncovered the key role of IL-1 in an extended spectrum of immune dysregulatory conditions. NLRP3 encodes cryopyrin, an intracellular “molecular sensor” that forms a multimolecular platform, the NLRP3 inflammasome, which links “danger recognition” to the activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. The success and safety profile of drugs targeting IL-1 in the treatment of CAPS and DIRA have encouraged their wider use in other autoinflammatory syndromes including the classic hereditary periodic fever syndromes (familial Mediterranean fever, TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome) and additional immune dysregulatory conditions that are not genetically well defined, including Still’s, Behcet’s, and Schnitzler diseases. The fact that the accumulation of metabolic substrates such as monosodium urate, ceramide, cholesterol, and glucose can trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome connects metabolic stress to IL-1β-mediated inflammation and provides a rationale for therapeutically targeting IL-1 in prevalent diseases such as gout, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. PMID:24422572

  7. IL-13 but not IL-4 signaling via IL-4Rα protects mice from papilloma formation during DMBA/TPA two-step skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Michael; Quarcoo, David; Chashchina, Anna A; Bozrova, Svetlana V; Qin, Zhihai; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Blankenstein, Thomas; Kammertoens, Thomas; Drutskaya, Marina S

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) was shown to be tumor-promoting in full carcinogenesis studies using 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Because heretofore the role of IL-4 in DMBA/TPA (9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz-anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) two-stage carcinogenesis was not studied, we performed such experiments using either IL-4−/− or IL-4Rα−/− mice. We found that IL-4Rα−/− but not IL-4−/− mice have enhanced papilloma formation, suggesting that IL-13 may be involved. Indeed, IL-13−/− mice developed more papillomas after exposure to DMBA/TPA than their heterozygous IL-13-competent littermate controls. However, when tested in a full carcinogenesis experiment, exposure of mice to 25 μg of MCA, both IL-13−/− and IL-13+/− mice led to the same incidence of tumors. While IL-4 enhances MCA carcinogenesis, it does not play a measurable role in our DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis experiments. Conversely, IL-13 does not affect MCA carcinogenesis but protects mice from DMBA/TPA carcinogenesis. One possible explanation is that IL-4 and IL-13, although they share a common IL-4Rα chain, regulate signaling in target cells differently by employing distinct JAK/STAT-mediated signaling pathways downstream of IL-13 or IL-4 receptor complexes, resulting in different inflammatory transcriptional programs. Taken together, our results indicate that the course of DMBA/TPA- and MCA-induced carcinogenesis is affected differently by IL-4 versus IL-13-mediated inflammatory cascades. PMID:24403255

  8. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Targeting the IL-17/IL-6 axis can alter growth of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in vivo/in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; McCaw, Lindsay; Spaner, David E; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2018-03-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo. Human recombinant IL-17 treatment also increased CLL engraftment in mice through an IL-6 mediated mechanism. Plasma of CLL patients showed elevated levels of both IL-6 and IL-17 by ELISA compared with healthy controls, with levels of IL-6 linearly correlated with IL-17 levels. CLL patients requiring fludarabine based chemotherapy expressed higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17, while CLL patients with the lowest levels of IgA/IgM had higher levels of IL-6, but not IL-17. These data imply an important role for the IL-17/IL-6 axis in CLL which could be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Induction of alternative proinflammatory cytokines accounts for sustained psoriasiform skin inflammation in IL-17C+IL-6KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Yi; Klenotic, Philip A.; Swindell, William R.; Yin, ZhiQiang; Groft, Sarah G.; Zhang, Li; Baliwag, Jaymie; Camhi, Maya I.; Diaconu, Doina; Young, Andrew B.; Foster, Alexander M.; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    IL-6 inhibition has been unsuccessful in treating psoriasis, despite high levels of tissue and serum IL-6 in patients. Additionally, de novo psoriasis onset has been reported following IL-6 blockade in rheumatoid arthritis patients. To explore mechanisms underlying these clinical observations, we backcrossed an established psoriasiform mouse model (IL-17C+ mice) with IL-6 deficient mice (IL-17C+KO) and examined the cutaneous phenotype. IL-17C+KO mice initially exhibited decreased skin inflammation, however this decrease was transient and reversed rapidly, concomitant with increases in skin Tnf, Il36α/β/γ, Il24, Epgn and S100a8/a9 to levels higher than those found in IL-17C+ mice. Comparison of IL-17C+ and IL-17C+KO mouse skin transcriptomes with that of human psoriasis skin, revealed significant correlation among transcripts of psoriasis patient skin and IL-17C+KO mouse skin, and confirmed an exacerbation of the inflammatory signature in IL-17C+KO mice that aligns closely with human psoriasis. Transcriptional analyses of IL-17C+ and IL-17C+KO primary keratinocytes confirmed increased expression of proinflammatory molecules, suggesting that in the absence of IL-6, keratinocytes increase production of numerous additional proinflammatory cytokines. These preclinical findings may provide insight into why arthritis patients being treated with IL-6 inhibitors develop new onset psoriasis and why IL-6 blockade for the treatment of psoriasis has not been clinically effective. PMID:27984037

  11. Interleukin 10 (IL-10)-mediated Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sharad K.; Cho, Kyung-Jin; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient immune responses require regulated antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. IL-10 inhibits the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages to stimulate antigen-specific CD4 T cells; however, the mechanisms by which IL-10 suppresses antigen presentation remain poorly understood. We now report that IL-10 stimulates expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I in activated macrophages, thereby down-regulating MHC-II, CD86, and antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. By contrast, IL-10 does not stimulate March-I expression in DCs, does not suppress MHC-II or CD86 expression on either resting or activated DCs, and does not affect antigen presentation by activated DCs. IL-10 does, however, inhibit the process of DC activation itself, thereby reducing the efficiency of antigen presentation in a March-I-independent manner. Thus, IL-10 suppression of antigen presenting cell function in macrophages is March-I-dependent, whereas in DCs, suppression is March- I-independent. PMID:26408197

  12. FRNK negatively regulates IL-4-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritu; Colarusso, Pina; Zhang, Hong; Stevens, Katarzyna M; Patel, Kamala D

    2015-02-15

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-related nonkinase (PTK2 isoform 6 in humans, hereafter referred to as FRNK) is a cytoskeletal regulatory protein that has recently been shown to dampen lung fibrosis, yet its role in inflammation is unknown. Here, we show for the first time that expression of FRNK negatively regulates IL-4-mediated inflammation in a human model of eosinophil recruitment. Mechanistically, FRNK blocks eosinophil accumulation, firm adhesion and transmigration by preventing transcription and protein expression of VCAM-1 and CCL26. IL-4 activates STAT6 to induce VCAM-1 and CCL26 transcription. We now show that IL-4 also increases GATA6 to induce VCAM-1 expression. FRNK blocks IL-4-induced GATA6 transcription but has little effect on GATA6 protein expression and no effect on STAT6 activation. FRNK can block FAK or Pyk2 signaling and we, thus, downregulated these proteins using siRNA to determine whether signaling from either protein is involved in the regulation of VCAM-1 and CCL26. Knockdown of FAK, Pyk2 or both had no effect on VCAM-1 or CCL26 expression, which suggests that FRNK acts independently of FAK and Pyk2 signaling. Finally, we found that IL-4 induces the late expression of endogenous FRNK. In summary, FRNK represents a novel mechanism to negatively regulate IL-4-mediated inflammation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Common polymorphisms in interleukin genes (IL4, IL6, IL8 and IL12) are not associated with alcoholic liver disease or alcoholism in Spanish men.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Miguel; Pastor, Isabel; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary data suggest that polymorphisms in cytokine genes may be involved in the genetic predisposition to alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol use disorders. We thus analyze the association between these diseases and the following polymorphisms: -33T>C IL4, -174 G>C IL6, -251 T>A IL8 and 1188 A>C IL12B. 258 male alcoholics (161 without liver disease and 97 with liver cirrhosis) and 101 healthy controls were genotyped for the above mentioned polymorphisms. We examined the relationship between genotype and allele frequencies and the presence of disease, as well as the correlation with combinations of putative pro-inflammatory genotypes. Haplotypes were inferred using the expectation-maximization algorithm and haplotype frequencies were compared. We found no statistically significant association between any of these polymorphisms or the combinations of pro-inflammatory polymorphisms and the risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol abuse or dependence. Haplotype analysis of the IL4 and IL12B polymorphisms did not show any statistical relationship either. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the analyzed polymorphisms confer differences in alcoholic liver cirrhosis or alcohol use disorders susceptibility.

  14. IL-23 induces human osteoclastogenesis via IL-17 in vitro, and anti-IL-23 antibody attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yago, Toru; Nanke, Yuki; Kawamoto, Manabu; Furuya, Takefumi; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kotake, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that IL-23 stimulates the differentiation of human osteoclasts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, in vivo blockade of endogenous IL-23 activity by treatment with anti-IL-23 antibody attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in rats by preventing both inflammation and bone destruction. IL-23 induced human osteoclastogenesis in cultures of PBMC in the absence of osteoblasts or exogenous soluble-receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). This IL-23-induced osteoclastogenesis was inhibited by osteoprotegerin, anti-IL-17 antibody, and etanercept, suggesting that RANKL, IL-17, and TNF-alpha are involved. In addition, we found the ratio of production levels of IL-17 to those of IFN-gamma from activated human T cells was elevated at 1 to 10 ng/ml IL-23. The inductive effect of IL-17 and the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on osteoclastogenesis indicate that the balance of these two cytokines is particularly important. We also demonstrated that IL-23 administered at a later stage significantly reduced paw volume in rats with collagen-induced arthritis, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, anti-IL-23 antibody reduced synovial tissue inflammation and bone destruction in these rats. These findings suggest that IL-23 is important in human osteoclastogenesis and that neutralizing IL-23 after onset of collagen-induced arthritis has therapeutic potential. Thus, controlling IL-23 production and function could be a strategy for preventing inflammation and bone destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing IL-12 and IL-18 improves tumor-specific immunity via differentiation of T cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 or IL-18Rα

    PubMed Central

    Choi, I-K; Lee, J-S; Zhang, S-N; Park, J; Lee, K-M; Sonn, C H; Yun, C-O

    2011-01-01

    The oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) is currently being advanced as a promising antitumor remedy as it selectively replicates in tumor cells and can transfer and amplify therapeutic genes. Interleukin (IL)-12 induces a potent antitumor effect by promoting natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T cell activities. IL-18 also augments cytotoxicity of NK cells and proliferation of T cells. This effect further enhances the function of IL-12 in a synergistic manner. Therefore, we investigated for the first time an effective cancer immunogene therapy of syngeneic tumors via intratumoral administration of oncolytic Ad co-expressing IL-12 and IL-18, RdB/IL-12/IL-18. Intratumoral administration of RdB/IL-12/IL-18 improved antitumor effects, as well as increased survival, in B16-F10 murine melanoma model. The ratio of T-helper type 1/2 cytokine as well as the levels of IL-12, IL-18, interferon-γ and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor was markedly elevated in RdB/IL-12/IL-18-treated tumors. Mice injected with RdB/IL-12/IL-18 also showed enhanced cytotoxicity of tumor-specific immune cells. Consistent with these results, immense necrosis and infiltration of NK cells, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, were observed in RdB/IL-12/IL-18-treated tumor tissues. Importantly, tumors treated with RdB/IL-12/IL-18 showed an elevated number of T cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 or IL-18Rα. These results provide a new insight into therapeutic mechanisms of IL-12 plus IL-18 and provide a potential clinical cancer immunotherapeutic agent for improved antitumor immunity. PMID:21451575

  16. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance.

  17. Extracellular IL-33 cytokine, but not endogenous nuclear IL-33, regulates protein expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Violette; Cayrol, Corinne; Farache, Dorian; Roga, Stéphane; Monsarrat, Bernard; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-03

    IL-33 is a nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family that plays important roles in health and disease. Extracellular IL-33 activates a growing number of target cells, including group 2 innate lymphoid cells, mast cells and regulatory T cells, but it remains unclear whether intracellular nuclear IL-33 has additional functions in the nucleus. Here, we used a global proteomic approach based on high-resolution mass spectrometry to compare the extracellular and intracellular roles of IL-33 in primary human endothelial cells, a major source of IL-33 protein in human tissues. We found that exogenous extracellular IL-33 cytokine induced expression of a distinct set of proteins associated with inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous nuclear IL-33 expression using two independent RNA silencing strategies had no reproducible effect on the endothelial cell proteome. These results suggest that IL-33 acts as a cytokine but not as a nuclear factor regulating gene expression in endothelial cells.

  18. IL-10 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Sam, S S; Teoh, B T; AbuBakar, S

    2015-04-13

    Inheritance of polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-10 promoter and IL-12B genes, which influence cytokine production and activities, may define the balance in T helper response in infection and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of the IL-10 promoter and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population. Overall, our findings suggest that the IL-12B and IL-10 -592 genotypes were distributed homogenously across all major ethnic groups, including Malays, Chinese, and Indians, except for polymorphisms at IL-10 -1082. At this gene locus, the ethnic Chinese showed a significantly lower allele frequency of -1082G (2.1%) compared to the Malay (12.2%) and Indian (15.3%) populations. Results for the IL-12B and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were consistent with those reported for the Asian population, but markedly different from those of the African and Caucasian populations. Our findings suggest that there are specific genetic variations between different ethnic groups, which should be examined in all gene population-based association studies.

  19. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  20. The role of IL-6 and IL-1beta in painful perineural inflammatory neuritis.

    PubMed

    Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael; Herzberg, Uri; Kalladka, Mythili; Tal, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Inflammation along a nerve trunk (perineural inflammation), without detectable axonal damage, has been shown to induce transient pain in the organ supplied by the nerve. The aims of the present study were to study the role IL-6 and IL-1beta, in pain induced by perineural inflammation. IL-6 and IL-1beta secretion from rat's sciatic nerves, L-5 Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG), and the hind paw skin, 3 and 8 days following exposure of the nerve to Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), were measured using ELISA method. Hind paw tactile-allodynia, mechano-hyperalgesia, heat-allodynia and electrical detection thresholds were tested up to 8 days following the application of CFA, IL-6 or IL-1beta adjacent to the sciatic nerve trunk. Employing electrophysiological recording, saphenous nerve spontaneous activity, nerve trunk mechano-sensitivity and paw tactile detection threshold (determined by recording action potential induced by the lowest mechanical stimulus) were assessed 3 and 8 days following exposure of the nerve trunk to CFA, IL-6, or IL-1beta. IL-6 and IL-1beta secretion from the nerve was significantly elevated on the 3rd day post-operation (DPO). On the 8th DPO, IL-6 levels returned to baseline while IL-1beta levels remained significantly elevated. The DRG cytokine's level was increased on the 3rd and 8th DPOs, contralateral cytokine's level was increased on the 3rd DPO. The skin IL-6 level was increased bilaterally on the 3rd DPO and returned to baseline on the 8th DPO. IL-1beta levels increased in the affected side on the 3rd and bilaterally on the 8th DPO. Direct application of IL-6 or CFA on the sciatic nerve induced significant hind paw tactile-allodynia from the 1st to 5th DPOs, reduced electrical detection threshold from the 1st to 3rd DPOs, mechano-hyperalgesia from 3rd to 5th DPOs and heat-allodynia on the 3rd DPO. Direct application of IL-1beta induced paw tactile and heat-allodynia on the 7-8th DPOs and mechano-hyperalgesia on the 5-8th DPOs. Perineural

  1. Colonization with Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppresses mucosal IL-17 production.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David E; Metwali, Ahmed; Leung, John; Setiawan, Tommy; Blum, Arthur M; Ince, M Nedim; Bazzone, Lindsey E; Stadecker, Miguel J; Urban, Joseph F; Weinstock, Joel V

    2008-08-15

    Helminth exposure appears to protect hosts from inappropriate inflammatory responses, such as those causing inflammatory bowel disease. A recently identified, strongly proinflammatory limb of the immune response is characterized by T cell IL-17 production. Many autoimmune type inflammatory diseases are associated with IL-17 release. Because helminths protect from these diseases, we examined IL-17 production in helminth-colonized mice. We colonized mice with Heligmosomoides polygyrus, an intestinal helminth, and analyzed IL-17 production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Colonization with H. polygyrus reduces IL-17A mRNA by MLN cells and inhibits IL-17 production by cultured LPMC and MLN cells. Helminth exposure augments IL-4 and IL-10 production. Blocking both IL-4 and IL-10, but not IL-10 alone, restores IL-17 production in vitro. Colonization of colitic IL-10-deficient mice with H. polygyrus suppresses LPMC IL-17 production and improves colitis. Ab-mediated blockade of IL-17 improves colitis in IL-10-deficient mice. Thus, helminth-associated inhibition of IL-17 production is most likely an important mechanism mediating protection from inappropriate intestinal inflammation.

  2. Altered expression of IL-18 binding protein and IL-18 receptor in basophils and mast cells of asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyun; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Ling; Wang, Junling; Chen, Liping; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Huiyun; He, Shaoheng

    2018-05-01

    IL-18 is likely to contribute to asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in asthma. Because the action of IL-18 in the body is regulated by IL-18BP and mast cells and basophils are key cell types involved in asthma, we investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP and IL-18R in basophils and mast cells using flow cytometry and a mouse asthma model. We found that among basophils, approximately 53% and 51% were IL-18 + , 85% and 81% were IL-18BP + basophils, and 19.8% and 8.6% were IL-18R + in healthy control (HC) and asthmatic blood, respectively. The allergens tested had little effect on the expression of IL-18 and related factors. Only 3.5%, 14.3% and 2.4% of dispersed mast cells expressed IL-18, IL-18BP and IL-18R, respectively, in asthmatic sputum. In a mouse asthma model, OVA-sensitized mice exhibited decreased IL-18BP + but increased IL-18R + basophils in their blood. IL-18 increased the number of basophils but eliminated IL-18BP + basophils in mouse blood. IL-18 increased the number of mast cells and IL-18R + mast cells in the lung as well as increased the mast cell numbers and IL-18BP + mast cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-sensitized mice. Thus, basophils and mast cells may be involved in asthma pathogenesis via an IL-18-associated mechanism. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  3. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos; Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrastmore » with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.« less

  4. [Expression and role of IL-18 in chronic rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, R W; Du, J T; Liu, Y F; Liu, S X

    2018-04-01

    Objective: To study the expression and role of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in different clinical phenotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS)and in different subtypes of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Method: During nasal endoscopic surgery, inferior turbinates were obtained from 13 patients with nasal septum deviation (control group),uncinate processes were obtained from 10 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and nasal polyp tissues were obtained from 36 patients with CRSwNP, respectively. IL-5 expression in CRSwNP was detected by ELISA, and the expression of IL-18 mRNA and protein in different subtypes of CRS were assessed by real-time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistr. Result: CRSwNP was divided into 12 cases of IL-5 positive nasal polyps (IL-5+NP)group and 24 cases of IL-5 negative nasal polyps (IL-5-NP)group. The expression of IL-18 mRNA and protein in all CRSsNP,IL-5+NP and IL-5-NP groups were higher than that in control group ( P <0.01 or P <0.05),but no significant difference existed between IL-5+NP and IL-5-NP ( P >0.05) group. IL-18 also expresses in epithelial cells of normal nasal mucosa. Conclusion: CRSwNP can be divided into two main subtypes: IL-5+NP and IL-5-NP. The increasing expression of IL-18 in CRSsNP, IL-5+NP and IL-5-NP compared with control group indicates that IL-18 may play a key role in the pathogenesis of CRS, and IL-18 expression in nasal polyps is not affected by the type of inflammation. The possible presence of balance between IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein in normal nasal mucosa provides a new way for research and treatment of CRS. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetricmore » unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.« less

  6. A Brief History of IL-1 and IL-1 Ra in Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Dayer, Jean-Michel; Oliviero, Francesca; Punzi, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    The history of what, in 1979, was called interleukin-1 (IL-1), orchestrator of leukocyte inter-communication, began many years before then, initially by the observation of fever induction via the endogenous pyrogen (EP) (1974) and then in rheumatology on the role in tissue destruction in rheumatoid diseases via the induction of collagenase and PGE 2 in human synovial cells by a mononuclear cell factor (MCF) (1977). Since then, the family has exploded to presently 11 members as well as many membrane-bound and soluble receptor forms. The discovery of a natural Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in human biological fluids has highlighted the importance of IL-1 and IL-1Ra in human diseases. Evidence delineating its role in autoinflammatory syndromes and the elucidation of the macromolecular complex referred to as "inflammasome" have been instrumental to our understanding of the link with IL-1. At present, the IL-1blockade as therapeutic approach is crucial for many hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, as well as for adult-onset Still's disease, crystal-induced arthropathies, certain skin diseases including neutrophil-triggered skin diseases, Behçet's disease and deficiency of IL-1Ra and other rare fever syndromes. Its role is only marginally important in rheumatoid arthritis and is still under debate with regard to osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This brief historical review focuses on some aspects of IL-1, mainly IL-1β and IL-Ra, in rheumatology. There are many excellent reviews focusing on the IL-1 family in general or with regard to specific diseases or biological discoveries.

  7. Higher constitutive IL15Rα expression and lower IL-15 response threshold in coeliac disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, D; Garrote, J A; Allegretti, Y; León, A; Gómez, E; Bermejo-Martin, J F; Calvo, C; Riestra, S; Fernández-Salazar, L; Blanco-Quirós, A; Chirdo, F; Arranz, E

    2008-01-01

    The IL-15 triggering effect of gliadin is not exclusive to coeliac disease (CD) patients, whereas the secondary response is CD specific. We have studied the expression of the IL-15 receptor, and the IL-15 response upon stimulation, in non-CD and CD patients, and the possible existence of a lower immunological threshold in the latter. Forty-two CD patients (20 on a gluten-containing diet, GCD, and 22 on gluten-free diet, GFD) and 24 non-CD healthy individuals were studied. IL15Rα mRNA expression, and tissue characterization, were assayed in the duodenum. Biopsies from six CD patients on GFD and 10 non-CD individuals were studied in vitro using organ culture in basal conditions, as well as after IL-15 stimulation discarding basal IL-15 production. Secretion of immune mediators was measured in the culture supernatants. IL15Rα mRNA expression was increased in CD patients, as compared with non-CD controls (on GFD P = 0·0334, on GCD P = 0·0062, respectively), and confirmed also by immunofluorescence. No differences were found between CD patients on GFD and on GCD. After in vitro IL-15 stimulation, IL15Rα expression was only triggered in non-CD controls (P = 0·0313), though it remained increased in CD patients. Moreover, IL-15 induced a more intense immunological response in CD patients after triggering the production of both nitrites and IFNγ (P = 0·0313, P = 0·0313, respectively). Gliadin-induced IL15 has a lower response threshold in CD patients, leading to the production of other immune mediators and the development of the intestinal lesion, and thus magnifying its effects within the CD intestine. PMID:18821940

  8. Early induction of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in infants and children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed Central

    O Nualláin, E M; Puri, P; Reen, D J

    1993-01-01

    The cytokine response to injury or trauma is of interest in terms of both its mediation of the acute phase response and its possible relation to the immunological depression observed after major surgery. In this study, the production of cytokines IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and the naturally occurring inhibitor of IL-1, IL-1Ra, have been investigated in infants and children undergoing Swenson's pull-through operation for Hirschsprung's disease. Samples of peripheral blood were taken before, during and after surgery for the measurement of cytokines. IL-1Ra levels increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 2 h after commencement of surgery, with maximal levels for individual patients being attained between 3 h and 5 h (range 7.6-67.9 ng/ml). The mean level of IL-1Ra was maximal (26.2 ng/ml) at 5 h and returned to baseline levels between 24 h and 72 h. There were no changes observed in the circulating levels of IL-1 beta in nine out of 11 patients following commencement of surgery. TNF-alpha levels did not increase in any of the patients studied. IL-6 levels increased significantly (P < 0.02) 3 h after commencement of surgery, reaching maximum concentrations at 24 h (range 20-670 pg/ml), with levels falling between 48 h and 72 h. This study demonstrates, in vivo, the independent induction of IL-1Ra without a concomitant increase of IL-1 beta levels after major surgery. It also shows that IL-1Ra is the earliest cytokine produced in response to surgical stress. PMID:8348747

  9. Interleukin (IL) 15 is a novel cytokine that activates human natural killer cells via components of the IL-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a novel cytokine that has recently been cloned and expressed. Whereas it has no sequence homology with IL-2, IL- 15 interacts with components of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R). In the present study we performed a functional analysis of recombinant IL-15 on phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of highly purified human natural killer (NK) cells. The CD56bright subset of human NK cells constitutively expresses the high affinity IL-2R and exhibits a brisk proliferative response after the binding of picomolar amounts of IL-2. Using a proliferation assay, IL-15 demonstrated a very steep dose-response curve that was distinct from the dose-response curve for IL-2. The proliferative effects of IL-15 could be abrogated by anti-IL-2R beta (p75), but not by anti-IL-2R alpha (p55). The proliferative effects of IL-2 on CD56bright NK cells could be inhibited by both antibodies. CD56dim NK cells express the intermediate affinity IL-2R in the absence of the high affinity IL-2R. Activation of CD56dim NK cells by IL-15 was similar to that of IL-2 as measured by enhanced NK cytotoxic activity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and NK cell production of interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The IL-15-enhanced NK cytotoxic activity could be completely blocked by anti-IL-2R beta monoclonal antibody. The binding of radiolabeled IL-2 and IL-15 to CD56dim NK cells was inhibited in the presence of anti-IL-2R beta. Scatchard analysis of radiolabeled IL-15 and IL-2 binding to NK- enriched human lymphocytes revealed the presence of high and intermediate affinity receptors for both ligands. IL-15 is a ligand that activates human NK cells through components of the IL-2R in a pattern that is similar but not identical to that of IL-2. Unlike IL-2, IL-15 is produced by activated monocytes/macrophages. The discovery of IL-15 may increase our understanding of how monocytes

  10. The effects of IL-10 gene polymorphism on serum, and gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Toker, Hulya; Gorgun, Emine Pirim; Korkmaz, Ertan Mahir; Yüce, Hatice Balci; Poyraz, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in periodontitis by inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interleukin-10 (-597) gene polymorphism and genotype distributions on chronic periodontitis (CP) development and IL-6 and IL-10 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment. The study population consisted of 55 severe generalized CP patients as CP group and 50 healthy individuals as control group. Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded and GCF and blood samples were taken at both the baseline and the sixth week after non-surgical periodontal treatment. PCR-RFLP procedure was used for gene analyses and cytokine levels were measured via ELISA. IL-10 genotype distribution was significantly different between CP and control groups (p=0.000, OR:7, 95%CI, 2.83-60.25). Clinical measurements significantly improved in the CP group after periodontal treatment (p<0.05). Periodontal treatment significantly decreased GCF IL-6 and IL-10 levels. No significant difference was found in clinical parameters between IL-10 AA and AC+CC genotypes at both the baseline and the sixth week (p>0.05). Sixth week GCF IL-10 levels were significantly lower in patients carrying IL-10 AC+CC genotype compared to the patients carrying IL-10 AA genotype (p<0.05). Serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels were lower in patients carrying the IL-10 AA genotype compared to patients with IL-10 AC+CC genotype, but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). IL-10 AA genotype carriers had lower IL-6 and IL-6/10 levels in serum; however, GCF IL-6/10 levels were similar in both genotypes. Within the limitations of our study, a possible association between IL-10(-597) gene polymorphism and CP might be considered.

  11. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation.

  12. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A.; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation. PMID:26562652

  13. Cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and TGFβ) as potential biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Volpin, Gershon; Cohen, Miri; Assaf, Michael; Meir, Tamar; Katz, Rina; Pollack, Shimon

    2014-06-01

    Much research is now being conducted in order to understand the role of cytokines in the development of the inflammatory response following trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether serum levels of certain cytokines, measured immediately after initial injury, can be used as potential biomarkers for predicting the development and the degree of severity of the systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) in patients with moderate and severe trauma. We conducted a prospective study with 71 individuals of whom 13 (18.3 %) were healthy controls and 58 (81.7 %) were traumatized orthopaedic patients who were categorized into two groups: 31 (43.6 %) with moderate injuries and 27 (38.1 %) patients with severe orthopaedic trauma. Thirty cc of heparinized blood were drawn from each individual within a few hours after the injury. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory, regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in each individual participant. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β,-6,-8,-12, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were found in all injured patients compared to healthy controls. Only IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the injured patients. Levels of the regulatory cytokines, transformed growth factor beta (TGF-β) and IL-10 were higher in the injured patients, but significant only for TGF-β. Levels of IL-4 were significantly lower in the injured groups as compared to the controls. Secretion of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased level of anti-inflammatory cytokines during the acute phase of trauma may lead to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in unstable polytraumatized patients. SIRS may result in life threatening conditions as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). High levels of IL-6, IL-8, TGFβ and low levels of IL-4 were found to be reliable markers for the existence of immune reactivity in trauma patients. More

  14. Construction of an Expression System for Bioactive IL-18 and Generation of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing IL-18

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Yuxiu; SATO, Hiroki; HAMANA, Masahiro; MOONAN, Navita Anisia; YONEDA, Misako; XIA, Xianzhu; KAI, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo. PMID:24898077

  15. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo.

  16. Contribution of the IL-17/IL-23 axis to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Berindan Neagoe, Ioana; Cozma, Vasile; Magdaş, Cristian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2015-05-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, in addition to T helper cell-type (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely regulatory T cells and Th17 maintained by IL-23 are likely to develop IBD. IL-23 acts on innate immune system members and also facilitates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells. The IL-17/IL-23 axis is relevant in IBD pathogenesis both in human and experimental studies. Novel biomarkers of IBD could be calprotectin, microRNAs, and serum proinflammatory cytokines. An efficient strategy for IBD therapy is represented by the combination of IL-17A and IL-17F in acute IL-17A knockout TNBS-induced colitis, and also definite decrease of the inflammatory process in IL-17F knockout, DSS-induced colitis have been observed. Studying the correlation between innate and adaptive immune systems, we hope to obtain a focused review in order to facilitate future approaches aimed at elucidating the immunological mechanisms that control gut inflammation.

  17. Contribution of the IL-17/IL-23 axis to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Berindan Neagoe, Ioana; Cozma, Vasile; Magdaş, Cristian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, in addition to T helper cell-type (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely regulatory T cells and Th17 maintained by IL-23 are likely to develop IBD. IL-23 acts on innate immune system members and also facilitates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells. The IL-17/IL-23 axis is relevant in IBD pathogenesis both in human and experimental studies. Novel biomarkers of IBD could be calprotectin, microRNAs, and serum proinflammatory cytokines. An efficient strategy for IBD therapy is represented by the combination of IL-17A and IL-17F in acute IL-17A knockout TNBS-induced colitis, and also definite decrease of the inflammatory process in IL-17F knockout, DSS-induced colitis have been observed. Studying the correlation between innate and adaptive immune systems, we hope to obtain a focused review in order to facilitate future approaches aimed at elucidating the immunological mechanisms that control gut inflammation. PMID:26019446

  18. Lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 regulates IL-17-mediated ocular mucosal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Woo; Mittal, Sharad K.; Hwang, Ho Sik; Chang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Joon H.; Seo, Yuri; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Lee, Hye Sun; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory damage of mucosal surface of the eye is a hallmark of dry eye disease (DED), and in severe cases can lead to significant discomfort, visual impairment, and blindness. DED is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder with a largely unknown pathogenesis. Using a cross-sectional patient study and a well-characterized murine model of DED, herein we investigated the immunoregulatory function of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in the pathogenesis of DED. We found that IL-22 levels were elevated in lacrimal fluids of DED patients and inversely correlated with severity of disease. Acinar cells of the lacrimal glands, not inflammatory immune cells, are the primary source of IL-22, which suppresses inflammation in ocular surface epithelial cells upon desiccating stress. Moreover, loss of function analyses using IL-22 knock-out mice demonstrated that IL-22 is essential for suppression of ocular surface infiltration of Th17 cells and inhibition of DED induction. Our novel findings elucidate immunoregulatory function of lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 in inhibiting IL-17-mediated ocular surface epitheliopathy in DED thus making IL-22 a new relevant therapeutic target. PMID:28051088

  19. Implication of IL-2/IL-21 region in systemic sclerosis genetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Simeon, Carmen P; Broen, Jasper C; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Beretta, Lorenzo; Vonk, Madelon C; Carreira, Patricia E; Vargas, Sofia; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; González-Gay, Miguel A; Tolosa, Carlos; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Espinosa, Gerard; Vicente, Esther F; Hesselstrand, Roger; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Distler, Jörg H W; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Schuerwegh, Annemie J; Shiels, Paul G; Nordin, Annika; Padyukov, Leonid; Hoffmann-Vold, Anna-Maria; Scorza, Raffaella; Lunardi, Claudio; Airo, Paolo; van Laar, Jacob M; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Gathof, Birgit S; Kreuter, Alexander; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher P; Zhou, Xiaodong; Arnett, Frank C; Fonseca, Carmen; Koeleman, Bobby PC; Assasi, Shervin; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Mayes, Maureen D; Martín, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Objective The interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 21 (IL-21) locus at chromosome 4q27 has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, and both genes are related to immune system functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the IL-2/IL-21 locus in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patients and methods The case control study included 4493 SSc Caucasian patients and 5856 healthy controls from eight Caucasian populations (Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, USA, Italy, Sweden, UK and Norway). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2069762, rs6822844, rs6835457 and rs907715) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Results We observed evidence of association of the rs6822844 and rs907715 variants with global SSc (pc=6.6E-4 and pc=7.2E-3, respectively). Similar statistically significant associations were observed for the limited cutaneous form of the disease. The conditional regression analysis suggested that the most likely genetic variation responsible for the association was the rs6822844 polymorphism. Consistently, the rs2069762A-rs6822844T-rs6835457G-rs907715T allelic combination showed evidence of association with SSc and limited cutaneous SSc subtype (pc=1.7E-03 and pc=8E-4, respectively). Conclusions These results suggested that the IL-2/IL-21 locus influences the genetic susceptibility to SSc. Moreover, this study provided further support for the IL-2/IL-21 locus as a common genetic factor in autoimmune diseases. PMID:23172754

  20. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N

    2015-11-02

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt-induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis.

  1. [Plasma IL-18 levels are related to insulin and are modulated by IL-18 gene polymorphisms].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; Nuñez Savall, Ester; Lendínez, Verónica; Olivares, Laura; Benito, Esther; Real, Jose T; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease influenced by multiple factors. Different prospective studies have shown that plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers were related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether plasmatic levels of interleukin 18 (IL-18) are modulated by SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the IL 18 gene and its possible association with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. 746 individuals were studied for a period of two years by opportunistic selection in the metropolitan area of Valencia. Parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed by standard methodology. IL-18 was measured by ELISA. Individuals with insulin resistance showed significant higher levels of IL-18. IL 18 was significantly correlated with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. The CC genotype of the rs1834481 SNP was significantly associated with lower levels of IL-18. However, the GG genotype of the rs7559479 was associated with significant higher levels of IL-18. IL-18 is associated with insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, being those levels genetically regulated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Human IL-21 and IL-21R deficiencies: two novel entities of primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kotlarz, Daniel; Ziętara, Natalia; Milner, Joshua D; Klein, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    This review highlights the recent identification of human interleukin-21 (IL-21) and interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) deficiencies as novel entities of primary immunodeficiency. We recently described the first patients with IL-21R deficiency who had cryptosporidial infections associated with chronic cholangitis and liver disease. All IL-21R-deficient patients suffered from recurrent respiratory tract infections. Immunological work-up revealed impaired B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin class-switch, reduced T cell effector functions, and variable natural killer cell dysfunctions. Recently, these findings have been extended by the discovery of one patient with a mutation in the IL21 gene. This patient predominantly manifested with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease and recurrent respiratory infections. Laboratory examination showed reduced circulating B cells and impaired B cell class-switch. Human IL-21 and IL-21R deficiencies cause severe, primary immunodeficiency reminiscent of common variable immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis is critical to prevent life-threatening complications, such as secondary liver failure. In view of the critical role of IL-21 in controlling immune homeostasis, early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered as therapeutic intervention in affected children.

