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Sample records for zone 77-memphis tn

  1. 76 FR 60802 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Withdrawal of Request for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket T-4-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 77--Memphis, TN; Withdrawal of Request for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc., (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting). Memphis, TN Notice is hereby given of the withdrawal of the...

  2. 75 FR 33765 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN, Application for Subzone, Delta Faucet Company (Faucets...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 42-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 77--Memphis... submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of Memphis, grantee of FTZ 77, requesting...- Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400). It...

  3. 76 FR 53115 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ..., TN; Application for Temporary/ Interim Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc. (Cell... authority to produce cell phones/mobile handsets kits (HTSUS 8517.12, HTSUS 8517.62, HTSUS 8517.69, duty... cell phone/mobile handset kits (duty free) for the foreign inputs noted above. In accordance with the...

  4. 76 FR 48121 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Reorganization and Expansion Under Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... operators/users located within a grantee's ``service area'' in the context of the Board's standard 2,000... Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the regulations of the Board (15 CFR part 400... current zone project includes the following sites: Site 1 (22 acres)--Port of Memphis at President's...

  5. 75 FR 6636 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN Application for Subzone Cummins, Inc. (Engine Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., gears, pulleys, oil coolers, water pumps, cable, motors, thermostats, electrical components, wiring... merchandise is shipped from the facility and entered for U.S. consumption. Subzone status would further allow Cummins to realize logistical benefits through the use of weekly customs entry procedures. The application...

  6. 76 FR 63281 - Foreign-Trade Zone 78-Nashville, TN, Application for Subzone, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 62-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 78--Nashville, TN, Application for Subzone, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C. (Polysilicon); Clarksville, TN An... polysilicon manufacturing facility of [[Page 63282

  7. 77 FR 15995 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 16-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework An application has been... and adjacent to the Knoxville U.S. Customs and Border Protection port of entry. The applicant is...

  8. Auto-Restricted Zone Demonstration in Memphis, TN

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-03-01

    The Service and Methods Demonstration conducted in downtown Memphis was one of 4 parallel demonstrations involving downtown auto-restricted zones (ARZs). Unlike the other three demonstrations (Boston, New York, and Providence), the Memphis ARZ was al...

  9. 75 FR 74002 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Application for Subzone Toho, Tenax America, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 57-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN, Application for Subzone Toho, Tenax America, Inc., Extension of Comment Period The comment period for the application for subzone status at the Toho Tenax America, Inc., facility in Rockwood...

  10. 77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...--Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Authority), Opening of Comment Period on... manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (Board Order 1868, 77 FR 69435, 11/19/2012). Board Order 1868 did not include authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market; the...

  11. 75 FR 61696 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Subzone; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...--Knoxville, TN; Application for Subzone; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber and Oxidized..., requesting special-purpose subzone status for the carbon fiber and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (OPF...)--based carbon fiber and OPF (up to 4,000 metric tons combined annually) for export and the domestic...

  12. 78 FR 29020 - Safety Zone; Tennessee River, Mile 463.5 to 464.5; Chattanooga, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... hazards associated with the Riverbend Festival fireworks. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless... protect persons and vessels from potential safety hazards associated with the Riverbend Festival fireworks. The Riverbend Festival fireworks display takes place on the Tennessee River and is launched from the...

  13. Time constraints on the origin of large volume basalts derived from O-isotope and trace element mineral zoning and U-series disequilibria in the Laki and Grímsvötn volcanic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Eiler, John

    2006-05-01

    The 1783-1784 AD fissure eruption of Laki (Iceland) produced 15 km 3 of homogeneous basaltic lavas and tephra that are characterized by extreme (3‰) 18O-depletion relative to normal mantle. Basaltic tephra erupted over the last 8 centuries and as late as in November 2004 from the Grímsvötn central volcano, which together with Laki are a part of a single volcanic system, is indistinguishable in δ18O from Laki glass. This suggests that all tap a homogeneous and long-lived low- δ18O magma reservoir. In contrast, we observe extreme oxygen isotope heterogeneity (2.2-5.2‰) in olivine and plagioclase contained within these lavas and tephra, and disequilibrium mineral-glass oxygen-isotope fractionations. Such low- δ18O glass values, and extreme 3‰ range in δ18O olivine have not been described in any other unaltered basalt. The energy constrained mass balance calculation involving oxygen isotopes and major element composition calls for an origin of the Laki-Grímsvötn quartz tholeiitic basaltic melts with δ18O = 3.1‰ by bulk digestion of low- δ18O hydrated basaltic crust with δ18O = - 4‰ to + 1‰, rather than magma mixing with ultra-low- δ18O silicic melt. The abundant Pleistocene hyaloclastites, which were altered by synglacial meltwaters, can serve as a likely assimilant material for the Grímsvötn magmas. The ( 226Ra / 230Th) activity ratio in Laki lavas and 20th century Grímsvötn tephras is 13% in-excess of secular equilibrium, but products of the 20th century Grímsvötn eruptions have equilibrium ( 210Pb / 226Ra). Modeling of oxygen isotope exchange between disequilibrium phenocrysts and magmas, and these short-lived U-series nuclides yields a coherent age for the Laki-Grímsvötn magma reservoir between 100 and 1000 yrs. We propose the existence of uniquely fingerprinted, low- δ18O, homogeneous, large volume, and long-lived basaltic reservoir beneath the Laki-Grímsvötn volcanic system that has been kept alive in its position above the

  14. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  15. Molecular dynamics studies on troponin (TnI-TnT-TnC) complexes: insight into the regulation of muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Jayson F; Chalovich, Joseph M; Li, Yumin

    2010-10-01

    Mutations of any subunit of the troponin complex may lead to serious disorders. Rational approaches to managing these disorders require knowledge of the complex interactions among the three subunits that are required for proper function. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for both skeletal (sTn) and cardiac (cTn) troponin. The interactions and correlated motions among the three components of the troponin complex were analyzed using both Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA) and cross-correlation techniques. The TnTH2 helix was strongly positively correlated with the two long helices of TnI. The C domain of TnC was positively correlated with TnI and TnT. The N domain of TnC was negatively correlated with TnI and TnT in cTn, but not in sTn. The two C-domain calcium-binding sites of TnC were dynamically correlated. The two regulatory N-domain calcium-binding sites of TnC were dynamically correlated, even though the calcium-binding site I is dysfunctional. The strong interaction residue pairs and the strong dynamically correlated residues pairs among the three components of troponin complexes were identified. These correlated motions are consistent with the idea that there is a high degree of cooperativity among the components of the regulatory complex in response to Ca(2+) and other effectors. This approach may give insight into the mechanism by which mutations of troponin cause disease. It is interesting that some observed disease causing mutations fall within regions of troponin that are strongly correlated or interacted.