  3. The differential expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and its impact on type-2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Katherine; Reinhardt, R Lee

    2015-09-01

    Allergic disease represents a significant global health burden, and disease incidence continues to rise in urban areas of the world. As such, a better understanding of the basic immune mechanisms underlying disease pathology are key to developing therapeutic interventions to both prevent disease onset as well as to ameliorate disease morbidity in those individuals already suffering from a disorder linked to type-2 inflammation. Two factors central to type-2 immunity are interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which have been linked to virtually all major hallmarks associated with type-2 inflammation. Therefore, IL-4 and IL-13 and their regulatory pathways represent ideal targets to suppress disease. Despite sharing many common regulatory pathways and receptors, these cytokines perform very distinct functions during a type-2 immune response. This review summarizes the literature surrounding the function and expression of IL-4 and IL-13 in CD4+ T cells and innate immune cells. It highlights recent findings in vivo regarding the differential expression and non-canonical regulation of IL-4 and IL-13 in various immune cells, which likely play important and underappreciated roles in type-2 immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  5. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  6. The secreted form of the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 inhibits IL-23 functions and abrogates IL-23-mediated antitumour effects

    PubMed Central

    Shimozato, Osamu; Ugai, Shin-ichi; Chiyo, Masako; Takenobu, Hisanori; Nagakawa, Hiroyasu; Wada, Akihiko; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine consisting of a novel p19 molecule and the p40 subunit of IL-12. Since secreted p40 can act as an antagonist for IL-12, we investigated whether p40 also inhibited IL-23-mediated immunological functions. p40 did not induce interferon (IFN)-γ or IL-17 production from splenocytes but impaired IL-23-induced cytokine production by competitive binding to the IL-23 receptors. Furthermore, a mixed population of murine colon carcinoma Colon 26 cells transduced with the p40 gene and those transduced with the IL-23 gene developed tumours in syngenic mice, whereas the IL-23-expressing Colon 26 cells were completely rejected. p40 also suppressed IFN-γ production of antigen-stimulated splenocytes and IL-23-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in the mice that rejected Colon 26 cells expressing IL-23. p40 can thereby antagonize IL-23 and is a possible therapeutic agent for suppression of IL-23 functions. PMID:16423037

  7. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  8. Th17 master transcription factors RORα and RORγ regulate the expression of IL-17C, IL-17D and IL-17F in Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Heng; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy Ambli; Zhang, Wenjie; Hu, Yong-hua

    2016-02-01

    The RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. In this study, we examined the regulatory properties of RORα (CsRORα) and RORγ (CsRORγ) in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). CsRORα and CsRORγ expression was detected in major lymphoid organs and altered to significant extents after bacterial and viral infection. CsRORα enhanced the activities of CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, and CsIL-17F promoters, which contain CsRORα and CsRORγ binding sites. CsRORγ also upregulated the promoter activities of CsIL-17D and CsIL-17F but not CsIL-17C. CsRORα and CsRORγ proteins were detected in the nucleus, and overexpression of CsRORα in tongue sole significantly increased the expression of CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, and CsIL-17F, whereas overexpression of CsRORγ significantly increased the expression of CsIL-17C and CsIL-17F but no CsIL-17D. These results indicate that RORα and RORγ in teleost regulate the expression of IL-17 members in different manners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergistic anti-tumor effect of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored IL-2 and IL-12.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianfei; Li, Jinhua; Holmes, Lillia M; Burgin, Kelly E; Yu, Xianzhong; Wagner, Thomas E; Wei, Yanzhang

    2004-07-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and some other cytokines, play important roles in activating host immune responses against tumor growth. However, severe side effects caused by systemic high-dose administration of these cytokines limit their clinical application. In our previous study, local high doses of IL-2 were achieved by a GPI-anchoring technology; therefore, it will be interesting to know if this technology works for other cytokines. A fusion gene containing murine IL-12 and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal sequence was generated and transfected into the murine melanoma tumor cell line B16F0 either alone or together with a vector encoding GPI-anchored IL-2. The GPI-anchored cytokine expression of the selected stable clones was assayed in vitro by ELISA and their anti-tumor effects were analyzed in vivo by tumor lymphocyte infiltration and tumor growth studies. GPI-anchored IL-12 was successfully expressed on the cell surface as indicated by FACS analysis and IL-12 ELISA assay. The GPI-anchored IL-12 enhanced lymphocyte infiltration and significantly inhibited tumor growth. More importantly, when GPI-anchored IL-12 and GPI-anchored IL-2 were co-delivered, a synergistic anti-tumor effect was observed in both subcutaneous and intravenous tumor models. GPI anchorage of cytokines represents a new approach to locally deliver high doses of cytokines without the severe adverse effects normally accompanied with systematic high-dose administration of these cytokines. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. IL-21: an executor of B cell fate.

    PubMed

    Konforte, Danijela; Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J

    2009-02-15

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine that shares the common receptor gamma-chain with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. B cells are one of the lymphoid cell types whose development and function are regulated by IL-21. Depending on the interplay with costimulatory signals and on the developmental stage of a B cell, IL-21 can induce proliferation, differentiation into Ig-producing plasma cells, or apoptosis in both mice and humans. Alone and in combination with Th cell-derived cytokines IL-21 can regulate class switch recombination to IgG, IgA, or IgE isotypes, indicating its important role in shaping the effector function of B cells. This review highlights the role of IL-21 in B cell development, function, and disease and provides some perspectives on the future studies in this area.

  11. Influence of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism on in vivo synthesis of IL-1Ra and IL-1beta after live yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Hacker, U T; Erhardt, S; Tschöp, K; Jelinek, T; Endres, S

    2001-09-01

    The inflammatory response in infectious and autoimmune diseases is regulated by the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-1 complex contains polymorphic genes coding for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra. The IL-1Ra (variable number of tanden repeat) VNTR polymorphism has been shown to influence the capacity to produce IL-1beta and IL-1Ra after in vitro stimulation. Allele 2 of this polymorphism is associated with a number of inflammatory diseases. To determine the impact of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on in vivo human cytokine synthesis, we used a yellow fever vaccination model for the induction of cytokine synthesis in healthy volunteers. Two different yellow fever vaccines were used. After administration of the RKI vaccine (34 volunteers), plasma TNF-alpha concentration increased from 13.4 +/- 0.9 pg/ml to 23.3 +/- 1.1 pg/ml (P < 0.001), and plasma IL-1Ra concentration increased from 308 +/- 25 pg/ml to 1019 +/- 111 pg/ml (P < 0.001), on day 2. Using Stamaril vaccine, no increase in the plasma concentrations of either TNF-alpha or IL-1Ra could be detected (n = 17). Only the RKI vaccine induced TNF-alpha synthesis after in vitro stimulation of MNC. Carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra polymorphism had increased baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra (350 +/- 32 pg/ml) compared with non-carriers (222 +/- 18 pg/ml, P < 0.001), and decreased concentrations of IL-1beta (0.9 +/- 0.2 pg/ml for carriers versus 2.8 +/- 0.7 pg/ml for non-carriers, P = 0.017). After yellow fever vaccination (RKI vaccine), no significant differences in the increase of IL-1Ra plasma levels were detected between carriers and non-carriers of allele 2 of the IL-1Ra gene polymorphism. This is the first study to examine the influence of this genetic polymorphism on in vivo-induced human IL-1beta and IL-1Ra synthesis. Baseline concentrations of IL-1Ra and IL-1beta were significantly influenced by the IL-1Ra polymorphism. No influence of the IL-1Ra polymorphism on the in vivo

  12. Vitamin C supplementation does not influence plasma and blood mononuclear cell IL-6 and IL-10 levels after exercise.

    PubMed

    Aguiló, Antoni; Monjo, Marta; Moreno, Carlos; Martinez, Pau; Martínez, Sonia; Tauler, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the highest vitamin C supplementation associated with complete bioavailability influences the plasma and blood mononuclear cell IL-6 and IL-10 response to exercise. A double-blinded study of supplementation with vitamin C was performed. After 15 days of supplementation with vitamin C (500 mg · day(-1), n = 16) or a placebo (n = 15), participants in the study completed a 15-km run competition. Blood samples were taken before and after competition. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidants, cortisol, IL-6 and IL-10 were determined in plasma or serum. IL-6 and IL-10 protein and mRNA levels were measured in blood mononuclear cells. Although higher plasma and blood mononuclear cell vitamin C levels were observed in the supplemented group when compared with the placebo one, the two groups showed identical exercise-induced changes in all the measured parameters. Exercise induced increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels in plasma and blood mononuclear cells. IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA levels in blood mononuclear cells increased after the competition. After recovery, IL-6 mRNA returned to basal levels and IL-10 mRNA levels remained elevated. In conclusion, exercise induced increased IL-6 and IL-10 production in blood mononuclear cells. However, vitamin C supplementation did not influence IL-6 and IL-10 response to exercise.

  13. Keratinocyte overexpression of IL-17C promotes psoriasiform skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Andrew; Fritz, Yi; Dawes, Sean M.; Diaconu, Doina; Al-Attar, Paul M.; Guzman, Andrew M.; Chen, Cynthia S.; Fu, Wen; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    IL-17C is a functionally distinct member of the IL-17 family that binds IL-17RE/A to promote innate defense in epithelial cells and regulate Th17 cell differentiation. We demonstrate that IL-17C (not IL-17A) is the most abundant IL-17 isoform in lesional psoriasis skin (1058pg/ml vs. 8pg/ml; p<0.006) and localizes to keratinocytes (KCs), endothelial cells (ECs) and leukocytes. ECs stimulated with IL-17C produce increased TNFα and KCs stimulated with IL-17C/TNFα produce similar inflammatory gene response patterns as those elicited by IL-17A/TNFα, including increases in IL-17C, TNFα, IL-8, IL-1α/β, IL-1F5, IL-1F9, IL-6, IL-19, CCL20, S100A7/A8/A9, DEFB4, LCN2 and PI3 (p<0.05); indicating a positive pro-inflammatory feedback loop between the epidermis and ECs. Psoriasis patients treated with etanercept rapidly decrease cutaneous IL-17C levels, suggesting IL-17C/TNFα-mediated inflammatory signaling is critical for psoriasis pathogenesis. Mice genetically engineered to overexpress IL-17C in KCs develop well-demarcated areas of erythematous, flakey “involved” skin adjacent to areas of normal appearing “uninvolved” skin despite increased IL-17C expression in both areas (p<0.05). Uninvolved skin displays increased angiogenesis and elevated S100A8/A9expression (p<0.05) but no epidermal hyperplasia; whereas involved skin exhibits robust epidermal hyperplasia, increased angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration and upregulated TNFα, IL-1α/β, IL-17A/F, IL-23p19, VEGF, IL-6 and CCL20 (p<0.05) suggesting that IL-17C, when coupled with other pro-inflammatory signals, initiates the development of psoriasiform dermatitis. This skin phenotype was significantly improved following 8 weeks of TNFα inhibition. These findings identify a role for IL-17C in skin inflammation and suggest a pathogenic function for the elevated IL-17C observed in lesional psoriasis skin. PMID:23359500

  14. Clinical importance of IL-22 cascade in IBD.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Yano, Arisa; Himuro, Hidetomo; Ezaki, Yui; Sadanaga, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2018-04-01

    IL-22 is a relatively new cytokine that is characterized by several unique biological properties. In the intestines, the effect of IL-22 is restricted mainly to non-lymphoid cells such as epithelial cells. Interestingly, the expression pattern and major cellular source of IL-22 have distinct difference between large and small intestines. IL-22 possesses an ability to constitutively activate STAT3 for promoting epithelial cell regeneration and reinforcing mucosal barrier integrity through stimulating the expression of anti-bacterial peptide and mucins. Of note, IL-22 is characterized as a two-faced cytokine that can play not only protective but also deleterious roles in the intestinal inflammation depending on the cytokine environment such as the expression levels of IL-23, T-bet, and IL-22 binding protein. Most importantly, clinical relevance of IL-22 to inflammatory bowel disease has been well highlighted. Mucosal healing, which represents the current therapeutic goal for IBD, can be induced by IL-22. Indeed, indigo naturalis, which can activate IL-22 pathway through Ahr, has been shown in a clinical trial to exhibit a strong therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis. Despite the beneficial effect of IL-22, continuous activation of the IL-22 pathway increases the risk of colitis-associated cancer, particularly in patients with an extended history of IBD. This review article discusses how IL-22 regulates colitis, how beneficial versus deleterious effects of IL-22 is determined, and why IL-22 represents a promising target for IBD therapy.

  15. Effects of cranberry components on IL-1β-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF by human TMJ synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tipton, David A; Christian, James; Blumer, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in the TMJ is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and secondary inflammatory changes. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid of TMJ with internal derangement and bony changes. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contains polyphenolic compounds that inhibit production of pro-inflammatory molecules by gingival cells in response to several stimulators. This study examined effects of cranberry components on IL-1β-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production by human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells. Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) was derived from cranberry juice. Human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells from joints with degenerative OA and an ankylosed TMJ without degeneration were incubated with IL-1β (0.001-1nM)±NDM (25-250μg/ml) (2h preincubation). Viability was assessed via activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA; NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors were measured in nuclear extracts via binding to specific oligonucleotides. ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. NDM did not affect cell viability but inhibited IL-1β stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production in all cell lines (p<0.05). NDM partially reduced nuclear levels of NF-κB and AP-1 (p<0.04), depending upon cell line and time of exposure to IL-1β+NDM. Cranberry NDM inhibition of IL-1β-stimulated IL- 6, IL-8, and VEGF production by TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells suggests that cranberry components may be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat inflammatory arthropathies of the TMJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphisms of the IL-1beta and IL-1beta-inducible genes in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Hiroaki; Saito, Yuki; Higaki, Singo; Okayama, Naoko; Hamanaka, Yuichiro; Okita, Kiwamu; Hinoda, Yuji

    2002-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disorder of undetermined etiology, but a genetic predisposition to UC is well recognized. Among cytokines induced in UC, interleukin 1 (IL-1) appears to have a central role because of its immunological upregulatory and proinflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to assess whether UC is associated with polymorphisms of the IL-1beta gene and three additional genes inducible with IL-1beta in Japanese subjects. A total of 96 patients with UC and 106 ethnically matched controls were genotyped at polymorphic sites in IL-1beta, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. There was no significant difference in genotype distributions of IL-1beta, MMP-1, MMP-3, and iNOS genes between controls and UC patients in a Japanese population. Also, no significant association of those polymorphisms with various clinical parameters of the patients was found. However, concerning association of age at onset with clinical factors in UC, the frequency of pancolitis was significantly higher in UC patients with age at onset being less than 30 years than in those more than 30 years of age (P = 0.049). No association of the IL-1beta and three IL-1beta-inducible gene polymorphisms with UC was observed in a Japanese population.

  17. Biological therapy targeting the IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Verstockt, Bram; Van Assche, Gert; Vermeire, Séverine; Ferrante, Marc

    2017-01-01

    As many inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not benefit from long-term anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, new anti-inflammatories are urgently needed. After the discovery of the interleukin (IL) 23/17 axis being pivotal in IBD pathogenesis, many different compounds were developed, targeting different components within this pathway. Areas covered: A literature search to March 2016 was performed to identify the most relevant reports on the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in IBD and on the different molecules targeting this pathway. First, the authors briefly summarize the immunology of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway to elucidate the mode of action of all different agents. Second, they describe all different molecules targeting this pathway. Besides discussing efficacy and safety data, they also explore immunogenicity, exposure during pregnancy and pharmacokinetics. Expert opinion: A new era in IBD treatment has recently been initiated: besides immunomodulators and TNF-antagonists, anti-adhesion molecules and monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL-23/IL-17 pathway have been developed. Biomarkers for personalized medicine are urgently needed. This therapeutic (r)evolution will further improve disease-related and patient-reported outcome, though a lot of questions should still be addressed in future years.

  18. [Cytokines and malaria. A study of TNF-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6 and IL2R in 28 patients].

    PubMed

    Nicolas, P; Hovette, P; Merouze, F; Touze, J E; Martet, G

    1994-01-01

    Authors have studied TNF alpha, IL1 bêta, IL6 and RIL2s in 28 malaria illness patients. Increased levels of TNF, IL1 bêta and RIL2s in serum, are observed on admission to hospital. These cytokine levels are decreased, eight days later, after patients are treated. In discussion, TNF levels as a prognosis component is evocated.

  19. On the Role IL-4/IL-13 Heteroreceptor Plays in Regulation of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Cattin-Roy, Alexis N; Chen, Weirong; Miller, Mindy M; Barik, Subhasis; Zaghouani, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) manifests when the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells are destroyed as a consequence of an inflammatory process initiated by lymphocytes of the immune system. The NOD mouse develops T1D spontaneously and serves as an animal model for human T1D. The IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 heteroreceptor (HR) serves both IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines, which are believed to function as anti-inflammatory cytokines in T1D. However, whether the HR provides a responsive element to environmental (i.e., physiologic) IL-4/IL-13 in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and the development of T1D has yet to be defined. In this study, NOD mice deficient for the HR have been generated by means of IL-13Rα1 gene disruption and used to determine whether such deficiency affects the development of T1D. Surprisingly, the findings indicate that NOD mice lacking the HR (13R -/- ) display resistance to T1D as the rise in blood glucose level and islet inflammation were significantly delayed in these HR-deficient relative to HR-sufficient (13R +/+ ) mice. In fact, the frequency and spleen-to-pancreas dynamics of both Th1 and Th17 cells were affected in 13R -/- mice. This is likely due to an increase in the frequency of mTGFβ + Foxp3 int regulatory T cells and the persistence of CD206 + macrophages in the pancreas as both types of cells confer resistance to T1D upon transfer to 13R +/+ mice. These findings reveal new insights as to the role environmental IL-4/IL-13 and the HR play in peripheral tolerance and the development of T1D. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Association of the IL-15 and IL-15Rα genes with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Hernández, Celia; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Garrote, José A; Bilbao, José Ramón; Arranz, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune condition triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals and the treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. The major predisposing genes are HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1, but these are not sufficient for disease development. One of the candidate genes worth studying is interleukin (IL)-15 gene, together with its specific receptor, IL-15Rα, as they participate in promoting lymphocyte signaling and survival, and the establishment of appropriate conditions for villous atrophy, then acting as key players in the immunopathogenesis of CD. Here we analyze IL-15 and IL-15Rα genes in samples from the Spanish Consortium for Genetics of Celiac Disease (CEGEC) collection, identifying two regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might be associated with celiac disease: rs4956400 (p-value 0.0112, OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.40) and rs11100722 (p-value 0.0087, OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45), both located upstream the IL15 gene. When the expression of both genes was assessed, these two SNPs were found to be correlated with IL-15 higher protein expression. Besides, rs8177655 from IL15RA was also associated to mRNA IL-15 expression in CD patients. Finally, three SNPs from IL15RA intronic regions, rs2296141, rs3136614 and rs3181148, and another from its 3'UTR region, rs2229135, could be related to the age of diagnosis of celiac disease patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between IL-17A/F, IL-23, IL-35 and IL-12/-23 (p40) levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and disease activity in Behcet's patients.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Cemile; Yucel, Aysegul Atak; Yesil, Turan Hilmi; Kucuk, Hamit; Sezgin, Berna; Mercan, Ridvan; Yucel, Ahmet Eftal; Demirel, Gulderen Yanikkaya

    2018-03-20

    Behcet's disease is a chronic multisystemic disease with remissions and relapses. Several studies have shown that immune mechanisms play an important role in the development of the disease. In order to assess the association of disease activity with IL-17A/F, IL-23, IL-12/23 (p40) and IL-35 expression, we aimed to investigate production of these cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Behcet's patients and normal controls. Furthermore, we included Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) as disease control to evaluate the specificity of our data for immunopathogenesis of BD. Totally 15 active, 15 inactive Behcet's patients, 12 active and 12 inactive SLE patients and 12 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated, lymphocyte cultures were performed and IL-17A/F, IL-12/23 p(40), IL-23, IL-35 cytokine levels were measured by ELISA in culture supernatants in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) on time-dependent manner. IL-17 A/F levels increased parallel to IL-23 levels in Behcet's and SLE patients. Compared to healthy controls, IL-17 A/F levels were higher in active Behcet's and SLE patients; on the contrary, levels of IL-35 were lower. IL-17A/F, IL-12/23 (p40) and IL-23 levels were detectable most frequently in active Behcet's patients followed by active SLE patients. Our results indicate that IL-17 A/F, IL-23 and IL-12/23 (p40) may play role in the immunopathogenesis of BD so as Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Since IL-35 levels were lower in active Behcet's patients compared to inactive patients and healthy controls, there may be a plasticity between Th17 and Treg cells according to the state of disease activity.

  2. Pre-activation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 induces CD25 and a functional high affinity IL-2 receptor on human cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Jeffrey W.; Chase, Julie M.; Romee, Rizwan; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Sullivan, Ryan P.; Cooper, Megan A.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells are effector lymphocytes that are under clinical investigation for the adoptive immunotherapy of hematologic malignancies, especially acute myeloid leukemia. Recent work in mice has identified innate memory-like properties of NK cells. Human NK cells also exhibit memory-like properties, and cytokine-induced memory-like (CIML) NK cells are generated via brief pre-activation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18, which later exhibit enhanced functionality upon restimulation. However, investigation of the optimal cytokine receptors and signals for maintenance of enhanced function and homeostasis following pre-activation remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 pre-activation induces a rapid and prolonged expression of CD25, resulting in a functional high affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2Rαβγ) that confers responsiveness to picomolar concentrations of IL-2. The expression of CD25 correlated with STAT5 phosphorylation in response to picomolar concentrations of IL-2, indicating the presence of a signal-competent IL-2Rαβγ. Furthermore, picomolar concentrations of IL-2 acted synergistically with IL-12 to co-stimulate IFN-γ production by pre-activated NK cells, an effect that was CD25-dependent. Picomolar concentrations of IL-2 also enhanced NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity via the IL-2Rαβγ. Further, following adoptive transfer into immunodeficient NOD-SCID-γc−/− mice, human cytokine pre-activated NK cells expand preferentially in response to exogenous IL-2. Collectively, these data demonstrate that human CIML NK cells respond to IL-2 via IL-2Rαβγ with enhanced survival and functionality, and provide additional rationale for immunotherapeutic strategies that include brief cytokine pre-activation prior to adoptive NK cell transfer, followed by low dose IL-2 therapy. PMID:24434782

  3. A Principal's Guide to ILS Facilities Installation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tweed W.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines five facilities considerations that school principals need to address prior to the installation of an integrated learning system (ILS): (1) placement, i.e., labs or classrooms; (2) wiring; (3) environment, including furniture and noise; (4) security, including fire, theft, vandalism, and misuse; and (5) usability, including afterschool…

  4. ILS Glide Slope Performance Prediction Multipath Scattering

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-12-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which predicts the performance of ILS glide slope systems subject to multipath scattering and the effects of irregular terrain contours. The model is discussed in detail and then applied to a test case for purp...

  5. Fasting Induces IL-1 Resistance and Free-Fatty Acid-Mediated Up-Regulation of IL-1R2 and IL-1RA

    PubMed Central

    Joesting, Jennifer J.; Moon, Morgan L.; Gainey, Stephen J.; Tisza, Brittany L.; Blevins, Neil A.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Weight-loss is a near societal obsession and many diet programs use significant calorie restriction including fasting/short term starvation to generate rapid effects. Fasting is also a well-recognized cause of immunosuppression especially within the innate immune system. In this study, we sought to determine if the IL-1 arm of the neuroimmune system was down-regulated by a 24 h fast and how fasting might generate this effect. Design: Mice were allowed ad libitum access to food or had food withheld for 24 h. Expression of the endogenous IL-1 antagonists, IL-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was determined as were sickness behaviors before and after IL-1β administration. Results: Fasting markedly increased gene expression of IL-1R2 (83-fold in adipose tissue, 9.5-fold in liver) and IL-1RA (68-fold in liver). Fasted mice were protected from IL-1β-induced weight-loss, hypoglycemia, loss of locomotor, and social anxiety. These protections were coupled to a large positive interaction of fasting and IL-1β on IL-1R2 gene expression in adipose tissue and liver (2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively). Fasting not only increased IL-1RA and IL-1R2 protein 2.5- and 3.2-fold, respectively, in liver but also increased IL-1R2 1.8-fold in adipose tissue. Fasting, in turn, triggered a 2.4-fold increase in plasma free-fatty acids (FFAs) and a 2.1-fold increase in plasma corticosterone. Inhibition, of glucocorticoid action with mifepristone did not impact fasting-dependent IL-1R2 or IL-1RA gene expression. Administration of the FFA, palmitate, to mice increased liver IL-1R2 and IL-1RA gene expression by 14- and 11-fold, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicate that fasting augments expression of endogenous IL-1 antagonists inducing IL-1 resistance. Fasting-induced increases in plasma FFAs appears to be a signal that drives immunosuppression during fasting/short term starvation. PMID:25071776

  6. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  7. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  8. Work zone safety analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  9. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  10. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  11. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  12. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  13. Interleukin (IL)-18, cooperatively with IL-23, induces prominent inflammation and enhances psoriasis-like epidermal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shimoura, Noriko; Nagai, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Susumu; Jimbo, Haruki; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Nishigori, Chikako

    2017-05-01

    The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Previous studies showed that IL-18 was elevated in early active and progressive plaque-type psoriatic lesions and that serum or plasma levels of IL-18 correlated with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. However, the mechanism whereby IL-18 affects disease severity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-18 on a psoriasis-like skin inflammation model induced by recombinant mouse IL-23. We found that IL-18, cooperatively with IL-23, induced prominent inflammation and enhanced psoriasis-like epidermal hyperplasia. In the skin of mice treated with IL-23 plus IL-18, the expression of interferon-γ was significantly upregulated and that of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) was synergistically increased. Histologically, strong positive signals of CXCL9 were observed around the infiltrating inflammatory cells. The current results suggest that IL-18 might synergize with IL-23 to induce a T helper 1 immune reaction, without inhibiting the IL-23/IL-17 axis, and thus may aggravate psoriatic inflammation.

  14. Interleukin-23 (IL-23), independent of IL-17 and IL-22, drives neutrophil recruitment and innate inflammation during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Andrew J; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Roderick A; Pandit, Chinmay R; Young, Vincent B; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the role of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-23 (IL-23) in promoting neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokine expression and intestinal histopathology in response to Clostridium difficile infection. Wild-type (WT) and p19(-/-) (IL-23KO) mice were pre-treated with cefoperazone in their drinking water for 5 days, and after a 2-day recovery period were challenged with spores from C. difficile strain VPI 10463. Interleukin-23 deficiency was associated with significant defects in both the recruitment of CD11b(High) Ly6G(H) (igh) neutrophils to the colon and the expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and stabilization factors including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Ccl3 and Csf3 within the colonic mucosa as compared with WT animals. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory cytokines including Il33, Tnf and Il6 was significantly reduced in IL-23-deficient animals. There was also a trend towards less severe colonic histopathology in the absence of IL-23. The induction of Il17a and Il22 was also significantly abrogated in IL-23KO mice. Inflammatory cytokine expression and neutrophilic inflammation were not reduced in IL-17a-deficient mice or in mice treated with anti-IL-22 depleting monoclonal antibody. However, induction of RegIIIg was significantly reduced in animals treated with anti-IL-22 antibody. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-23, but not IL-17a or IL-22, promotes neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in the colon in response to C. difficile infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. IL-23 induces human osteoclastogenesis via IL-17 in vitro, and anti-IL-23 antibody attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Toru; Nanke, Yuki; Kawamoto, Manabu; Furuya, Takefumi; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kotake, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that IL-23 stimulates the differentiation of human osteoclasts from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, in vivo blockade of endogenous IL-23 activity by treatment with anti-IL-23 antibody attenuates collagen-induced arthritis in rats by preventing both inflammation and bone destruction. IL-23 induced human osteoclastogenesis in cultures of PBMC in the absence of osteoblasts or exogenous soluble-receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). This IL-23-induced osteoclastogenesis was inhibited by osteoprotegerin, anti-IL-17 antibody, and etanercept, suggesting that RANKL, IL-17, and TNF-alpha are involved. In addition, we found the ratio of production levels of IL-17 to those of IFN-gamma from activated human T cells was elevated at 1 to 10 ng/ml IL-23. The inductive effect of IL-17 and the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on osteoclastogenesis indicate that the balance of these two cytokines is particularly important. We also demonstrated that IL-23 administered at a later stage significantly reduced paw volume in rats with collagen-induced arthritis, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, anti-IL-23 antibody reduced synovial tissue inflammation and bone destruction in these rats. These findings suggest that IL-23 is important in human osteoclastogenesis and that neutralizing IL-23 after onset of collagen-induced arthritis has therapeutic potential. Thus, controlling IL-23 production and function could be a strategy for preventing inflammation and bone destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17888176

  16. Induction of Alternative Proinflammatory Cytokines Accounts for Sustained Psoriasiform Skin Inflammation in IL-17C+IL-6KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Yi; Klenotic, Philip A; Swindell, William R; Yin, Zhi Qiang; Groft, Sarah G; Zhang, Li; Baliwag, Jaymie; Camhi, Maya I; Diaconu, Doina; Young, Andrew B; Foster, Alexander M; Johnston, Andrew; Gudjonsson, Johann E; McCormick, Thomas S; Ward, Nicole L

    2017-03-01

    IL-6 inhibition has been unsuccessful in treating psoriasis, despite high levels of tissue and serum IL-6 in patients. In addition, de novo psoriasis onset has been reported after IL-6 blockade in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To explore mechanisms underlying these clinical observations, we backcrossed an established psoriasiform mouse model (IL-17C+ mice) with IL-6-deficient mice (IL-17C+KO) and examined the cutaneous phenotype. IL-17C+KO mice initially exhibited decreased skin inflammation; however, this decrease was transient and reversed rapidly, concomitant with increases in skin Tnf, Il36α/β/γ, Il24, Epgn, and S100a8/a9 to levels higher than those found in IL-17C+ mice. A comparison of IL-17C+ and IL-17C+KO mouse skin transcriptomes with that of human psoriasis skin revealed significant correlation among transcripts of skin of patients with psoriasis and IL-17C+KO mouse skin, and confirmed an exacerbation of the inflammatory signature in IL-17C+KO mice that aligns closely with human psoriasis. Transcriptional analyses of IL-17C+ and IL-17C+KO primary keratinocytes confirmed increased expression of proinflammatory molecules, suggesting that in the absence of IL-6, keratinocytes increase production of numerous additional proinflammatory cytokines. These preclinical findings may provide insight into why patients with arthritis being treated with IL-6 inhibitors develop new onset psoriasis and why IL-6 blockade for the treatment of psoriasis has not been clinically effective. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Context-dependent role of IL-18 in cancer biology and counter-regulation by IL-18BP.

    PubMed

    Fabbi, Marina; Carbotti, Grazia; Ferrini, Silvano

    2015-04-01

    IL-18 is a proinflammatory and immune regulatory cytokine, member of the IL-1 family. IL-18 was initially identified as an IFN-γ-inducing factor in T and NK cells, involved in Th1 responses. IL-18 is produced as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18) that is enzymatically processed into a mature form by Casp1. Different cells, such as macrophages, DCs, microglial cells, synovial fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, express pro-IL-18, and the production of bioactive IL-18 is mainly regulated at the processing level. PAMP or DAMP molecules activate inflammasomes, which trigger Casp1 activation and IL-18 conversion. The natural inhibitor IL-18BP , whose production is enhanced by IFN-γ and IL-27, further regulates IL-18 activity in the extracellular environment. Inflammasomes and IL-18 represent double-edged swords in cancer, as their activation may promote tumor development and progression or oppositely, enhance anti-tumor immunity and limit tumor growth. IL-18 has shown anti-tumor activity in different preclinical models of cancer immunotherapy through the activation of NK and/or T cell responses and has been tested in clinical studies in cancer patients. However, the dual role of IL-18 in different experimental tumor models and human cancers raises critical issues on its therapeutic use in cancer. This review will summarize the biology of the IL-18/IL-18R/IL-18BP system and will address the role of IL-18 and its inhibitor, IL-18BP, in cancer biology and immunotherapy. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. IL-30 (IL27p28) alleviates sepsis via modulation of cytokine profiles produced by NKT cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Mitra, Abhisek; Hu, Jiemiao; Cutrera, Jeffery J; Xia, Xueqing; Doetschman, Thomas; Gagea, Mihai; Mishra, Lopa; Li, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Sepsis is an acute systemic inflammatory response to infection associated with high patient mortality (28-40%). We hypothesized that interleukin (IL)-30, a novel cytokine protecting mice against liver injury resulted from inflammation, would generate a protective effect against systemic inflammation and sepsis-induced death. Methods Sepsis was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The inhibitory effects of IL-30 on septic inflammation and associated therapeutic effects were determined in wild-type, IL-30 (p28)−/−, IL10−/−, and CD1d−/− mice. Results Mice treated with pIL30 gene therapy or recombinant IL-30 protein (rIL30) were protected from LPS-induced septic shock or CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis and showed markedly less liver damage and lymphocyte apoptosis than control septic mice. The resulting reduction in mortality was mediated through attenuation of the systemic pro-inflammatory response and augmentation of bacterial clearance. Mice lacking IL-30 were more sensitive to LPS-induced sepsis. Natural killer–like T cells (NKT) produced much higher levels of IL-10 and lower levels of interferon–gamma and tumor necrosis factor–alpha in IL-30–treated septic mice than in control septic mice. Likewise, deficiency in IL-10 or NKT cells abolished the protective role of IL-30 against sepsis. Furthermore, IL-30 induced IL-10 production in purified and LPS-stimulated NKT cells. Blocking IL-6R or gp130 inhibited IL-30 mediated IL-10 production. Conclusions IL-30 is important in modulating production of NKT cytokines and subsequent NKT cell–mediated immune regulation of other cells. Therefore, IL-30 has a role in prevention and treatment of sepsis via modulation of cytokine production by NKT. PMID:26767500

  19. The function of the soluble interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor in vivo: sensitization of human soluble IL-6 receptor transgenic mice towards IL- 6 and prolongation of the plasma half-life of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is considered an important mediator of acute inflammatory responses. Moreover, IL-6 functions as a differentiation and growth factor of hematopoietic precursor cells, B cells, T cells, keratinocytes, neuronal cells, osteoclasts, and endothelial cells. IL-6 exhibits its action via a receptor complex consisting of a specific IL- 6 receptor (IL-6R) and a signal transducing subunit (gp130). Soluble forms of both receptor components are generated by shedding and are found in patients with various diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and others. The function of the soluble (s)IL-6R in vivo is unknown. Since human (h)IL-6 acts on human and murine target cells, but murine IL-6 on murine cells only, we constructed transgenic mice expressing the hsIL-6R. We report here that in the presence of hsIL-6R, mice are hypersensitized towards hIL-6, mounting an acute phase protein gene induction at significantly lower IL-6 dosages compared to control animals. Furthermore, in hsIL-6R transgenic mice, the detected acute phase response persists for a longer period of time. The IL-6/IL-6R complex prolongs markedly the Il- 6 plasma half-life. Our results reinforce the role of the hsIL-6R as an agonistic protein, help to understand the function of the hsIL-6R in vivo, and highlight the significance of the receptor in the induction of the acute phase response. PMID:8666898

  20. Role of the Inflammasome, IL-1β, and IL-18 in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manoranjan; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; del Barrio, Laura; Re, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The inflammasome is an important innate immune pathway that regulates at least two host responses protective against infections: (1) secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and (2) induction of pyroptosis, a form of cell death. Inflammasomes, of which different types have been identified, are multiprotein complexes containing pattern recognition receptors belonging to the Nod-like receptor family or the PYHIN family and the protease caspase-1. The molecular aspects involved in the activation of different inflammasomes by various pathogens are being rapidly elucidated, and their role during infections is being characterized. Production of IL-1β and IL-18 and induction of pyroptosis of the infected cell have been shown to be protective against many infectious agents. Here, we review the recent literature concerning inflammasome activation in the context of bacterial infections and identify important questions to be answered in the future. PMID:22125454

  1. Therapeutic Targeting of IL-17 and IL-23 Cytokines in Immune-Mediated Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fragoulis, George E; Siebert, Stefan; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the biological functions of the interleukin-23/-17 axis led to the identification of IL-23 and IL-17 as important participants in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated diseases. Therapeutic agents targeting these cytokines and/or their receptors have now been developed as potential treatment strategies for common immune-mediated diseases. Anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-12/-23 regimens appear particularly effective in psoriasis, with promising results in spondyloarthropathies also emerging. Overall, these agents appear well tolerated, with adverse-event rates that are commensurate with those in other biologic treatment programs. The strategic utility of these new agents, however, remains uncertain, and further studies will be required to determine their place in the context of existing conventional and biologic immune-modifying agents.

  2. Targeting the IL-33/IL-13 Axis for Respiratory Viral Infections.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Chantal; Bourke, Jane E; Vlahos, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are highly prevalent worldwide. One of the major factors that limits the efficacy of current medication in these patients are viral infections, leading to exacerbations of symptoms and decreased quality of life. Current pharmacological strategies targeting virus-induced lung disease are problematic due to antiviral resistance and the requirement for strain-specific vaccination. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. In this Opinion article, we provide state-of-the-art evidence from humans and preclinical animal models implicating the interleukin (IL)-33/IL-13 axis in virus-induced lung disease. Thus, targeting the IL-33/IL-13 axis may be a feasible way to overcome the limitations of current therapy used to treat virus-induced exacerbations of lung disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do the Changes in the Serum Levels of IL-2, IL-4, TNFα, and IL-6 Reflect the Inflammatory Activity in the Patients with Post-ERCP Pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Kilciler, Guldem; Musabak, Ugur; Bagci, Sait; Yesilova, Zeki; Tuzun, Ahmet; Uygun, Ahmet; Gulsen, Mustafa; Oren, Sema; Oktenli, Cagatay; Karaeren, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    Background. Acute pancreatitis is the major complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure and there are some reports showing cytokine changes in ERCP-induced pancreatits. Goals. To investigate the association between early changes (within 24 hours) in the serum interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and IL-6 levels and the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Study. Forty five consecutive patients who underwent therapeutic ERCP and 10 patients with acute pancreatitis without ERCP were enrolled to the study. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, TNFα, and IL-6 were determined immediately before, 12 hours and 24 hours after ERCP. Results. Seven of the 45 patients (15.5%) developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. The levels of IL-4 at 24 hours after ERCP were significantly lower in the patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis than in those without pancreatitis, while TNFα levels at 12 hours after ERCP were higher in the complicated group than those of the uncomplicated group. The ratios of TNFα/IL-4 at 12 and 24 hours after ERCP were found significantly higher in the patients with post-ERCP pancreatitis than in those without pancreatitis. IL-6 in the complicated patients was found significantly increased at 24 hours after ERCP. Conclusions. The enhancement of serum TNFα and IL-6 levels in the patients with ERCP-induced pancreatitis reflects the inflammatory activity. Additionally, these cytokines together with IL-4 can be used in clinical laboratory monitoring of ERCP. PMID:18670651

  4. IL-4 and IL-13 employ discrete signaling pathways for target gene expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Shukla, Meenakshi; Yakubenko, Valentin P; Mulya, Anny; Kundu, Suman; Cathcart, Martha K

    2013-01-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the resolution of inflammation. In the presence of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), they display an anti-inflammatory profile and this activation pathway is known as alternative activation. In this study we compare and differentiate pathways mediated by IL-4 and IL-13 activation of human monocytes/macrophages. Here we report differential regulation of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling in monocytes/macrophages starting from IL-4/IL-13 cytokine receptors to Jak/Stat-mediated signaling pathways that ultimately control expression of several inflammatory genes. Our data demonstrate that although the receptor-associated tyrosine kinases Jak2 and Tyk2 are activated after the recruitment of IL-13 to its receptor (containing IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1), IL-4 stimulates Jak1 activation. We further show that Jak2 is upstream of Stat3 activation and Tyk2 controls Stat1 and Stat6 activation in response to IL-13 stimulation. In contrast, Jak1 regulates Stat3 and Stat6 activation in IL-4-induced monocytes. Our results further reveal that although IL-13 utilizes both IL-4Rα/Jak2/Stat3 and IL-13Rα1/Tyk2/Stat1/Stat6 signaling pathways, IL-4 can use only the IL-4Rα/Jak1/Stat3/Stat6 cascade to regulate the expression of some critical inflammatory genes, including 15-lipoxygenase, monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), and the scavenger receptor CD36. Moreover, we demonstrate here that IL-13 and IL-4 can uniquely affect the expression of particular genes such as dual-specificity phosphatase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-3 and do so through different Jaks. As evidence of differential regulation of gene function by IL-4 and IL-13, we further report that MAO-A-mediated reactive oxygen species generation is influenced by different Jaks. Collectively, these results have major implications for understanding the mechanism and function of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages by IL-4 and

  5. Differential expression of IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A regulates invasion/angiogenesis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Das, Anjan Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2018-04-26

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines. The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. Here, we have established a co-relation between IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A and their regulation in hypoxia induced invasion/angiogenesis. We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples. We studied a co-relation among MAO-A and IL-6/IL-6R and tumour angiogenesis/invasion in hypoxic environment in breast cancer model. Activation of IL-6/IL-6R and its downstream was found in hypoxic cancer cells. This elevation of IL-6/IL-6R caused sustained inhibition of MAO-A in hypoxic environment. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling or IL-6R siRNA increased MAO-A activity and inhibited tumour angiogenesis and invasion significantly in different models. Further, elevation of MAO-A with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) modulated IL-6 mediated angiogenesis and invasive signatures including VEGF, MMPs and EMT in hypoxic breast cancer. High grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) clinical specimen displayed elevated level of IL-6R and depleted MAO-A expression. Expression of VEGF and HIF-1α was unregulated and loss of E-Cadherin was observed in high grade IDC tissue specimen. Suppression of MAO-A by IL-6/IL-6R activation promotes tumour angiogenesis and invasion in hypoxic breast cancer environment.

  6. Habitable Zone Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.; Lota, J.

    2012-12-01

    The location of the habitable zone around a star depends upon stellar luminosity and upon the properties of a potentially habitable planet such as its mass and near-surface volatile inventory. Stellar luminosity generally increases as a star ages whilst planetary properties change through time as a consequence of biological and geological evolution. Hence, the location of the habitable zone changes through time as a result of both stellar evolution and planetary evolution. Using the Earth's Phanerozoic temperature history as a constraint, it is shown that changes in our own habitable zone over the last 540 My have been dominated by planetary evolution rather than solar evolution. Furthermore, sparse data from earlier times suggests that planetary evolution may have dominated habitable zone development throughout our biosphere's history. Hence, the existence of a continuously habitable zone depends upon accidents of complex bio-geochemical evolution more than it does upon relatively simple stellar-evolution. Evolution of the inner margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations. Evolution of the outer margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations.

  7. Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Serum Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Shen, Min; Smith, Martyn T.; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Ji, Zhiying; Reiss, Boris; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Songwang; Bagni, Rachel; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark; Hu, Wei; Yue, Fei; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the immunotoxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE), we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of workers exposed to TCE. We measured serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, which play a critical role in regulating various components of the immune system, in 71 exposed workers and 78 unexposed control workers. Repeated personal exposure measurements were taken in workers before blood collection using 3 M organic vapor monitoring badges. Compared to unexposed workers, the serum concentration of IL-10 in workers exposed to TCE was decreased by 70% (P = 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. Further, the magnitude of decline in IL-10 was >60% and statistically significant in workers exposed to <12 ppm as well as in workers with exposures ≥ 12 ppm of TCE, compared to unexposed workers. No significant differences in levels of IL-6 or TNF-α were observed among workers exposed to TCE compared to unexposed controls. Given that IL-10 plays an important role in immunologic processes, including mediating the Th1/Th2 balance, our findings provide additional evidence that TCE is immunotoxic in humans. PMID:23798002

  8. The biology of IL-23 and IL-17 and their therapeutic targeting in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Jonathan P; Taylor, Peter C; Buckley, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 and the related cytokine IL-17 play vital roles in immune-mediated inflammatory pathology. In the years since its discovery, IL-23 has been implicated as a central pathogenic factor in multiple rheumatic conditions and has been shown to act via a wide range of immune cells including type 17 T-helper (Th17) cells and innate-like immune cells. We review here the pivotal role of these cytokines and IL-23-responsive cells in both the bona fide autoimmune rheumatic diseases rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as the spondyloarthropathies which more closely resemble the auto-inflammatory conditions. IL-23 and related cytokines have been found to be up-regulated in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and spondyloarthropathy, and preclinical models suggest that they play important pathological roles in these conditions. It is anticipated that agents which target the IL-23 pathway will have profound roles in modifying the natural history of these diseases and in preventing the structural damage which occurs secondary to such chronic inflammation. This is especially relevant in the case of spondyloarthropathy in which case prevention of the novel bone formation is a particular challenge. It is also potentially pertinent for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, particularly those who do not respond to other biological therapies.

  9. Clinical improvement following therapy for periodontitis: Association with a decrease in IL-1 and IL-6

    PubMed Central

    REIS, CÁTIA; DA COSTA, ALEXANDRA VIANA; GUIMARÃES, JOÃO TIAGO; TUNA, DIANA; BRAGA, ANA CRISTINA; PACHECO, JOSÉ JULIO; AROSA, FERNANDO A.; SALAZAR, FILOMENA; CARDOSO, ELSA MARIA

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with periodontal pathogenesis, it is important to investigate further whether these biomarkers are associated with the degree of success in nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to quantify the total levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients prior to and following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. In total, 52 GCF samples from disease sites of patients with chronic periodontitis, prior to and following periodontal therapy, and ten non-disease sites from non-periodontitis subjects, were collected and cytokine concentrations were determined using a multiplex method. Periodontal parameters, including bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and the clinical attachment level, in all the sites were recorded. Untreated disease sites exhibited higher cytokine levels in the GCF when compared with the non-disease sites. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the total levels of IL-1α, -1β and -6 in the GCF, but not in IL-10 or TNF-α. The results support the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6, are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and are good markers to evaluate the success of nonsurgical therapy in disease sites of patients with periodontitis. PMID:24944641

  10. Clinical improvement following therapy for periodontitis: Association with a decrease in IL-1 and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Reis, Cátia; DA Costa, Alexandra Viana; Guimarães, João Tiago; Tuna, Diana; Braga, Ana Cristina; Pacheco, José Julio; Arosa, Fernando A; Salazar, Filomena; Cardoso, Elsa Maria

    2014-07-01

    Although a number of inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with periodontal pathogenesis, it is important to investigate further whether these biomarkers are associated with the degree of success in nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to quantify the total levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients prior to and following nonsurgical periodontal therapy. In total, 52 GCF samples from disease sites of patients with chronic periodontitis, prior to and following periodontal therapy, and ten non-disease sites from non-periodontitis subjects, were collected and cytokine concentrations were determined using a multiplex method. Periodontal parameters, including bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and the clinical attachment level, in all the sites were recorded. Untreated disease sites exhibited higher cytokine levels in the GCF when compared with the non-disease sites. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the total levels of IL-1α, -1β and -6 in the GCF, but not in IL-10 or TNF-α. The results support the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6, are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and are good markers to evaluate the success of nonsurgical therapy in disease sites of patients with periodontitis.

  11. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  12. Hepatitis B Virus Induces IL-23 Production in Antigen Presenting Cells and Causes Liver Damage via the IL-23/IL-17 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jun; Zheng, Yanhua; Huang, Zemin; Tian, Yi; Jia, Zhengcai; Tang, Yan; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Mao, Qing; Bian, Xiuwu; Ping, Yifang; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

    2013-01-01

    IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR)-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis. PMID:23825942

  13. The effect of IL-18 on IL-12-induced CD30 expression and IL-4 and IFN-γ production by allergen and PPD specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tarkowski, M; Chrul, S; Bodalski, J

    2002-01-01

    CD30 is expressed on activated T cells that, as has been suggested, preferentially produce IFN-γ. Interleukin 12 increases antigen-induced CD30 expression on T cells and IFN-γ production. Synthesis of IFN-γ can be augmented further by IL-18. The aim of our study was to investigate whether IL-18 affects the IL-12 induced CD30 expression and cytokine production by allergen or PPD specific T cells. Mononuclear cells of healthy or atopic volunteers were stimulated with PPD or allergen, respectively, to obtain specific T cell lines. T cells were restimulated with appropriate antigen and antigen-presenting cells in the presence of IL-12, IL-18 or a combination of these cytokines. After 3 days, expression of CD30 was investigated on CD4 and CD8 T cells and IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokine production was estimated in the culture supernatants. Flow cytometric analyses showed no effect of IL-18 on CD30 expression during IL-12 co-stimulation. At the same time after the optimal stimulation for CD30 expression, the levels of IFN-γ were high in PPD-stimulated cell lines but have not been up-regulated by IL-18. IFN-γ levels were much lower in allergen-stimulated T cells and although they were up-regulated by IL-12 there was no additional or synergistic effect from IL-18. IL-18, however, increased production of IL-4 in allergen-stimulated cell lines. Our studies provide new information about IL-18 activity on human cells and question its exclusive role in Th1 mediated responses. PMID:11882036

  14. Parasite-Antigen Driven Expansion of IL-5− and IL-5+ Th2 Human Subpopulations in Lymphatic Filariasis and Their Differential Dependence on IL-10 and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Two different Th2 subsets have been defined recently on the basis of IL-5 expression – an IL-5+Th2 subset and an IL-5−Th2 subset in the setting of allergy. However, the role of these newly described CD4+ T cells subpopulations has not been explored in other contexts. Methods To study the role of the Th2 subpopulation in a chronic, tissue invasive parasitic infection (lymphatic filariasis), we examined the frequency of IL-5+IL-4+IL-13+ CD4+ T cells and IL-5−IL-4 IL-13+ CD4+ T cells in asymptomatic, infected individuals (INF) and compared them to frequencies (Fo) in filarial-uninfected (UN) individuals and to those with filarial lymphedema (CP). Results INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and antigen-induced Fo of both Th2 subpopulations compared to the UN and CP. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the Fo of IL-5+Th2 cells and the absolute eosinophil and neutrophil counts; in addition there was a positive correlation between the frequency of the CD4+IL-5−Th2 subpopulation and the levels of parasite antigen – specific IgE and IgG4 in INF individuals. Moreover, blockade of IL-10 and/or TGFβ demonstrated that each of these 2 regulatory cytokines exert opposite effects on the different Th2 subsets. Finally, in those INF individuals cured of infection by anti-filarial therapy, there was a significantly decreased Fo of both Th2 subsets. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both IL-5+ and IL-5−Th2 cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses in filarial infection and that these two Th2 subpopulations may be regulated by different cytokine-receptor mediated processes. PMID:24498448

  15. Secreted Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Glycoprotein Induces Interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, and Eosinophilia by an IL-4-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Teresa R.; Graham, Barney S.

    1999-01-01

    The attachment glycoprotein G of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is produced as both membrane-anchored and secreted forms by infected cells. Immunization with secreted RSV G (Gs) or formalin-inactivated alumprecipitated RSV (FI-RSV) predisposes mice to immune responses involving a Th2 cell phenotype which results in more severe illness and pathology, decreased viral clearance, and increased pulmonary eosinophilia upon subsequent RSV challenge. These responses are associated with increased interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in FI-RSV-primed mice, and the responses are IL-4 dependent. RNase protection assays demonstrated that similar levels of IL-4 mRNA were induced after RSV challenge in mice primed with vaccinia virus expressing Gs (vvGs) or a construct expressing only membrane-anchored G (vvGr). However, upon RSV challenge, vvGs-primed mice produced significantly greater levels of IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA and protein than vvGr-primed mice. Administration of neutralizing anti-IL-4 antibody 11.B11 during vaccinia virus priming did not alter the levels of vvGs-induced IL-5, IL-13, pulmonary eosinophilia, illness, or RSV titers upon RSV challenge, although immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype profiles revealed that more IgG2a was produced. vvGs-priming of IL-4-deficient mice demonstrated that G-induced airway eosinophilia was not dependent on IL-4. In contrast, airway eosinophilia induced by FI-RSV priming was significantly reduced in IL-4-deficient mice. Thus we conclude that, in contrast to FI-RSV, the secreted form of RSV G can directly induce IL-5 and IL-13, producing pulmonary eosinophilia and enhanced illness in RSV-challenged mice by an IL-4-independent mechanism. PMID:10482601

  16. IL-1 beta and IL-6 in mouse parotid acinar cells: characterization of synthesis, storage, and release.

    PubMed

    Tanda, N; Ohyama, H; Yamakawa, M; Ericsson, M; Tsuji, T; McBride, J; Elovic, A; Wong, D T; Login, G R

    1998-01-01

    Synthesis, storage, and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 have not been established in normal exocrine gland secretory cells. Parotid glands and isolated acinar cells prepared from BALB/c mice were homogenized for RNA isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IL-1 beta and IL-6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were done on supernatants prepared from mouse parotid acinar cell (MPAC) preparations unstimulated or stimulated between 0 and 10 min with 10(-5) M norepinephrine at 37 degrees C. MPACs were fixed in paraformaldehyde, frozen sectioned for light and electron microscopy, and labeled with antibodies to IL-1 beta and IL-6. Mouse specific riboprobes to IL-1 and IL-6 were used for in situ hybridization. RT-PCR yielded the expected IL-1 (336-bp) and IL-6 (614-bp) mRNA products. By ELISA, stimulated MPACs showed a significant increase in IL-1 beta (P < 0.03) and IL-6 (P < 0.01) release into supernatants by 10 min that paralleled the time course of amylase release. In situ hybridization showed the presence of transcripts for IL-1 and IL-6 in glandular epithelial cells. Gold-labeled IL-1 beta and IL-6 were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in granules than in the nucleus and cytoplasm. This study shows that MPACs synthesize IL-1 beta and IL-6 and release these cytokines from their granules after alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  17. IL-36α Regulates Tubulointerstitial Inflammation in the Mouse Kidney.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Kimura, Junpei; Okamura, Tadashi; Horino, Taro; Nakamura, Teppei; Sasaki, Hayato; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    IL-36α, a member of the IL-1 family, is a crucial mediator of inflammatory responses. We previously found that IL-36α was overexpressed in injured distal tubules (DTs); however, its pathological function remains unclear. Herein, unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) or folic acid (FA) injection was performed in mouse kidneys to assess the role of IL-36α in kidney injury. IL-36α mRNA and protein expression significantly increased in the kidneys within 24 h after UUO. IL-36α localized to dilated DTs. IL-36α expression significantly correlated with the progression of tubulointerstitial cell infiltration and tubular epithelium cell death in UUO kidneys and with renal dysfunction in FA-induced acute kidney injury mice. At 24 h after UUO, IL-36α + DT epithelial cells showed loose intercellular digitations. IL-1RL2, an IL-36α receptor protein, localized to podocytes, proximal tubules, and DTs in the healthy kidney. IL-1RL2 was expressed in interstitial cells and platelets or extended primary cilia of DT epithelial cells in UUO kidneys. IL-36α stimulation promoted the production of IL-6 and Prss35, an inflammatory cytokine and collagen remodeling-associated enzyme, respectively, in cultured NIH3T3 fibroblasts. UUO-treated IL-36α-knockout (KO) mice showed milder kidney injury features than wild-type (WT) mice did. In UUO kidneys from IL-36α-KO mice, the expression of genes associated with inflammatory response and sensory perception was significantly different from that in WT mice. Altogether, our data indicate an association between intrarenal IL-36α overexpression and the progression of tubulointerstitial inflammations and morpho-functional alterations of DT epithelial cells. IL-36α may be a novel kidney injury marker useful for evaluating DT damages.

  18. Failure of FIV-infected cats to control Toxoplasma gondii correlates with reduced IL2, IL6, and IL12 and elevated IL10 expression by lymph node T cells.

    PubMed

    Levy, Julie K; Liang, Yinghua; Ritchey, Jerry W; Davidson, Michael G; Tompkins, Wayne A; Tompkins, Mary B

    2004-03-01

    Increased susceptibility to intracellular pathogens in HIV-infected individuals and FIV-infected cats is attributed to a defective T-helper 1 (Th1) immune response. However, little is known about specific cytokine responses to secondary pathogens. To address this question, control and FIV-infected cats were challenged with Toxoplasma gondii, and lymph node cells analyzed for cytokine mRNA expression. Twenty-four weeks post-FIV infection, prior to T. gondii challenge, IL2 and IL12 mRNAs were depressed, whereas IL10 and IFNgamma mRNAs were increased in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. Following T. gondii challenge, control cats showed increased expression of IL2, IFNgamma, IL10, IL12, and IL6 mRNAs. In contrast, IL2, IL6, IFNgamma, and IL12 mRNAs were suppressed in FIV-T. gondii co-infected cats, whereas IL10 remained at the high prechallenge levels. IFNgamma and IL10 mRNAs were produced by both CD4+ and CD8+ cells in FIV-T. gondii cats. Elevated IL10 may suppress a Th1 cytokine response to T. gondii challenge.

  19. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Wilasco, Maria Ines de Albuquerque; Uribe-Cruz, Carolina; Santetti, Daniele; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (p<0.001), 0.21 vs. 0.14 (p=0.007), and 0.65 vs. 0.36 (p=0.004), respectively. IL-6 and IL-10 were positively correlated with disease severity (0.450 [p=0.001] and 0.410; [p=0.002], respectively). TNF-α did not show a significant correlation with disease severity (0.100; p=0.478). Regarding nutritional evaluation, IL-6 was negatively correlated with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (-0.493; p<0.001) and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (-0.503; p<0.001), respectively. IL-10 exhibited a negative correlation with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (-0.476; p<0.001) and the standard deviation score of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (-0.388; p=0.004). TNF-α did not show any significance in both anthropometric parameters (-0.083 (p=0.555) and -0.161 (p=0.253). The authors suggest that, in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 754 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... barriers would affect a human body if immersed in the water. The NEDU final report concluded that the possible effects to a human body if immersed in the water include paralysis of body muscles, inability to... body of your document so that we can contact you if we have questions regarding your submission. To...

  1. 75 FR 75145 - Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... current from the barriers would affect a human body if immersed in the water. The NEDU final report concluded that the possible effects to a human body if immersed in the water include paralysis of body..., an e-mail address, or a telephone number in the body of your document so that we can contact you if...

  2. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Michigan and creates an electric field in the water by pulsing low voltage DC current through steel cables... the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' simultaneous operation of electric barriers IIA and IIB. Under 5 U.S... selected an electric barrier because it is a non-lethal deterrent with a proven history, which does not...

  3. 75 FR 58364 - Foreign-Trade Zone 114-Peoria, IL Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... approved, but instead involves an administrative renumbering that separates certain non-contiguous sites...; Site 7 (360 acres) located at the former Chanute Air Force Base, 601 S. Century Boulevard, Rantoul...,000 sq. ft.) located at 2314 E. Wilkins Drive, Mossville. For further information, contact Elizabeth...

  4. 77 FR 25361 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... email MST2 Rebecca Stone, Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at 414-747-7154, email Rebecca.R.Stone@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the...

  5. 77 FR 18688 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... email MST2 Rebecca Stone, Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at 414-747-7154, email Rebecca.R.Stone@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the...

  6. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ..., 087[deg]31'47.12'' W (NAD 83). --All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from position 41...'' N, 087[deg]38'04.7'' W (NAD 83). --All waters of the Chicago River from an imaginary line connecting...[deg]52'36.4'' N, 087[deg]38'15.8'' W (NAD 83). --All waters of the Chicago River from the West Lake...

  7. 77 FR 13232 - Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... point located in the approximate position 41[deg]51'37'' N, 087[deg]36'44'' W. [DATUM: NAD 83]. (2... located in the approximate position 41[deg]53'19'' N, 087[deg]36'17'' W. [DATUM: NAD 83]. (3) Security..., 087[deg]36'28'' W. [DATUM: NAD 83] and the juncture of the north and south branches of the Chicago...

  8. 75 FR 23209 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (4) Hand...'' box. Click ``Search'' then click on the balloon shape in the ``Actions'' column. If you submit your... Docket Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation West...

  9. 78 FR 42692 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on the navigable waters of the United States immediately..., 087[deg]36'09'' W; then back to the point of origin. All vessels must obtain permission from the...

  10. 78 FR 59239 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on the navigable waters of the United States...'' N, 087[deg]36'24.6'' W; then east back to the point of origin (NAD 83). All vessels must obtain...

  11. 78 FR 42012 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... requirements, as with all others included in the 33 CFR 165.923, are necessary for safe navigation of the RNA... service, as defined in 46 U.S.C. 2101(5), may not pass (meet or overtake) in the RNA and must make a... the rule as originally published in the Federal Register on December 12, 2011. DATES: This rule will...

  12. 76 FR 77121 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... RNA; (4) vessels engaged in commercial service, as defined in 46 U.S.C. 2101(5), may not pass (meet or... at all times until the entire tow is clear of the RNA. (B) Vessels engaged in commercial service, as...: Documents indicated in this preamble as being available in the docket are part of docket USCG-2011-1108 and...

  13. 77 FR 55139 - Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... associated with an acrobatic event involving human-powered craft, which are discussed further below. Under 5..., which will involve personally-crafted flying machines with human occupants falling from a raised... include drifting debris, collisions between spectators, falling water craft and their human occupants, and...

  14. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  15. Speeds in school zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  16. Maternal serum but not breast milk IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 immune markers are associated with scratching among infants.

    PubMed

    Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Boyd, Keith; Zhang, Hongmei; Gangur, Venugopal; Goetzl, Laura; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Scratching in infants is considered to be related to early development of eczema. Little is known about the effects of maternal immune markers on scratching among infants. The objective is to compare the risks related to maternal serum immune markers (IMs) during pregnancy and IMs in breast milk for the occurrence of scratching in infants at 6 and 12 months of age. Pregnant women were recruited in Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. Blood (median 3 weeks prepartum) and breast milk (3 weeks postpartum) samples were collected. The concentrations of interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (or CXCL10), CCL11, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL8), IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and immunoglobulin (Ig) A in both maternal serum and whey were assayed using optimized immunoassays. Scratching and skin manifestations were ascertained at 6 and 12 months. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of IMs for repeated measurements of scratching, considering intra-individual correlations and adjusting for confounders. Of 178 women, 161 provided blood and 115 breast milk samples. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and CCL11 in maternal serum and whey were not analyzed due to a large proportion of non-detectable values. Infants in the highest tertile of IL-6 and IL-13 in maternal serum were at higher risk of scratching (RR 1.73 and 1.84, respectively; p ≤ 0.002) compared to infants in the first tertile; similarly, infants born to mothers with high (versus low) levels of serum IL-5 were also at increased risk (RR 1.60, p = 0.002). None of the breast milk IMs studied were associated with scratching. Scratching but not doctors diagnosed eczema was associated with higher levels of maternal IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 during pregnancy. Further investigations are necessary to determine how maternal serum IMs influence infants scratching.

  17. Fine-mapping and transethnic genotyping establish IL2/IL21 genetic association with lupus and localize this genetic effect to IL21.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Travis; Kim-Howard, Xana; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Langefeld, Carl D; Ziegler, Julie; Sanchez, Elena; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D; Martín, Javier; Brown, Elizabeth E; Vilá, Luis M; Alarcón, Graciela S; James, Judith A; Gilkeson, Gary S; Moser, Kathy L; Gaffney, Patrick M; Merrill, Joan T; Vyse, Timothy J; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Nath, Swapan K; Harley, John B; Sawalha, Amr H

    2011-06-01

    Genetic association of the IL2/IL21 region at chromosome 4q27 has previously been reported in lupus and a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to determine whether this genetic effect could be localized, using a very large cohort of lupus patients and controls. We genotyped 45 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the IL2/IL21 locus in 2 large independent lupus sample sets. We studied a set of subjects of European descent consisting of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 healthy controls, and an African American set of 1,569 patients and 1,893 healthy controls. Imputation in 3,004 additional controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium was also performed. Genetic association between the genotyped markers was determined, and pairwise conditional analysis was performed to localize the independent genetic effect in the IL2/IL21 locus in lupus. We established and confirmed the genetic association between IL2/IL21 and lupus. Using conditional analysis and transethnic mapping, we localized the genetic effect in this locus to 2 SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium: rs907715 located within IL21 (odds ratio 1.16 [95% confidence interval 1.10-1.22], P=2.17×10(-8)) and rs6835457 located in the 3'-untranslated flanking region of IL21 (odds ratio 1.11 [95% confidence interval 1.05-1.17], P=9.35×10(-5)). Our findings establish the genetic association between lupus and IL2/IL21 with a genome-wide level of significance. Further, our findings indicate that this genetic association within the IL2/IL21 linkage disequilibrium block is localized to IL21. If other autoimmune IL2/IL21 genetic associations are similarly localized, then the IL21 risk alleles would be predicted to operate by a fundamental mechanism that influences the course of a number of autoimmune disease processes. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  19. The role of IL 23 in the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Puig, Lluís

    2017-06-01

    The IL-23/IL-17 axis is currently considered to be crucial in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Human IL-23 is primarily produced by antigen-presenting cells and induces and maintains differentiation of Th17 cells and Th22 cells, a primary cellular source of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22, which mediate the epidermal hyperplasia, keratinocyte immune activation and tissue inflammation inherent in psoriasis. Agents that target the p40 subunit common to both IL-12 and IL-23 have shown robust clinical activity, but selectivity for IL-23p19 could offer advantages in efficacy and safety with respect to anti-p40 blockade. Areas covered: Relevant references regarding the role of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis and clinical trials with IL-23p40 and IL-23p19 blocking agents were obtained through a literature search in MEDLINE/Pubmed for articles published until November 2016. Moreover, ongoing registered clinical trials (RCTs) of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were searched through clinicaltrials.gov website, and a manual search was made for pertinent communications at the 2016 American Academy of Dermatology and European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology meetings. Expert commentary: There are potential advantages in selective blockade of the IL23-specific p19 subunit with respect to distal blockade of IL-17A or its receptor. Acting upstream in the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine pathway is likely to reduce the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on keratinocytes -including IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22-, in addition to IL-17A. On the other hand, safety data thus far suggest that these drugs might be devoid of some adverse effects of IL-17A blockade that seem to be class related, such as mucocutaneous Candida infections or triggering or worsening of inflammatory bowel disease. Specific IL-23p19 blockade with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies seems to be able to induce long

  20. IL-2 activation of STAT5 enhances production of IL-10 from human cytotoxic regulatory T cells, HOZOT.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Harashima, Akira; Okochi, Ayumi; Otani, Takeshi; Inoue, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Akira; Motoda, Ryuichi; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Nakamura, Shuji; Kibata, Masayoshi

    2008-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by many cell types, including T cells. We previously reported that a novel type of regulatory T (Treg) cells, termed HOZOT, which possesses a FOXP3+CD4+CD8+CD25+ phenotype and dual suppressor/cytotoxic activities, produced high levels of IL-10. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of high IL-10 production by HOZOT, focusing on Janus activating kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. We prepared five different types of T cells, including HOZOT from human umbilical cord blood. Cytokine productions of IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were compared among these T cells after anti-CD3/CD28 antibody stimulation in the presence or absence of IL-2. Specific inhibitors for JAK/STAT, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and nuclear factor for activated T cell (NFAT) were used to analyze signal transduction mechanisms. IL-10 production by HOZOTs was greatly enhanced by the addition of IL-2. Little or no enhancement of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production was observed under the same conditions. The enhancing effect of IL-2 was specific for both HOZOT and IL-10-secreting Treg cells. T helper type 2 cells, whose IL-10 production mechanisms involve GATA-3, failed to show IL-2-mediated enhancement of IL-10. Similar enhancing effects of IL-15 and IFN-alpha suggested a major role of JAK/STAT activation pathway for high IL-10 production. Further inhibitor experiments demonstrated that STAT5 rather than STAT3 was critically involved in this mechanism. Our results demonstrated that IL-2 selectively enhanced production of IL-10 in HOZOT primarily through activation of STAT5, which synergistically acts with NF-kappaB/NFAT activation, implying a novel regulatory mechanism of IL-10 production in Treg cells.

  1. A Batf3/Nlrp3/IL-18 Axis Promotes Natural Killer Cell IL-10 Production during Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah E; Schmidt, Rebecca L; McDermott, Daniel S; Lenz, Laurel L

    2018-05-29

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) capitalizes on natural killer (NK) cell production of regulatory interleukin (IL)-10 to establish severe systemic infections. Here, we identify regulators of this IL-10 secretion. We show that IL-18 signals to NK cells license their ability to produce IL-10. IL-18 acts independent of IL-12 and STAT4, which co-stimulate IFNγ secretion. Dendritic cell (DC) expression of Nlrp3 is required for IL-18 release in response to the Lm p60 virulence protein. Therefore, mice lacking Nlrp3, Il18, or Il18R fail to accumulate serum IL-10 and are highly resistant to systemic Lm infection. We further show that cells expressing or dependent on Batf3 are required for IL-18-inducing IL-10 production observed in infected mice. These findings explain how Il18 and Batf3 promote susceptibility to bacterial infection and demonstrate the ability of Lm to exploit NLRP3 for the promotion of regulatory NK cell activity. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic regulation of IL1RL1 methylation and IL1RL1-a protein levels in asthma.

    PubMed

    Dijk, F Nicole; Xu, Chengjian; Melén, Erik; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Kumar, Asish; Nolte, Ilja M; Gruzieva, Olena; Pershagen, Goran; Grotenboer, Neomi S; Savenije, Olga E M; Antó, Josep Maria; Lavi, Iris; Dobaño, Carlota; Bousquet, Jean; van der Vlies, Pieter; van der Valk, Ralf J P; de Jongste, Johan C; Nawijn, Martijn C; Guerra, Stefano; Postma, Dirkje S; Koppelman, Gerard H

    2018-03-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 ( IL1RL1 ) is an important asthma gene. (Epi)genetic regulation of IL1RL1 protein expression has not been established. We assessed the association between IL1RL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a protein levels, and aimed to identify causal pathways in asthma.Associations of IL1RL1 SNPs with asthma were determined in the Dutch Asthma Genome-wide Association Study cohort and three European birth cohorts, BAMSE (Children/Barn, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, an Epidemiological survey), INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) and PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy), participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy study. We performed blood DNA IL1RL1 methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis (n=496) and (epi)genome-wide protein QTL analysis on serum IL1RL1-a levels (n=1462). We investigated the association of IL1RL1 CpG methylation with asthma (n=632) and IL1RL1-a levels (n=548), with subsequent causal inference testing. Finally, we determined the association of IL1RL1-a levels with asthma and its clinical characteristics (n=1101). IL1RL1 asthma-risk SNPs strongly associated with IL1RL1 methylation (rs1420101; p=3.7×10 -16 ) and serum IL1RL1-a levels (p=2.8×10 -56 ). IL1RL1 methylation was not associated with asthma or IL1RL1-a levels. IL1RL1-a levels negatively correlated with blood eosinophil counts, whereas there was no association between IL1RL1-a levels and asthma.In conclusion, asthma-associated IL1RL1 SNPs strongly regulate IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a levels, yet neither these IL1RL1- methylation CpG sites nor IL1RL1-a levels are associated with asthma. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  3. IL-23 Receptor (IL-23R) Gene Protects Against Pediatric Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dubinsky, Marla C.; Wang, Dai; Picornell, Yoana; Wrobel, Iwona; Katzir, Lirona; Quiros, Antonio; Dutridge, Debra; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Bahar, Ron; Mengesha, Emebet; Targan, Stephan R.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.

    2007-01-01

    Background The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) has been found to be associated with small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD) in a whole genome association study. Specifically, the rare allele of the R381Q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) conferred protection against CD. It is unknown whether IL-23R is associated with IBD in children. The aim was to examine the association of IL-23R with susceptibility to IBD in pediatric patients. Methods DNA was collected from 609 subjects (151 CD and 52 ulcerative colitis [UC] trios). Trios were genotyped for the R381Q SNP of the IL-23R gene and SNP8, SNP12, SNP13, of the CARD15 gene using Taqman. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used for association to disease using GENEHUNTER 2.0. Results The rare allele of R381Q SNP was present in 2.7% of CD and 2.9% UC probands. The CARD15 frequency was 31.5% (CD) and 18% (UC). The IL-23R allele was negatively associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): the R381Q SNP was undertransmitted in children with IBD (8 transmitted [T] versus 27 untransmitted [UT]; P = 0.001). This association was significant for all CD patients (6 T versus 19 UT; P = 0.009), especially for non-Jewish CD patients (2 T versus 17 UT; P = 0.0006). TDT showed a borderline association for UC (2 T versus 8 UT; P = 0.06). As expected, CARD15 was associated with CD in children by the TDT (58 T versus 22 UT P = 0.00006), but not with UC. Conclusions The protective IL-23R R381Q variant was particularly associated with CD in non-Jewish children. Thus, the initial whole genome association study based on ileal CD in adults has been extended to the pediatric population and beyond small bowel CD. PMID:17309073

  4. IL-6 pathway-driven investigation of response to IL-6 receptor inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmei; Platt, Adam; Upmanyu, Ruchi; Germer, Søren; Lei, Guiyuan; Rabe, Christina; Benayed, Ryma; Kenwright, Andrew; Hemmings, Andrew; Martin, Mitchell; Harari, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether heterogeneity in interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 receptor and other components of the IL-6 signalling pathway/network, at the gene, transcript and protein levels, correlate with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and with clinical response to tocilizumab. Design Biomarker samples and clinical data for five phase 3 trials of tocilizumab were analysed using serum (3751 samples), genotype (927 samples) and transcript (217 samples) analyses. Linear regression was then used to assess the association between these markers and either baseline disease activity or treatment response. Results Higher baseline serum IL-6 levels were significantly associated (p<0.0001) with higher baseline DAS28, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and Health Assessment Questionnaire in patients whose responses to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD-IR) and to antitumour necrosis factor (aTNF-IR) were inadequate and patients who were naive/responders to methotrexate (MTX). Higher baseline serum IL-6 levels were also significantly associated with better clinical response to tocilizumab (versus placebo) measured by cDAS28 in the pooled DMARD-IR (p<0.0001) and MTX-naive populations (p=0.04). However, the association with treatment response was weak. A threefold difference in baseline IL-6 level corresponded to only a 0.17-unit difference in DAS28 at week 16. IL-6 pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms and RNA levels also were not strongly associated with treatment response. Conclusions Our analyses illustrate that the biological activity of a disease-associated molecular pathway may impact the benefit of a therapy targeting that pathway. However, the variation in pathway activity, as measured in blood, may not be a strong predictor. These data suggest that the major contribution to variability in clinical responsiveness to therapeutics in RA remains unknown. PMID:23959753

  5. IL-23 and Th17 Disease in Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nanke, Yuki; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    IL-23, which is composed of p19 and p40 subunits, is a proinflammatory cytokine that contributes to the formation and maintenance of Th17 cells in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. IL-23 is a human osteoclastogenic cytokine and anti-IL-23 antibody attenuates paw volume and joint destruction in CIA rats. IL-23 levels in serum and synovial fluid are high in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and IL-23 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of RA. In addition, IL-23 affects the pathogenesis of inflammation and bone destruction through interaction with other cytokines such as IL-17 and TNF-α. Furthermore, polymorphisms of IL23R are a risk factor for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), which indicates that IL-23 is also involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Finally, IL-17 and IL-23 inhibitors reduce the clinical manifestations of SpA. Thus, the IL-23/Th17 pathway is a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:28850053

  6. IL-23 and Th17 Disease in Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yago, Toru; Nanke, Yuki; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2017-08-29

    IL-23, which is composed of p19 and p40 subunits, is a proinflammatory cytokine that contributes to the formation and maintenance of Th17 cells in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. IL-23 is a human osteoclastogenic cytokine and anti-IL-23 antibody attenuates paw volume and joint destruction in CIA rats. IL-23 levels in serum and synovial fluid are high in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and IL-23 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of RA. In addition, IL-23 affects the pathogenesis of inflammation and bone destruction through interaction with other cytokines such as IL-17 and TNF-α. Furthermore, polymorphisms of IL23R are a risk factor for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), which indicates that IL-23 is also involved in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Finally, IL-17 and IL-23 inhibitors reduce the clinical manifestations of SpA. Thus, the IL-23/Th17 pathway is a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis.