  16. The Levels and Distribution of TN, TP and TOC in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. The South China Sea is unique in that located in a subtropical zone, and therefore represents an important regime for biogeochemical studies. However, to our knowledge, few data are available for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) in South Sea, China. The present study aims to contribute to the knowledge of their status through investigating the level and distribution of TN, TP and TOC in South China Sea. A total of 108 seawater samples of 11 sites in south sea, china were collected during August 29- September 4, 2006. An automated and simultaneous method for determination of TN and TOC was applied to all seawater samples. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination for TOC and TN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both TOC and TN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. And quantitative analyses of TP in seawater were accomplished by a typical chemical method. Concentration ranges of TN and TP were 0.06-0.67, and 0.003-0.071 mg/L, respectively, as well as that of TOC were 0.23-2.51mg/L. The values of TN and TP showed that the status of nutrition is relatively better in south china sea than other marine areas. Moreover, the upright change trend of TN concentration level as well as TP and TOC according to the experimental results at the total 11 sites are simultaneity studied. The concentration of TN initial increases with the increasing of the depth, later the value becomes almost constant. In contrast, the concentration of TOC reduces with the increasing of the depth, later the value becomes almost unchangeable. Compared with the trend of TN and TOC, that of TP appears relatively stable

  17. Genetic and molecular studies of a composite chromosomal element (Tn3705) containing a Tn916-modified structure (Tn3704) in Streptococcus anginosus F22.

    PubMed

    Clermont, D; Horaud, T

    1994-01-01

    The plasmid-free Streptococcus anginosus F22 contained a conjugative element, Tn3705, encoding resistance to erythromycin (Emr) and tetracycline-minocycline (Tcr-Mnr). We mapped a chromosomal region (> 52 kb) of F22, corresponding to the internal part of Tn3705. Molecular analysis of Tn3705 revealed it to be a composite structure: it included in its central part a transposon designated Tn3704 (20.3 kb +/- 0.5 kb), which had a modified structure in comparison with that of Tn916 and on which the Emr Tcr-Mn4 markers were localized. Tn3705 inserted from F22 into the chromosome of various streptococcal transconjugants as well as that of Enterococcus faecalis transconjugants without changing its structure. In contrast, from the chromosome of an E. faecalis::Tn3705 transconjugant only Tn3704 inserted, at various sites, into another E. faecalis chromosome. Sugar fermentations occurred after the insertion of Tn3704 into the chromosome of an asaccharolytic E. faecalis strain. Transposition of only Tn3704 from the chromosome of E. faecalis::Tn3705 onto pIP964, an E. faecalis hemolysin plasmid, yielded two different pIP964 derivatives. The size of the entire element Tn3705 was estimated to be about 70.0 kb by pulsed-field electrophoresis.

  18. Tn5Prime, a Tn5 based 5' capture method for single cell RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Cole, Charles; Byrne, Ashley; Beaudin, Anna E; Forsberg, E Camilla; Vollmers, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technique to investigate and quantify entire transcriptomes. Recent advances in the field have made it possible to explore the transcriptomes of single cells. However, most widely used RNA-seq protocols fail to provide crucial information regarding transcription start sites. Here we present a protocol, Tn5Prime, that takes advantage of the Tn5 transposase-based Smart-seq2 protocol to create RNA-seq libraries that capture the 5' end of transcripts. The Tn5Prime method dramatically streamlines the 5' capture process and is both cost effective and reliable. By applying Tn5Prime to bulk RNA and single cell samples, we were able to define transcription start sites as well as quantify transcriptomes at high accuracy and reproducibility. Additionally, similar to 3' end-based high-throughput methods like Drop-seq and 10× Genomics Chromium, the 5' capture Tn5Prime method allows the introduction of cellular identifiers during reverse transcription, simplifying the analysis of large numbers of single cells. In contrast to 3' end-based methods, Tn5Prime also enables the assembly of the variable 5' ends of the antibody sequences present in single B-cell data. Therefore, Tn5Prime presents a robust tool for both basic and applied research into the adaptive immune system and beyond.

  19. 76 FR 20433 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12497 and 12498] Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is a an amendment of the Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 03/23/2011. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  20. 76 FR 18288 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00048

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12497 and 12498] Tennessee Disaster TN-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an... this disaster for physical damage is 12497 6 and for economic injury is 12498 0. The State which...

  1. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13696 and 13697] Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 08/02/2013. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  2. 75 FR 55833 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12303 and 12304] Tennessee Disaster TN-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Tennessee dated 09/07/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  3. 77 FR 51100 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00068

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13215 and 13216] Tennessee Disaster TN-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TENNESSEE dated. 08/16/2012. Incident: Severe storms...

  4. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  5. Transponson Tn916 Mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-10

    Tngla, is described. Tng1a was transferred from Streptococcus 1aJaji strain DS16C1 to f. a VNR-1 by conjugation in a standard filter mating procedure...transposon, Tn916, mutagenesis, Bacillus, anthracis, subtilis. , Streptococcus , faecalis, aro 2.AUSrN ACT (Cautious no reverse efho if nece.at7r sd ideratfy...transferred from Streptococcus : faecalis strain DS16CI to B. anthracis VNR-1 by conjugation in a standard filter mating procedure. Tetracycline

  6. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  7. 78 FR 72004 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tazewell, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Tazewell, TN, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at New Tazewell Municipal Airport. This enhances the safety and management of aircraft operations at the airport. DATES: Effective..., TN. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the development of the RNAV (GPS) RWY 7 approach and...

  8. RadNet Air Data From Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Nashville, TN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. RadNet Air Data From Knoxville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Knoxville, TN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. RadNet Air Data From Memphis, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Memphis, TN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12161 and 12162] Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the... the original declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and...

  12. 77 FR 13195 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ..., Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On September 22, 2011, the FAA... areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO TN E5...

  13. 76 FR 1512 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ..., Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-5610. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On October 26, 2010, the FAA... areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO TN E5...

  14. Tn552 transposase purification and in vitro activities.

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, S J; Sherratt, D J; Stark, W M; Boocock, M R

    1995-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus transposon Tn552 encodes a protein (p480) containing the 'D,D(35)E' motif common to retroviral integrases and the transposases of a number of bacterial elements, including phage Mu, the integron-containing element Tn5090, Tn7 and IS3. p480 and a histidine-tagged derivative were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by methods involving denaturation and renaturation. DNase I footprinting and gel binding assays demonstrated that p480 binds to two adjacent, directly repeated 23 bp motifs at each end of Tn552. Although donor strand cleavage by p480 was not detected, in vitro conditions were defined for strand transfer activity with transposon end fragments having pre-cleaved 3' termini. Strand transfer was Mn(2+)-dependent and appeared to join a single left or right end fragment to target DNA. The importance of the terminal dinucleotide CA-3' was demonstrated by mutation. The in vitro activities of p480 are consistent with its proposed function as the Tn552 transposase. Images PMID:7828593

  15. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... reply comments on or before May 2, 2011. ADDRESSES: Federal Communications Commission, Office of the...

  16. 76 FR 36166 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12556 and 12557] Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an... loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925...

  17. Iceland: Grímsvötn Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere     ... p.m. local time (1730 UTC) on Saturday, May 21, 2011. The volcano, located approximately 140 miles (220 kilometers) east of the capital ...

  18. 76 FR 48939 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12704 and 12705] Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of... information in the original declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers...

  19. 76 FR 27739 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12556 and 12557] Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc...

  20. 76 FR 32387 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12572 and 12573] Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate...

  1. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12159 and 12160] Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster...