  7. Submission of nucleotide sequence chicken IL-7 to genbank database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammalian interleukin-7 (IL-7) is able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and maturation, and reverse immuno-suppression. However, whether poultry IL-7 has similar functions remains unclear. Chicken IL-7 promoted mouse B cell proliferation in vitro, and significantly reduced virus titer in bursal...

  8. [Regulation of IL-1beta and IL-8 production by mu-, delta-opiate receptors agonists in vitro].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gorshkova, K G; Tendriakova, S P

    2008-07-01

    The beta-endorphin 10(-7-)-10(-11) M in LPS (lypopolisaccharide) presence and in spontaneous cultures promoted the IL-1beta production in mixed leukocyte fraction. LPS-induced IL-8 production in leukocyte fraction was inhibited by beta-endorphin 10(-7), 10(-11) M. The enchasing effect of beta-endorphin on IL-1beta production was not blocked by naloxone and naltrindole. The inhibitory effect of beta-endorphin on IL-8 production was blocked by naloxone and naltrindole. In mononuclear and neutrophile fractions beta-endorphin and delta-agonist DADLE enchased IL-1beta production in spontaneous and LPS-stimulating cultures, when IL-8 production inhibited beta-endorphin and delta-agonist DADLE only in LPS presence. No effect of mu-agonist DAGO were observed on IL-1beta production, whereas LPS-induced IL-8 secretion in neutrophile fraction inhibited by DAGO.

  9. IL8 and IL16 levels indicate serum and plasma quality.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga; Henry, Estelle; Quesada, Rocio Aguilar; Bulla, Alexandre; Linares, Hector Navarro; Lescuyer, Pierre; Shea, Kathi; Stone, Mars; Tybring, Gunnel; Bellora, Camille; Betsou, Fay

    2018-02-09

    Longer pre-centrifugation times alter the quality of serum and plasma samples. Markers for such delays in sample processing and hence for the sample quality, have been identified. Twenty cytokines in serum, EDTA plasma and citrate plasma samples were screened for changes in concentration induced by extended blood pre-centrifugation delays at room temperature. The two cytokines that showed the largest changes were further validated for their "diagnostic performance" in identifying serum or plasma samples with extended pre-centrifugation times. In this study, using R&D Systems ELISA kits, EDTA plasma samples and serum samples with a pre-centrifugation delay longer than 24 h had an IL16 concentration higher than 313 pg/mL, and an IL8 concentration higher than 125 pg/mL, respectively. EDTA plasma samples with a pre-centrifugation delay longer than 48 h had an IL16 concentration higher than 897 pg/mL, citrate plasma samples had an IL8 concentration higher than 21.5 pg/mL and serum samples had an IL8 concentration higher than 528 pg/mL. These robust and accurate tools, based on simple and commercially available ELISA assays can greatly facilitate qualification of serum and plasma legacy collections with undocumented pre-analytics.

  10. Diverse Genome-wide Association Studies Associate the IL12/IL23 Pathway with Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Haitao; Kugathasan, Subra; Annese, Vito; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Russell, Richard K.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Imielinski, Marcin; Glessner, Joseph; Hou, Cuiping; Wilson, David C.; Walters, Thomas; Kim, Cecilia; Frackelton, Edward C.; Lionetti, Paolo; Barabino, Arrigo; Van Limbergen, Johan; Guthery, Stephen; Denson, Lee; Piccoli, David; Li, Mingyao; Dubinsky, Marla; Silverberg, Mark; Griffiths, Anne; Grant, Struan F.A.; Satsangi, Jack; Baldassano, Robert; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies typically focus on single-locus analysis, which may not have the power to detect the majority of genuinely associated loci. Here, we applied pathway analysis using Affymetrix SNP genotype data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) and uncovered significant association between Crohn Disease (CD) and the IL12/IL23 pathway, harboring 20 genes (p = 8 × 10−5). Interestingly, the pathway contains multiple genes (IL12B and JAK2) or homologs of genes (STAT3 and CCR6) that were recently identified as genuine susceptibility genes only through meta-analysis of several GWA studies. In addition, the pathway contains other susceptibility genes for CD, including IL18R1, JUN, IL12RB1, and TYK2, which do not reach genome-wide significance by single-marker association tests. The observed pathway-specific association signal was subsequently replicated in three additional GWA studies of European and African American ancestry generated on the Illumina HumanHap550 platform. Our study suggests that examination beyond individual SNP hits, by focusing on genetic networks and pathways, is important to unleashing the true power of GWA studies. PMID:19249008

  11. IL-23/IL-17/G-CSF pathway is associated with granulocyte recruitment to the lung during African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Karalyan, Z; Voskanyan, H; Ter-Pogossyan, Z; Saroyan, D; Karalova, E

    2016-10-15

    The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 pathway plays a crucial role in various forms of inflammation but its function in acute African swine fever (ASF) is not well understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to find out whether IL-23/IL-17/G-CSF is released in acute ASF and what function it may have. The present study revealed that the production of IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly increased in the sera of ASFV infected pigs. Using ELISA, we found that the serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 have overexpressed in ASF virus infected pigs compared with healthy controls. The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 increase in the early stages and the levels of G-CSF and C - reactive protein in the later stages of ASF. Simultaneously, with the increase of the levels of IL-23/IL-17 extravasation of granular leukocytes in the tissue (diapedesis) is observed. Diapedesis can explain the neutropenia that we identified previously in the terminal stages of ASF. The increase in serum levels of IL-23/IL-17 is preceded by enhanced migration of neutrophils in tissues, and the last one is preceded by neutropenia. The increase in serum levels of G-CSF has compensatory nature, directed on stimulation of proliferation of granulocytes. Taken together, our results revealed an overexpression of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the ASF virus infected pigs, suggesting that it may be a crucial pathway in the diapedesis at ASF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP induce a distinct phenotypic and activation profile in human type 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Camelo, Ana; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Ohne, Yoichiro; Stewart, Ross A; Overed-Sayer, Catherine; Sleeman, Matthew A; May, Richard D

    2017-04-11

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a distinct branch of the lymphoid lineage composed of 3 major subpopulations: ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3. ILCs are mainly described as tissue-resident cells but can be detected at low levels in human blood. However, unlike mouse ILCs, there is still no consistent methodology to purify and culture these cells that enables in-depth analysis of their intrinsic biology. Here, we describe defined culture conditions for ILC2s, which allowed us to dissect the roles of interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) individually, or in combination, in modulating ILC2 phenotype and function. We show that TSLP is important for ILC2 survival, while ILC2 activation is more dependent on IL-33, especially when in combination with IL-2 or TSLP. We found that activation of ILC2s by IL-33 and TSLP dramatically upregulated their surface expression of c-Kit and downregulated expression of the canonical markers IL-7Rα and CRTH2. IL-2 further amplified ILC2 production of IL-5, IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor but also induced a more natural killer (NK)-like phenotype in ILC2, with upregulation of granzyme B production by these cells. Furthermore, ILC2 plasticity was observed in serum-free SFEM II media in response to IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP stimulation and independently of IL-12 and IL-1β. This is the first comprehensive report of an in vitro culture system for human ILC2s, without the use of feeder layers, which additionally evaluates the impact of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP alone or in combination on ILC2 surface phenotype and activation status.

  13. Immune response in Mansonella ozzardi infection modulated by IL-6/IL-10 axis in Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Sadahiro, Aya; Monteiro Tarragô, Andréa; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Pires Loiola, Bruna; Malheiro, Adriana; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes

    2018-04-01

    Mansonellosis is an endemic disease in the South and Central America. In Brazil, one of the etiological agents is Mansonella ozzardi. This filarial infection is yet poorly understood, with a controversial morbity, presenting since a oligosymptoms, malaria-like signs or without complaint in humans. The knowledge of the human immune response to microfilariae infection is limited mainly by different evolutionary cycles of the parasite in the host. In addition, the prevalence of this filarial parasite infection is high in several regions of Amazonas State. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an endemic area for microfilariae of M. ozzardi (MF) infection in the Amazonas State, Brazil. Proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IFN-gamma, and IL-17A) were measured in cryopreserved serum using the Cytometric Bead Array techniques (CBA) in 54 patients diagnosed with M. ozzardi infection and 55 individuals without the infection were included in the study (Controls). The IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 level increased in infected patients with MF infection, while IL-17A increased in control only. When we compared controls to patients with high or low parasite load, the increased level of IL-6 and IL-10 were maintained. IL-6 contributes to the proinflammatory activity and IL-10 modulates Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune response. Furthermore, IL-4 was detected as a marker in the MF infection and MF patients with low parasite load, indicating the action of the Th2 cell response. The complex network of cytokines acting during M. ozzardi infection depends on a fine balance to determine a host protective effect or filarial persistence. Therefore, these results suggest that the immune response in MF infection is modulated by IL-6/IL-10 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular characterization and immunological roles of avian IL-22 and its soluble receptor IL-22 binding protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a member of the interleukin (IL)-10 family, IL-22 is an important mediator in modulating tissue responses during inflammation. Through activation of STAT3-signaling cascades, IL-22 induces proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways, as well as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), that help prevent tissu...

  15. IL-6 Improves Energy and Glucose Homeostasis in Obesity via Enhanced Central IL-6 trans-Signaling.

    PubMed

    Timper, Katharina; Denson, Jesse Lee; Steculorum, Sophie Marie; Heilinger, Christian; Engström-Ruud, Linda; Wunderlich, Claudia Maria; Rose-John, Stefan; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Brüning, Jens Claus

    2017-04-11

    Interleukin (IL)-6 engages similar signaling mechanisms to leptin. Here, we find that central application of IL-6 in mice suppresses feeding and improves glucose tolerance. In contrast to leptin, whose action is attenuated in obesity, the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding is enhanced in obese mice. IL-6 suppresses feeding in the absence of neuronal IL-6-receptor (IL-6R) expression in hypothalamic or all forebrain neurons of mice. Conversely, obese mice exhibit increased soluble IL-6R levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IL-6 trans-signaling in the CNS abrogates the ability of IL-6 to suppress feeding. Furthermore, gp130 expression is enhanced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) of obese mice, and deletion of gp130 in the PVH attenuates the beneficial central IL-6 effects on metabolism. Collectively, these experiments indicate that IL-6 trans-signaling is enhanced in the CNS of obese mice, allowing IL-6 to exert its beneficial metabolic effects even under conditions of leptin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interleukin (IL)-33 and the IL-1 Family of Cytokines-Regulators of Inflammation and Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Kallies, Axel

    2017-11-03

    Cytokines play an integral role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. Members of the interleukin (IL)-1 family regulate a plethora of immune-cell-mediated processes, which include pathogen defense and tissue homeostasis. Notably, the IL-1 family cytokine IL-33 promotes adaptive and innate type 2 immune responses, confers viral protection and facilitates glucose metabolism and tissue repair. At the cellular level, IL-33 stimulates differentiation, maintenance, and function of various immune cell types, including regulatory T cells, effector CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Other IL-1 family members, such as IL-1β and IL-18 promote type 1 responses, while IL-37 limits immune activation. Although IL-1 cytokines play critical roles in immunity and tissue repair, their deregulated expression is often linked to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, IL-1 cytokines are regulated tightly by posttranscriptional mechanisms and decoy receptors. In this review, we discuss the biology and function of IL-1 family cytokines, with a specific focus on regulation and function of IL-33 in immune and tissue homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A.; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H.; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B.; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease. PMID:26267317

  18. The role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptors in platinum response in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Cunnea, Paula; Turner, Christina; Guney, Tankut; Aiyappa, Radhika; Jeyapalan, Senthuran; de Sousa, Camila H; Browne, Alacoque; Magdy, Nesreen; Studd, James B; Sriraksa, Ruethairat; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2015-10-13

    Platinum based drugs are the cornerstone of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, however the development of chemoresistance hinders its success. IL-8 is involved in regulating several pro-survival pathways in cancer. We studied the expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors in platinum sensitive and resistant cell lines. Using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, both platinum sensitive (PEA1, PEO14) and resistant (PEA2, PEO23) show increased expression of IL-8 and IL-8 receptors. IL-8RA shows nuclear and cytoplasmic expression, whilst IL-8RB is present solely in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of IL-8 increased sensitivity to cisplatin in platinum sensitive and reversed platinum resistance in resistant cell lines, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased inhibitory phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic Bad. IL-8 receptor antagonist treatment also enhanced platinum sensitivity. Nuclear localisation of IL-8RA was only detected in platinum resistant tumours. Inhibition of IL-8 signalling can enhance response in platinum sensitive and resistant disease. Nuclear IL-8RA may have potential as a biomarker of resistant disease.

  19. The distribution of IL-13 receptor alpha1 expression on B cells, T cells and monocytes and its regulation by IL-13 and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Graber, P; Gretener, D; Herren, S; Aubry, J P; Elson, G; Poudrier, J; Lecoanet-Henchoz, S; Alouani, S; Losberger, C; Bonnefoy, J Y; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Gauchat, J F

    1998-12-01

    To study the expression of IL-13 receptor alpha1 (IL-13Ralpha1), specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated. Surface expression of the IL-13Ralpha1 on B cells, monocytes and T cells was assessed by flow cytometry using these specific mAb. Among tonsillar B cells, the expression was the highest on the IgD+ CD38- B cell subpopulation which is believed to represent naive B cells. Expression was also detectable on a large fraction of the IgD-CD38- B cells but not on CD38+ B cells. Activation under conditions which promote B cell Ig class switching up-regulated the expression of the receptor. However, the same stimuli had an opposite effect for IL-13Ralpha1 expression levels on monocytes. While IL-13Ralpha1 mRNA was clearly detectable in T cell preparations, no surface expression was detected. However, permeabilization of the T cells showed a clear intracellular expression of the receptor. A soluble form of the receptor was immunoprecipitated from the supernatant of activated peripheral T cells, suggesting that T cell IL-13Ralpha1 might have functions unrelated to the capacity to form a type II IL-4/IL-13R with IL-4Ralpha.

  20. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  1. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  2. Effect of cryopreservation on IL-4, IFNgamma and IL-6 production of porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Xingxing; Zhong, Fei

    2009-12-01

    Cryopreservation of animal or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a commonly used technique. Effects of cryopreservation on functional capacity, especially the cytokine production of human PBMCs, have been extensively defined. However, certain animals, such as livestock, are a shortage of these information. Here we investigated the effects of cryopreservation on cytokine (IL-4, IFNgamma and IL-6) production of porcine PBMC. The porcine PBMCs were cryopreserved at -196 degrees C for a variety time periods for 2, 5, 25 and 50 days. Viability and cytokine production of the porcine PBMCs were measured before and after cryopreservation. The results showed that about 90% cell recovery rate was obtained at each storage time, indicating that about 10% loss of PBMCs in this short-term cryopreservation was due to the freezing process rather than the duration of cryopreservation. The fresh or frozen resting porcine PBMCs produced little cytokines in the absence of stimulation. However, three cytokines were apparently increased after PMA stimulation in both fresh and frozen porcine PBMCs. The sensitivity of frozen cells to PMA simulation for IFNgamma and IL-6 production was different from that of the fresh ones. IFNgamma production from the frozen PBMCs was significantly higher than that from the fresh ones (P<0.01). In contrast, IL-6 level from the frozen sample was significantly lower than that from the fresh one (P<0.05). Those results indicate that cryopreservation can increase the sensitivity of porcine PBMCs stimulated by PMA for IFNgamma production but not for IL-6 production. There was no significant difference of IL-4 production between fresh and frozen cells either stimulated (P>0.05) or un-stimulated (P>0.05).

  3. Freeway work zone lane capacity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  4. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boost, Kim A; Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Production of interferon (IFN)-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8. PMID:18801189

  5. Effect of peptide aldehydes with IL-1 beta converting enzyme inhibitory properties on IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Németh, K; Patthy, M; Fauszt, I; Széll, E; Székely, J I; Bajusz, S

    1995-12-01

    Tripeptide and pentapeptide aldehydes as substrate-base inhibitors of cysteine proteases were designed in our laboratory for the inhibition of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), a recently described cysteine protease responsible for the processing of IL-1 beta. The biological effectivity of the peptide aldehydes was studied in THP-1 cells and human whole blood. The released and cell-associated IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta levels were determined by ELISA from the supernatants and cell lysates, respectively. The total IL-1 like bioactivity was assayed by the D10 G4.1 cell proliferation method. The tripeptide aldehyde (Z-Val-His-Asp-H) and pentapeptide aldehyde (Eoc-Ala-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-H) significantly reduced IL-1 beta levels in the supernatants in relatively high concentrations (10-100 microM), but the IL-1 alpha release was unaffected by these peptides. However, a considerable decrease in the cell-associated IL-1 beta and IL-1 alpha levels was observed. N-terminal extension of the tripeptide aldehyde yielded even more potent inhibitors. Amino acid substitution at the P2 position did not cause considerable changes in the inhibitory activity. The peptide aldehydes suppressed the IL-1 beta production in a reversible manner, whereas dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, had a prolonged inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of these peptides and that of dexamethasone appeared to be additive. These findings indicate that these peptide aldehydes might be used as IL-beta inhibitory agents in experimental models in which IL-1 beta is a key mediator or ICE is implicated.

  6. The role of genetic variation across IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and BDNF in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Tiwari, Arun K; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Kennedy, James L; Kennedy, Sidney H; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotics with high weight gain-inducing propensities influence the expression of immune and neurotrophin genes, which have been independently related to obesity indices. Thus, we investigated whether variants in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met are associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). Nineteen polymorphisms were genotyped using Taqman(®) assays in 188 schizophrenia patients on antipsychotic treatment for up to 14 weeks. Mean weight change (%) from baseline was compared across genotypic groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Epistatic effects between cytokine polymorphisms and BDNF Val66Met were tested using Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction. In European patients, IL-1β rs16944*GA (P = 0.013, Pcorrected = 0.182), IL-1β rs1143634*G (P = 0.001, Pcorrected = 0.014), and BDNF Val66Met (Val/Val, P = 0.004, Pcorrected = 0.056) were associated with greater AIWG, as were IL-1β rs4849127*A (P = 0.049, Pcorrected = 0.784), and IL-1β rs16944*GA (P = 0.012, Pcorrected = 0.192) in African Americans. BDNF Val66Met interacted with both IL-1β rs13032029 (Val/Met+ TT, PPerm = 0.029), and IL-6 rs2069837 (Val/Val+ AA, PPerm = 0.021) in Europeans, in addition to IL-1β rs16944 (Val/Val+ GA, PPerm = 0.006) in African Americans. SNPs across IL-1β and BDNF Val66Met may influence AIWG. Replication of these findings in larger, independent samples is warranted.

  7. Dike zones on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  8. The induction of antibody production by IL-6 is indirectly mediated by IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dienz, Oliver; Eaton, Sheri M.; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Neveu, Wendy; Moquin, David; Noubade, Rajkumar; Briso, Eva M.; Charland, Colette; Leonard, Warren J.; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Teuscher, Cory; Haynes, Laura; Rincon, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 6 is a proinflammtory cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells and nonhematopoietic cells in response to external stimuli. It was initially identified as a B cell growth factor and inducer of plasma cell differentiation in vitro and plays an important role in antibody production and class switching in vivo. However, it is not clear whether IL-6 directly affects B cells or acts through other mechanisms. We show that IL-6 is sufficient and necessary to induce IL-21 production by naive and memory CD4+ T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation. IL-21 production by CD4+ T cells is required for IL-6 to promote B cell antibody production in vitro. Moreover, administration of IL-6 with inactive influenza virus enhances virus-specific antibody production, and importantly, this effect is dependent on IL-21. Thus, IL-6 promotes antibody production by promoting the B cell helper capabilities of CD4+ T cells through increased IL-21 production. IL-6 could therefore be a potential coadjuvant to enhance humoral immunity. PMID:19139170

  9. The effect of additional brain injury on systemic interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-13 levels in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hensler, T; Sauerland, S; Riess, P; Hess, S; Helling, H J; Andermahr, J; Bouillon, B; Neugebauer, E A

    2000-10-01

    Besides interleukin (IL)-10, accumulating evidence from in vitro studies has indicated a strong antiinflammatory capacity for IL-13. A prospective clinical study was undertaken to assess the influence of additional brain injury on systemic IL-10 and IL-13 levels as markers for the antiinflammatory state in trauma patients. The course of IL-10 and IL-13 plasma levels from 32 patients with an isolated severe head trauma (SHT), 50 patients with multiple injuries and additional SHT and 39 patients with multiple injuries without SHT was detected using ELISA-technique. Blood samples from 37 healthy blood donors were analysed for control. IL-10 levels were significantly elevated in all 3 injury groups within 3 h after trauma. The lowest initial release was detected in patients with an isolated SHT (Injury severity score; ISS: 18.1 +/- 5.6). No difference could be demonstrated for the IL-10 levels from multiple injured patients with (ISS: 35.3 +/- 9.6) or without additional SHT (ISS: 25.5 +/- 11.7), though there were relevant differences in the ISS. In contrast, the IL-13 plasma levels were not elevated systemically after trauma. IL-10 but not IL-13 is a detectable antiinflammatory marker in trauma patients with or without brain injury and to a minor degree in patients with an isolated SHT.

  10. Association between Interlukin-6 (IL-6), Interlukin-10 (IL-10) and depression in patients undergoing Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli-Ardakani, Maria; Mehrpooya, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mahshid; Hajifathali, Abbas; Abdolahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is responsible for the variety of behavioral, neuro-endocrine and neuro-chemical alterations in psychiatric condition. In this study we evaluate relation between depression and IL-6 and IL-10 in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Materials and Methods: 66 patients in this cross-sectional study from July 2013 until August 2014 for HSCT interred the study and were assessed for depression using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, (IL)-10 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed on the same time. Association between these biomarkers with depression was evaluated using SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 66 patients with the mean age of 41.18+13.92 and 41.95+12.35 years old in non depressed and depressed group respectively were enrolled in this study. Patients with depression showed significantly higher levels of serum IL-6 and the IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio compared to patients without depression (p<0.001).There was no statistically significant association between IL-10 and hs-CRP with depression in this group of the patients. Conclusions: High IL-6 level has significant association with depression in patients undergoing HSCT. In conclusion, since IL-6 can affect the outcomes after HSCT and depression was associated with increased serum IL-6 level, early identification of depression can be beneficial in these patients. PMID:25922648

  11. Prof. Il-Hoi Kim: a tribute.

    PubMed

    Huys, Rony

    2016-10-11

    Prof. Il-Hoi Kim was born during the Korean War on 28 February 1952 in Buan, North Jeolla Province (South Korea), near the coast of the Yellow Sea whose tidal flats would become one of his favourite sampling grounds during his scientific career. From an early age he developed an intense interest in natural history in general and marine biology in particular. He obtained his B.Sc. in 1974 at the Department of Biology Education, Gongju National College of Education. Between 1974 and 1976 he was conscripted into the South Korean military during which he progressed to the rank of lieutenant of artillery in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After his graduation in 1980 at the Department of Zoology, Seoul National University, Il-Hoi Kim moved to the Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University on the East Sea coast where he was first appointed lecturer (1981) before taking up the position of assistant professor (1983), associate professor (1987) and full professor (1993). In 1985 he had previously completed his Ph.D. dissertation on Korean barnacles at Seoul National University under the supervision of the late Prof. Hoon Soo Kim, a pioneer in marine invertebrate taxonomy and renowned as the father of carcinology in Korea.

  12. Anti-IL-23 and Anti-IL-17 Biologic Agents for the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Frieder, Jillian; Kivelevitch, Dario; Haugh, Isabel; Watson, Ian; Menter, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Advancements in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have identified interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-17 as fundamental contributors in the immune pathways of the disease. Leveraging these promising therapeutic targets has led to the emergence of a number of anti-IL-23 and -17 biologic agents with the potential to treat multiple conditions with common underlying pathology. The unprecedented clinical efficacy of these agents in the treatment of psoriasis has paved way for their evaluation in diseases such as psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, in addition to other immune-mediated conditions. Here we review the IL-23/IL-17 immune pathways and discuss the key clinical and safety data of the anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 biologic agents in psoriasis and other immune-mediated diseases. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Lemongrass effects on IL-1beta and IL-6 production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sforcin, J M; Amaral, J T; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K

    2009-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of a water extract of lemongrass on pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of lemongrass essential oil on cytokine production by macrophages was also analysed in vitro. The chemical composition of the extract and the oil was also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of lemongrass inhibited macrophages to produce IL-1beta but induced IL-6 production by these cells. Lemongrass essential oil inhibited the cytokine production in vitro. Linalool oxide and epoxy-linalool oxide were found to be the major components of lemongrass water extract, and neral and geranial were the major compounds of its essential oil. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this natural product.

  14. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Robert; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta; Fossum, Caroline; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the cytokine response at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanisme involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in pigs and to monitor the development of important immunoregulatory cytokines in blood collected at various stages of the disease. Methods Ten conventional pigs (~23 kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204T. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general body condition. Blood was sampled before inoculation and repeatedly during acute dysentery and recovery periods and cytokine levels of IL-1β, IL-6, Il-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Results IL-1β was increased at the beginning of the dysentery period and coincided with the appearance of Serum amyloid A and clinical signs of disease. TNF-α increased in all animals after inoculation, with a peak during dysentery, and IL-6 was found in 3 animals during dysentery and in the 2 animals that did not develop clinical signs of disease. IL-10 was found in all sick animals during the recovery period. IFN-γ was not detected on any occasion. Conclusion B. hyodysenteriae inoculation induced production of systemic levels of IL-1β during the dysentery period and increased levels of IL-10 coincided with recovery from dysentery. PMID:18700003

  15. Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Robert; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta; Fossum, Caroline; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2008-08-12

    Knowledge of the cytokine response at infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can help understanding disease mechanism involved during swine dysentery. Since this knowledge is still limited the aim of the present study was to induce dysentery experimentally in pigs and to monitor the development of important immunoregulatory cytokines in blood collected at various stages of the disease. Ten conventional pigs (~23 kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204T. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general body condition. Blood was sampled before inoculation and repeatedly during acute dysentery and recovery periods and cytokine levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, Il-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were measured by ELISA. IL-1beta was increased at the beginning of the dysentery period and coincided with the appearance of Serum amyloid A and clinical signs of disease. TNF-alpha increased in all animals after inoculation, with a peak during dysentery, and IL-6 was found in 3 animals during dysentery and in the 2 animals that did not develop clinical signs of disease. IL-10 was found in all sick animals during the recovery period. IFN-gamma was not detected on any occasion. B. hyodysenteriae inoculation induced production of systemic levels of IL-1beta during the dysentery period and increased levels of IL-10 coincided with recovery from dysentery.

  16. Plasma cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Aisiku, Imo P; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Doshi, Pratik; Benoit, Julia S; Gopinath, Shankar; Goodman, Jerry C; Robertson, Claudia S

    2016-09-15

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). TBI and ARDS pathophysiologic mechanisms are known to independently involve significant inflammatory responses. The literature on the association between plasma inflammatory cytokines and ARDS in patients with TBI is sparse. The study was a secondary analysis of the safety of a randomized trial of erythropoietin and transfusion threshold in patients with severe TBI. Inflammatory markers within the first 24 hours after injury were compared in patients who developed ARDS and patients without ARDS, using Cox proportional hazards models. There were 200 patients enrolled in the study. The majority of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine levels were obtained within 6 hours. Plasma proinflammatory markers IL-6 and IL-8 and anti-inflammatory marker IL-10 were associated with the development of ARDS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, confidence interval (CI) = 1.14, 2.11, P = 0.005 for IL-6; adjusted HR = 1.32, CI = 1.10, 1.59, P = 0.003 for IL-8). Plasma markers of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 are associated with ARDS in patients with severe TBI. NCT00313716 registered 4/2006.

  17. IL-10 and IL-27 producing dendritic cells capable of enhancing IL-10 production of T cells are induced in oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shiokawa, Aya; Tanabe, Kosuke; Tsuji, Noriko M; Sato, Ryuichiro; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2009-06-30

    Oral tolerance is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic tolerance to ingested antigens (Ag). Dendritic cells (DC) have been revealed as important immune regulators, however, the precise role of DC in oral tolerance induction remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of DC in spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and Peyer's patch (PP) after oral Ag administration in a TCR-transgenic mouse model. DC from PP and MLN of tolerized mice induced IL-10 production but not Foxp3 expression in cocultured T cells. IL-10 production was markedly increased after 5-7-day Ag administration especially in PP DC. On the other hand, IL-27 production was increased after 2-5-day Ag administration. CD11b(+) DC, which increased after ingestion of Ag, prominently expressed IL-10 and IL-27 compared with CD11b(-) DC. These results suggest that IL-10 and IL-27 producing DC are increased by interaction with antigen specific T cells in PP, and these DC act as an inducer of IL-10 producing T cells in oral tolerance.

  18. Cytokine profiling identifies an interaction of IL-6 and IL-1α to drive PSMA-PSA prostate clones.

    PubMed

    Jemaa, Awatef Ben; Bouraoui, Yosra; Rais, Nawfel Ben; Nouira, Yassine; Oueslati, Ridha

    2016-12-01

    Several PSMA-PSA prostate clones have been identified during prostate cancer progression; however, until now, their in situ inflammatory characteristics have remained unclear. We therefore investigated the interplay between proinflammatory cytokines and (PSMA,PSA) sub-groups. 27 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 18 prostate cancers (PC) were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed. Serum levels of PSA were assayed by Immulite autoanalyser. In BPH and PC patients with elevated serum PSA levels, IL-1α was the most proinflammatory cytokine expressed in (PSMA+,PSA-) subgroup. However, most samples of (PSMA+,PSA+) subgroup had positive immunoreaction to IL-6. In samples of PC with PSA serum levels of 4-20ng/mL or >20ng/mL, immunoreaction to TNF-α was seen only in (PSMA+,PSA+) subgroup. Interestingly, several combinations of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1α and TNF-α) showed that coexpression of tissue PSMA and PSA was concomitant with high immunoreactions to (IL-6+,TNF-α-), (IL-6+,IL-1α+) and (IL-1α+,TNFα-) in BPH and PC patients. (PSMA,PSA) subgroup lacking tissue PSA expression showed a high immunoexpression of the profile (IL-6+,TNF-α-). The combinations of (IL-6-, TNF-α-) and (IL-6-, IL-1α-) were absent in (PSMA+,PSA-) and (PSMA+,PSA+) BPH sub-groups. Collectively, these findings underscore the importance of TNF-α and highlight the interaction between IL-6 and IL-1α to generate an inflammatory microenvironment in driving (PSMA,PSA) prostate clones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. IL-4 Modulates CCL11 and CCL20 Productions from IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    IL-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related with the pathological conditions of periodontal disease. However, it is uncertain whether IL-4 could control T cells migration in periodontal lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-4 on CCL11, which is a Th2-type chemokine, and CCL20, which is related with Th17 cells migration, productions from human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs). CCL20 and CCL11 productions from HPDLCs were monitored by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to detect phosphorylations of signal transduction molecules in HPDLCs. IL-1β could induce both CCL11 and CCL20 productions in HPDLCs. IL-4 enhanced CCL11 productions from IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs, though IL-4 inhibited CCL20 production. Western blot analysis showed that protein kinase B (Akt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)6 pathways were highly activated in IL-4/IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs. Akt and STAT6 inhibitors decreased CCL11 production, but enhanced CCL20 production in HPDLCs stimulated with IL-4 and IL-1β. These results mean that IL-4 enhanced Th2 cells migration in periodontal lesion to induce CCL11 production from HPDLCs. On the other hand, IL-4 inhibits Th17 cells accumulation in periodontally diseased tissues to inhibit CCL20 production. Therefore, IL-4 is positively related with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to control chemokine productions in periodontal lesions. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Analysis of IL-6, IL-10 and NF-κB Gene Polymorphisms in Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Toker, Hülya; Görgün, Emine Pirim; Korkmaz, Ertan Mahir

    2017-06-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), demonstrated to be suppressed by interleukin-10 (IL-10) are known to be regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB). The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between genetic polymorphism of these genes (IL-6(-174), IL-10(-597) and NF-κB1-94ins/del)) and chronic/aggressive periodontitis. Forty-five patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 58 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) and 38 periodontally healthy subjects were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood samples. The NF-κB, IL-6, and IL-10 polymorphisms were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Among subjects for the ins/ins genotypes of NF-κB1 gene, the AA genotypes of IL-10 presented a higher frequency in chronic periodontitis group than in healthy controls (p=0.023). A statistically significant difference in genotyping frequencies between AP group and healthy controls was observed for the IL-6 gene. The AA genotype of IL-10 was overrepresented in CP and AP groups compared to healthy controls (OR=9.93, 95% CI: 2.11-46.7, OR=5.7, 95% CI: 1.22-26.89, respectively). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the IL-10 (-597) AA genotype is associated with susceptibility to chronic/aggressive periodontitis and IL-6 (-174) GG genotypes and G allele seems to be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Clinical relevance: The results of the current study indicate that IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes seem to be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Also, the AA genotypes of IL-10 presented a higher frequency in chronic periodontitis subjects with carrying NF-κB1 ins/ins genotypes. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  1. IL-12 and IL-23 modulate plasticity of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Alpana; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA), rIL-12 and rIL-23 for 48h. Expression of FoxP3 in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, intracellular cytokines IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-17 in Tregs cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) after stimulation. rIL-12 treatment increases the levels of pStat4 in Tregs and IFN-γ production. In the presence of rIL-23, pStat3 + and IL-17A + cells increase. rIL-12 and r-IL-23 treatment downregulated the FoxP3 expression, IL-10 and TGF-β production by Tregs and enhances the expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86). In conclusion rIL-12 converts Tregs into IFN-γ producing cells through STAT-4 signaling while rIL-23 converts Tregs into IL-17 producing cells through STAT-3 signaling in leprosy patients. This study may helpful to provide a new avenue to overcome the immunosuprression in leprosy patients using in vitro cytokine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transduction of human IL-9 receptor cDNA into TF1 cells induces IL-9 dependency and erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Luo, Z; Mantel, C; Broxmeyer, H E; Lu, L

    2000-02-01

    Human growth factor-dependent cell line TF1, which lacks interleukin (IL)-9 receptors (R) and does not grow in IL-9, was transduced with a retroviral vector containing human IL-9R cDNA and a selection marker. An IL-9-dependent TF1 cell line, which could also grow in other cytokines, was established after selection in G418 and could produce mature RBC in response to cytokine stimulation. TF1 cells transduced with the same viral vector without the IL-9R insert cDNA (mock control) and then selected responded the same as nontransduced TF1 cells. They failed to grow in response to IL-9 and did not generate RBC. An increased number and size of burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E)-like colonies were detected from IL-9R-transduced TF1 cells, compared with mock-transduced cells, in response to erythropoietin (EPO) and IL-9. To evaluate self-renewal and differentiation capacity, colony-replating assays were performed in the presence of IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-9, and EPO. After four replatings, the cloning efficiency of IL-9R-transduced TF1 cells decreased from 98% to 38%, most likely due to terminal erythroid cell differentiation. In contrast, no change in replating efficiency was detected in mock-transduced cells. TF1 cells stably expressing IL-9R and responding to IL-9 can serve as a cell line model to study the intracellular signals mediating IL-9-induced erythroid cell proliferation and differentiation.

  3. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  4. Arid Zone Hydrology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  5. Zone of intrusion study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-15

    The Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) performed an analysis using LS-DYNA simulation to investigate the zone of intrusion (ZOI) of an NCHRP Report No. 350 2000p pickup truck when impacting a 40-in. high F-shape parapet. : The ZOI for the 40-in...