  2. 78 FR 55770 - [Tennessee Disaster greek-iTN-00077

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 13737 and 13738 [Tennessee Disaster TN-00077] AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of TENNESSEE dated 08/26/2013. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  3. Occurrence and properties of composite transposon Tn2672: evolution of multiple drug resistance transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Hänni, C; Meyer, J; Iida, S; Arber, W

    1982-01-01

    We found Tn2671 (the 23-kb long IS1-flanked r-determinant of NR1-Basel) inserted into the ampicillin resistance gene bla of the Tn3-related transposon Tn902. The resulting 28-kilobase-long composite transposon Tn2672 (= Tn902 bla::Tn2671) is stable, and it translocates as a unit into various loci including IS1 of the resistance transfer factor of R100-1. These results are discussed with respect to the evolution of R plasmids providing multiple drug resistance. Images PMID:6281241

  4. Microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activity in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study explores the relationship between sediment chemistry (TC, TN, TP) and microbial respiration (DHA) and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) hypoxic zone. TC, TN, and TP were all positively correlated with each other (r=0.19-0.68). DHA was ...

  5. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  6. Characterization of Tn6238 with a New Allele of aac(6′)-Ib-cr

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, María P.; Orman, Betina; Errecalde, Laura; Kaufman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report that the genetic structure of Tn1331 remained conserved in Argentina from 1989 to 2013 (72 of 73 isolates), with the exception being the plasmid-borne Tn1331-like transposon Tn6238 containing a new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele recovered from a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. A bioinformatic analysis of aac(6′)-Ib-like gene cassettes suggests that this new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele emerged through mutation or homologous recombination in the Tn1331 genetic platform. Tn6238 is a novel platform for the dissemination of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. PMID:25691640

  7. Analytical evaluation of point of care cTnT and clinical performances in an unselected population as compared with central laboratory highly sensitive cTnT.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Anne Marie; Sebbane, Mustapha; Roubille, François; Coste, Thibault; Bargnoux, Anne Sophie; Badiou, Stéphanie; Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    To report the analytical performances of the Radiometer AQT90 FLEX® cTnT assay (Neuilly-Plaisance, France) and to evaluate the concordance with hs-cTnT results from central laboratory for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at baseline and during a short follow-up among unselected patients admitted in emergency room or cardiology department. Analytical performances of AQT90 FLEX® cTnT immunoassay included imprecision study with determination of a coefficient of variation at 10% and 20%, linearity, and limit of detection. The concordance study was based on samples obtained from 170 consecutive patients with chest pain suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admitted in the emergency room or cardiology department. The kinetic study (within 62 additional samples 3h later) was based on absolute delta criterion and the combination of relative change of 30% with absolute change of 7ng/L. The cTnT assay from Radiometer was evaluated as clinically usable, although less sensitive than the Roche hs-cTnT assay as demonstrated by the concordance and the kinetic studies. In non-selected population, the cTnT AQT Flex© assay on AQT90© with kinetic change at 3h, provides similar clinical classification of patients, particularly for AMI group as compared to central laboratory hs-cTnT assay and could be suitable for clinical use. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tn5099, a xylE promoter probe transposon for Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, D R; Solenberg, P J; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Tn5099, a promoter probe transposon for Streptomyces spp., was constructed by inserting a promoterless xylE gene and a hygromycin resistance gene into IS493. Tn5099 transposed into different sites in the Streptomyces griseofuscus genome, and the xylE reporter gene was expressed in some of the transposition mutants. Strains containing Tn5099 insertions that gave regulated expression of the xylE gene were identified. Images PMID:1653213

  9. 75 FR 69398 - Foreign-Trade Zone 78-Nashville, TN; Application for Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Cowan Street, Nashville; Site 2 (57.0 acres)--Cockrill Bend Industrial Park, 7355 Cockrill Bend Boulevard, Nashville; Site 3 (9.2 acres)--Irish Express Way Logistics, 323 Mason Road, La Vergne; Site 4 (39 acres)--Space Park North Industrial Park, 1000 Cartwright Street, Goodlettsville; Site 5 (19 acres)--Old...

  10. 77 FR 45333 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 148 Under Alternative Site Framework; Knoxville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Sites 3, 4 and 5 would be categorized as magnet sites, existing Sites 2, 6 and 7 would be categorized as... sunset provision for magnet sites that would terminate authority for Sites 4 and 5 if not activated by...

  11. Intramolecular transposition by a synthetic IS50 (Tn5) derivative

    SciT

    Tomcsanyi, T.; Phadnis, S.H.; Berg, D.E.

    1990-11-01

    We report the formation of deletions and inversions by intramolecular transposition of Tn5-derived mobile elements. The synthetic transposons used contained the IS50 O and I end segments and the transposase gene, a contraselectable gene encoding sucrose sensitivity (sacB), antibiotic resistance genes, and a plasmid replication origin. Both deletions and inversions were associated with loss of a 300-bp segment that is designated the vector because it is outside of the transposon. Deletions were severalfold more frequent than inversions, perhaps reflecting constraints on DNA twisting or abortive transposition. Restriction and DNA sequence analyses showed that both types of rearrangements extended from onemore » transposon end to many different sites in target DNA. In the case of inversions, transposition generated 9-bp direct repeats of target sequences.« less

  12. An insight into the thermodynamic characteristics of human thrombopoietin complexation with TN1 antibody

    PubMed Central

    Shibazaki, Chie; Adachi, Motoyasu; Honjo, Eijiro; Tamada, Taro; Maeda, Yoshitake; Tahara, Tomoyuki; Kato, Takashi; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Blaber, Michael; Kuroki, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human thrombopoietin (hTPO) primarily stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production and is neutralized by the mouse TN1 antibody. The thermodynamic characteristics of TN1 antibody–hTPO complexation were analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using an antigen‐binding fragment (Fab) derived from the TN1 antibody (TN1‐Fab). To clarify the mechanism by which hTPO is recognized by TN1‐Fab the conformation of free TN1‐Fab was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å using X‐ray crystallography and compared with the hTPO‐bound form of TN1‐Fab determined by a previous study. This structural comparison revealed that the conformation of TN1‐Fab does not substantially change after hTPO binding and a set of 15 water molecules is released from the antigen‐binding site (paratope) of TN1‐Fab upon hTPO complexation. Interestingly, the heat capacity change (ΔCp) measured by ITC (−1.52 ± 0.05 kJ mol−1 K−1) differed significantly from calculations based upon the X‐ray structure data of the hTPO‐bound and unbound forms of TN1‐Fab (−1.02 ∼ 0.25 kJ mol−1 K−1) suggesting that hTPO undergoes an induced‐fit conformational change combined with significant desolvation upon TN1‐Fab binding. The results shed light on the structural biology associated with neutralizing antibody recognition. PMID:27419667

  13. Mini-Tn7 Insertion in Bacteria With Multiple glmS-Linked attTn7 Sites: Example Burkholderia Mallei ATCC 23344

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-27

    INTRODUCTION Burkholderia mallei is the etiological agent of glanders and a highly evolved obligate zoonotic mammalian pathogen that naturally affects horses...mini-Tn7 insertion in bacteria with multiple glmS-linked attTn7 sites: example Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 Kyoung-Hee Choi1, David DeShazer2... glanders is a rare disease, B. mallei has received renewed attention because of its listing as a category B agent by the Centers for Disease Control

  14. Registration of TN09-008 soybean cyst nematode resistant cultivar

    The conventional soybean line TN09-008 (Reg. No. CV- , PI ) was released by University of Tennessee Agricultural Research in 2017 as a cultivar, based on high seed yield potential in Tennessee and the southern region. Soybean cultivar TN09-008 is resistant to HG types 1.2.5.7, 5.7, a...