  6. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  8. Crossing Comfort Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, D. Soyini

    1993-01-01

    Offers a narrative based on a real event, in the form of a "docustory," describing that moment when teaching worked--when, in an instructional setting, communication was "perfect" or "excellent." Describes how three very different students, in a course on the cultures of women of color, moved beyond comfort zones while working together on a class…

  9. IL-6 does not predict current urolithiasis in stone formers.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Jocelyn M; Nisbet, Alan A; Lesser, Timothy; Franke, Ethan I; Brusky, John P; Parekh, Ashish R; Kaptein, John; Bellman, Gary C

    2008-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory marker, has previously been found to be elevated in the urine of patients with urolithiasis. Oxalate and other stone precursors have been shown to increase IL-6 production in proximal tubular epithelial cells in vitro. We examined whether urinary IL-6 could be used as a screening test to determine current urolithiasis in individuals who are known to form urinary stones. Thirty-five adult patients with current urolithiasis demonstrated on imaging were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria included disease known to elevate IL-6. Each patient provided a pre-treatment urine specimen and one month after proven to be stone-free an additional urine specimen was obtained. The urinary IL-6/creatinine ratio was determined for both specimens and compared. Ten patients provided both specimens. The mean pre-operative urinary IL-6/creatinine ratio before the procedure was 1.63 pg/mL. The mean post procedure urinary IL-6/creatinine ratio after the patient was confirmed to be stone-free was 1.81 pg/mL. These were not significantly different (p=0.38). Preoperative urinary IL-6/creatinine ratio did not correlate to stone size (r=0.15) and no correlation was seen between time from treatment and stone free IL-6/creatinine ratio (r=0.48). Urinary IL-6 is not a good screening test for current urolithiasis in stone-forming individuals. It is elevated whether the stone is present or not.

  10. The paradigm of IL-6: from basic science to medicine.

    PubMed

    Naka, Tetsuji; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2002-01-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biological activities in immune regulation, hematopoiesis, inflammation, and oncogenesis. Its activities are shared by IL-6-related cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M. The pleiotropy and redundancy of IL-6 functions have been identified by using a unique receptor system comprising two functional proteins: an IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and gp130, the common signal transducer of cytokines related to IL-6. Signal transduction through gp130 is mediated by two pathways: the JAK-STAT (Janus family tyrosine kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway and the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The negative regulators of IL-6 signaling have also been identified, although the physiological roles of the molecules are not yet fully understood. The pathological roles of IL-6 have also been clarified in various disease conditions, such as inflammatory, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. On the basis of the findings, a new therapeutic approach to block the IL-6 signal using humanized anti-IL-6R antibody for rheumatoid arthritis, Castleman's disease, and multiple myeloma has been attempted.

  11. IL-33: biological properties, functions, and roles in airway disease.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Kita, Hirohito

    2017-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a key cytokine involved in type 2 immunity and allergic airway diseases. Abundantly expressed in lung epithelial cells, IL-33 plays critical roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses in mucosal organs. In innate immunity, IL-33 and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) provide an essential axis for rapid immune responses and tissue homeostasis. In adaptive immunity, IL-33 interacts with dendritic cells, Th2 cells, follicular T cells, and regulatory T cells, where IL-33 influences the development of chronic airway inflammation and tissue remodeling. The clinical findings that both the IL-33 and ILC2 levels are elevated in patients with allergic airway diseases suggest that IL-33 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. IL-33 and ILC2 may also serve as biomarkers for disease classification and to monitor the progression of diseases. In this article, we reviewed the current knowledge of the biology of IL-33 and discussed the roles of the IL-33 in regulating airway immune responses and allergic airway diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cloning and characterization of IL-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor (IL-TIF), a novel cytokine structurally related to IL-10 and inducible by IL-9.

    PubMed

    Dumoutier, L; Louahed, J; Renauld, J C

    2000-02-15

    IL-9 is a Th2 cytokine active on various cell types such as T and B lymphocytes, mast cells, and eosinophils, and potentially involved in allergy and asthma. To understand better the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of this cytokine, we used a cDNA subtraction method to identify genes specifically induced by IL-9 in mouse T cells. One of the IL-9-regulated genes isolated by this approach turned out to encode a 180-amino acid long protein, including a potential signal peptide, and showing 22% amino acid identity with IL-10. This protein, designated IL-10-related T cell-derived inducible factor (IL-TIF), is induced by IL-9 in thymic lymphomas, T cells, and mast cells, and by lectins in freshly isolated splenocytes. Experiments concerning the mechanism regulating IL-TIF expression in T cells indicate that IL-9 induction is rapid (within 1 h), does not require protein synthesis, and depends on the activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT pathway. In vivo, constitutive expression of IL-TIF was detected by RT-PCR in thymus and brain, suggesting that the role of this new factor is not restricted to the immune system. Transfection of HEK293 cells with the IL-TIF cDNA resulted in the production of a glycosylated protein of about 25 kDa that was found to induce STAT activation in mesangial and neuronal cell lines. Further studies will have to address the possibility that some of the IL-9 activities may be mediated by IL-TIF.

  13. Distribution of the IL-1RN, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, and TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Ramírez-Bello, Julián; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Ramírez-Fuentes, Silvestre; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cytokines are a group of polypeptides with an important role in the inflammatory response. It has been suggested that certain polymorphisms located in several cytokine genes are associated with different diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish the gene frequency of 13 polymorphisms of the IL-1RN, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, and TNF-α genes in a Mexican population. These polymorphisms have been reported in several populations, with important variation in frequency according to the studied population. Methods: Thirteen polymorphisms (rs419598, rs315951, rs2234663, rs3811058, rs1800796, rs2069827, rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800629, rs2069709, rs2069710, and rs361525) were analyzed by 5′ exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 248 healthy unrelated Mexican individuals. Results: The results obtained showed that the studied Mexican population presents significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of the IL1RN (rs419598, rs315951, and and rs2234663), IL1F10 (rs3811058), IL6 (rs1800796, rs2069827), IL10 (rs1800896, rs1800871, and rs1800872), and TNF-α (rs1800629) polymorphisms when compared to Caucasian, Asian, and African populations. Conclusions: In summary, the distribution of the IL-1RN, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α cytokine gene polymorphisms distinguishes the studied Mexican population from other groups. Since the alleles of these cytokines are associated with the development of several inflammatory diseases, knowledge of the distribution of these alleles in the studied Mexican population could be helpful to understand their true role as a genetic susceptibility marker in this population. PMID:22971140

  14. Distribution of the IL-1RN, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, and TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in the Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Ramírez-Bello, Julián; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Ramírez-Fuentes, Silvestre; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia; Fragoso, José Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Cytokines are a group of polypeptides with an important role in the inflammatory response. It has been suggested that certain polymorphisms located in several cytokine genes are associated with different diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish the gene frequency of 13 polymorphisms of the IL-1RN, IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, and TNF-α genes in a Mexican population. These polymorphisms have been reported in several populations, with important variation in frequency according to the studied population. Thirteen polymorphisms (rs419598, rs315951, rs2234663, rs3811058, rs1800796, rs2069827, rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800629, rs2069709, rs2069710, and rs361525) were analyzed by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 248 healthy unrelated Mexican individuals. The results obtained showed that the studied Mexican population presents significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of the IL1RN (rs419598, rs315951, and and rs2234663), IL1F10 (rs3811058), IL6 (rs1800796, rs2069827), IL10 (rs1800896, rs1800871, and rs1800872), and TNF-α (rs1800629) polymorphisms when compared to Caucasian, Asian, and African populations. In summary, the distribution of the IL-1RN, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α cytokine gene polymorphisms distinguishes the studied Mexican population from other groups. Since the alleles of these cytokines are associated with the development of several inflammatory diseases, knowledge of the distribution of these alleles in the studied Mexican population could be helpful to understand their true role as a genetic susceptibility marker in this population.

  15. International space Launch Services Today, ILS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymarcsuk, James A.; Haase, Ethan E.

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years the international space launch industry has undergone substantial change. New entrants and existing players in this market have introduced new and upgraded vehicles with greater lift capability than was available five years ago. In addition, some of these vehicles offer reduced risk from their predecessors thanks to design improvements and reductions in the number of failure points. The entry of these vehicles have generated greater supply, increased choice, and improved capabilities to the benefit of satellite operators and manufacturers. Some launch service providers have also enhanced the products and services they offer due to the increased competitiveness in the market. Although the number of commercial satellites launched per year has remained within a fairly narrow range in the last five years, expectations for the future that were once very optimistic have fallen dramatically. The significant number of commercial NGSO satellites launched in the late 1990s helped raise these expectations, but today, the predicted continued growth in launches due to NGSO and broadband systems has not materialized. Despite the decline in expectations from the late 1990s, however, the satellite market that the launch industry supports remains robust. Satellite operators maintain generally favorable financial positions, but the number of satellites required to provide services worldwide is growing slowly, with the number of new and replacement satellites launched per year remaining essentially flat. Satellite operators are undergoing consolidation that is rendering them stronger than ever, and putting them in a position to demand better service from their launch service providers. The increase in supply in the marketplace and the corresponding lack of growth in demand has led to a highly competitive marketplace for launch services internationally. ILS is well positioned with products and services to meet customer needs. Key customer buying factors include

  16. Blocking IL-17A Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ao-Wang; Liu, Qing-Huai; Wang, Jun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A, a proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases. However, it is unclear whether IL-17A is involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the most serious complications of autoimmune diabetes. This study aimed to demonstrate that IL-17A exacerbates DR by affecting retinal Müller cell function. High glucose (HG)-treated rat Müller cell line (rMC-1) was exposed to IL-17A, anti-IL-17A-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) or/and anti-IL-17 receptor (R)A-neutralizing mAb for 24 h. For in vivo study, DR was induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ). DR model mice were treated with anti-IL-17A mAb or anti-IL-17RA mAb in the vitreous cavity. Mice that were prepared for retinal angiography were sacrificed two weeks after intravitreal injection, while the rest were sacrificed two days after intravitreal injection. IL-17A production and IL-17RA expression were increased in both HG-treated rMC-1 and DR retina. HG induced rMC-1 activation and dysfunction, as determined by the increased GFAP, VEGF and glutamate levels as well as the downregulated GS and EAAT1 expression. IL-17A exacerbated the HG-induced rMC-1 functional disorders, whereas either anti-IL-17A mAb or anti-IL-17RA mAb alleviated the HG-induced rMC-1 disorders. Intravitreal injections with anti-IL-17A mAb or anti-IL-17RA mAb in DR model mice reduced Müller cell dysfunction, vascular leukostasis, vascular leakage, tight junction protein downregulation and ganglion cell apoptosis in the retina. IL-17A aggravates DR-like pathology at least partly by impairing retinal Müller cell function. Blocking IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy for DR. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Association study of IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 in Iranian patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Joana M; Shahram, Farhad; Davatchi, Fereydoun; Rosa, Alexandra; Crespo, Jorge; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Jesus, Gorete; Barcelos, Filipe; Patto, José Vaz; Shafiee, Niloofar Mojarad; Ghaderibarim, Fahmida; Oliveira, Sofia A

    2012-08-01

    Independent replication of the findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) remains the gold standard for results validation. Our aim was to test the association of Behçet's disease (BD) with the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) and the IL-23 receptor-IL-12 receptor β2 (IL23R-IL12RB2) locus, each of which has been previously identified as a risk factor for BD in 2 different GWAS. Six haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 and 42 in IL23R-IL12RB2 were genotyped in 973 Iranian patients with BD and 637 non-BD controls. Population stratification was assessed using a panel of 86 ancestry-informative markers. Subtle evidence of population stratification was found in our data set. In IL10, rs1518111 was nominally associated with BD before and after adjustment for population stratification (odds ratio [OR] for T allele 1.20, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.40, unadjusted P [P(unadj) ] = 2.53 × 10(-2) ; adjusted P [P(adj) ] = 1.43 × 10(-2) ), and rs1554286 demonstrated a trend toward association (P(unadj) = 6.14 × 10(-2) ; P(adj) = 3.21 × 10(-2) ). Six SNPs in IL23R-IL12RB2 were found to be associated with BD after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the most significant of which were rs17375018 (OR for G allele 1.51, 95% CI 1.27-1.78, P(unadj) = 1.93 × 10(-6) ), rs7517847 (OR for T allele 1.48, 95% CI 1.26-1.74, P(unadj) = 1.23 × 10(-6) ), and rs924080 (OR for T allele 1.29, 95% CI 1.20-1.39, P = 1.78 × 10(-5) ). SNPs rs10489629, rs1343151, and rs1495965 were also significantly associated with BD in all tests performed. Results of meta-analyses of our data combined with data from other populations further confirmed the role of rs1518111, rs17375018, rs7517847, and rs924080 in the risk of BD, but no epistatic interactions between IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 were detected. Results of imputation analysis highlighted the importance of IL23R regulatory regions in the susceptibility to BD. These findings independently confirm

  18. Differential signaling mechanism for HIV-1 Nef-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Kumar, Anil

    2015-06-15

    Variety of HIV-1 viral proteins including HIV-1 Nef are known to activate astrocytes and microglia in the brain and cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is thought to be one of the mechanisms leading to HIV-1- mediated neurotoxicity. IL-6 and IL-8 have been found in the CSF of patients with HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD), suggesting that they might play important roles in HIV-1 neuropathology. In the present study we examined the effects of HIV-1 Nef on IL-6 and IL-8 induction in astrocytes. The results demonstrate that both IL-6 and IL-8 are significantly induced in HIV-1 Nef-transfected SVGA astrocytes and HIV-1 Nef-treated primary fetal astrocytes. We also determined the molecular mechanisms responsible for the HIV-1 Nef-induced increased IL-6 and IL-8 by using chemical inhibitors and siRNAs against PI3K/Akt/PKC, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, CEBP and AP-1. Our results clearly demonstrate that the PI3K/PKC, p38 MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1 pathways are involved in HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-6 production in astrocytes, while PI3K/PKC and NF-κB pathways are involved in HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-8 production. These results offer new potential targets to develop therapeutic strategy for treatment of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, prevalent in > 40% of individuals infected with HIV-1.

  19. Correlation between IL36α and IL17 and Activity of the Disease in Selected Autoimmune Blistering Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woźniacka, Anna; Ociepa, Kamila; Waszczykowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), bullous pemphigoid (BP), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) are autoimmune bullous skin conditions with eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltrations. While cytokines are crucial for the affinity and activation of different leukocyte cells in the inflammation and blister formation, there are no studies concerning a role of IL-36. The goal of the study was to analyze whether interleukin 36 is involved in pathogenesis of DH, BP, and PV. And the second aim of the study was the estimation of correlation between Il-36 and IL-17 and titers of specific antibodies in these diseases. Expression of IL-36 and IL-17 was detected in serum in all DH, BP, and PV samples. Serum levels of IL-36 and IL-17α were statistically higher in DH, BP, and PV groups as compared to the control group. IL-36α levels were statistically higher in DH patients, as compared to patients with PV and BP. Our results showed that IL-36 may be helpful in the diagnostic and monitoring of the activity of the disease. IL 36 may play a relevant role of enrolling eosinophils and neutrophils in DH, BP, and PV and finally provoke tissue injury. PMID:28611508

  20. High tumor levels of IL6 and IL8 abrogate preclinical efficacy of the γ-secretase inhibitor, RO4929097.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Luistro, Leopoldo; Carvajal, Daisy; Smith, Melissa; Nevins, Tom; Yin, Xuefeng; Cai, James; Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Rizzo, Christine; Packman, Kathryn; Heimbrook, David; Boylan, John F

    2011-06-01

    Interest continues to build around the early application of patient selection markers to prospectively identify patients likely to show clinical benefit from cancer therapies. Hypothesis generation and clinical strategies often begin at the preclinical stage where responder and nonresponder tumor cell lines are first identified and characterized. In the present study, we investigate the drivers of in vivo resistance to the γ-secretase inhibitor RO4929097. Beginning at the tissue culture level, we identified apparent IL6 and IL8 expression differences that characterized tumor cell line response to RO4929097. We validated this molecular signature at the preclinical efficacy level identifying additional xenograft models resistant to the in vivo effects of RO4929097. Our data suggest that for IL6 and IL8 overexpressing tumors, RO4929097 no longer impacts angiogenesis or the infiltration of tumor associated fibroblasts. These preclinical data provide a rationale for preselecting patients possessing low levels of IL6 and IL8 prior to RO4929097 dosing. Extending this hypothesis into the clinic, we monitored patient IL6 and IL8 serum levels prior to dosing with RO4929097 during Phase I. Interestingly, the small group of patients deriving some type of clinical benefit from RO4929097 presented with low baseline levels of IL6 and IL8. Our data support the continued investigation of this patient selection marker for RO4929097 and other types of Notch inhibitors undergoing early clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation by PGE2 of IL-2, IL-3 and IFN production by cortico-resistant thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Daculsi, R; Vaillier, D; Gualde, N

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the regulation of cytokine release (IL-2, IL-3 and IFN) by cortico-resistant thymocytes (CRT) stimulated or not through the T-cell antigen receptor by an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). CRT were found to spontaneously produce IL-2 and IL-3 on day 4 of culture, but not IFN. After activation with an anti-CD3 mAb, the maximal levels for IL-2 and IFN were observed on day 1 and for IL-3 on day 4. Addition of PGE2 inhibits IL-2 production and has no effect on IFN production. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, enhanced both IL-2 and IFN production. In contrast, IL-3 secretion by anti-CD3 activated CRT was up-regulated by PGE2, and its level was decreased in the presence of indomethacin in both stimulated or unstimulated cells. As has been observed with PGE2, forskolin which activates adenylate cyclase increases the IL-3 level. Thus PGE2 may interfere in the process of thymocyte proliferation and/or differentiation by regulating differentially the interleukin production.

  2. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  3. Oral Escherichia coli Colonization Factor Antigen I (CFA/I) Fimbriae Ameliorate Arthritis via IL-35, not IL-27

    PubMed Central

    Kochetkova, Irina; Thornburg, Theresa; Callis, Gayle; Holderness, Kathryn; Maddaloni, Massimo; Pascual, David W.

    2014-01-01

    A Salmonella therapeutic expressing enterotoxigenic E. coli colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae protects against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by eliciting two regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets: TGF-β-producing Foxp3−CD39+CD4+ and IL-10-producing Foxp3+CD39+CD4+ T cells. However, it is unclear if CFA/I fimbriae alone are protective, and if other regulatory cytokines are involved especially in the context for the EBI3-sharing cytokines, Treg-derived IL-35 and APC-derived IL-27, both capable of suppressing Th17 cells and regulating autoimmune diseases. Subsequent evaluation revealed that a single oral dose of purified, soluble CFA/I fimbriae protected against CIA as effectively as Salmonella-CFA/I, and found Foxp3+CD39+CD4+ T cells as the source of secreted IL-35, whereas IL-27 production by CD11c+ cells was inhibited. Inquiring into their relevance, CFA/I fimbriae-treated IL-27 receptor-deficient (WSX-1−/−) mice were equally protected against CIA as wild-type mice suggesting a limited role for IL-27. In contrast, CFA/I fimbriae-mediated protection was abated in EBI3−/− mice accompanied by the loss of TGF-β- and IL-10-producing Tregs. Adoptive transfer of B6 CD39+CD4+ T cells to EBI3−/− mice with concurrent CFA/I plus IL-35 treatment effectively stimulated Tregs suppressing proinflammatory CII-specific Th cells. Opposingly, recipients co-transferred with B6 and EBI3−/− CD39+CD4+ T cells and treated with CFA/I plus IL-35 failed in protecting mice implicating the importance for endogenous IL-35 to confer CFA/I-mediated protection. Thus, CFA/I fimbriae stimulate IL-35 required for the co-induction of TGF-β and IL-10. PMID:24337375

  4. Immunotherapeutic implications of IL-6 blockade for cytokine storm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2016-07-01

    IL-6 contributes to host defense against infections and tissue injuries. However, exaggerated, excessive synthesis of IL-6 while fighting environmental stress leads to an acute severe systemic inflammatory response known as 'cytokine storm', since high levels of IL-6 can activate the coagulation pathway and vascular endothelial cells but inhibit myocardial function. Remarkable beneficial effects of IL-6 blockade therapy using a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab were recently observed in patients with cytokine release syndrome complicated by T-cell engaged therapy. In this review we propose the possibility that IL-6 blockade may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for other types of cytokine storm, such as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome including sepsis, macrophage activation syndrome and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

  5. Optical spectrum variations of IL Cep A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Khalilov, O. V.; Bakhaddinova, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The results of many-year uniform spectroscopic observations of the Herbig Ae/Be star IL Cep A are presented. Its Hα line has either a single or a barely resolved two-component emission profile. The H β emission line is clearly divided into two components with a deep central absorption. Smooth variations of the observed parameters of individual spectral lines over nine years are observed. The He I λ5876 Å line has a complex absorption profile, probably with superposed emission components. The NaI D1, D2 doublet exhibits weak changes due to variations in the circumstellar envelope. The variations observed in the stellar spectrum can be explained by either binarity or variations of the magnetic field in the stellar disk. Difficulties associated with both these possibilities are discussed.

  6. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  7. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Derived IL-10 Suppresses Antitumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Alhakeem, Sara S; McKenna, Mary K; Oben, Karine Z; Noothi, Sunil K; Rivas, Jacqueline R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C; Fleischman, Roger A; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Bondada, Subbarao

    2018-04-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients progressively develop an immunosuppressive state. CLL patients have more plasma IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, than healthy controls. In vitro human CLL cells produce IL-10 in response to BCR cross-linking. We used the transgenic Eμ-T cell leukemia oncogene-1 ( TCL1 ) mouse CLL model to study the role of IL-10 in CLL associated immunosuppression. Eμ-TCL mice spontaneously develop CLL because of a B cell-specific expression of the oncogene, TCL1. Eμ- TCL1 mouse CLL cells constitutively produce IL-10, which is further enhanced by BCR cross-linking, CLL-derived IL-10 did not directly affect survival of murine or human CLL cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that the CLL-derived IL-10 has a critical role in CLL disease in part by suppressing the host immune response to the CLL cells. In IL-10R -/- mice, wherein the host immune cells are unresponsive to IL-10-mediated suppressive effects, there was a significant reduction in CLL cell growth compared with wild type mice. IL-10 reduced the generation of effector CD4 and CD8 T cells. We also found that activation of BCR signaling regulated the production of IL-10 by both murine and human CLL cells. We identified the transcription factor, Sp1, as a novel regulator of IL-10 production by CLL cells and that it is regulated by BCR signaling via the Syk/MAPK pathway. Our results suggest that incorporation of IL-10 blocking agents may enhance current therapeutic regimens for CLL by potentiating host antitumor immune response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Wang, Kepeng; Mucida, Daniel; Stewart, C. Andrew; Schnabl, Bernd; Jauch, Dominik; Taniguchi, Koji; Yu, Guann-Yi; Osterreicher, Christoph H.; Hung, Kenneth E.; Datz, Christian; Feng, Ying; Fearon, Eric R.; Oukka, Mohamed; Tessarollo, Lino; Coppola, Vincenzo; Yarovinsky, Felix; Cheroutre, Hilde; Eckmann, Lars; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 2% of colorectal cancer is linked to pre-existing inflammation known as colitis-associated cancer, but most develops in patients without underlying inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal cancer often follows a genetic pathway whereby loss of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor and activation of β-catenin are followed by mutations in K-Ras, PIK3CA and TP53, as the tumour emerges and progresses1,2. Curiously, however, ‘inflammatory signature’ genes characteristic of colitis-associated cancer are also upregulated in colorectal cancer3,4. Further, like most solid tumours, colorectal cancer exhibits immune/inflammatory infiltrates5, referred to as ‘tumour elicited inflammation’6. Although infiltrating CD4+ TH1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells constitute a positive prognostic sign in colorectal cancer7,8, myeloid cells and T-helper interleukin (IL)-17-producing (TH17) cells promote tumorigenesis5,6, and a ‘TH17 expression signature’ in stage I/II colorectal cancer is associated with a drastic decrease in disease-free survival9. Despite its pathogenic importance, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tumour-elicited inflammation are poorly understood. Many epithelial cancers develop proximally to microbial communities, which are physically separated from immune cells by an epithelial barrier10. We investigated mechanisms responsible for tumour-elicited inflammation in a mouse model of colorectal tumorigenesis, which, like human colorectal cancer, exhibits upregulation of IL-23 and IL-17. Here we show that IL-23 signalling promotes tumour growth and progression, and development of a tumoural IL-17 response. IL-23 is mainly produced by tumour-associated myeloid cells that are likely to be activated by microbial products, which penetrate the tumours but not adjacent tissue. Both early and late colorectal neoplasms exhibit defective expression of several barrier proteins. We propose that barrier deterioration induced by

  9. New insight to IL-23/IL-17 axis in Iranian infected adult patients with gastritis: effects of genes polymorphisms on expression of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Shirzad, H; Bagheri, N; Azadegan-Dehkordi, F; Zamanzad, B; Izadpanah, E; Abdi, M; Ramazani, G; Sanei, M H; Ayoubian, H; Ahmadi, A; Jamalzehi, S; Aslani, P; Zandi, F

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is the hallmark of the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer. IL-17A and IL-17F are inflammatory cytokines expressed by a novel subset of CD4+Th cells and play critical function in inflammation. We evaluated the relationship between IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R+2199 A/C polymorphisms with IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression in regard to H. pylori infection with chronic gastritis. Total RNA and genomic DNA were extracted from gastric biopsies of 58 H. pylori-infected patient with gastritis. Afterward, mucosal IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression and polymorphisms in IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL-23R +2199A/Cin gastric biopsies were determined by real-time PCR and PCR-RFLP. Our results show that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G andIL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms have no effect on mucosal expression of IL-6, IL-17, IL-21 and TGF-β1 mRNAs expression in H. pylori-infected patients with chronic gastritis. These results suggest that IL-17A G197A, IL-17F A7488G and IL23R +2199A/C polymorphisms no alter mucosal cytokine pattern in Iranian patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis diseases. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  10. Promoter Variation and Expression Levels of Inflammatory Genes IL1A, IL1B, IL6 and TNF in Blood of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3) Patients.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Mafalda; Bettencourt, Conceição; Ramos, Amanda; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Vasconcelos, João; Kay, Teresa; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Lima, Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Age at onset in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3/MJD) is incompletely explained by the size of the CAG tract at the ATXN3 gene, implying the existence of genetic modifiers. A role of inflammation in SCA3 has been postulated, involving altered cytokines levels; promoter variants leading to alterations in cytokines expression could influence onset. Using blood from 86 SCA3 patients and 106 controls, this work aimed to analyse promoter variation of four cytokines (IL1A, IL1B, IL6 and TNF) and to investigate the association between variants detected and their transcript levels, evaluated by quantitative PCR. Moreover, the effect of APOE isoforms, known to modulate cytokines, was investigated. Correlations between cytokine variants and onset were tested; the cumulative modifier effects of cytokines and APOE were analysed. Patients carrying the IL6*C allele had a significant earlier onset (4 years in average) than patients carrying the G allele, in agreement with lower mRNA levels produced by IL6*C carriers. The presence of APOE*ɛ2 allele seems to anticipate onset in average 10 years in patients carrying the IL6*C allele; a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm this result. These results highlight the pertinence of conducting further research on the role of cytokines as SCA3 modulators, pointing to the presence of shared mechanisms involving IL6 and APOE.

  11. The role of IL-17 in vitiligo: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rasnik K; Lee, Kristina M; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Ucmak, Derya; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Nakamura, Mio; Zhu, Tian Hao; Bhutani, Tina; Wei, Maria; Liao, Wilson

    2016-04-01

    IL-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases; however its role in vitiligo has not been well defined. Emerging human and mouse studies have demonstrated that systemic, tissue, and cellular levels of IL-17 are elevated in vitiligo. Many studies have also shown significant positive correlations between these levels and disease activity, extent, and severity. Treatments that improve vitiligo, such as ultraviolet B phototherapy, also modulate IL-17 levels. This review synthesizes our current understanding of how IL-17 may influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune vitiligo at the molecular level. This has implications for defining new vitiligo biomarkers and treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting IL-2: an unexpected effect in treating immunological diseases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Congxiu; Brand, David; Zheng, Song G

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis since Treg dysfunction in both animals and humans is associated with multi-organ autoimmune and inflammatory disease. While IL-2 is generally considered to promote T-cell proliferation and enhance effector T-cell function, recent studies have demonstrated that treatments that utilize low-dose IL-2 unexpectedly induce immune tolerance and promote Treg development resulting in the suppression of unwanted immune responses and eventually leading to treatment of some autoimmune disorders. In the present review, we discuss the biology of IL-2 and its signaling to help define the key role played by IL-2 in the development and function of Treg cells. We also summarize proof-of-concept clinical trials which have shown that low-dose IL-2 can control autoimmune diseases safely and effectively by specifically expanding and activating Treg. However, future studies will be needed to validate a better and safer dosing strategy for low-dose IL-2 treatments utilizing well-controlled clinical trials. More studies will also be needed to validate the appropriate dose of IL-2/anti-cytokine or IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex in the experimental animal models before moving to the clinic.

  13. Corticotropin-releasing hormone regulates IL-6 expression during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Venihaki, Maria; Dikkes, Pieter; Carrigan, Allison; Karalis, Katia P.

    2001-01-01

    Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by proinflammatory cytokines results in increased release of glucocorticoid that restrains further development of the inflammatory process. IL-6 has been suggested to stimulate the HPA axis during immune activation independent of the input of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). We used the corticotropin-releasing hormone–deficient (Crh+/+) mouse to elucidate the effect of CRH deficiency on IL-6 expression and IL-6–induced HPA axis activation during turpentine-induced inflammation. We demonstrate that during inflammation CRH is required for a normal adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) increase but not for adrenal corticosterone rise. The paradoxical increase of plasma IL-6 associated with CRH deficiency suggests that IL-6 release during inflammation is CRH-dependent. We also demonstrate that adrenal IL-6 expression is CRH-dependent, as its basal and inflammation-induced expression is blocked by CRH deficiency. Our findings suggest that during inflammation, IL-6 most likely compensates for the effects of CRH deficiency on food intake. Finally, we confirm that the HPA axis response is defective in Crh+/+/IL-6+/+ mice. These findings, along with the regulation of IL-6 by CRH, support the importance of the interaction between the immune system and the HPA axis in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases. PMID:11602623

  14. Role of IL-9 and STATs in hematological malignancies (Review).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Wang, Xin

    2014-03-01

    Although interleukin-9 (IL-9) exhibits pleiotropic functions in the immune system, it remains a well-known cytokine in hematological malignancies. Previous cell culture and animal model studies have revealed that the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, which may be activated by a number of cytokines including IL-9, is critical in hematological malignancies. The current review summarizes the characterization of the biological activities of IL-9, highlights the clearly defined roles of the cytokine, and outlines questions with regard to the functions of IL-9 that require further exploration and their downstream signaling proteins, signal transducers and activators of transcription.

  15. IL-11 is a crucial determinant of cardiovascular fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Sebastian; Viswanathan, Sivakumar; Widjaja, Anissa A.; Lim, Wei-Wen; Moreno-Moral, Aida; DeLaughter, Daniel M.; Ng, Benjamin; Patone, Giannino; Chow, Kingsley; Khin, Ester; Tan, Jessie; Chothani, Sonia P.; Ye, Lei; Rackham, Owen J. L.; Ko, Nicole S. J.; Sahib, Norliza E.; Pua, Chee Jian; Zhen, Nicole T. G.; Xie, Chen; Wang, Mao; Maatz, Henrike; Lim, Shiqi; Saar, Kathrin; Blachut, Susanne; Petretto, Enrico; Schmidt, Sabine; Putoczki, Tracy; Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Wakimoto, Hiroko; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Lim, See L.; Soon, Jia L.; Chao, Victor T. T.; Chua, Yeow L.; Tan, Teing E.; Evans, Sylvia M.; Loh, Yee J.; Jamal, Muhammad H.; Ong, Kim K.; Chua, Kim C.; Ong, Boon-Hean; Chakaramakkil, Mathew J.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Hubner, Norbert; Sin, Kenny Y. K.; Cook, Stuart A.

    2018-01-01

    Fibrosis is a common pathology in cardiovascular disease1. In the heart, fibrosis causes mechanical and electrical dysfunction1,2 and in the kidney, it predicts the onset of renal failure3. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is the principal pro-fibrotic factor4,5, but its inhibition is associated with side effects due to its pleiotropic roles6,7. We hypothesized that downstream effectors of TGFβ1 in fibroblasts could be attractive therapeutic targets and lack upstream toxicity. Here we show, using integrated imaging–genomics analyses of primary human fibroblasts, that upregulation of interleukin-11 (IL-11) is the dominant transcriptional response to TGFβ1 exposure and required for its pro-fibrotic effect. IL-11 and its receptor (IL11RA) are expressed specifically in fibroblasts, in which they drive non-canonical, ERK-dependent autocrine signalling that is required for fibrogenic protein synthesis. In mice, fibroblast-specific Il11 transgene expression or Il-11 injection causes heart and kidney fibrosis and organ failure, whereas genetic deletion of Il11ra1 protects against disease. Therefore, inhibition of IL-11 prevents fibroblast activation across organs and species in response to a range of important pro-fibrotic stimuli. These results reveal a central role of IL-11 in fibrosis and we propose that inhibition of IL-11 is a potential therapeutic strategy to treat fibrotic diseases. PMID:29160304

  16. Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Tanaka, T; Shi, W; Matsumoto, M; Minami, M; Kashiwamura, S; Nakanishi, K; Yoshida, N; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1996-04-18

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic lymphokine which plays an important role in the immune system. IL-4 activates two distinct signalling pathways through tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, and of a 170K protein called 4PS. To investigate the functional role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling, we generated mice deficient in Stat6 by gene targeting. We report here that in the mutant mice, expression of CD23 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in resting B cells was not enhanced in response to IL-4. IL-4 induced B-cell proliferation costimulated by anti-IgM antibody was abolished. The T-cell proliferative response was also notably reduced. Furthermore, production of Th2 cytokines from T cells as well as IgE and IgG1 responses after nematode infection were profoundly reduced. These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses.

  17. The Role of IL-17 in Vitiligo: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rasnik K.; Lee, Kristina M.; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Ucmak, Derya; Farahnik, Benjamin; Abrouk, Michael; Nakamura, Mio; Zhu, Tian Hao; Bhutani, Tina; Wei, Maria; Liao, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    IL-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, however its role in vitiligo has not been well defined. Emerging human and mouse studies have demonstrated that systemic, tissue, and cellular levels of IL-17 are elevated in vitiligo. Many studies have also shown significant positive correlations between these levels and disease activity, extent, and severity. Treatments that improve vitiligo, such as ultraviolet B phototherapy, also modulate IL-17 levels. This review synthesizes our current understanding of how IL-17 may influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune vitiligo at the molecular level. This has implications for defining new vitiligo biomarkers and treatments. PMID:26804758

  18. IL-35-producing B cells in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Jianming; Li, Jiansheng

    2018-05-01

    A significant characteristic of advanced gastric cancer (GC) is immune suppression, which can promote the progression of GC. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is an immune-suppressing cytokine, and it is generally recognized that this cytokine is secreted by regulatory T (Treg) cells. Recently, studies have found that IL-35 can also be produced by B cells in mice. However, scientific studies reporting that IL-35 is secreted by B cells in humans, specifically in cancer patients, are very rare.Blood samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (HCs) and 50 untreated GC patients, and IL-35-producing B cells in the peripheral blood were investigated. Moreover, Treg cells (CD4CD25CD127), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) (CD14HLA-DR) and other lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8 T cells, activated and memory CD4 T cells, activated CD8 T cells, CD14 monocytes, and IL-10-producing B cells) were also examined.IL-35-producing B cells were significantly upregulated in patients with advanced GC. Furthermore, the frequency of IL-35-producing B cells was positively correlated with the frequencies of Treg cells (CD4CD25CD127), MDSCs (CD14HLA-DR), IL-10-producing B cells, and CD14 monocytes in these GC patients.In summary, the frequency of IL-35-producing B cells is significantly elevated in advanced GC; this outcome implies that this group of B cells may participate in GC progression.

  19. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  20. Aeration Zone Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, B.

    The International Symposium on Recent Investigations in the Zone of Aeration (RIZA) was organized by the Institute for Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry of the Technical University of Munich and held October 1-5, 1984, in the lecture halls of the Grosshadern Klinik in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). P. Udluft, B. Merkel, and K.-H. Prüsl, all of the university, were responsible for the organization of the symposium, which was under the patronage of K.-E. Quentin. There were over 200 participants from 22 different countries, among them Australia, Canada, China, India, and the United States. The topics of the symposium were the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes in the unsaturated zone, the region between the surface and the groundwater level. Here a number of complex processes occur that on the one hand are of natural origin and on the other hand are influenced by human activities in a number of ways.

  1. Hyperresponsive febrile reactions to interleukin (IL) 1α and IL-1β, and altered brain cytokine mRNA and serum cytokine levels, in IL-1β-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Alheim, Katarina; Chai, Zhen; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Hasanvan, Homa; Malinowsky, David; Di Santo, Elena; Ghezzi, Pietro; Dinarello, Charles A.; Bartfai, Tamas

    1997-01-01

    IL-1β is an endogenous pyrogen that is induced during systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or IL-1-induced fever. We have examined the fever and cytokine responses following i.p. injection of IL-1 agonists, IL-1α and IL-1β, and compared these with response to LPS (i.p.) in wild-type and IL-1β-deficient mice. The IL-1β deficient mice appear to have elevated body temperature but exhibit a normal circadian temperature cycle. Exogenously injected IL-1β, IL-1α, or LPS induced hyperresponsive fevers in the IL-1β-deficient mice. We also observed phenotypic differences between wild-type and IL-1β-deficient mice in hypothalamic basal mRNA levels for IL-1α and IL-6, but not for IL-1β-converting enzyme or IL-1 receptor type I or type II. The IL-1α mRNA levels were down-regulated, whereas the IL-6 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the hypothalamus of IL-1β-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice. The IL-1β-deficient mice also responded to LPS challenge with significantly higher serum corticosterone and with lower serum tumor necrosis factor type α levels than the wild-type mice. The data suggest that, in the redundant cascade of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β plays an important but not obligatory role in fever induction by LPS or IL-1α, as well as in the induction of serum tumor necrosis factor type α and corticosterone responses either by LPS or by IL-1α or IL-1β. PMID:9122256

  2. Inhibition of TYK2 and JAK1 Ameliorates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis by Inhibiting IL-22 and the IL-23/IL-17 axis

    PubMed Central

    Works, Melissa G.; Yin, Fangfang; Yin, Catherine C.; Yiu, Ying; Shew, Kenneth; Tran, Thanh-Thuy; Dunlap, Nahoko; Lam, Jennifer; Mitchell, Tim; Reader, John; Stein, Paul L.; D’Andrea, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin and characterized by aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and function. Immune cells infiltrate the skin and release proinflammatory cytokines that play important roles in psoriasis. The Th17 network, including IL-23 and IL-22, has recently emerged as a critical component in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. IL-22 and IL-23 signaling is dependent on the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases, making Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition an appealing strategy for the treatment of psoriasis. Here we report the activity of SAR-20347, a small molecule inhibitor with specificity for JAK1 and Tyrosine Kinase 2 (TYK2) over other JAK family members. In cellular assays, SAR-20347 dose-dependently (1 nM-10 μM) inhibited JAK1 and/or TYK2 dependent signaling from the IL-12/IL-23, IL-22, and IFN-α receptors. In vivo, TYK2 mutant mice or treatment of wild type mice with SAR-20347 significantly reduced IL-12 induced IFN-γ production and IL-22-dependent Serum Amyloid A (SAA) to similar extents, indicating that in these models, SAR-20347 is probably acting through inhibition of TYK2. In an imiquimod-induced psoriasis model, the administration of SAR-20347 led to a striking decrease in disease pathology, including reduced activation of keratinocytes, and proinflammatory cytokine levels compared to both TYK2 mutant mice and wild type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that targeting both JAK1 and TYK2-mediated cytokine signaling is more effective than TYK2 inhibition alone in reducing psoriasis pathogenesis. PMID:25156366

  3. Crash characteristics at work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and traffic. A clear understanding of the characteristics of work zone crashes will enhance the selection...

  4. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  5. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  6. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  7. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets."

  8. A tale of two cytokines: IL-17 and IL-22 in asthma and infection

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Michelle L; Robinson, Keven M; Alcorn, John F

    2014-01-01

    The Th17 pathway has recently been shown to play a critical role in host defense, allergic responses and autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells predominantly produce IL-17 and IL-22, which are two cytokines with broad effects in the lung and other tissues. This review summarizes not only what is currently known about the molecular regulation of this pathway and Th17-related cytokine signaling, but also the roles of these cytokines in pathogen immunity and asthma. In the last 5 years, the Th17 field has rapidly grown and research has revealed that the Th17 pathway is essential in lung pathogenesis in response to exogenous stimuli. As work in the field continues, it is expected that many exciting therapeutic advances will be made for a broad range of diseases. PMID:24325586

  9. Evaluation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 levels and outcome of periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Vildan; Toker, Hulya; Senel, Soner; Poyraz, Omer; Akpinar, Aysun; Görgün, Emine Pirim; Bakar, Olcay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and chronic periodontitis (CP) patients, and their response to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. A total of 50 patients, 15 FMF patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (FMF-CP), 15 systemically healthy patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), ten systemically and periodontal healthy controls (HC), and ten periodontally healthy FMF patients (FMF-HC) were enrolled in the study. The cytokine levels in GCF and serum were determined by ELISA. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival and plaque indices in each participant were also measured. The GCF and clinical parameters at baseline and 6 weeks were recorded. The study indicated statistically significant healing of the clinical parameters in both FMF-CP and CP groups after periodontal treatment. GCF IL-1β levels at 6 weeks in FMF-CP group were significantly lower than the CP group (p < 0.05), and GCF IL-1ra levels were significantly decreased at 6 week in the FMF-CP group (p < 0.05). GCF IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the FMF-CP group than in the other groups at baseline and 6 weeks (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in serum-IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 levels either FMF-CP or CP groups at baseline or 6 weeks (p > 0.05). The results of our study suggested that there was a positive correlation between gingival inflammation and serum cytokine levels in FMF patients and also colchicine treatment showed protective effects on GCF cytokine levels in FMF-CP group. Following treatment, GCF IL-1β and GCF IL-1ra levels were decreased in FMF-CP group. GCF IL-10 levels were increased in FMF-CP group compared to other groups. Also, the serum cytokine levels associated with periodontal inflammation in FMF patients.

  10. Association of SNPs from IL1A, IL1B, and IL6 Genes with Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Among Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wujcicka, Wioletta Izabela; Wilczyński, Jan Szczęsny; Nowakowska, Dorota Ewa

    2017-05-01

    The study was aimed to estimate the role and prevalence rates of genotypes, haplotypes, and alleles, located within the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, and IL6 genes, in the occurrence and development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection among pregnant women. A research was conducted in 129 pregnant women, out of whom, 65 were HCMV infected and 64 were age-matched control uninfected individuals. HCMV DNA was quantitated for UL55 gene by the real-time Q PCR in the body fluids. The genotypic statuses within the SNPs were determined by nested PCR-RFLP assays and confirmed, by sequencing for randomly selected representative PCR products. A relationship between the genotypes and alleles, as well as haplotypes and multiple variants in the studied polymorphisms, and the occurrence of HCMV infection in pregnant women, was determined using a logistic regression model. TT genotype within IL1A polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of HCMV infection (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.09-1.05; p ≤ 0.050). Considering IL6 SNP, the prevalence rate of GC genotype was significantly decreased among the HCMV infected, compared to the uninfected control individuals (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.99; p ≤ 0.050). Moreover, CC homozygotic status in IL6 SNP, found in pregnant women, significantly decreased the risk of congenital infection with HCMV in their offsprings (OR 0.12; p ≤ 0.050). In multiple SNP analysis, TC haplotype within the IL1 polymorphisms significantly decreased the risk of the infection in pregnant women (OR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.96; p ≤ 0.050). In addition, TTG complex variants for all the studied polymorphisms and TG variants for IL1B and IL6 SNPs were significantly more prevalent among the infected offsprings with symptomatic congenital cytomegaly than among the asymptomatic cases (p ≤ 0.050). In conclusion, the analyzed IL1A -889 C>T, IL1B +3954 C>T, and IL6 -174 G>C polymorphisms may be associated with the

  11. ILs-3, 6 and 11 increase, but ILs-10 and 24 decrease stemness of human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Qiao, Baoping; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-12-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with cancer recurrence and metastasis. Prostate cancer cells often metastasize to the bone with a complex microenvironment of cytokines favoring cell survival. In this study, the cell stemness influence of a group of interleukins including IL-3, 6, 10, 11 and 24 on human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 was explored in vitro. Sulforhodamine B(SRB) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were applied to examine the effect on cell proliferation, and wound healing and transwell assays were used for migration and invasion studies, in addition to colony formation, Western blotting and flowcytometry for the expression of stemness factors and chemotherapy sensitivity. We observed that ILs-3, 6 and 11 stimulated while ILs-10 and 24 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of both cell lines. Interestingly, ILs-3, 6 and 11 significantly promoted colony formation and increased the expression of SOX2, CD44 and ABCG2 in both prostate cancer cell lines. However, ILs-10 and 24 showed the opposite effect on the expression of these factors. In line with the above findings, treatment with either IL-3 or IL-6 or IL-11 decreased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel while treatment with either IL-10 or IL-24 increased the sensitivity of docetaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, our results suggest that ILs-3, 6 and 11 function as tumor promoters while ILs-10 and 24 function as tumor suppressors in the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro, and such differences may attribute to their different effect on the stemness of PCa cells.

  12. IL17/IL17RA as a Novel Signaling Axis Driving Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapeutic Function in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kurte, Mónica; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Vega-Letter, Ana María; Contreras, Rafael A.; Tejedor, Gautier; Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Martinez-Viola, Luna; Fernández-O’Ryan, Catalina; Figueroa, Fernando E.; Jorgensen, Christian; Djouad, Farida; Carrión, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model has been well described. This effect is, in part, mediated through the inhibition of IL17-producing cells and the generation of regulatory T cells. While proinflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ, TNFα, and IL1β have been shown to enhance MSCs immunosuppressive function, the role of IL17 remains poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the role of the IL17/IL17R pathway on MSCs immunoregulatory effects focusing on Th17 cell generation in vitro and on Th17-mediated EAE pathogenesis in vivo. In vitro, we showed that the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on Th17 cell proliferation and differentiation is partially dependent on IL17RA expression. This was associated with a reduced expression level of MSCs immunosuppressive mediators such as VCAM1, ICAM1, and PD-L1 in IL17RA−/− MSCs as compared to wild-type (WT) MSCs. In the EAE model, we demonstrated that while WT MSCs significantly reduced the clinical scores of the disease, IL17RA−/− MSCs injected mice exhibited a clinical worsening of the disease. The disability of IL17RA−/− MSCs to reduce the progression of the disease paralleled the inability of these cells to reduce the frequency of Th17 cells in the draining lymph node of the mice as compared to WT MSCs. Moreover, we showed that the therapeutic effect of MSCs was correlated with the generation of classical Treg bearing the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ signature in an IL17RA-dependent manner. Our findings reveal a novel role of IL17RA on MSCs immunosuppressive and therapeutic potential in EAE and suggest that the modulation of IL17RA in MSCs could represent a novel method to enhance their therapeutic effect in MS. PMID:29760692

  13. IL17/IL17RA as a Novel Signaling Axis Driving Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapeutic Function in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kurte, Mónica; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Vega-Letter, Ana María; Contreras, Rafael A; Tejedor, Gautier; Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Martinez-Viola, Luna; Fernández-O'Ryan, Catalina; Figueroa, Fernando E; Jorgensen, Christian; Djouad, Farida; Carrión, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model has been well described. This effect is, in part, mediated through the inhibition of IL17-producing cells and the generation of regulatory T cells. While proinflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ, TNFα, and IL1β have been shown to enhance MSCs immunosuppressive function, the role of IL17 remains poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the role of the IL17/IL17R pathway on MSCs immunoregulatory effects focusing on Th17 cell generation in vitro and on Th17-mediated EAE pathogenesis in vivo . In vitro , we showed that the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on Th17 cell proliferation and differentiation is partially dependent on IL17RA expression. This was associated with a reduced expression level of MSCs immunosuppressive mediators such as VCAM1, ICAM1, and PD-L1 in IL17RA -/- MSCs as compared to wild-type (WT) MSCs. In the EAE model, we demonstrated that while WT MSCs significantly reduced the clinical scores of the disease, IL17RA -/- MSCs injected mice exhibited a clinical worsening of the disease. The disability of IL17RA -/- MSCs to reduce the progression of the disease paralleled the inability of these cells to reduce the frequency of Th17 cells in the draining lymph node of the mice as compared to WT MSCs. Moreover, we showed that the therapeutic effect of MSCs was correlated with the generation of classical Treg bearing the CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + signature in an IL17RA-dependent manner. Our findings reveal a novel role of IL17RA on MSCs immunosuppressive and therapeutic potential in EAE and suggest that the modulation of IL17RA in MSCs could represent a novel method to enhance their therapeutic effect in MS.

  14. ILs-3, 6 and 11 increase, but ILs-10 and 24 decrease stemness of human prostate cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Qiao, Baoping; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with cancer recurrence and metastasis. Prostate cancer cells often metastasize to the bone with a complex microenvironment of cytokines favoring cell survival. In this study, the cell stemness influence of a group of interleukins including IL-3, 6, 10, 11 and 24 on human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 was explored in vitro. Sulforhodamine B(SRB) and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were applied to examine the effect on cell proliferation, and wound healing and transwell assays were used for migration and invasion studies, in addition to colony formation, Western blotting and flowcytometry for the expression of stemness factors and chemotherapy sensitivity. We observed that ILs-3, 6 and 11 stimulated while ILs-10 and 24 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of both cell lines. Interestingly, ILs-3, 6 and 11 significantly promoted colony formation and increased the expression of SOX2, CD44 and ABCG2 in both prostate cancer cell lines. However, ILs-10 and 24 showed the opposite effect on the expression of these factors. In line with the above findings, treatment with either IL-3 or IL-6 or IL-11 decreased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel while treatment with either IL-10 or IL-24 increased the sensitivity of docetaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, our results suggest that ILs-3, 6 and 11 function as tumor promoters while ILs-10 and 24 function as tumor suppressors in the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro, and such differences may attribute to their different effect on the stemness of PCa cells. PMID:26528857

  15. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IL13Rα2 expression identifies tissue-resident IL-22 producing PLZF+ innate T cells in the human liver.

    PubMed

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Greenspun, Benjamin C; Pasquet, Lise; Strunz, Benedikt; Aleman, Soo; Falconer, Karolin; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Sandberg, Johan K; Melum, Espen; Nixon, Douglas F; Björkström, Niklas K

    2018-04-20

    Innate lymphocytes are selectively enriched in the liver where they have important roles in liver immunology. Murine studies have shown that type I NKT cells can promote liver inflammation whereas type II NKT cells have an anti-inflammatory role. In humans, type II NKT cells were found to accumulate in the gut during inflammation and IL13Rα2 was proposed as a marker for these cells. In the human liver, less is known about type I and II NKT cells. Here, we studied the phenotype and function of human liver T cells expressing IL13Rα2. We found that IL13Rα2 was expressed by around 1% of liver resident memory T cells but not on circulating T cells. In support of their innate-like T cell character, the IL13Rα2 + T cells had higher expression of PLZF compared to IL13Rα2 - T cells and possessed the capacity to produce IL-22. However, only a minority of human liver sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells expressed IL13Rα2. Collectively, these findings suggest that IL13Rα2 identifies tissue-resident intrahepatic T cells with innate characteristics and the capacity to produce IL-22. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. IL-17 and IL-22 genetic polymorphisms in HBV vaccine non- and low-responders among healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Borzooy, Zohreh; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Mirshafiey, Abbass; Khamseh, Azam; Mahmoudie, Masoud Karkhaneh; Navabi, Shadi Sadat; Nosrati, Marjan; Najafi, Zahra; Hosseini, Mostafa; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare workers constitute a population at high risk for HBV infection. Efficient vaccination options are available; however, the individual response to HBV vaccination may vary widely between subjects, potentially due to cytokine profiles and genetic variations. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between IL-17 and IL-22 gene polymorphisms versus non- and low-responsiveness to HBV vaccination in healthcare workers. Methods We selected the following IL-17 and IL-22 polymorphisms: rs4711998 (A/G) from IL-17 and rs2227501 (A/T), rs2227503 (A/G), rs1026786 (A/G) from IL-22 sequences genes. These were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results The IL-17 rs4711998 GG genotype had a significantly lower frequency in non-responders compared to low-responders (p=0.025). However, we did not identify a relationship between IL-22 rs1026780, rs2227501 and rs2227503 genotypes and the anti-HBs response following HBV vaccination. Conclusion These data suggest that genetic variation in rs4711998 polymorphisms in the IL-17 cytokine may influence vaccine-induced immune responses to HBV vaccine in healthcare workers. PMID:27019828

  18. IL-1β and IL-6 Upregulation in Children with H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiaretti, Antonio; Pulitanò, Silvia; Barone, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Capozzi, Domenico; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The role of cytokines in relation to clinical manifestations, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 virus infection remains thus far unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin IL-1β and IL-6 plasma expressions and their association with clinical findings, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 infection. We prospectively evaluated 15 children with H1N1 virus infection and 15 controls with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Interleukin plasma levels were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. Significantly higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were detected in all patients with H1N1 virus infection compared to controls. It is noteworthy to mention that in H1N1 patients with more severe clinical manifestations of disease IL-1β and IL-6 expressions were significantly upregulated compared to H1N1 patients with mild clinical manifestations. In particular, IL-6 was significantly correlated with specific clinical findings, such as severity of respiratory compromise and fever. No correlation was found between interleukin expression and final outcome. In conclusion, H1N1 virus infection induces an early and significant upregulation of both interleukins IL1β and IL-6 plasma expressions. The upregulation of these cytokines is likely to play a proinflammatory role in H1N1 virus infection and may contribute to airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in these patients. PMID:23737648

  19. IL-1β Enhances Wnt Signal by Inhibiting DKK1.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Oi, Katsuhiro; Kuranobu, Tatsuomi; Nojima, Takaki; Miyaki, Shigeru; Ida, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Eiji

    2018-06-28

    Aberrant endochondral bone formation in the physis is a unique bone lesion in neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), also called chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous articular (CINCA), the most severe of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) diseases, which are interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-related monogenic autoinflammatory diseases. The wingless (Wnt) pathway plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we explored the potential role of IL-1β on the expression of WNT genes and the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). The expression of WNT and DKK1 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are articular resident cells, was quantified by quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, we used T cell factor (TCF) reporter assays to evaluate the activity of the canonical Wnt signal pathway in the presence or absence of the supernatant of cultured FLS treated with or without IL-1β and IL-6. Anti-DKK1 antibodies were used to neutralize DKK1. The expression of both canonical and non-canonical WNT genes as well as DKK1 was observed in FLS. The supernatant of cultured FLS suppressed the luciferase activity of the TCF reporter, and this effect was reduced by its pre-treatment with an anti-DKK1 antibody. Both IL-1β and IL-6 significantly reduced DKK1 production. Furthermore, the supernatant of FLS cultured with IL-1β or IL-6 showed a reduced inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling, compared with the supernatant of untreated FLS. These data suggest that IL-1β, like IL-6, dampens DKK1 production, and thereby promotes Wnt signal activation. Therefore, increased levels of IL-1β may contribute to the dysregulation of endochondral ossification in NOMID/CINCA.

  20. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment.

  1. Germinal Center T Follicular Helper Cell IL-4 Production Is Dependent on Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Receptor (CD150)

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Isharat; Kageyama, Robin; Monticelli, Laurel; Johnston, Robert J.; DiToro, Daniel; Hansen, Kyle; Barnett, Burton; Crotty, Shane

    2010-01-01

    CD4 T cell help is critical for the generation and maintenance of germinal centers (GCs), and T follicular helper (TFH) cells are the CD4 T cell subset required for this process. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP [SH2D1A]) expression in CD4 T cells is essential for GC development. However, SAP-deficient mice have only a moderate defect in TFH differentiation, as defined by common TFH surface markers. CXCR5+ TFH cells are found within the GC, as well as along the boundary regions of T/B cell zones. In this study, we show that GC-associated T follicular helper (GC TFH) cells can be identified by their coexpression of CXCR5 and the GL7 epitope, allowing for phenotypic and functional analysis of TFH and GC TFH populations. GC TFH cells are a functionally discrete subset of further polarized TFH cells, with enhanced B cell help capacity and a specialized ability to produce IL-4 in a TH2-independent manner. Strikingly, SAP-deficient mice have an absence of the GC TFH cell subset and SAP− TFH cells are defective in IL-4 and IL-21 production. We further demonstrate that SLAM (Slamf1, CD150), a surface receptor that uses SAP signaling, is specifically required for IL-4 production by GC TFH cells. GC TFH cells require IL-4 and -21 production for optimal help to B cells. These data illustrate complexities of SAP-dependent SLAM family receptor signaling, revealing a prominent role for SLAM receptor ligation in IL-4 production by GC CD4 T cells but not in TFH cell and GC TFH cell differentiation. PMID:20525889

  2. Fibonacci-like zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Liu, Mengsi; Xia, Tian; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    We present a new family of diffractive lenses, Fibonacci-like zone plates, generated with a modified Fibonacci sequence. The focusing properties and the evolution of transverse diffraction pattern for the Fibonacci-like zone plates have been analytically investigated both theoretically and experimentally and compared with the corresponding Fresnel zone plates of the same resolution. The results demonstrate that the Fibonacci-like zone plates possess the self-similar property and the multifocal behavior. Furthermore, the Fibonacci-like zone plate beams are found to possess the self-reconstruction property, and would be promising for 3D optical tweezers, laser machining, and optical imaging.

  3. The generalized mean zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper a generalized mean zone plate is proposed, which generates twin foci located at the positions satisfying the expression of the generalized mean, which includes the m-golden mean, precious mean, and so on. The generalized mean zone plate can be designed to generate twin foci with various position ratios. The diffraction properties of the generalized mean zone plates have been investigated with simulations and experiments. The results show that the ratio of the positions of the twin foci for the generalized mean zone plate can be designed with the selected zone plate parameters.

  4. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  5. 75 FR 81441 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Benton, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... at Benton, IL, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Benton Municipal Airport, Benton, IL. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) operations at the airport. DATES: Effective date: 0901 UTC, March...

  6. Orthodontic treatment mediates dental pulp microenvironment via IL17A.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenjing; Zhang, Yueling; Jiang, Chunmiao; He, Wei; Yi, Yating; Wang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Orthodontic treatment induces dental tissue remodeling; however, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated pulp micro-environmental alteration is still largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we identified elevated interleukin-17A (IL17A) in the dental pulp, which induced the osteogenesis of DPSCs after orthodontic force loading. Tooth movement animal models were established in Sprague-Dawley rats, and samples were harvested at 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after orthodontic treatment loading. DPSC self-renewal and differentiation at different time points were examined, as well as the alteration of the microenvironment of dental pulp tissue by histological analysis and the systemic serum IL17A expression level by an ELISA assay. In vitro recombinant IL17A treatment was used to confirm the effect of IL17A on the enhancement of DPSC self-renewal and differentiation. Orthodontic treatment altered the dental pulp microenvironment by activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL17A in vivo. Orthodontic loading significantly promoted the self-renewal and differentiation of DPSCs. Inflammation and elevated IL17A secretion occurred in the dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, in vitro recombinant IL17A treatment mimicked the enhancement of the self-renewal and differentiation of DPSCs. Orthodontic treatment enhanced the differentiation and self-renewal of DPSCs, mediated by orthodontic-induced inflammation and subsequent elevation of IL17A level in the dental pulp microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IL-17 Expression in Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Malgorzata; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Cynkier, Anna; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Waszczykowska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are skin diseases associated with eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltrations. Although cytokines are critical for the inflammatory process, there are single findings concerning concentration of IL-17 in bullous diseases. The goal of this study was to assess IL-17 expression in DH and BP patients. Skin biopsies were taken from 10 DH, 14 BP patients and from 10 healthy subjects. The localization and expression of IL-17 was studied by immunohistochemistry and the serum concentration was measured by immunoassays. Expression of IL-17 in the epidermis and in influxed cells in dermis was detected in skin biopsies. Expression of IL-17 was statistically higher in epidermis and infiltration cells in specimens from BP than from DH patients. Examined interleukin expression was detected in perilesional skin of all patients but it was much lower than in lesional skin. The expression of IL-17 was not observed in biopsies from healthy people. Serum level of IL-17 was statistically higher in BP and DH groups as compared to control group. Our results provide the evidence that IL-17 may play an essential role in activating and recruiting eosinophils and neutrophils, which ultimately contribute to the tissue damage in DH and BP. PMID:23970818

  8. Gasdermin D Flashes an Exit Signal for IL-1.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Teneema; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2018-01-16

    The IL-1 family of cytokines follows an unconventional pathway of secretion mostly associated with inflammatory cell death. In this issue of Immunity, (Evavold et al., 2017) report gasdermin D pores as channels for active IL-1 release in live phagocytic cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. IL-2 immunotherapy in chronically SIV-infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite inducing a sustained increase in CD4+ T cell counts, intermittent recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) therapy did not confer a better clinical outcome in HIV-infected patients enrolled in large phase III clinical trials ESPRIT and SILCAAT. Several hypotheses were evoked to explain these discrepancies. Here, we investigated the impact of low and high doses of IL-2 in Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin infected with SIVmac251 in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results We demonstrated that rIL-2 induced a dose dependent expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells without affecting viral load. rIL-2 increased CD4 and CD8 Treg cells as defined by the expression of CD25highFoxP3+CD127low. We also showed that rIL-2 modulated spontaneous and Fas-mediated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell apoptosis. The higher dose exhibited a dramatic pro-apoptotic effect on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations. Finally, all the animals treated with rIL-2 developed a wasting syndrome in the month following treatment simultaneously to a dramatic decrease of circulating effector T cells. Conclusion These data contribute to the understanding of the homeostatic and dosage effects of IL-2 in the context of SIV/HIV infection. PMID:23021024

  10. IL-22 from T cells: better late than never.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kenya

    2012-12-14

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) enhances mucosal barrier function and is important in antimicrobial host defense. In this issue of Immunity, Basu et al. (2012) reveal that Th22 cells are the critical adaptive source of IL-22 during late-phase infection by Citrobacter rodentium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FGF2 cooperates with IL-17 to promote autoimmune inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xinrui; Chen, Siyuan; Yang, Daping; Cao, Mengtao; Yao, Yikun; Wu, Zhengxi; Li, Ningli; Shen, Nan; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Xinyang; Qian, Youcun

    2017-08-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated a variety of autoimmune diseases. We have recently reported that FGF2 cooperates with IL-17 to protect intestinal epithelium during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Here, we report a pathogenic role of the FGF2-IL-17 cooperation in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Combined treatment with FGF2 and IL-17 synergistically induced ERK activation as well as the production of cytokines and chemokines in human synovial intimal resident fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Furthermore, ectopic expression of FGF2 in mouse joints potentiated IL-17-induced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the tissue. In the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, while ectopic expression of FGF2 in vivo exacerbated tissue inflammation and disease symptom in the wild-type controls, the effect was largely blunted in Il17a -/- mice. Taken together, our study suggests that FGF2 cooperates with IL-17 to promote the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis by cooperating with IL-17 to induce inflammatory response.

  12. 75 FR 57376 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... multiple Soaring Clubs in the area, requested that the floor of Area F be raised to 5,000 feet mean sea... designed to ensure it does not encompass or overlay the airfields where the Sky Soaring Glider Club (Hampshire, IL) and the Windy City Soaring Association (Hinkley, IL) operations are located; as well as the...

  13. Kaempferol impedes IL-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-08-25

    Kaempferol possesses a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. The present study sought to evaluate the effects and possible pharmacological mechanisms of kaempferol on interleukin (IL)-32-induced monocyte-macrophage differentiation. In this study, we performed flow cytometry assay, immunocytochemical staining, quantitative real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting to observe the effects and underlying mechanisms of kaempferol using the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The flow cytometry, immunocytochemical staining, and real-time PCR results show that kaempferol attenuated IL-32-induced monocyte differentiation to product macrophage-like cells. Kaempferol decreased the production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in this case thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-8. Furthermore, kaempferol inhibited the IL-32-induced activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 cells. Kaempferol also ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the inflammatory mediators TSLP, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and nitric oxide of macrophage-like cells differentiated by IL-32. In brief, our findings may provide new mechanistic insights into the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. "Characterization of the immune reagent chicken IL-16"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interleukin-16 has been characterized as a pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates an immune response in human and mouse monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and it plays a role in proliferating B-cells and myelomas. The function of chicken IL-16 ortholog (ch-IL-16) is far less u...

  15. Emerging role of IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Chong; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Huang, An-Fang; Xu, Wang-Dong

    2018-05-03

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and provides the possibility to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory diseases. It is composed of an α chain (p35) and a β chain (EBI3). IL-35 mediates signaling by binding to its receptors, activates subsequent signaling pathways, and therefore, regulates the differentiation, function of T, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells. Recent findings have shown abnormal expression of IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune hepatitis, experimental autoimmune uveitis. In addition, functional analysis suggested that IL-35 is critical in the onset and development of these diseases. Therefore, the present study will systematically review what had been occurred regarding IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune disease. The information collected will help to understand the biologic role of IL-35 in immune cells, and give information about the therapeutic potential of IL-35 in these diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Stühmer, Constantin; Z'Graggen, Marcel; Kokemöller, Horst; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2010-01-01

    The most important factor leading to periimplantitis with bone loss appears to be an inflammatory process due to plaque accumulation. The object of this article was to present a review of the literature on a possible correlation between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. Research was carried out in the PUBMED and WEB OF KNOWLEDGE literature databases and 27 relevant articles were found. Of these articles, 4 groups of authors came to the conclusion that no correlation exists between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. In 5 articles by 4 groups of authors, the influence of IL-1 polymorphism on periimplantitis is unclear. 9 studies prove a correlation between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis, and 6 studies also document a direct linkage between gene polymorphism and periimplantitis, if certain cofactors are present. IL-1 polymorphism is frequently connected with "noninfectious periimplant bone loss". Other studies prove that the inflammatory mediators and IL-1beta were significantly elevated in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of infected implants. Many studies document that IL-1 polymorphism alone cannot be considered a risk factor for bone loss, but in combination with smoking, it is closely associated with periimplant bone loss. More studies are needed to discover possible correlations between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis.

  17. IL-2 infusion abrogates humoral immune responses in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, D J; Prentice, H G; Heslop, H E; Bello, C; Brenner, M K

    1992-01-01

    Although IL-2 infusion enhances cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with neoplastic disease, administration is paradoxically associated with a modest fall in total serum IgG and an increased risk of infection. We now show that the adverse effects of IL-2 infusion on the humoral immune system are substantial. Although IL-2 induces the B cell growth and differentiating factors IL-4 and IL-6, infusion abrogates primary antibody responses entirely and reduces secondary antibody responses 50-fold following antigen challenge. There is no evidence of the generation of cells with suppressive activity on B cells but IL-2 increases the ratio of circulating virgin:memory cells. These results may help to explain the increased rate of bacterial infection in patients receiving IL-2. As IL-2 plays a central role in the generation of an immune response, the finding that it is also sufficiently immunosuppressive to inhibit primary- and secondary-type antibody responses suggests that exploration of the underlying mechanisms may provide insights into immune system homeostasis and may offer new approaches to therapeutic immunosuppression. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1544235

  18. Role of IL-1 beta and COX2 in silica-induced IL-6 release and loss of pneumocytes in co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Herseth, Jan I; Refsnes, Magne; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per E

    2009-10-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 are of great importance in the development of silica-induced lung damage and repair. In this study we investigated the role of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and COX2 in silica-induced regulation of IL-6 release and pneumocyte loss in various mono- and co-cultures of monocytes, pneumocytes and endothelial cells. All co-cultures with monocytes, and especially cultures including endothelial cells, showed an increase of silica-induced release of IL-6 compared to the respective monocultures. Treatment with the antagonist IL-1 ra strongly decreased IL-1 beta and IL-6 release in contact co-cultures of monocytes and pneumocytes. COX2 up-regulation by silica and IL-1 beta was eliminated by IL-1 ra. Inhibition of COX2 markedly reduced both IL-1 beta and IL-6 release. IL-1 ra was more effective than COX2-inhibition in reduction of IL-6, but not of IL-1 beta. Silica-induced pneumocyte loss was reduced by IL-1 beta, but this effect was not counteracted by the IL-1 receptor antagonist. Our findings suggest that silica-induced IL-6 release from pneumocytes is mainly mediated via IL-1 beta release from the monocytes, via both COX2-dependent and -independent pathways. Notably, COX2-derived mediators seem crucial for a positive feed-back regulation of IL-1 beta release from the monocytes. In contrast to silica-induced IL-6, the reduction in pneumocyte loss by IL-1 beta does not seem to be regulated through an IL-1R1-dependent mechanism.

  19. The interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine family--Balance between agonists and antagonists in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Jennifer; Dietrich, Damien; Martin, Praxedis; Palmer, Gaby; Gabay, Cem

    2015-11-01

    The interleukin (IL)-1 family of cytokines comprises 11 members, including 7 pro-inflammatory agonists (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ) and 4 defined or putative antagonists (IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-36Ra, IL-37, and IL-38) exerting anti-inflammatory activities. Except for IL-1Ra, IL-1 cytokines do not possess a leader sequence and are secreted via an unconventional pathway. In addition, IL-1β and IL-18 are produced as biologically inert pro-peptides that require cleavage by caspase-1 in their N-terminal region to generate active proteins. N-terminal processing is also required for full activity of IL-36 cytokines. The IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) family comprises 10 members and includes cytokine-specific receptors, co-receptors and inhibitory receptors. The signaling IL-1Rs share a common structure with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and an intracellular Toll-like/IL-1R (TIR) domain. IL-1 cytokines bind to their specific receptor, which leads to the recruitment of a co-receptor and intracellular signaling. IL-1 cytokines induce potent inflammatory responses and their activity is tightly controlled at the level of production, protein processing and maturation, receptor binding and post-receptor signaling by naturally occurring inhibitors. Some of these inhibitors are IL-1 family antagonists, while others are IL-1R family members acting as membrane-bound or soluble decoy receptors. An imbalance between agonist and antagonist levels can lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses. Several genetic modifications or mutations associated with dysregulated IL-1 activity and autoinflammatory disorders were identified in mouse models and in patients. These findings paved the road to the successful use of IL-1 inhibitors in diseases that were previously considered as untreatable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preferential Binding to Elk-1 by SLE-Associated IL10 Risk Allele Upregulates IL10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jennifer A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Harley, John B.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Alarcόn-Riquelme, Marta E.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle A.; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Sivils, Kathy Moser; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Merrill, Joan T.; Scofield, R. Hal; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Stevens, Anne M.; Boackle, Susan A.; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Freedman, Barry I.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Martin, Javier; Yu, C. Yung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Langefeld, Carl D.; Chen, Weiling; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Cantor, Rita M.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Tsao, Betty P.