  15. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 [Docket No. FAA-2009-0061; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-10] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Johnson County Airport, Mountain City, TN. DATES...

  16. 78 FR 27029 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport; TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...-0031; Airspace Docket No. 12-AWA-7] Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport... modifies the Nashville International Airport, TN, Class C airspace area by removing a cutout from the... modify the Nashville International Airport, TN, Class C airspace area (78 FR 6257). Interested parties...

  17. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby given that the National... Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY AGENCY: National Park Service... services within Big South Fork National Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, for a term not to exceed 3...

  18. Tn5401, a new class II transposable element from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, J A

    1994-01-01

    A new class II (Tn3-like) transposable element, designated Tn5401, was recovered from a sporulation-deficient variant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni EG2158 following its insertion into a recombinant plasmid. Sequence analysis of the insert revealed a 4,837-bp transposon with two large open reading frames, in the same orientation, encoding proteins of 36 kDa (306 residues) and 116 kDa (1,005 residues) and 53-bp terminal inverted repeats. The deduced amino acid sequence for the 36-kDa protein shows 24% sequence identity with the TnpI recombinase of the B. thuringiensis transposon Tn4430, a member of the phage integrase family of site-specific recombinases. The deduced amino acid sequence for the 116-kDa protein shows 42% sequence identity with the transposase of Tn3 but only 28% identity with the TnpA transposase of Tn4430. Two small open reading frames of unknown function, designated orf1 (85 residues) and orf2 (74 residues), were also identified. Southern blot analysis indicated that Tn5401, in contrast to Tn4430, is not commonly found among different subspecies of B. thuringiensis and is not typically associated with known insecticidal crystal protein genes. Transposition was studied with B. thuringiensis by using plasmid pEG922, a temperature-sensitive shuttle vector containing Tn5401. Tn5401 transposed to both chromosomal and plasmid target sites but displayed an apparent preference for plasmid sites. Transposition was replicative and resulted in the generation of a 5-bp duplication at the target site. Transcriptional start sites within Tn5401 were mapped by primer extension analysis. Two promoters, designated PL and PR, direct the transcription of orf1-orf2 and tnpI-tnpA, respectively, and are negatively regulated by TnpI. Sequence comparison of the promoter regions of Tn5401 and Tn4430 suggests that the conserved sequence element ATGTCCRCTAAY mediates TnpI binding and cointegrate resolution. The same element is contained within the 53-bp terminal

  19. Abrasive wear of Hilong BoTN hardfacings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, L.; Fedorov, S.; Sadovnikov, A.; Ivanova, Y.; Voronina, M.

    2018-02-01

    The spread of steels, which are used to produce locks of steel drill pipes, adversely affects their wear resistance, which, in combination with low hardness of HV 2400 ... 2800 MPa as well as of the thread of screw, results in low wear resistance and the need for their reconstruction at the pipe control shop. An efficient way of improving the quality of drill pipe jonts is to hard-face them by the outside diameter with wear-resistant materials (hardbanding). One of the companies engaged in the development of hardfacing materials and hardbanding is Hilong (China) with weld seams of the brand BoTn. According to the results of the studies the following conclusion can be made: hardfacing increases the durability of the hardware, contributing to an increase in wear resistance of locks of DP under the conditions of abrasive action of aggressive geological formations; the usage of DP without wear-resistant weld seams is impermissible, because their further operation, as part of the drill-stem, can lead to emergency consequences; application of the pipes with the hardfacing collars together with the collars without hardfacing, due to varying degree of wear of jonts in the drill-stem, is also impermissible.

  20. International Spread and Persistence of TEM-24 Is Caused by the Confluence of Highly Penetrating Enterobacteriaceae Clones and an IncA/C2 Plasmid Containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-ΔTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly

  1. PD-1 suppresses development of humoral responses that protect against Tn-bearing tumors

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Marcela A.; Littrell, Chad A.; Yin, Zhaojun; Huang, Xuefei; Haas, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Tn is a carbohydrate antigen uniquely exposed on tumor mucins and thus, an ideal target for immunotherapy. However, it has been difficult to elicit protective antibody responses against Tn antigen and other tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Our study demonstrates this can be attributed to PD-1 immuno-inhibition. Our data show a major role for PD-1 in suppressing mucin- and Tn-specific B-cell activation, expansion, and antibody production important for protection against Tn-bearing tumor cells. These Tn/mucin-specific B cells belong to the innate-like B-1b cell subset typically responsible for T cell–independent antibody responses. Interestingly, PD-1–mediated regulation is B cell–intrinsic and CD4+ cells play a key role in supporting Tn/mucin-specific B cell antibody production in the context of PD-1 deficiency. Mucin-reactive antibodies produced in the absence of PD-1 inhibition largely belong to the IgM subclass and elicit potent antitumor effects via a complement-dependent mechanism. The identification of this role for PD-1 in regulating B cell–dependent antitumor immunity to Tn antigen highlights an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies targeting tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. PMID:27856425

  2. Tn4556, a 6.8-kilobase-pair transposable element of Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S T

    1987-01-01

    A 6.8-kilobase-pair (kbp) transposable element (Tn4556) was found in a neomycin-producing strain of Streptomyces fradiae. This element was first observed in two 30.3-kbp plasmids (pUC1123 and pUC1124) which arose when a thiostrepton resistance gene (1 kbp) was ligated with the BclI-2 fragment (22.5 kbp) that contains the origin of replication of phage SF1. The Tn4556 segment was deleted when these plasmids were transduced into another S. fradiae host with phage SF1. These deletion plasmids (pUC1210 and pUC1211) had copy numbers of less than 1 per chromosome and were unstable. In contrast, pUC1123 and pUC1124, with copy numbers of 12 to 15 per chromosome, respectively, were relatively stable. When pUC1210 and pUC1211 were reintroduced into S. fradiae by protoplast transformation, the Tn4556 element transposed again to the plasmids at numerous new locations in either of two orientations. A copy of Tn4556 was found in the S. fradiae chromosome by hybridization studies. It appears that Tn4556 originated from the chromosome, transposed into unstable pUC1210 and pUC1211, and made stable plasmids. A temperature-sensitive hybrid plasmid carrying a viomycin resistance derivative of Tn4556 (pMT660::Tn4556::vph) was constructed. When Streptomyces lividans UC8390 containing the hybrid plasmid was grown at 39 degrees C, Tn4556::vph (Tn4560) transposed to random positions in the host chromosome. Images PMID:2820925

  3. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  4. Brownfield to Brightfield Initiative in Oak Ridge, TN - 12346

    SciT

    Hough, Gil; Fairless, Chad

    Experience characterizing, permitting, and restoring 'Brownfield' sites-government or industrial sites with restricted future use due to the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants-is being leveraged to identify opportunities for redevelopment into solar power generating facilities which, in this context, are called 'Brightfields'. Brownfield sites offer the expansive land necessary for large photovoltaic (PV) solar farms, but require an in-depth working knowledge of complicated regulatory restrictions and environmental constraints to develop them. As a part of the effort to identify opportunities for redevelopment of Brownfield sites for solar applications, a technical guide, was composed specifically for themore » development of solar generation on restricted use sites. The basis of the technical guide gives specific consideration to environmental requirements and installation methods breaking that into three areas for assessing: 1) levels of contamination, 2) ground penetration requirements, and 3) the requirements for aesthetics and maintenance. Brightfield projects are underway to support the technical guide and expand re-industrialization efforts for the former DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. There are exciting opportunities to turn Brownfields into Brightfield solar energy solutions for meeting the future renewable energy needs of our country. Brownfields that offer the large surface area required for solar PV farms coupled with the technical guide for the installation of solar farms on restricted use sites supports efforts to develop the solar capacities and expertise to tap this future market. The initial projects designed following the technical guide will provide verification of the installation requirements and beneficial reuse of restricted use sites. (authors)« less

  5. Genetic and DNA sequence analysis of the kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903.

    PubMed Central

    Grindley, N D; Joyce, C M

    1980-01-01

    The kanamycin resistance transposon Tn903 consists of a unique region of about 1000 base pairs bounded by a pair of 1050-base-pair inverted repeat sequences. Each repeat contains two Pvu II endonuclease cleavage sites separated by 520 base pairs. We have constructed derivatives of Tn903 in which this 520-base-pair fragment is deleted from one or both repeats. Those derivatives that lack both 520-base-pair fragments cannot transpose, whereas those that lack just one remain transposition proficient. One such transposable derivative, Tn903 delta I, has been selected for further study. We have determined the sequence of the intact inverted repeat. The 18 base pairs at each end are identical and inverted relative to one another, a structure characteristic of insertion sequences. Additional experiments indicate that a single inverted repeat from Tn903 can, in fact, transpose; we propose that this element be called IS903. To correlate the DNA sequence with genetic activities, we have created mutations by inserting a 10-base-pair DNA fragment at several sites within the intact repeat of Tn903 delta 1, and we have examined the effect of such insertions on transposability. The results suggest that IS903 encodes a 307-amino-acid polypeptide (a "transposase") that is absolutely required for transposition of IS903 or Tn903. Images PMID:6261245

  6. The diagnostic value of two commercially available human cTnI assays in goat kids with myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Tolga; Eroksuz, Yesari; Hayirli, Armagan; Beytut, Enver; Kaynar, Ozgur; Baydar, Ersoy; Sozdutmaz, Ibrahim; Isidan, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a peripheral blood marker for myocardial damage. Because of the unavailability of goat-specific cTnI assays human cTnI assays may be validated for detection of myocarditis in goat kids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate 2 commercially available human cTnI assays in goat kids with myocardial damage, and to determine the cTnI expression in cardiac muscle. Plasma cTnI concentrations were measured in healthy goat kids (n = 7) and goat kids with myocardial damage (n = 8) using the Beckman Coulter Access Accu TnI and the Biomérieux Vidas Ultra. The results were correlated with gross necropsy and histopathologic findings, and cTnI immunhistochemistry in cardiac tissue. Macro- and microscopic findings confirmed myocardial damage in the myocarditis group. Mean plasma cTnI concentration was significantly higher in the myocarditis group than in the healthy control group (104.82 vs 0.02 ng/mL). The overall mean plasma cTnI concentration measured by Biomérieux Vidas Ultra (61.75 ng/mL, 95% CI: 19.55-103.95) was comparable to the mean measured by Beckman Coulter Access Accu TnI (50.08 ng/mL, 95% CI: 24.11-76.06), and cTnI concentrations measured by these assays were highly correlated (r = .977) with a -6.2% bias. Both assays were precise and accurate. The human-specific Beckman Coulter Access Accu TnI and the Biomérieux Vidas Ultra can be used for diagnostic confirmation of myocardial damage in caprine medicine. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Zone lines

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  8. cTnT can be a useful marker for early detection of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kilickap, S; Barista, I; Akgul, E; Aytemir, K; Aksoyek, S; Aksoy, S; Celik, I; Kes, S; Tekuzman, G

    2005-05-01

    The level of serum cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) increases with myocardial damage. We sought to assess whether cTnT level could be a useful marker for the early detection of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Forty-one patients who had been scheduled to receive anthracycline-containing combination chemotherapy were included in the study. Serum cTnT levels were measured before (baseline) and after the first cycle of chemotherapy, and again, after the last cycle of chemotherapy. In all patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), fractional shortening (FS), early peak flow/atrial flow velocity (E/A) ratio, and the isovolemic relaxation time (IRT) were measured echocardiographically, both before and after the completion of chemotherapy. LVEF and FS did not change in any patients. In 21 patients (49%), the E/A ratio decreased after therapy as compared to the pre-treatment values. The decrease in E/A ratio was more prominent in patients who were older than the mean age of our study group, which was 44 years. The post-treatment IRT was prolonged compared with the pretreatment IRT (94.0 +/- 2.0 versus 85.6 +/- 10.5 ms, respectively). cTnT levels after completion of therapy were elevated in 14 (34%) patients, and exceeded the upper limit of the normal range (>0.1 ng/ml) in only one patient. cTnT levels measured after completion of therapy were significantly higher, compared with those measured at baseline and after the first cycle of therapy. In the younger age group (< or =44 years old), there was a two-fold decrease in the E/A ratio in those patients whose cTnT levels increased during the therapy, when compared with those whose cTnT levels did not change (21% versus 43%, respectively). Increased serum cTnT level can be detected in the early stages of anthracycline therapy and it is associated with diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Therefore, serum cTnT level could be a useful measure for early detection of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.

  9. Myofilament Calcium Sensitivity: Mechanistic Insight into TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 Phosphorylation Integration

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Hussam E.; Hassel, Nathan C.; Siddiqui, Jalal K.; Brundage, Elizabeth A.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Davis, Jonathan P.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.

    2016-01-01

    Troponin I (TnI) is a major regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. During physiological and pathological stress, TnI is differentially phosphorylated at multiple residues through different signaling pathways to match cardiac function to demand. The combination of these TnI phosphorylations can exhibit an expected or unexpected functional integration, whereby the function of two phosphorylations are different than that predicted from the combined function of each individual phosphorylation alone. We have shown that TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation exhibit functional integration and are simultaneously increased in response to cardiac stress. In the current study, we investigated the functional integration of TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 to alter cardiac contraction. We hypothesized that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation each utilize distinct molecular mechanisms to alter the TnI binding affinity within the thin filament. Mathematical modeling predicts that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation affect different TnI affinities within the thin filament to distinctly alter the Ca2+-binding properties of troponin. Protein binding experiments validate this assertion by demonstrating pseudo-phosphorylated Ser-150 decreases the affinity of isolated TnI for actin, whereas Ser-23/24 pseudo-phosphorylation is not different from unphosphorylated. Thus, our data supports that TnI Ser-23/24 affects TnI-TnC binding, while Ser-150 phosphorylation alters TnI-actin binding. By measuring force development in troponin-exchanged skinned myocytes, we demonstrate that the Ca2+ sensitivity of force is directly related to the amount of phosphate present on TnI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ser-150 pseudo-phosphorylation blunts Ser-23/24-mediated decreased Ca2+-sensitive force development whether on the same or different TnI molecule. Therefore, TnI phosphorylations can integrate across troponins along the myofilament. These data demonstrate that TnI Ser-23