    2013-01-01

    Immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlating with disease activity. The established association of IL10 with SLE and other autoimmune diseases led us to fine map causal variant(s) and to explore underlying mechanisms. We assessed 19 tag SNPs, covering the IL10 gene cluster including IL19, IL20 and IL24, for association with SLE in 15,533 case and control subjects from four ancestries. The previously reported IL10 variant, rs3024505 located at 1 kb downstream of IL10, exhibited the strongest association signal and was confirmed for association with SLE in European American (EA) (P = 2.7×10−8, OR = 1.30), but not in non-EA ancestries. SNP imputation conducted in EA dataset identified three additional SLE-associated SNPs tagged by rs3024505 (rs3122605, rs3024493 and rs3024495 located at 9.2 kb upstream, intron 3 and 4 of IL10, respectively), and SLE-risk alleles of these SNPs were dose-dependently associated with elevated levels of IL10 mRNA in PBMCs and circulating IL-10 protein in SLE patients and controls. Using nuclear extracts of peripheral blood cells from SLE patients for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified specific binding of transcription factor Elk-1 to oligodeoxynucleotides containing the risk (G) allele of rs3122605, suggesting rs3122605 as the most likely causal variant regulating IL10 expression. Elk-1 is known to be activated by phosphorylation and nuclear localization to induce transcription. Of interest, phosphorylated Elk-1 (p-Elk-1) detected only in nuclear extracts of SLE PBMCs appeared to increase with disease activity. Co-expression levels of p-Elk-1 and IL-10 were elevated in SLE T, B cells and monocytes, associated with increased disease activity in SLE B cells, and were best downregulated by ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that preferential binding of activated Elk-1 to the IL10 rs3122605-G allele upregulates IL

  1. Preferential binding to Elk-1 by SLE-associated IL10 risk allele upregulates IL10 expression.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Daisuke; Zhao, Jian; Deng, Yun; Kelly, Jennifer A; Brown, Elizabeth E; Harley, John B; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Alarcόn-Riquelme, Marta E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle A; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Alarcón, Graciela S; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Vyse, Timothy J; Jacob, Chaim O; Gaffney, Patrick M; Sivils, Kathy Moser; James, Judith A; Kamen, Diane L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Niewold, Timothy B; Merrill, Joan T; Scofield, R Hal; Criswell, Lindsey A; Stevens, Anne M; Boackle, Susan A; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Freedman, Barry I; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Martin, Javier; Yu, C Yung; Chang, Deh-Ming; Song, Yeong Wook; Langefeld, Carl D; Chen, Weiling; Grossman, Jennifer M; Cantor, Rita M; Hahn, Bevra H; Tsao, Betty P

    2013-01-01

    Immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlating with disease activity. The established association of IL10 with SLE and other autoimmune diseases led us to fine map causal variant(s) and to explore underlying mechanisms. We assessed 19 tag SNPs, covering the IL10 gene cluster including IL19, IL20 and IL24, for association with SLE in 15,533 case and control subjects from four ancestries. The previously reported IL10 variant, rs3024505 located at 1 kb downstream of IL10, exhibited the strongest association signal and was confirmed for association with SLE in European American (EA) (P = 2.7×10⁻⁸, OR = 1.30), but not in non-EA ancestries. SNP imputation conducted in EA dataset identified three additional SLE-associated SNPs tagged by rs3024505 (rs3122605, rs3024493 and rs3024495 located at 9.2 kb upstream, intron 3 and 4 of IL10, respectively), and SLE-risk alleles of these SNPs were dose-dependently associated with elevated levels of IL10 mRNA in PBMCs and circulating IL-10 protein in SLE patients and controls. Using nuclear extracts of peripheral blood cells from SLE patients for electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified specific binding of transcription factor Elk-1 to oligodeoxynucleotides containing the risk (G) allele of rs3122605, suggesting rs3122605 as the most likely causal variant regulating IL10 expression. Elk-1 is known to be activated by phosphorylation and nuclear localization to induce transcription. Of interest, phosphorylated Elk-1 (p-Elk-1) detected only in nuclear extracts of SLE PBMCs appeared to increase with disease activity. Co-expression levels of p-Elk-1 and IL-10 were elevated in SLE T, B cells and monocytes, associated with increased disease activity in SLE B cells, and were best downregulated by ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that preferential binding of activated Elk-1 to the IL10 rs3122605-G allele upregulates

  2. Endogenous IL-1 in Cognitive Function and Anxiety: A Study in IL-1RI−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Carol L.; Obiang, Pauline; Bannerman, David; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI). IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI−/− mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI−/− animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT) mice to IL-1RI−/− mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI−/− mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI−/− mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI−/− mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI−/− mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI−/− mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in

  3. Association between genes encoding components of the IL-4/IL-4 receptor pathway and dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Yousri M; Shalaby, Sally M; Nassar, Amani; Alzahrani, Saad S; Alharbi, Ayman S; Nouh, Maha

    2014-07-25

    To determine whether IL-4, IL-4Rα and STAT6 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to dermatitis in Egyptian children. We genotyped three groups of children, consisting of 106 atopic dermatitis (AD) children, 95 non-AD children, and 100 of healthy controls, for IL-4 (-590 C/T), (-33 C/T), IL-4Rα (I50V), (Q576R) and STAT6 (2964 G/A), (2892 C/T) gene polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP assay. Total serum IgE and serum IL-4 levels were detected by ELISA. There was a non-significant association of IL-4 -590 C/T, -33 C/T polymorphisms in the children with non-AD or those with AD when compared with the controls. We identified a significant association between IL-4Rα I50V, Q576R polymorphisms and dermatitis susceptibility in AD (p=0.002, <0.001 respectively), whereas no such association was observed in non-AD group (p=0.52, 0.99 respectively). A significant association between STAT6 polymorphisms and both types of dermatitis was found. Patients who were carriers of IL4 -590C, IL-4Rα I50V G, STAT6 2964 A and STAT6 2892 T had an increased risk of AD [OR and 95% CI: 3.2 (2.5-4.2), p=0.005]. Furthermore, there was no relation between each polymorphism and serum IL-4 level (p>0.05 for each) while homozygosity for the risk alleles of IL-4, IL-4Rα and STAT6 SNPs were significantly associated with increased total IgE levels in all subjects. In Egyptian children, the IL-4Rα and the STAT6 polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility to AD. In addition, gene-gene interaction between the IL-4, the IL-4Rα and the STAT6 significantly increases an individual's susceptibility to AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated IL-17A and IL-22 regulate expression of inducible CD38 and Zap-70 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kouzegaran, Samaneh; Siroosbakht, Soheila; Farsad, Bahram Fariborz; Rezakhaniha, Bijan; Dormanesh, Banafshe; Behnod, Vahid; Tanha, Amir Saber

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role and expression of interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-22 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We evaluated the expression of markers above on CLL by ELISA, qRT-PCR, flow cytometric analysis and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of IL-17A and IL-22 in PBMCs of CLL patients were upregulated compared with those from healthy subjects (mean ± SD: 1.96 ± 0.232 vs.0.72 ± 0.15, P < 0.001 and mean ± SD: 2.45 ± 0.534 vs.0.81 ± 0.26, P < 0.001, respectivily). In addition, findings showed that the IL-17A and IL-22 plasma level was significantly elevated than that from healthy control group (P  < 0.001). The median IL-17A and IL-22 in CLL patients and healthy control group were 48.28 ± 17.2 pg mL -1 ; 20.01 ± 11.16 pg mL -1 and 58.68 ± 23.4 pg mL -1 ;16.47 ± 10.31 P < 0.001, respectively. The levels of IL-17A and IL-22 was not significantly associated with the different stages of disease (Rai stages; Kruskal-Wallis test P > 0.05).No significant relationship was found between expression of CD38 and higher median serum levels of IL-17A in patients, but patients with negative expression of ZAP-70 showed a significant association with higher median serum levels of IL-17A compared with healthy subjects. (57.84 pg mL -1 vs. 31.67 pg mL -1 ; P = 0.016). IL-22 is elevated and associated with CD38 and Zap-70 expression in patients with CLL. No significant correlation was found between expression of CD38 and increased levels of IL-17A, negative expression of ZAP-70 showed a significant association with increased levels of IL-17A. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. [Brd3 promotes IL-6 production via enhancing acetylase CBP recruitment and histone 3 acetylation within IL6 promoter].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenhui; Sun, Donghao; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Objective To investigate the role of bromodomain containing 3 (Brd3) in LPS-triggered interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in macrophages and the underlying mechanism. Methods CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to screen an RAW264.7 cell line with Brd3 knockout (Brd3 -/- ). The Brd3 -/- cells were used as an experimental group, and the parential cells expressing wide-type Brd3 as a control group. The IL-6 level in cell culture supernatant was detected by ELISA after 100 ng/mL LPS challenging. Effect of Brd3 knockout on the expression and activation of signal pathways involved in IL-6 expression, including the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined by Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to evaluate the recruitment of acetylase CREB-binding protein (CBP) to IL6 gene promoter and the acetylation level of histone 3 within IL6 gene promoter. Results LPS treatment significantly downregulated Brd3 expression in mouse peritoneal macrophages. LPS-induced production of IL-6 was significantly inhibited in Brd3 -/- macrophages. The expressions and activation of signal molecules within NF-κB and MAPK pathways were barely affected. Brd3 knockout significantly decreased the recruitment of acetylase CBP to IL6 gene promoter, and the acetylation level of histone3 within IL6 gene promoter was also repressed. Conclusion Brd3 promotes LPS-triggered IL-6 production via promoting the recruitment of CBP to IL6 promoter and enhancing the acetylation level of histone 3 within IL6 promoter.

  6. MAD ointment ameliorates Imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis by inhibiting the IL-23/IL-17 axis in mice.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Qiong; Pan, YaQian; Luo, HanQiong; Xuan, ChunXiao; Liu, JinE; Liu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic auto-immune inflammation disease with skin lesions and abnormal keratinocyte proliferation. The IL-23/IL-17 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Madecassoside (MAD) was the most important constituents isolated from Centella asiatica, which has long been used in dermatology, and it is supposed that MAD may have effects on psoriasis. In the present study, the BALB/c mice ear and back skin received IMQ for 6 consecutive days to induce psoriasis-like dermatitis. MAD ointment was applied 6h later after IMQ treatment, and the IL-23/IL-17 pathway was investigated. The HE staining, BrdU and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) were used to score the severity of keratinocyte proliferation and inflammation of the skin. Real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to detect the IL-23/IL-17 related cytokines. Flow Cytometry were applied to observe the numbers of Th17 cells. Daily application of IMQ for 6days on mouse ear skin and back skin induced psoriasis-like dermatitis. Real-time PCR showed that mRNA level of IL-23, IL-22, IL-17A were significantly decreased by MAD ointment treatment in ear skin. HE staining and BrdU incorporation implied that MAD ointment reduced keratinocyte proliferation. Flow Cytometry results showed MAD ointment decreased the numbers of Th17 cells. Thus, MAD ointment ameliorates Imiquimod-induced skin inflammation and abnormal keratinocyte through regulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning of guinea pig IL-4: reduced IL-4 mRNA after vaccination or Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Jeevan, Amminikutty; Yoshimura, Teizo; Ly, Lan H; Dirisala, Vijaya R; McMurray, David N

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a pleiotropic cytokine produced by T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells, is involved in promoting humoral immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma. Previous studies suggested an important role for IL-4 in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis; however, the role of IL-4 has not been studied in the guinea pig, a highly relevant model for this disease. In the present study, we cloned a cDNA for guinea pig IL-4 and examined, for the first time, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR in cultured guinea pig cells. High levels of IL-4 mRNA expression were detected in spleen T cells of naïve animals after in vitro stimulation with PMA plus ionomycin for 4-24 h. The expression of IL-4 mRNA was low in spleen and lymph node cells immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in response to OVA (Th1), but significantly higher in the guinea pigs immunized with OVA plus alum (Th2). BCG vaccination reduced the expression of IL-4 mRNA in both spleen and lung digest cells compared to naïve guinea pigs, while levels of IFN-γ were similar in both groups. Furthermore, lung cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs stimulated in vitro with PPD or MPT64 showed low levels of IL-4 mRNA expression. Thus, BCG vaccination or M. tuberculosis infection modulates IL-4 mRNA expression in the guinea pig. Cloning of guinea pig IL-4 will allow us to address the role of IL-4 in vaccine-induced resistance to pulmonary TB in a highly relevant animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Protective Effect of Intrasplenic Transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 Gene-Modified Fetal Hepatocytes on ConA-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Background Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. Aim To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Methods Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Conclusions Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease. PMID:23516562

  9. The protective effect of intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 gene-modified fetal hepatocytes on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xueting; Qian, Yun; Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease.

  10. Serum levels of TGFβ, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 cytokines in β-thalassemia major patients: the impact of silymarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Balouchi, Sima; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Esmaeil, Nafiseh; Mirmoghtadaei, Milad; Moayedi, Behjat

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Several immunological abnormalities have been characterized in β-thalassemia, many of which are linked to or identified with cytokines. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of TGF-β, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 in β-thalassemia major patients in comparison with healthy controls. The immunomodulatory effect of silymarin (a flavonoid complex obtained from Silybum marinum) on the serum levels of cytokines was further evaluated in thalassemia patients receiving silymarin (420 mg/day) and compared with patients treated with placebo for 6-month. Serum cytokines levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed a significant higher concentration of TGF-β and IL-23 in the patient group than control group. Among studied cytokines, a significant reduction in serum IL-10 levels was found in patients treated with silymarin when compared with IL-10 values at baseline. However, no significant difference was observed between baseline values of cytokine compared with end values in placebo group. Our data suggest the presence of imbalanced immune condition involving inflammation and immunosuppression in thalassemia patients, which could be modulated to a more effective immune response by silymarin.

  11. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  12. Smartphones and Time Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  13. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    A Voyage of Discovery. George Deacon 70th An-niversary Volume, (M. Angel, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p.15-41. Coachman, L.K., C.A. Barnes, 1961...some polar contrasts. In: S "" RUsium on Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, ( George Deacon, ed.), Sci- 72 Lebedev, A.A., 1968: Zone of possible icing of...Atlantic and Western Europe. British Meteorological Office. Geophysical Memoirs, 4(41). Brost , R.A., J.C. Wyngaard, 1978: A model study of the stably

  14. Biology of IL-5 in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Lalani, T; Simmons, R K; Ahmed, A R

    1999-04-01

    Reading this article will increase the readers' knowledge of the biology of interleukin-5 (IL-5), an important cytokine. The immune and inflammatory responses of any organism are the basis of the defense mechanism ensuring its survival. The role of IL-5 in these processes, as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases has been discussed along with the effects of various pharmacologic agents on the production and function of IL-5. A detailed literature search was performed. Studies considered relevant and important, in all languages, which involved humans and animals were used. Information was obtained only from peer reviewed journals. Interleukin-5 is normally produced by T-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils while Reed Sternberg and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed cells also produce IL-5. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to IL-5 are potent inhibitors of IL-5 mediated tissue damage, secondary to eosinophil infiltration. The majority of the studies on IL-5 are preliminary, often the information is obtained from animal studies or in vitro systems and occasionally from pathologic tissue analysis. This along with the absence of confirmatory studies is a limiting factor. Nonetheless, the role of IL-5 in allergic and immunologic disease and asthma may be central to their pathogenesis. Interleukin-5 is an important molecule that is participant to many processes that maintain health and are involved directly or indirectly in the pathogenesis of disease. Some pharmacologic agents can modify IL-5 production in vivo. Development of selective inhibitors of IL-5 may have a potential use for specific therapy of certain autoimmune, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases.

  15. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  16. An altered peripheral IL6 response in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Money, Kelli M; Olah, Zita; Korade, Zeljka; Garbett, Krassimira A; Shelton, Richard C; Mirnics, Karoly

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent major psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 17%. Recent evidence suggests MDD is not only a brain dysfunction, but a systemic disease affecting the whole body. Central and peripheral inflammatory changes seem to be a centerpiece of MDD pathology: a subset of patients show elevated blood cytokine and chemokine levels that partially normalize with symptom improvement over the course of anti-depressant treatment. As this inflammatory process in MDD is poorly understood, we hypothesized that the peripheral tissues of MDD patients will respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, resulting in an aberrant transcriptional response to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. To test this, we used MDD patient- and control-derived dermal fibroblast cultures to investigate their response to an acute treatment with IL6, IL1β, TNFα, or vehicle. Following RNA isolation and subsequent cDNA synthesis, quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative expression level of several families of inflammation-responsive genes. Our results showed comparable expression of the tested genes between MDD patients and controls at baseline. In contrast, MDD patient fibroblasts had a diminished transcriptional response to IL6 in all the gene sets tested (oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and lipid metabolism). We also found a significant increase in baseline and IL6 stimulated transcript levels of the IL6 receptor gene. This IL6 receptor transcript increase in MDD fibroblasts was accompanied by an IL6 stimulated increase in induction of SOCS3, which dampens IL6 receptor signaling. Altogether our results demonstrate that there is an altered transcriptional response to IL6 in MDD, which may represent one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathophysiology. Ultimately we hope that these studies will lead to validation of novel MDD drug targets focused on normalizing the altered IL6 response in

  17. An altered peripheral IL6 response in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Olah, Zita; Korade, Zeljka; Garbett, Krassimira A.; Shelton, Richard C.; Mirnics, Karoly

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent major psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 17%. Recent evidence suggests MDD is not only a brain dysfunction, but a systemic disease affecting the whole body. Central and peripheral inflammatory changes seem to be a centerpiece of MDD pathology: a subset of patients show elevated blood cytokine and chemokine levels that partially normalize with symptom improvement over the course of antidepressant treatment. As this inflammatory process in MDD is poorly understood, we hypothesized that the peripheral tissues of MDD patients will respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, resulting in an aberrant transcriptional response to elevated proinflammatory cytokines. To test this, we used MDD patient- and control-derived dermal fibroblast cultures to investigate their response to an acute treatment with IL6, IL1β, TNFα, or vehicle. Following RNA isolation and subsequent cDNA synthesis, quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative expression level of several families of inflammation-responsive genes. Our results showed comparable expression of the tested genes between MDD patients and controls at baseline. In contrast, MDD patient fibroblasts had a diminished transcriptional response to IL6 in all the gene sets tested (oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and lipid metabolism). We also found a significant increase in baseline and IL6 stimulated transcript levels of the IL6 receptor gene. This IL6 receptor transcript increase in MDD fibroblasts was accompanied by an IL6 stimulated increase in induction of SOCS3, which dampens IL6 receptor signaling. Altogether our results demonstrate that there is an altered transcriptional response to IL6 in MDD, which may represent one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathophysiology. Ultimately we hope that these studies will lead to validation of novel MDD drug targets focused on normalizing the altered IL6 response in

  18. IκBζ is essential for natural killer cell activation in response to IL-12 and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tohru; Satoh, Takashi; Kato, Hiroki; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Kumagai, Yutaro; Vandenbon, Alexis; Tani, Tohru; Muta, Tatsushi; Akira, Shizuo; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    IκBζ, encoded by Nfibiz, is a nuclear IκB-like protein harboring ankyrin repeats. IκBζ has been shown to regulate IL-6 production in macrophages and Th17 development in T cells. However, the role of IκBζ in natural killer (NK) cells has not be understood. In the present study, we found that the expression of IκBζ was rapidly induced in response to IL-18 in NK cells, but not in T cells. Analysis of Nfkbiz−/− mice revealed that IκBζ was essential for the production of IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity in NK cells in response to IL-12 and/or IL-18 stimulation. IL-12/IL-18–mediated gene induction was profoundly impaired in Nfkbiz−/− NK cells. Whereas the phosphorylation of STAT4 was normally induced by IL-12 stimulation, STAT4 was not recruited to the Ifng gene regions in Nfkbiz−/− NK cells. Acetylation of histone 3 K9 on Ifng regions was also abrogated in Nfkbiz−/− NK cells. IκBζ was recruited on the proximal promoter region of the Ifng gene, and overexpression of IκBζ together with IL-12 activated the Ifng promoter. Furthermore, Nfkbiz−/− mice were highly susceptible to mouse MCMV infection. Taken together, these results demonstrate that IκBζ is essential for the activation of NK cells and antiviral host defense responses. PMID:20876105

  19. Meprin A and meprin {alpha} generate biologically functional IL-1{beta} from pro-IL-1{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Christian; University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Little Rock, AR 72205; Haun, Randy S.

    The present study demonstrates that both oligomeric metalloendopeptidase meprin A purified from kidney cortex and recombinant meprin {alpha} are capable of generating biologically active IL-1{beta} from its precursor pro-IL-1{beta}. Amino-acid sequencing analysis reveals that meprin A and meprin {alpha} cleave pro-IL-1{beta} at the His{sup 115}-Asp{sup 116} bond, which is one amino acid N-terminal to the caspase-1 cleavage site and five amino acids C-terminal to the meprin {beta} site. The biological activity of the pro-IL-1{beta} cleaved product produced by meprin A, determined by proliferative response of helper T-cells, was 3-fold higher to that of the IL-1{beta} product produced by meprin {beta}more » or caspase-1. In a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation puncture that results in elevated levels of serum IL-1{beta}, meprin inhibitor actinonin significantly reduces levels of serum IL-1{beta}. Meprin A and meprin {alpha} may therefore play a critical role in the production of active IL-1{beta} during inflammation and tissue injury.« less

  20. INCREASED IL-8 AND IL-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INCREASED IL-6 AND IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES.
    R Silbajoris1, A G Lenz2, I Jaspers3, J M Samet1. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2GSF-Institute for Inhalation Biology, Neuherberg, Germany; 3 CEMLB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, ...

  1. A Common Variant of IL-6R is Associated with Elevated IL-6 Pathway Activity in Alzheimer's Disease Brains.

    PubMed

    Haddick, Patrick C G; Larson, Jessica L; Rathore, Nisha; Bhangale, Tushar R; Phung, Qui T; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Hansen, David V; Lill, Jennie R; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Haines, Jonathan; Farrer, Lindsay A; Kauwe, John S; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Cruchaga, Carlos; Goate, Alison M; Behrens, Timothy W; Watts, Ryan J; Graham, Robert R; Kaminker, Joshua S; van der Brug, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    The common p.D358A variant (rs2228145) in IL-6R is associated with risk for multiple diseases and with increased levels of soluble IL-6R in the periphery and central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that the p.D358A allele leads to increased proteolysis of membrane bound IL-6R and demonstrate that IL-6R peptides with A358 are more susceptible to cleavage by ADAM10 and ADAM17. IL-6 responsive genes were identified in primary astrocytes and microglia and an IL-6 gene signature was increased in the CNS of late onset Alzheimer's disease subjects in an IL6R allele dependent manner. We conducted a screen to identify variants associated with the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease in APOE ɛ4 carriers. Across five datasets, p.D358A had a meta P = 3 ×10-4 and an odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.12 -1.48. Our study suggests that a common coding region variant of the IL-6 receptor results in neuroinflammatory changes that may influence the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease in APOE ɛ4 carriers.

  2. Involvement of IL-1β and IL-6 in antiarrhythmic properties of atorvastatin in ouabain-induced arrhythmia in rats.

    PubMed

    Najjari, Mahya; Vaezi, Gholamhassan; Hojati, Vida; Mousavi, Zahra; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Nikoui, Vahid

    2018-06-01

    Evidence show that statins possess wide beneficial cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects; therefore, in the present experiment, we investigated the antiarrhythmic properties of atorvastatin in ouabain-induced arrhythmia in isolated rat atria and the role of several inflammatory cytokines in this effect. Male rats were pretreated with either of atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle, orally once daily for 6 weeks. After induction of anesthesia, we isolated the atria and after incubation with ouabain, time of onset of arrhythmia and asystole as well as atrial beating rate and contractile force were recorded. We also measured the atrial levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α after the injection of ouabain to animals. Pretreatment with atorvastatin significantly delayed the onset of arrhythmia and asystole compared with vehicle-treated group (p < .01, p < .001, respectively). Incubation of ouabain boosted both atrial beating rate and contractile force in vehicle-treated group (p < .05), while these responses in atorvastatin-treated group were not significant (p > .05). Injection of ouabain elevated the atrial levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, while pretreatment of animals with atorvastatin could reverse the ouabain-induced increase in atrial IL-1β and IL-6 (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). It is concluded that observed antiarrhythmic effects of atorvastatin might be attributed to modulation of some inflammatory cytokines, at least IL-1β and IL-6.

  3. Targeting IL-17 AND IL-17D receptors of rheumatoid arthritis using phytocompounds: A Molecular Docking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thabitha, A.; Thoufic Ali, A. M. Mohamed; Shweta Kumari, Singh; Rakhi; Swami, Varsha; Mohana Priya, A.; Sajitha Lulu, S.

    2017-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune condition of the connective tissue in synovial joints, characterized by inflammation which can lead to bone and cartilage destruction. IL-17 and IL-17D cytokines produced by a number of cell types, primarily promote pro-inflammatory immune responses and negative regulator in fibroblast growth factor signalling. Thus, the promising therapeutic strategies focus on targeting these cytokines, which has led to the identification of effective inhibitors. However, several studies focused on identifying the anti-arthritic potential of natural compounds. Therefore, in the present study we undertook in silico investigations to decipher the anti-inflammatory prospective of phytocompounds by targeting IL-17 and IL-17D cytokines using Patch Dock algorithm. Additionally, IL-17 and IL-17D proteins structure were modelled and validated for molecular docking study. Further, phytocompounds based on anti-inflammatory property were subjected to Lipinski filter and ADMET properties indicated that all of these compounds showed desirable drug-like criteria. The outcome of this investigation sheds light on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of phytocompounds by targeting IL-17 and IL-D for effective treatment of RA.

  4. Effects of flurbiprofen axetil on postoperative serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W W; Wang, Q H; Peng, P; Liao, Y J; Duan, H X; Xu, M; Li, Y; Zhang, P B

    2015-12-09

    We explored the effects of flurbiprofen axetil on interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 levels in postoperative patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 120 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II) scheduled to undergo colorectal cancer surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups (N = 40 in each group): flurbiprofen axetil group (group F), morphine group (group M), and tramadol group (group T). Group M received 0.1 mg/kg morphine, group T received 1.5 mg/kg tramadol, and group F received 1.5 mg/kg flurbiprofen axetil. Patients in the 3 groups were administered treatments through intravenous injection 10 min before surgery. Serum IL-2 and IL-6 levels were detected. Postoperative adverse reactions were recorded, such as nausea, vomiting, and pruritus. The serum IL-6 level of the 3 groups increased 3 h after surgery. Compared with group M, IL-6 level was higher in group T and group F at 1 day after the surgery, and the differences between group M and the other groups were significant (P < 0.05). Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions was significantly different among 3 groups (P < 0.05). Flurbiprofen axetil promoted the secretion of IL-2 and inhibited IL-6; additionally, flurbiprofen axetil may have a lower incidence of adverse reactions compared to other treatments.

  5. IL-10 restrains IL-17 to limit lung pathology characteristics following pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Slight, Samantha R; Monin, Leticia; Gopal, Radha; Avery, Lyndsay; Davis, Marci; Cleveland, Hillary; Oury, Tim D; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Khader, Shabaana A

    2013-11-01

    IL-10 production during intracellular bacterial infections is generally thought to be detrimental because of its role in suppressing protective T-helper cell 1 (Th1) responses. Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that activates both Th1 and Th17 protective immune responses. Herein, we report that IL-10-deficient mice (Il10(-/-)), despite having increased Th1 and Th17 responses, exhibit increased mortality after pulmonary infection with F. tularensis live vaccine strain. We demonstrate that the increased mortality observed in Il10(-/-)-infected mice is due to exacerbated IL-17 production that causes increased neutrophil recruitment and associated lung pathology. Thus, although IL-17 is required for protective immunity against pulmonary infection with F. tularensis live vaccine strain, its production is tightly regulated by IL-10 to generate efficient induction of protective immunity without mediating pathology. These data suggest a critical role for IL-10 in maintaining the delicate balance between host immunity and pathology during pulmonary infection with F. tularensis live vaccine strain. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential mechanisms of differential activation of eosinophils by IL-3 compared to GM-CSF and IL-5

    PubMed Central

    Esnault, Stephane; Kelly, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that the eosinophils bring negative biological outcomes in several diseases, including eosinophilic asthma and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Eosinophils produce and store a broad range of toxic proteins and other mediators that enhance the inflammatory response and lead to tissue damage. For instance, in asthma, there is a close relationship between increased lung eosinophilia, asthma exacerbation, and loss of lung function. The use of an anti-IL-5 therapy in severe eosinophilic asthmatic patients is efficient to reduce exacerbations. However, anti-IL-5-treated patients still display a relatively high amount of functional lung tissue eosinophils, indicating that supplemental therapies are required to damper the eosinophil functions. Our recent published works, suggest that compared to IL-5, IL-3 can more strongly and differentially affect eosinophil functions. In this review, we will summarize our and other investigations that have compared the effects of the three β-chain receptor cytokines (IL-5, GM-CSF and IL-3) on eosinophil biology. We will focus on how IL-3 differentially activates eosinophils compared to IL-5 or GM-CSF. PMID:28605348

  7. The modulatory role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the functional activity of phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Danny L G; França, Eduardo L; Gonzatti, Michelangelo B; Rugde, Marilza V C; Calderon, Iracema M P; Honorio-França, Adenilda C

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the role of cytokines IL-4 and IL-17 in the modulation of the functional activity of mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic pregnant women with hyperglycemia. Sixty pregnant women were assigned to the following groups: nondiabetic (ND), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The functional activity of phagocytes from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum was assessed by determining their superoxide release, phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and intracellular Ca 2+ release. Irrespective of glycemic status, colostrum and blood cells treated with IL-4 and IL-17 increased superoxide release in the presence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). The highest phagocytosis rate was observed in cells from the DM2 group treated with IL-4. In all the groups, phagocytes from colostrum, maternal blood, and cord blood exhibited higher microbicidal activity against EPEC when treated with cytokines. IL-17 increased intracellular Ca 2+ release by colostrum phagocytes in diabetic groups. The results indicate that the IL-4 and IL-17 modulate the functional activity of phagocytes in the maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum of diabetic mother. The natural immunity resulting from the interaction between the cells and cytokines tested may be an alternative procedure to improve the prognosis of maternal and newborn infections. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genetic deletion of IL-25 (IL-17E) confers resistance to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IL-25 is emerging as a key regulator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa because of its ability to promote Th2 while suppressing Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. We investigated the contribution of endogenous IL-25 to DSS-induced colitis in mice. Mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water ad li...

  9. Intensive cytokine induction in pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection accompanied by robust production of IL-10 and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Baihui; Wang, Jiayu; Zhu, Zhaokui; Teng, Zheng; Shao, Junjie; Shen, Jiaren; Gao, Ye; Yuan, Zhengan; Wu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1)] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1) are ambivalent. In the present study we investigated host cytokine profiles in P(H1N1) patients and identified cytokines related to disease severity. We retrieved 77, 59, 26 and 26 sera samples from P(H1N1) and non-flu influenza like illness (non-ILIs) cases with mild symptoms (mild patients), P(H1N1) vaccinees and healthy individuals, respectively. Nine and 16 sera were from hospitalized P(H1N1) and non-ILIs patients with severe symptoms (severe patients). Cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed by cytokine bead array, IL-17 and IL-23 measured with ELISA. Mild P(H1N1) patients produced significantly elevated IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 versus to healthy controls. While an overwhelming IL-6 and IL-10 production were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Higher IL-10 secretion in P(H1N1) vaccinees confirmed our observation that highly increased level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression. A comprehensive innate immune response was activated at the early stage of P(H1N1) infection with a combine Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokines production. As disease progression, a systemic production of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Further analysis found a strong correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 production in the severe P(H1N1) patients. IL-6 may be served as a mediator to induce IL-10 production. Highly elevated level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression, but the underlying mechanism awaits further detailed investigations.

  10. Intensive Cytokine induction in Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection Accompanied by Robust Production of IL-10 and IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Baihui; Wang, Jiayu; Zhu, Zhaokui; Teng, Zheng; Shao, Junjie; Shen, Jiaren; Gao, Ye; Yuan, Zhengan; Wu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Background The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1)] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1) are ambivalent. In the present study we investigated host cytokine profiles in P(H1N1) patients and identified cytokines related to disease severity. Methods and Principal Findings We retrieved 77, 59, 26 and 26 sera samples from P(H1N1) and non-flu influenza like illness (non-ILIs) cases with mild symptoms (mild patients), P(H1N1) vaccinees and healthy individuals, respectively. Nine and 16 sera were from hospitalized P(H1N1) and non-ILIs patients with severe symptoms (severe patients). Cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed by cytokine bead array, IL-17 and IL-23 measured with ELISA. Mild P(H1N1) patients produced significantly elevated IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 versus to healthy controls. While an overwhelming IL-6 and IL-10 production were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Higher IL-10 secretion in P(H1N1) vaccinees confirmed our observation that highly increased level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression. Conclusion and Significance A comprehensive innate immune response was activated at the early stage of P(H1N1) infection with a combine Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokines production. As disease progression, a systemic production of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Further analysis found a strong correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 production in the severe P(H1N1) patients. IL-6 may be served as a mediator to induce IL-10 production. Highly elevated level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression, but the underlying mechanism awaits further

  11. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Efficacy of anti-IL-23 monotherapy versus combination therapy with anti-IL-17 in estrogen deficiency induced bone loss conditions.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Priyanka; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Singh, Divya

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have identified that Interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in pathogenesis of inflammation and bone destruction. IL-23 is thought to promote joint destruction in arthritis by stimulating Th17 cells. IL-23 directly mediates bone loss by inducing osteoclastogenesis and receptor activator of kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression in T cells. IL-23 also promotes tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclast in osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture. The role of IL-23 has not been studied in estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. Here, we study the effect of IL-23 neutralization in ovariectomized (Ovx) estrogen deficient mice on various immune and skeletal parameters. We also determine whether the combination of anti-IL-23 and anti-IL17 has enhanced osteoprotective effects compared to monotherapies. Treatment of anti-IL-23 and its combination with anti-IL-17 suppressed Th17 cell differentiation and promoted development of T regulatory cells. Anti-IL-23 and its combination with anti-IL-17 prevented bone loss. However, the individual monotherapies of anti-IL-23 and anti-IL-17 were more effective than combination therapy. Treatment of IL-17 and IL-23 cytokines to bone marrow stromal cells led to increased differentiation towards osteoblast lineage. Double neutralization of IL-23 and IL-17 might be inhibiting this phenomenon thus producing less potent effects. Our studies thus support bone protective effects of anti-IL-23 and that the monotherapies of neutralizing antibodies against IL-17 and IL-23 may be a more accepted mode of treatment in management of post-menopausal bone loss rather than combination therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional analyses of the interaction of chicken interleukin 23 subunit p19 with IL-12 subunit p40 to form the IL-23 complex.

    PubMed

    Truong, Anh Duc; Hoang, Cong Thanh; Hong, Yeojin; Lee, Janggeun; Lee, Kyungbaek; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2017-12-01

    This study represents the first description of the cloning of chicken IL-23p19 (ChIL-23α) and the function of the IL-23 complex in birds. Multiple alignment of ChIL-23α with other known IL-23α amino acid sequences revealed regions of amino acid conservation. The homologies of ChIL-23α, IL-12p35, and similar mammalian subunits ranged between 26% and 42%. ChIL-23α consisted of four exons and three introns; similar to those in humans and mice, and limited conservation of synteny between the human and chicken genomes was observed. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified the NF-κB, C/EBPα-β, c-Jun, c-Rel, AP-1, GATA-1, and ER promoter sites in ChIL-23α. Moreover, IL-23α mRNA was more highly expressed than IL-12p40 and IL-12p35 mRNA in several organs of chickens infected with Salmonella. In addition, ChIL-23 complex are associated with IL-23R, IL-12Rβ1 receptors; activate the JAK2/TYK2, STAT1/3, SOCS1 genes, and induced proinflammatory cytokines in immune cells. Collectively, these results indicate that ChIL-23 is a member of the IL-12 family, has proinflammatory properties related to IL-23R and IL-12Rβ1 receptor expression, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathway that results in the interaction of ChIL-23α with ChIL-12p40 to form the novel ChIL-23 complex. Our results provide novel insights into the regulation of immunity, inflammation, and immunopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 Induces IL-6 and IL-8 Production by the EP Receptors/Akt/NF-κB Pathways in Nasal Polyp-Derived Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Sun; Han, In-Hye; Lee, Hye Rim; Lee, Heung-Man

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 participate in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and their levels are increased by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in different cell types. The purposes of this study were to determine whether PGE2 has any effect on the increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and subsequently investigate the possible mechanism of this effect. Different concentrations of PGE2 were used to stimulate NPDFs at different time intervals. NPDFs were treated with agonists and antagonists of E prostanoid (EP) receptors. To determine the signaling pathway for the expression of PGE2-induced IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 was treated with Akt and NF-κB inhibitors in NPDFs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for IL-6 and IL-8 mRNAs was performed. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured byenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of Akt and NF-κB was evaluated by western blot analysis. PGE2 significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in NPDFs. The EP2 and EP4 agonists and antagonists induced and inhibited IL-6 expression. However, the EP4 agonist and antagonist were only observed to induce and inhibit IL-8 expression level. The Akt and NF-κB inhibitors significantly blocked PGE2-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8. PGE2 increases IL-6 expression via EP2 and EP4 receptors, and IL-8 expression via the EP4 receptor in NPDFs. It also activates the Akt and NF-κB signal pathways for the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in NPDFs. These results suggest that signaling pathway for IL-6 and IL-8 expression induced by PGE2 might be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of nasal polyposis.

  15. Polymorphic variations in IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 genes, their circulating serum levels and breast cancer risk in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Pooja, Singh; Chaudhary, Preeti; Nayak, Lakshma V; Rajender, Singh; Saini, Karan Singh; Deol, Debashish; Kumar, Sandeep; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Konwar, Rituraj

    2012-10-01

    Cytokines are known as important regulators of the entire gamut of cancer from initiation, invasion and metastasis. This fact and plethora of gene polymorphism data prompted us to investigate cytokine gene polymorphisms in breast cancer (BC) patients. Selected polymorphisms in the IL-1β [-511 T>C (rs16944) and +3954 C>T (rs1143634)]; IL-6 [-174 G>C (rs1800795)]; IL-10 [-1082 A>G (rs1800896), -819 T>C (rs1800871) and -592 A>C (rs1800872)] genes were genotyped in 200 BC patients and 200 healthy volunteers in a case-control study using PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing techniques. Peripheral cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Allele and genotype data were analyzed for significance of differences between cases and controls using Chi-Square [χ(2)] test. Two sided P-values of less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Peripheral level of all three cytokines did not show any significant difference between cases and controls. Allele and genotype frequency of IL-1β [-511 T>C (rs16944)] did not show any difference between cases and controls. On the other hand mutant allele and genotype at IL-1β [+3954 C>T (rs1143634)] associated with increased risk of BC. This was also true for pre-menopausal cases and for mutant genotype in post-menopausal cases. Mutant allele and genotypes at IL-6 [-174 G>C (rs1800795)] appeared to be protective in nature such that controls had a higher frequency of both mutant alleles and genotypes. None of the three SNPs in IL-10 gene associated with risk of BC, except significant association of mutant allele and genotypes of -1082 A>G (rs1800896) polymorphism with postmenopausal BC. Mutant allele and genotype at IL-1β [+3954 C>T (rs1143634)] site associated with increased BC risk, while mutant allele and genotypes at IL-6 [-174 G>C (rs1800795)] polymorphism appeared to be protective. Also, there was significant association of mutant allele and genotypes of IL-10 [-1082 A>G (rs1800896)] with postmenopausal BC. None of

  16. Buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione depletor, attenuates endotoxic fever and reduces IL-1β and IL-6 level in rats.