  10. Transposon mutagenesis of Xylella fastidiosa by electroporation of Tn5 synaptic complexes.

    PubMed

    Guilhabert, M R; Hoffman, L M; Mills, D A; Kirkpatrick, B C

    2001-06-01

    Pierce's disease, a lethal disease of grapevine, is caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that is transmitted from plant to plant by xylem-feeding insects. Strains of X. fastidiosa also have been associated with diseases that cause tremendous losses in many other economically important plants, including citrus. Although the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa has recently been determined, the inability to transform or produce transposon mutants of X. fastidiosa has been a major impediment to understanding pathogen-, plant-, and insect-vector interactions. We evaluated the ability of four different suicide vectors carrying either Tn5 or Tn10 transposons as well as a preformed Tn5 transposase-transposon synaptic complex (transposome) to transpose X. fastidiosa. The four suicide vectors failed to produce any detectable transposition events. Electroporation of transposomes, however, yielded 6 x 10(3) and 4 x 10(3) Tn5 mutants per microg of DNA in two different grapevine strains of X. fastidiosa. Molecular analysis showed that the transposition insertions were single, independent, stable events. Sequence analysis of the Tn5 insertion sites indicated that the transpositions occur randomly in the X. fastidiosa genome. Transposome-mediated mutagenesis should facilitate the identification of X. fastidiosa genes that mediate plant pathogenicity and insect transmission.

  11. An Enterobacter plasmid as a new genetic background for the transposon Tn1331

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Mohammad R; Antonic, Vlado; Ravizee, Adrien; Weina, Peter J; Izadjoo, Mina; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Genus Enterobacter includes important opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that could infect complex wounds. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in these microorganisms represents a challenging clinical problem in the treatment of these wounds. In the authors’ screening of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from complex wounds, an Enterobacter species was isolated that harbors antibiotic-resistant plasmids conferring resistance to Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to identify the resistance genes carried by one of these plasmids. Methods The plasmids from the Enterobacter isolate were propagated in E. coli and one of the plasmids, designated as pR23, was sequenced by the Sanger method using fluorescent dyeterminator chemistry on a genetic analyzer. The assembled sequence was annotated by search of the GenBank database. Results Plasmid pR23 is composed of the transposon Tn1331 and a backbone plasmid that is identical to the plasmid pPIGDM1 from Enterobacter agglomerans. The multidrug-resistance transposon Tn1331, which confers resistance to aminoglycoside and beta lactam antibiotics, has been previously isolated only from Klebsiella. The Enterobacter plasmid pPIGDM1, which carries a ColE1-like origin of replication and has no apparent selective marker, appears to provide a backbone for propagation of Tn1331 in Enterobacter. The recognition sequence of Tn1331 transposase for insertion into pPIGDM1 is the pentanucleotide TATTA, which occurs only once throughout the length of this plasmid. Conclusion Transposition of Tn1331 into the Enterobacter plasmid pPIGDM1 enables this transposon to propagate in this Enterobacter. Since Tn1331 was previously isolated only from Klebsiella, this report suggests horizontal transfer of this transposon between the two bacterial genera. PMID:22259249

  12. Comparison of Friction Characteristics on TN and VA Mode Alignment Films with Friction Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Musun; Chung, Hanrok; Kwon, Hyukmin; Kim, Jehyun; Han, Daekyung; Yi, Yoonseon; Lee, Sangmun; Lee, Chulgu; Cha, Sooyoul

    Using frictional force microscopy (FFM), the friction surface characteristics were compared between twisted nematic (TN) mode and vertical alignment (VA) mode alignment films (AFs). The friction asymmetry was detected depending on temperature conditions on TN mode AF, but not on VA mode AF. The difference between two modes was explained by leaning intermolecular repulsion caused by the pre-tilt angle uniformity and the density of side chain. No level difference according to temperature conditions appeared when the pre-tilt angle were measured after liquid crystal (LC) injection.

  13. Julian Davies and the discovery of kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5.

    PubMed

    Berg, Douglas E

    2017-04-01

    This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here.

  14. 78 FR 43971 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...-Cities Regional Airport, Tri-Cities, TN. Exclusionary language was omitted in the final rule published in... herein to include the corrective language. Since the regulatory text, as currently described, penetrates... FAA has determined that this regulation only involves an established body of technical regulations for...

  15. 76 FR 4147 - Putnam-Cumberland, TN-Improve Power Supply

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Putnam-Cumberland, TN--Improve Power Supply AGENCY: Tennessee Valley... proposed electrical power supply improvements in the Putnam and Cumberland region of east-central Tennessee... supplies bulk electric power to Cumberland and Putnam counties and the immediately surrounding areas in...

  16. 75 FR 65584 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...-1047; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-37] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN AGENCY...; Telephone: 1- 800-647-5527; Fax: 202-493-2251. You must identify the Docket Number FAA-2010-1047; Airspace... the proposal. Communications should identify both docket numbers (FAA Docket No. FAA-2010-1047...

  17. 75 FR 28302 - American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By... negative determination applicable to workers and former workers at American Food and Vending, Spring Hill... eligible for TAA because they are service workers who provided services to General Motors, Spring Hill...

  18. Role of Myofibril-Inducing RNA in cardiac TnT expression in developing Mexican axolotl

    PubMed Central

    Sferrazza, Gian-Franco; Zhang, Chi; Jia, Pingping; Lemanski, Sharon L.; Athauda, Gagani; Stassi, Alyssa; Halager, Kristine; Maier, Jennifer A.; Rueda-de-Leon, Elena; Gupta, Amit; Dube, Syamalima; Huang, Xupei; Prentice, Howard M.; Dube, Dipak K.; Lemanski, Larry F.

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been a useful animal model to study heart development and cardiac myofibrillogenesis. A naturally-occurring recessive mutant, gene “c”, for cardiac non-function in the Mexican axolotl causes a failure of myofibrillogenesis due to a lack of tropomyosin expression in homozygous mutant (c/c) embryonic hearts.. Myofibril-Inducing RNA (MIR) rescues mutant hearts in vitro by promoting tropomyosin expression and myofibril formation thereafter. We have studied the effect of MIR on the expression of various isoforms of cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT), a component of the thin filament that binds with tropomyosin. Four alternatively spliced cTnT isoforms have been characterized from developing axolotl heart. The expression of various cTnT isoforms in normal, mutant, and mutant hearts corrected with MIR, is evaluated by real-time RT-PCR using isoform specific primer pairs; MIR affects the total transcription as well as the splicing of the cTnT in axolotl heart PMID:17408593

  19. 78 FR 48078 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tazewell, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Tazewell, TN, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at New Tazewell Municipal Airport. This action would enhance the safety and...

  20. Morphological and functional diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi on Roan Mountain (NC/TN)

    Claire Bird; Coleman McCleneghan

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of ectomycorrhizal morphotypes and hypogeous fungi (truffles and false-truffles) in northern hardwood and spruce-fir forests on Roan Mountain (NC/TN) was performed to increase our knowledge of the fungal communities in the Southern Appalachian high elevation forests. These forests are home to an endangered subspecies and mycophagist, the Carolina northern...

  1. Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere

    2011-05-24

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image of Grímsvötn, the most active of Iceland volcanoes, which began erupting around 5:30 p.m. local time 1730 UTC on Saturday, May 21, 2011, east of the capital city of Reykjavik.

  2. 77 FR 59994 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 70-143; NRC-2009-0435] Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001...

  3. 78 FR 58489 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... County Memorial Airport, TN (Lat. 35[deg]41'55'' N., long. 85[deg]50'38'' W.) Columbia River Park... Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the airport. DATES: Comments must be received on or before November 8, 2013. ADDRESSES: Send comments on this rule to: U. S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations...

  4. 78 FR 6257 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...-0031; Airspace Docket No. 12-AWA-7] RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Nashville... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify the Nashville International Airport, TN, Class C... around an airport that is now permanently closed. The FAA is proposing this action to return the Class C...

  5. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection..., IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and Sioux City, respectively were the sole applicants for designation to.../2015 Midsouth Memphis, TN (901) 942-3216 4/1/2012 3/31/2015 Sioux City Sioux City, IA......... (712...

  6. Large-Scale Low-Cost NGS Library Preparation Using a Robust Tn5 Purification and Tagmentation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Bianca P.; Velten, Lars; Racke, Ines; Tu, Chelsea Szu; Thoms, Matthias; Rybin, Vladimir; Besir, Hüseyin; Remans, Kim; Steinmetz, Lars M.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient preparation of high-quality sequencing libraries that well represent the biological sample is a key step for using next-generation sequencing in research. Tn5 enables fast, robust, and highly efficient processing of limited input material while scaling to the parallel processing of hundreds of samples. Here, we present a robust Tn5 transposase purification strategy based on an N-terminal His6-Sumo3 tag. We demonstrate that libraries prepared with our in-house Tn5 are of the same quality as those processed with a commercially available kit (Nextera XT), while they dramatically reduce the cost of large-scale experiments. We introduce improved purification strategies for two versions of the Tn5 enzyme. The first version carries the previously reported point mutations E54K and L372P, and stably produces libraries of constant fragment size distribution, even if the Tn5-to-input molecule ratio varies. The second Tn5 construct carries an additional point mutation (R27S) in the DNA-binding domain. This construct allows for adjustment of the fragment size distribution based on enzyme concentration during tagmentation, a feature that opens new opportunities for use of Tn5 in customized experimental designs. We demonstrate the versatility of our Tn5 enzymes in different experimental settings, including a novel single-cell polyadenylation site mapping protocol as well as ultralow input DNA sequencing. PMID:29118030

  7. Two-stage soil infiltration treatment system for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN ratios.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The novel conjugative transposon tn1207.3 carries the macrolide efflux gene mef(A) in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Santagati, Maria; Iannelli, Francesco; Cascone, Carmela; Campanile, Floriana; Oggioni, Marco R; Stefani, Stefania; Pozzi, Gianni

    2003-01-01

    The macrolide efflux gene mef(A) of the Streptococcus pyogenes clinical strain 2812A was found to be carried by a 52-kb chromosomal genetic element that could be transferred by conjugation to the chromosome of other streptococcal species. The characteristics of this genetic element are typical of conjugative transposons and was named Tn1207.3. The size of Tn1207.3 was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the 7,244 bp at the left end of Tn1207.3 were identical to those of the pneumococcal Tn1207.1 element. Tn1207.3-like genetic elements were found to be inserted at a single specific chromosomal site in 12 different clinical isolates S. pyogenes exhibiting the M phenotype of resistance to macrolides and carrying the mef(A) gene. Tn1207.3 was transferred from S. pyogenes 2812A to Streptococcus pneumoniae, and sequence analysis carried out on six independent transconjugants showed that insertion of Tn1207.3 in the pneumococcal genome always occurred at a single specific site as in Tn1207.1. Using MF2, a representative S. pneumoniae transconjugant, as a donor, Tn1207.3 was transferred again by conjugation to S. pyogenes and Streptococcus gordonii. The previously described nonconjugative element Tn1207.1 of S. pneumoniae appears to be a defective element, part of a longer conjugative transposon that carries mef(A) and is found in clinical isolates of S. pyogenes.

  9. Effects of HCM cTnI Mutation R145G on Troponin Structure and Modulation by PKA Phosphorylation Elucidated by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Lindert, Steffen; Cheng, Yuanhua; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter; Regnier, Michael; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) is a key molecule in the regulation of human cardiac muscle contraction. The N-terminal cardiac-specific peptide of the inhibitory subunit of troponin, cTnI (cTnI1-39), is a target for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) during β-adrenergic stimulation. We recently presented evidence indicating that this peptide interacts with the inhibitory peptide (cTnl137–147) when S23 and S24 are phosphorylated. The inhibitory peptide is also the target of the point mutation cTnI-R145G, which is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a disease associated with sudden death in apparently healthy young adults. It has been shown that both phosphorylation and this mutation alter the cTnC-cTnI (C-I) interaction, which plays a crucial role in modulating contractile activation. However, little is known about the molecular-level events underlying this modulation. Here, we computationally investigated the effects of the cTnI-R145G mutation on the dynamics of cTn, cTnC Ca2+ handling, and the C-I interaction. Comparisons were made with the cTnI-R145G/S23D/S24D phosphomimic mutation, which has been used both experimentally and computationally to study the cTnI N-terminal specific effects of PKA phosphorylation. Additional comparisons between the phosphomimic mutations and the real phosphorylations were made. For this purpose, we ran triplicate 150 ns molecular dynamics simulations of cTnI-R145G Ca2+-bound cTnC1-161-cTnI1-172-cTnT236-285, cTnI-R145G/S23D/S24D Ca2+-bound cTnC1-161-cTnI1-172-cTnT236-285, and cTnI-R145G/PS23/PS24 Ca2+-bound cTnC1-161-cTnI1-172-cTnT236-285, respectively. We found that the cTnI-R145G mutation did not impact the overall dynamics of cTn, but stabilized crucial Ca2+-coordinating interactions. However, the phosphomimic mutations increased overall cTn fluctuations and destabilized Ca2+ coordination. Interestingly, cTnI-R145G blunted the intrasubunit interactions between the cTnI N-terminal extension and the cTnI inhibitory

  10. Effects of HCM cTnI mutation R145G on troponin structure and modulation by PKA phosphorylation elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Steffen; Cheng, Yuanhua; Kekenes-Huskey, Peter; Regnier, Michael; McCammon, J Andrew