    PubMed

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Domagalski, Krzysztof; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Dec, Eliza; Kozak, Wiesław

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) - a glutathione depletor - on a course of endotoxic fever and IL-1β and IL-6 production. Male Wistar rats were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (50μg/kg, ip) to provoke fever. The level of spleen glutathione, plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and deep body temperature (Tb) were measured. The LPS administration provoked fever (the average Tb was 38.14±0.05°C in NaCl/LPS-treated rats vs 37.10±0.03°C in control, not-treated rats; p<0.001). We observed that LPS injection induced a decrease in spleen glutathione level (7.67±0.92nM/g vs 13.27±0.47nM/g in not-treated rats; p<0.001). Furthermore, the injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated animals to 199.99±34.89pg/mL and 7500±542.21pg/mL, respectively; p<0.001). Pretreatment with BSO enhanced glutathione decrease in LPS-treated rats (5.05±0.49nM/g), and significantly affected fever (maximal Tb was 37.81±0.07°C in BSO/LPS-treated rats vs 38.76±0.11°C in NaCl/LPS-treated rats). BSO 4h after LPS injection decreased IL-1β and IL-6 gene expression (about 1.5 fold, and 2 fold, respectively). In a consequence we observed a decrease in plasma IL-6 concentration (4h after LPS injection plasma IL-6 was 4167.17±956.54pg/mL in BSO/LPS-treated rats vs 7500±542.21pg/mL in NaCl/LPS-treated rats; p<0.001), and later IL-1β (7h after LPS injection the IL-1β concentration was not detected). Based on these data, we conclude that BSO, in addition to well-known application as an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, is an antipyretic agent which reduces both IL-1β and IL-6 concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D Counteracts an IL-23-Dependent IL-17A+IFN-γ+ Response Driven by Urban Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth H; Ho, Tzer-Ren; Pfeffer, Paul E; Matthews, Nick C; Chevretton, Elfy; Mudway, Ian; Kelly, Frank J; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M

    2017-09-01

    Urban particulate matter (UPM) air pollution and vitamin D deficiency are detrimentally associated with respiratory health. This is hypothesized to be due in part to regulation of IL-17A, which UPM is reported to promote. Here, we used a myeloid dendritic cell (DC)-memory CD4 + T cell co-culture system to characterize UPM-driven IL-17A + cells, investigate the mechanism by which UPM-primed DCs promote this phenotype, and address evidence for cross-regulation by vitamin D. CD1c + myeloid DCs were cultured overnight with or without a reference source of UPM and/or active vitamin D (1,25[OH] 2 D 3 ) before they were co-cultured with autologous memory CD4 + T cells. Supernatants were harvested for cytokine analysis on Day 5 of co-culture, and intracellular cytokine staining was performed on Day 7. UPM-primed DCs increased the proportion of memory CD4 + T cells expressing the T helper 17 cell (Th17)-associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, as well as IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and granzyme B. Notably, a large proportion of the UPM-driven IL-17A + cells co-expressed these cytokines, but not IL-10, indicative of a proinflammatory Th17 profile. UPM-treated DCs expressed elevated levels of il23 mRNA and increased secretion of IL-23p40. Neutralization of IL-23 in culture reduced the frequency of IL-17A + IFN-γ + cells without affecting cell proliferation. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 counteracted the UPM-driven DC maturation and inhibited the frequency of IL-17A + IFN-γ + cells, most prominently when DCs were co-treated with the corticosteroid dexamethasone, while maintaining antiinflammatory IL-10 synthesis. These data indicate that UPM might promote an inflammatory milieu in part by inducing an IL-23-driven proinflammatory Th17 response. Restoring vitamin D sufficiency may counteract these UPM-driven effects without obliterating important homeostatic immune functions.

  18. Expression of the T Helper 17-Associated Cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F in Asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Doe, Camille; Bafadhel, Mona; Siddiqui, Salman; Desai, Dhananjay; Mistry, Vijay; Rugman, Paul; McCormick, Margaret; Woods, Joanne; May, Richard; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Anderson, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asthma and COPD are characterized by airway dysfunction and inflammation. Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a common feature of COPD and is recognized in asthma, particularly in severe disease. The T helper (Th) 17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have been implicated in the development of neutrophilic airway inflammation, but their expression in asthma and COPD is uncertain. Methods: We assessed IL-17A and IL-17F expression in the bronchial submucosa from 30 subjects with asthma, 10 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD, and 27 nonsmoking and 14 smoking control subjects. Sputum IL-17 concentration was measured in 165 subjects with asthma and 27 with COPD. Results: The median (interquartile range) IL-17A cells/mm2 submucosa was increased in mild to moderate asthma (2.1 [2.4]) compared with healthy control subjects (0.4 [2.8]) but not in severe asthma (P = .04). In COPD, IL-17A+ cells/mm2 submucosa were increased (0.5 [3.7]) compared with nonsmoking control subjects (0 [0]) but not compared with smoking control subjects (P = .046). IL-17F+ cells/mm2 submucosa were increased in severe asthma (2.7 [3.6]) and mild to moderate asthma (1.6 [1.0]) compared with healthy controls subjects (0.7 [1.4]) (P = .001) but was not increased in subjects with COPD. IL-17A and IL-17F were not associated with increased neutrophilic inflammation, but IL-17F was correlated with the submucosal eosinophil count (rs = 0.5, P = .005). The sputum IL-17 concentration in COPD was increased compared with asthma (2 [0-7] pg/mL vs 0 [0-2] pg/mL, P < .0001) and was correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV1% predicted (r = −0.5, P = .008) and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.4, P = .04). Conclusions: Our findings support a potential role for the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F in asthma and COPD, but do not demonstrate a relationship with neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:20538817

  19. Aberrant intestinal microbiota due to IL-1 receptor antagonist deficiency promotes IL-17- and TLR4-dependent arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rogier, Rebecca; Ederveen, Thomas H A; Boekhorst, Jos; Wopereis, Harm; Scher, Jose U; Manasson, Julia; Frambach, Sanne J C M; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; van der Kraan, Peter M; Koenders, Marije I; van den Berg, Wim B; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla

    2017-06-23

    Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn -/- mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn -/- mice. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we show that IL-1Ra critically maintains the diversity and regulates the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice. IL-1Ra deficiency reduced the intestinal microbial diversity and richness, and caused specific taxonomic alterations characterized by overrepresented Helicobacter and underrepresented Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Notably, the aberrant intestinal microbiota in IL1rn -/- mice specifically potentiated IL-17 production by intestinal lamina propria (LP) lymphocytes and skewed the LP T cell balance in favor of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an effect transferable to WT mice by fecal microbiota. Importantly, LP Th17 cell expansion and the development of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis in IL1rn -/- mice were attenuated under germ-free condition. Selective antibiotic treatment revealed that tobramycin-induced alterations of commensal intestinal microbiota, i.e., reduced Helicobacter, Flexispira, Clostridium, and Dehalobacterium, suppressed arthritis in IL1rn -/- mice. The arthritis phenotype in IL1rn -/- mice was previously shown to depend on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Using the ablation of both IL-1Ra and TLR4, we here show that the aberrations in the IL1rn -/- microbiota are partly TLR4-dependent. We further

  20. IL-20 promotes epithelial healing of the injured mouse cornea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanyu; Magadi, Sri; Li, Zhijie; Smith, C Wayne; Burns, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    After corneal epithelial injury, the ensuing inflammatory response is necessary for efficient wound healing. While beneficial healing effects are attributed to recruited neutrophils and platelets, dysregulated inflammation (too little or too much) is associated with impaired wound healing. The purpose of this study was to use an established C57BL/6J mouse model of corneal injury to evaluate the potential modulatory role of interleukin-20 (IL-20) on the inflammatory and healing responses to epithelial wounding. In the uninjured cornea, immunofluorescence staining for IL-20 and its receptor, IL-20RA, was observed on basal epithelial cells at the limbus. After a 2 mm central epithelial abrasion, IL-20 staining was also observed in stromal keratocytes and ELISA studies showed a significant increase (nearly 3-fold) in IL-20 expression. Injured corneas healed more slowly when treated with a topical application of a neutralizing anti-IL-20 antibody. While corneal epithelial cell division and epithelial nerve recovery measured at 24 h post-injury were reduced compared to controls, neutrophil influx into the cornea was increased. In contrast, topical application of recombinant IL-20 (rIL-20) decreased corneal inflammation as evidenced by reductions in limbal vessel dilatation, platelet extravasation, neutrophil recruitment and CXCL1 expression. In wild type mice, topical rIL-20 had a limited effect on corneal wound healing and resulted in only a slight increase in epithelial cell division and epithelial nerve recovery; the rate of wound closure was unaffected. To clarify the effect of IL-20 on corneal wound healing, rIL-20 was topically applied to neutropenic wild type (WT) mice and mutant mice (ɣδ T cell deficient mice and CD11a deficient mice), all of which have well characterized reductions in neutrophil recruitment and delayed wound healing after corneal injury. In each case, rIL-20 restored corneal wound healing to baseline levels while neutrophil recruitment

  1. Antibody blockade of IL-17 family cytokines in immunity to acute murine oral mucosal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Natasha; Tritto, Elaine; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Kolbinger, Frank; Moulin, Pierre; Brees, Dominique; Coleman, Bianca M.; Mamo, Anna J.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Kammüller, Michael; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency. PMID:26729813

  2. Antibody blockade of IL-17 family cytokines in immunity to acute murine oral mucosal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Whibley, Natasha; Tritto, Elaine; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Kolbinger, Frank; Moulin, Pierre; Brees, Dominique; Coleman, Bianca M; Mamo, Anna J; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Kammüller, Michael; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. [Current approach to zoning atomic shipbuilding plants].

    PubMed

    Blekher, A Ia

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the currently introduced radiation-and-hygienic system for zoning atomic shipbuilding plants, in accordance with which three radiation-and-hygienic zones (a strict regime zone, a controlled approach zone, and a free regime zone) are established at the plant site and two zones (a sanitary-and-protective zone and a follow-up zone) are also established outside the plant site.

  4. The role of IL-1 gene polymorphisms (IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN) as a risk factor in unsuccessful implants retaining overdentures.

    PubMed

    Sampaio Fernandes, Margarida; Vaz, Paula; Braga, Ana Cristina; Sampaio Fernandes, João Carlos; Figueiral, Maria Helena

    2017-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures are an alternative predictable rehabilitation method that has a high impact on improving the patient's quality of life. However, some biological complications may interfere with the maintenance and survival of these overdenture implants. The goal of this article was to assess the factors that affect peri-implant success, through a hypothetical prediction model for biological complications of implant overdentures. A retrospective observational, prevalence study was conducted in 58 edentulous Caucasian patients rehabilitated with implant overdentures. A total of 229 implants were included in the study. Anamnestic, clinical, and implant-related parameters were collected and recorded in a single database. "Patient" was chosen as the unit of analysis, and a complete screening protocol was established. The data analytical study included assessing the odds ratio, concerning the presence or absence of a particular risk factor, by using binary logistic regression modeling. Probability values (p values) inferior to 0.05 were considered as representing statistically significant evidence. The performed prediction model included the following variables: mean probing depth, metal exposure, IL1B_allele2, maxillary edentulousness, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The F. nucleatum showed significant association with the outcome. Introducing a negative coefficient appeared to prevent complications or even boost the biological defense when associated with other factors. The prediction model developed in this study could serve as a basis for further improved models that would assist clinicians in the daily diagnosis and treatment planning practice of oral rehabilitation with implant overdentures. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated levels of IL-2 and IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, S; Shahbazi, M; Khalili, A; Tahoori, M T; Zavaran Hosseini, A; Amari, A; Aghili, B; Abediankenari, S; Mohammadizad, H; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, M

    2017-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are considered as a subset of cells that play a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-21 and their receptors produced by CD4+ T cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Thirty-two patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and mean age of 37.93±10.37 years, as well as 22 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and mean age of 37.04±10.44 years, were studied. The healthy controls (HC) included 31 subjects with a mean age of 36.7±10.48 years. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from all the participants. The CD4+ T cells were isolated and the expression of IL-2 and IL-21 and also their receptors were examined by flow cytometry. The level of IL-2+ cells was significantly increased in UC patients compared with HC (40.71±6.04 vs 37.24±6.54, respectively, p=0.04). The level of IL-21+ cells was also significantly elevated in CD patients compared with HC (4.44±1 vs 3.83±0.74, respectively, p=0.02). Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between clinical activity index (CAI) and IL-21+ cells. According to the results, we hypothesize that the elevated level of IL-2+ and IL-21+ T cells and a positive correlation between IL-21+ cells with CAI in UC patients may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. Moreover, the assessment of cells producing such cytokines constitutes a potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for IBD.

  6. Casein-specific IL-4- and IL-13-secreting T cells: a tool to implement diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Michaud, B; Aroulandom, J; Baiz, N; Amat, F; Gouvis-Echraghi, R; Candon, S; Foray, A-P; Couderc, R; Bach, J-F; Chatenoud, L; Just, J

    2014-11-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a frequent food allergy in young children. The oral food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosis, and there is currently no reliable biological test. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of a functional assay quantifying allergen-specific Th2 cells in CMA children. A total of 29 children aged 2.8-10.5 years underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to cow's milk. Blood was collected before performing the DBPCFC, and peripheral mononuclear cells were cultured in an 18-h ELISpot assay with casein, α-lactalbumin, or β-lactoglobulin. Numbers of antigen-specific IL-4- and IL-13-secreting lymphocytes and serum-specific IgE, IgG4, and total IgE levels were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. A total of 17 (59%) children reacted to cow's milk and were therefore considered as allergic to cow's milk (CMA). The mean number of casein-specific IL-4- and IL-13-secreting T cells was higher in CMA than in non-CMA children (P = 0.009, 0.004, respectively). Moreover, it was inversely correlated with the cumulative dose of cow's milk tolerated (P = 0.003, 0.0009, respectively). ROC curve of combined IL-4 and IL-13 analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI 0.90-1.06). For a cutoff of 10 IL-4- and 12 IL-13-secreting T cells, sensitivity and negative predictive value were 100%. Enumeration of casein-specific IL-4- and IL-13-secreting T cells appears a promising tool to improve diagnosis and, if confirmed in larger studies, could permit less frequent use of the oral food challenge. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. UP-REGULATION OF IL-6, IL-8 AND CCL2 GENE EXPRESSION AFTER ACUTE INFLAMMATION: CORRELATION TO CLINICAL PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Min; Hamza, May; Wu, Tai-Xia; Dionne, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue injury initiates a cascade of inflammatory mediators and hyperalgesic substances including prostaglandins, cytokines and chemokines. Using microarray and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, the present study evaluated changes in gene expression of a cascade of cytokines following acute inflammation and the correlation between the changes in the gene expression level and pain intensity in the oral surgery clinical model of acute inflammation. Tissue injury resulted in a significant up-regulation in the gene expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6; 63.3-fold), IL-8 (8.1-fold), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; 8.9-fold), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1; 30.5-fold), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2; 26-fold) and annexin A1 (ANXA1; 12-fold). The up-regulation of IL-6 gene expression was significantly correlated to the up-regulation on the gene expression of IL-8, CCL2, CXCL1 and CXCL2. Interestingly, the tissue injury induced up-regulation of IL-6 gene expression, IL-8 and CCL2 were positively correlated to pain intensity at 3 hours post-surgery, the onset of acute inflammatory pain. However, ketorolac treatment did not have a significant effect on the gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CXCL2 and ANXA1 at the same time point of acute inflammation. These results demonstrate that up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 gene expression contributes to the development of acute inflammation and inflammatory pain. The lack of effect for ketorolac on the expression of these gene products may be related to the ceiling analgesic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:19233564

  8. The Pathological and Physiological Roles of IL-6 Amplifier Activation

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The NFκB-triggered positive feedback loop for IL-6 signaling in type 1 collagen+ non-immune cells (IL-6 amplifier) was first discovered to be a synergistic signal that is activated following IL-17A and IL-6 stimulation in type 1 collagen+ non-immune cells. Subsequent disease models have shown that it can also be stimulated by the simultaneous activation of NFκB and STAT3, functions as a local chemokine inducer, and acts as a mechanism for local inflammation, particularly chronic ones like rheumatoid arthritis and a multiple sclerosis. Moreover, we have recently shown that hyper activation of the IL-6 amplifier via regional neural activation establishes a gateway for immune cells including autoreactive T cells to pass the blood-brain barrier at dorsal vessels in 5th lumbar cord. Here we review how the IL-6 amplifier is activated by neural activation and the physiological relevance of the gateway to the central nervous system. Accumulating evidences continues to suggest that the IL-6 amplifier offers a potential molecular mechanism for the relationship between neural activation and the development of inflammatory diseases, which could establish a new interdisciplinary field that fuses neurology and immunology. PMID:23136555

  9. Post-stroke infection: a role for IL-1ra?

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Pat; Cain, Kevin; Kalil, Angela; Zierath, Dannielle; Savos, Anna; Gee, J Michael; Shibata, Dean; Hadwin, Jessica; Carter, Kelly; Becker, Kyra

    2011-04-01

    Infection is common following stroke and is independently associated with worse outcome. Clinical studies suggest that infections occur more frequently in those individuals with stroke-induced immunologic dysfunction. This study sought to explore the contribution of immunomodulatory cytokines and hormones to lymphocyte function and infection risk. Patients (N = 112) were enrolled as soon as possible after the onset of ischemic stroke. Blood was drawn to assess plasma cortisol, IL-10, IL-1ra, lymphocyte numbers, and lymphocyte function at 72 h after stroke onset; infections were censored through 21 days after stroke onset. Infection occurred in 25% of patients. Stroke severity was the most important predictor of infection risk. Increased plasma cortisol, IL-10, and IL-1ra, as well as decreased lymphocyte numbers, at 72 h after stroke onset were associated with risk of subsequent infection. After controlling for stroke severity, only IL-1ra was independently associated with infection risk, and the degree of risk was consistent throughout the post-stroke period. Infection, but not IL-1ra itself, was associated with worse outcome at 3 months. In this study cohort, increased plasma IL-1ra was independently associated with the risk of post-stroke infection. Further studies are needed to validate this finding, which could have important implications for stroke therapy.

  10. Individuals infected with HIV possess antibodies against IL-2.

    PubMed Central

    Bost, K L; Hahn, B H; Saag, M S; Shaw, G M; Weigent, D A; Blalock, J E

    1988-01-01

    Studies are presented here which demonstrate that antibodies reacting with human interleukin-2 (IL-2) are present in the sera of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is likely that these antibodies are present due to a homology between the HIV envelope protein and IL-2. The homologues are six amino acids in length corresponding to the carboxy terminus of gp41, Leu-Glu-Arg-Ile-Leu-Leu (LERILL), and residues 14-19 of secreted IL-2, Leu-Glu-His-Leu-Leu-Leu (LEHLLL). Thus, we questioned whether antibodies made against this HIV envelope peptide would cross-react with IL-2. Not only do a high percentage of the HIV-infected individuals tested here have antibodies against LERILL, but these antibodies cross-react with the IL-2 sequence, LEHLLL. Additional antigenic processing of IL-2 is suggested by the finding that epitopes other than this sixmer are also recognized by antibodies in patients' sera. Thus, these studies suggest a mechanism by which infection with HIV can induce a potentially suppressive autoimmune response. Specifically, antibodies against an HIV envelope peptide cross-react with an epitope in IL-2. PMID:2464543

  11. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Function and Cytokine Responses in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is associated with diminished antigen-specific Th1- and Th17-associated responses and enhanced Th2-associated responses. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37 are two known anti-inflammatory cytokines that are highly expressed in S. stercoralis infection. We therefore wanted to examine the role of IL-27 and IL-37 in regulating CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses in S. stercoralis infection. To this end, we examined the frequency of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, and Th22/Tc22 cells in 15 S. stercoralis -infected individuals and 10 uninfected individuals stimulated with parasite antigen following IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. We also examined the production of prototypical type 1, type 2, type 9, type 17, and type 22 cytokines in the whole-blood supernatants. Our data reveal that IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th17/Tc17, Th9, and Th22 cells with parasite antigen stimulation. There was no induction of any T cell response in uninfected individuals following parasite antigen stimulation and IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. Moreover, we also observed increased production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 and decreased production of IL-10 following IL-27 and IL-37 neutralization and parasite antigen stimulation in whole-blood cultures. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-27 and IL-37 limit the induction of particular T cell subsets along with cytokine responses in S. stercoralis infections, which suggest the importance of IL-27 and IL-37 in immune modulation in a chronic helminth infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. IL-33-induced alterations in murine intestinal function and cytokine responses are MyD88, STAT6, and IL-13-dependent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine member of the IL-1 family. The biological activities of IL-33 are associated with promotion of Th2 and inhibition of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Exogenous IL-33 induces a typical “type 2” immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, yet the underlying mechani...

  13. Mutual enhancement of IL-2 and IL-7 on DNA vaccine immunogenicity mainly involves regulations on their receptor expression and receptor-expressing lymphocyte generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Jianlou; Xu, Jian; Huo, Shanshan; Cao, Xuebin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zhong, Fei

    2015-07-09

    Our previous study showed that IL-2 and IL-7 could mutually enhance the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 DNA vaccine, although the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we used the OVA gene as a DNA vaccine in a mouse model to test their enhancement on DNA vaccine immunogenicity and to explore the molecular mechanism. Results showed that both IL-2 and IL-7 genes significantly increased the immunogenicity of OVA DNA vaccine in mice. Co-administration of IL-2 and IL-7 genes with OVA DNA significantly increased OVA-specific antibody titers, T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with IL-2 or IL-7 alone, confirming that IL-2 and IL-7 mutually enhanced DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Mechanistically, we have shown that IL-2 significantly stimulated generation of IL-7 receptor-expressing lymphocytes, and that IL-7 significantly induced IL-2 receptor expression. These results contribute to an explanation of the mechanism of the mutual effects of IL-2 and IL-7 on enhancing DNA vaccine immunogenicity and provided a basis for further investigation on their mutual effects on adjuvant activity and immune regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Done, Joseph; Wong, Larry; Bell-Cohn, Ashlee; Roman, Kenny; Cashy, John; Ohlhausen, Michelle; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90–95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17’s role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS. PMID:25933188

  15. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Done, Joseph; Wong, Larry; Bell-Cohn, Ashlee; Roman, Kenny; Cashy, John; Ohlhausen, Michelle; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  16. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  17. IL-1β, IL-6, and RANTES as Biomarkers of Chikungunya Severity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong-Jiang; Kwek, Dyan J. C.; Lim, Poh-Lian; Dimatatac, Frederico; Ng, Lee-Ching; Ooi, Eng-Eong; Choo, Khar-Heng; Her, Zhisheng; Kourilsky, Philippe; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the immunopathogenesis of Chikungunya virus. Circulating levels of immune mediators and growth factors were analyzed from patients infected during the first Singaporean Chikungunya fever outbreak in early 2008 to establish biomarkers associated with infection and/or disease severity. Methods and Findings Adult patients with laboratory-confirmed Chikungunya fever infection, who were referred to the Communicable Disease Centre/Tan Tock Seng Hospital during the period from January to February 2008, were included in this retrospective study. Plasma fractions were analyzed using a multiplex-microbead immunoassay. Among the patients, the most common clinical features were fever (100%), arthralgia (90%), rash (50%) and conjunctivitis (40%). Profiles of 30 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were able to discriminate the clinical forms of Chikungunya from healthy controls, with patients classified as non-severe and severe disease. Levels of 8 plasma cytokines and 4 growth factors were significantly elevated. Statistical analysis showed that an increase in IL-1β, IL-6 and a decrease in RANTES were associated with disease severity. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive report on the production of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors during acute Chikungunya virus infection. Using these biomarkers, we were able to distinguish between mild disease and more severe forms of Chikungunya fever, thus enabling the identification of patients with poor prognosis and monitoring of the disease. PMID:19156204

  18. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  19. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    carcinoma cell ines, respectively, were obtained from merican Type Culture Collection (Man- ssas, VA). Cells were maintained in Dul- ecco’s Modified...tien IL6R hist stra (ind trans 010L6R. Cross -reactivity between human rican Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1.e3 a o T 5 g m S D w t R T l a 1 c ( m...allele of IL-6ra (Il6rafl/+) were first crossed with FLPe+/+ mice (38) to delete the FRT-flanked Neo cassette in the targeting vector. Progeny with

  20. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J B; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-09-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  1. Association of of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and interleukin-1β genes (IL-1β) polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian Azeri women.

    PubMed

    Ali Rahmani, Seyyed; Paknejad, Zeynab; Mohammadkhanlou, Masoumeh; Daneshparvar, Marina

    2017-12-27

    Objective One of the most important problems in human reproduction is recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). RPL is defined as three or more consecutive abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy. The association between the polymorphisms in the immunological factors and RPL was investigated. The aim of our study was to determine the association of interleukin receptor antagonist (IL-IRN) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) polymorphisms with RPL in Iranian Azeri women. Materials and methods The study participants consisted of 100 women with RPL of Iranian Azeri origin. The control group comprised 100 age- and ethnically-matched healthy women of the same reproductive age. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood and genotype determinations were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results Our results showed no significant relationship between IL-1RN polymorphism and RPL. The homozygous state in -857 C/T variant was seen to be higher in RPL patients than in control subjects. Also frequency of wild type genotype was lower in RPL patients than in controls. However, this associations was not significant. Conclusion This study suggested that -511 C/T (rs16944) and -31 C/T (rs1143627) polymorphisms in IL-1β gene may not be involved in RPL in Iranian Azeri women. Also the promoter polymorphism of the IL-1RN gene may not play a role in the susceptibility to RPL.

  2. Acetyl salicylic acid inhibits Th17 airway inflammation via blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kang, Chil Sung; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong Sic; Choi, Hyun Il; Choi, Yong Wook; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Jang, Myoung Ho; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback. PMID:23306703

  3. Closely related glycosylation patterns of recombinant human IL-2 expressed in a CHO cell line and natural IL-2

    SciTech Connect

    Vita, N.; Magazin, M.; Marchese, E.

    We report here the study of the glycosylation pattern of human recombinant (r) IL2 expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The human rIL2 secreted by this high-producing recombinant CHO cell line was metabolically radiolabelled with (35S)-methionine, or with (3H)-glucosamine and (3H)-galactose, purified to homogeneity, and then characterized. The electrophoretic analysis of the (35S)-methionine-labelled proteins present in the culture medium of the CHO cell line showed that the rIL2 represents approximately 12% of the total secreted proteins. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments showed that the glycosylated rIL2 is synthesized and secreted within 30 min. The point of attachment and themore » structure of the carbohydrate moiety of the rIL2 was determined by: amino-terminal sequencing and fingerprint analysis of the 3H-labelled rIL2, mass spectroscopy of the amino-terminal tryptic octapeptide, and carbohydrate analysis after enzymatic (Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase and Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase) or sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The results indicate that the recombinant protein possesses a sugar moiety O-linked to the threonine residue at position 3 of the polypeptide chain, and that sialic acid, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine are components of this carbohydrate moiety. Taken together these results suggest that the recombinant molecule is identical to natural IL2.« less

  4. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-06-21

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container typesmore » for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion.« less

  5. Short-term exposure to oleandrin enhances responses to IL-8 by increasing cell surface IL-8 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Raviprakash, Nune; Manna, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One of the first steps in host defence is the migration of leukocytes. IL-8 and its receptors are a chemokine system essential to such migration. Up-regulation of these receptors would be a viable strategy to treat dysfunctional host defence. Here, we studied the effects of the plant glycoside oleandrin on responses to IL-8 in a human monocytic cell line. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH U937 cells were incubated with oleandrin (1-200 ng mL−1) for either 1 h (pulse) or for 24 h (non-pulse). Apoptosis; activation of NF-κB, AP-1 and NFAT; calcineurin activity and IL-8 receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2) were measured using Western blotting, RT-PCR and reporter gene assays. KEY RESULTS Pulse exposure to oleandrin did not induce apoptosis or cytoxicity as observed after non-pulse exposure. Pulse exposure enhanced activation of NF-κB induced by IL-8 but not that induced by TNF-α, IL-1, EGF or LPS. Exposure to other apoptosis-inducing compounds (azadirachtin, resveratrol, thiadiazolidine, or benzofuran) did not enhance activation of NF-κB. Pulse exposure to oleandrin increased expression of IL-8 receptors and chemotaxis, release of enzymes and activation of NF-κB, NFAT and AP-1 along with increased IL-8-mediated calcineurin activation, and wound healing. Pulse exposure increased numbers of cell surface IL-8 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Short-term (1 h; pulse) exposure to a toxic glycoside oleandrin, enhanced biological responses to IL-8 in monocytic cells, without cytoxicity. Pulse exposure to oleandrin could provide a viable therapy for those conditions where leukocyte migration is defective. PMID:24172227

  6. IL-23 (Interleukin-23)-Producing Conventional Dendritic Cells Control the Detrimental IL-17 (Interleukin-17) Response in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Gallizioli, Mattia; Ludewig, Peter; Thom, Vivien; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Rissiek, Björn; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Korn, Thomas; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Sedlacik, Jan; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Planas, Anna M; Magnus, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms can exacerbate ischemic tissue damage and worsen clinical outcome in patients with stroke. Both αβ and γδ T cells are established mediators of tissue damage in stroke, and the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in inducing the early events of T cell activation and differentiation in stroke is not well understood. In a murine model of experimental stroke, we defined the immune phenotype of infiltrating DC subsets based on flow cytometry of surface markers, the expression of ontogenetic markers, and cytokine levels. We used conditional DC depletion, bone marrow chimeric mice, and IL-23 (interleukin-23) receptor-deficient mice to further explore the functional role of DCs. We show that the ischemic brain was rapidly infiltrated by IRF4 + /CD172a + conventional type 2 DCs and that conventional type 2 DCs were the most abundant subset in comparison with all other DC subsets. Twenty-four hours after ischemia onset, conventional type 2 DCs became the major source of IL-23, promoting neutrophil infiltration by induction of IL-17 (interleukin-17) in γδ T cells. Functionally, the depletion of CD11c + cells or the genetic disruption of the IL-23 signaling abrogated both IL-17 production in γδ T cells and neutrophil infiltration. Interruption of the IL-23/IL-17 cascade decreased infarct size and improved neurological outcome after stroke. Our results suggest a central role for interferon regulatory factor 4-positive IL-23-producing conventional DCs in the IL-17-dependent secondary tissue damage in stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. High intracytoplasmatic levels of Il-4 and Il-5 in a patient with Gleichs syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Novembre, E; Mori, F; Arcangeli, F; Cianferoni, A; Bernardini, R; Pucci, N; Annunziato, F; Parronchi, P; De Martino, M; Vierucci, A

    2006-01-01

    Gleichs syndrome is characterized by recurrent localized angioedema, hypereosinophilia, elevated levels of IgM, rapid weight gain, itchy urticaria and fever. Little is known about the pathogenesis of this disease. Increased serum levels for IL5, IL6 and C5a have been reported before and during clinical exacerbations. In order to better understand the role of the T cells in Gleichs syndrome we analyzed the intracellular cytokine expression in CD3+ cells of a patient affected by the disease. As hypereosinophilia was documented, we asked whether IL-4 and IL-5 levels were increased, and the intracytoplasmatic expression of these Th2-cytokines was determined. The percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3-gated cells) of both CD8- and CD8+ phenotype expressing different cytokines showed an unusually high percentage of Th2-related cytokine (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) expressing T lymphocytes. The two new variants (myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative) seem to account for hypereosinophilia in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). In the lymphroliferative variant, the presence of a clonal CD3-CD4+ Th2 like lymphocyte secreting IL-4 and IL-5 in peripheral blood, may explain the hypereosinophilia and the hyper-IgE. In our study we show that the patient had a lymphoproliferative variant and her T cell had a Th2 type phenotype. Moreover, we suggest that Th2 lymphocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of Gleichs syndrome. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possibility that a polyclonal aspecific activation of Th2 type cells can lead to hypereosinophilia, IgE production and the other manifestations typical of Gleichs syndrome.

  8. Increased IL-35 producing Tregs and CD19+IL-35+ cells are associated with disease progression in leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    The clinical forms of leprosy consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae; it provides an ideal model to study the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-10 and TGF-β producing Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression and M. leprae specific T cells anergy. In leprosy, involvement of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs remain unstudied. To study the role of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs in the human leprosy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA) for 48h. Intracellular cytokine IL-35 was evaluated in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells by FACS. Expression of PD-1 on CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells and its ligand (PD-L1) on B cells, CD11c cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS). Serum IL-35 level was estimated by ELISA. The frequency of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs cells were found to be high in leprosy patients (p<0.0001) as compared to healthy controls. These cells produced suppressive cytokine IL-35 which showed positive correlation with bacteriological index (BI) and TGF-β producing Tregs, indicating its suppressive nature. We found higher expression of PD-1 on Tregs, B cell and its ligand (PD-L1) on antigen presenting cells in leprosy patients. This study point out a shift in our understanding of the immunological features that mediate and regulate the immune suppression and the disease progression in leprosy patients with a new paradigm (IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs) that is beyond TGF-β and IL-10 producing Treg cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, H Y; Kwon, O J; Choi, D C

    1999-04-01

    Recent publications have suggested an active participation of neutrophils to induce bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust (GD). To further understand the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma, this investigation was designed to determine whether human bronchial epithelial cells could produce IL-8 production and to observe the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four concentrations (1 to 200 microg/mL) of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant, which was derived from the culture of PBMC from a GD-induced asthmatic subject under the exposure to 10 microg/mL of GD, and compared with those cultured without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production, four concentrations (5 to 5000 ng/mL) of dexamethasone were pre-incubated for 24 hours and the same experiments were repeated. There was significant production of IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05), which was significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05) at each concentration. Compared with the untreated sample, pretreatment of dexamethasone could induced a remarkable inhibitions (15% to 55%) of IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to neutrophil recruitment occurring in GD-induced airway inflammation. The downregulation of IL-8 production by dexamethasone from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to the efficacy of this compound in

  10. Isolation and purification of ILS, an interleukin 1 inhibitor produced by human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L J; Lander, P E; Seymour, G J; Powell, R N

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have described the presence of an interleukin 1 (IL-1) inhibitor (ILS) in supernatants from human gingival organ cultures. This report describes the isolation and purification of ILS. ILS was produced in serum-free medium and purified to apparent homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. IL-1 and ILS eluted as discrete proteins using this system, with ILS appearing as a single protein band of 97,400 molecular weight on SDS-PAGE. ILS inhibited the effects of both murine IL-1 and IL-2 on thymocyte proliferation, and was heat resistant, moderately resistant to freeze-thawing and stable for 2 years at 0-4 degrees C or -20 degrees C. Production of ILS by gingival epithelial cell cultures was not affected by depletion of Langerhans cells, implying that ILS is primarily a keratinocyte product. Images Fig. 5 PMID:3498574

  11. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michèle, E-mail: michele.goutet@inrs.fr; Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high dosesmore » of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses

  12. 77 FR 52292 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Greenup, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed...) southwest of the community. The reference coordinates are 39-12-38 NL and 88-11- 15 WL. [[Page 52293

  13. RadNet Air Data From Champaign, IL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Champaign, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  14. 78 FR 76056 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Danville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Danville, IL. The FAA has determined that, because of changes in the composition of flight operations at... that this regulation only involves an established body of technical regulations for which frequent and...

  15. IL-20 bone diseases involvement and therapeutic target potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Ming-Shi

    2018-04-24

    Millions of people around the world suffer from bone disorders, likes osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and cancer-induced osteolysis. In general, the bone remodeling balance is determined by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively responsible for bone resorption and bone formation. Excessive inflammation disturbs the activities of these two kinds of cells, typically resulting in the bone loss. IL-20 is emerging as a potent angiogenic, chemotactic, and proinflammatory cytokine related to several chronic inflammatory disorders likes psoriasis, atherosclerosis, cancer, liver fibrosis, and RA. IL-20 has an important role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and is upregulated in several bone-related diseases. The anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody treatment has a therapeutic potential in several experimental disease models including ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, cancer-induced osteolysis, and bone fracture. This review article provides an overview describing the IL-20's biological functions in the common bone disorders and thus providing a novel therapeutic strategy in the future.

  16. RadNet Air Data From Chicago, IL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Chicago, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  17. RadNet Air Data From Aurora, IL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Aurora, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-18 secretion from murine Kupffer cells independently of myeloid differentiation factor 88 that is critically involved in induction of production of IL-12 and IL-1beta.

    PubMed

    Seki, E; Tsutsui, H; Nakano, H; Tsuji, N; Hoshino, K; Adachi, O; Adachi, K; Futatsugi, S; Kuida, K; Takeuchi, O; Okamura, H; Fujimoto, J; Akira, S; Nakanishi, K

    2001-02-15

    IL-18, produced as biologically inactive precursor, is secreted from LPS-stimulated macrophages after cleavage by caspase-1. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying caspase-1-mediated IL-18 secretion. Kupffer cells constantly stored IL-18 and constitutively expressed caspase-1. Inhibition of new protein synthesis only slightly reduced IL-18 secretion, while it decreased and abrogated their IL-1beta and IL-12 secretion, respectively. Kupffer cel