    2015-01-20

    Cardiac troponin (cTn) is a key molecule in the regulation of human cardiac muscle contraction. The N-terminal cardiac-specific peptide of the inhibitory subunit of troponin, cTnI (cTnI(1-39)), is a target for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) during β-adrenergic stimulation. We recently presented evidence indicating that this peptide interacts with the inhibitory peptide (cTnl(137-147)) when S23 and S24 are phosphorylated. The inhibitory peptide is also the target of the point mutation cTnI-R145G, which is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a disease associated with sudden death in apparently healthy young adults. It has been shown that both phosphorylation and this mutation alter the cTnC-cTnI (C-I) interaction, which plays a crucial role in modulating contractile activation. However, little is known about the molecular-level events underlying this modulation. Here, we computationally investigated the effects of the cTnI-R145G mutation on the dynamics of cTn, cTnC Ca(2+) handling, and the C-I interaction. Comparisons were made with the cTnI-R145G/S23D/S24D phosphomimic mutation, which has been used both experimentally and computationally to study the cTnI N-terminal specific effects of PKA phosphorylation. Additional comparisons between the phosphomimic mutations and the real phosphorylations were made. For this purpose, we ran triplicate 150 ns molecular dynamics simulations of cTnI-R145G Ca(2+)-bound cTnC(1-161)-cTnI(1-172)-cTnT(236-285), cTnI-R145G/S23D/S24D Ca(2+)-bound cTnC(1-161)-cTnI(1-172)-cTnT(236-285), and cTnI-R145G/PS23/PS24 Ca(2+)-bound cTnC(1-161)-cTnI(1-172)-cTnT(236-285), respectively. We found that the cTnI-R145G mutation did not impact the overall dynamics of cTn, but stabilized crucial Ca(2+)-coordinating interactions. However, the phosphomimic mutations increased overall cTn fluctuations and destabilized Ca(2+) coordination. Interestingly, cTnI-R145G blunted the intrasubunit interactions between the cTnI N

  11. Interruption of capsule production in Streptococcus pneumonia serotype 3 by insertion of transposon Tn916.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D A; Musher, D M

    1990-01-01

    Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis was used to produce mutant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 that lacked only a polysaccharide capsule. Southern blotting, DNA-DNA hybridization, and immunochemical analyses demonstrated that the presence of a single copy of Tn916 was sufficient to produce unencapsulation. The 50% lethal dose for such mutants was greater than 5 x 10(7) CFU, as opposed to a 50% lethal dose of 1 CFU for wild-type strains. These experiments outline an effective method for targeting genes in S. pneumoniae by transposon interruption and provide molecular evidence to support the longstanding hypothesis that the capsule is the principal virulence factor in this pathogen. Images PMID:2167295

  12. An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing without entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme is proposed. In our scheme, the Hash function is used to check the eavesdropping, and no particles need to be published. So the utilization efficiency of the particles is real 100%. No entanglement is used in our scheme. The dealer uses the single particles to encode the secret information, and the participants get the secret through measuring the single particles. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is simpler and more efficient.

  13. IHF-independent assembly of the Tn10 strand transfer transpososome: implications for inhibition of disintegration.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barry J; Wardle, Simon J; Haniford, David B

    2002-08-15

    The frequency of DNA transposition in transposition systems that employ a strand transfer step may be significantly affected by the occurrence of a disintegration reaction, a reaction that reverses the strand transfer event. We have asked whether disintegration occurs in the Tn10 transposition system. We show that disintegration substrates (substrates constituting one half of the strand transfer product) are assembled into a transpososome that mimics the strand transfer intermediate. This strand transfer transpososome (STT) does appear to support an intermolecular disintegration reaction, but only at a very low level. Strikingly, assembly of the STT is not dependent on IHF, a host protein that is required for de novo assembly of all previously characterized Tn10 transpososomes. We suggest that disintegration substrates are able to form both transposon end and target type contacts with transposase because of their enhanced conformational flexibility. This probably allows the conformation of DNA within the complex that prevents the destructive disintegration reaction, and is responsible for relaxing the DNA sequence requirements for STT formation relative to other Tn10 transpososomes.

  14. IHF-independent assembly of the Tn10 strand transfer transpososome: implications for inhibition of disintegration

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barry J.; Wardle, Simon J.; Haniford, David B.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of DNA transposition in transposition systems that employ a strand transfer step may be significantly affected by the occurrence of a disintegration reaction, a reaction that reverses the strand transfer event. We have asked whether disintegration occurs in the Tn10 transposition system. We show that disintegration substrates (substrates constituting one half of the strand transfer product) are assembled into a transpososome that mimics the strand transfer intermediate. This strand transfer transpososome (STT) does appear to support an intermolecular disintegration reaction, but only at a very low level. Strikingly, assembly of the STT is not dependent on IHF, a host protein that is required for de novo assembly of all previously characterized Tn10 transpososomes. We suggest that disintegration substrates are able to form both transposon end and target type contacts with transposase because of their enhanced conformational flexibility. This probably allows the conformation of DNA within the complex that prevents the destructive disintegration reaction, and is responsible for relaxing the DNA sequence requirements for STT formation relative to other Tn10 transpososomes. PMID:12169640

  15. Incised valley fill interpretation for Mississippian Black Hand Sandstone, Appalachian Basin, USA: Implications for glacial eustasy at Kinderhookian-Osagean (Tn2-Tn3) boundary

    Matchen, D.L.; Kammer, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippian strata of east-central Ohio are predominantly fine-grained marine deposits of the Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Within these sediments is the Black Hand Sandstone of the Cuyahoga Formation. The Black Hand Sandstone is a multistory, crossbedded, coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstone. The contact between the Black Hand Sandstone and the subjacent Cuyahoga Formation is sharp and scoured, with intraclasts of the Cuyahoga Formation incorporated into the basal Black Hand Sandstone. The Black Hand Sandstone was previously thought to represent a distributary channel deposit; however, the combination of lithofacies and architectural elements indicates deposition in a braided stream setting. The Cuyahoga Formation was deposited in a shallow marine setting. The erosional basal contact of the Black Hand Sandstone and the juxtaposition of fluvial and marine sediments suggests a sequence boundary. The geographic distribution of the Black Hand Sandstone combined with the evidence for a sequence boundary suggests deposition in an incised valley. The age of the Black Hand Sandstone is key to inferring the causes of valley incision. The Black Hand Sandstone is nearly devoid of body fossils, necessitating a biostratigraphic analysis of the surrounding Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Analysis indicates the Logan Formation is early Osagean age. Data from the Cuyahoga Formation suggest a Kinderhookian age with a possible transition to the Osagean in the uppermost Cuyahoga Formation. This constrains the age of the Black Hand Sandstone to the transition at the Kinderhookian-Osagean boundary. Recent reports indicate late Kinderhookian (Tournaisian, Tn2) Gondwanan glaciation based upon tillites and sharp excursions in stable-isotope curves. A glacio-eustatic fall in sea level is inferred to have caused incision of the Cuyahoga Formation, followed by deposition of the Black Hand Sandstone and Logan Formation during the subsequent sea level rise. The associated

  16. Impacts of climate change on TN load and its control in a River Basin with complex pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoying; Warren, Rachel; He, Yi; Ye, Jinyin; Li, Qiaoling; Wang, Guoqing

    2018-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that climate change could affect the quality of water through complex natural and anthropogenic mechanisms. Previous studies on climate change and water quality have mostly focused on assessing its impact on pollutant loads from agricultural runoff. A sub-daily SWAT model was developed to simulate the discharge, transport, and transformation of nitrogen from all known anthropogenic sources including industries, municipal sewage treatment plants, concentrated and scattered feedlot operations, rural households, and crop production in the Upper Huai River Basin. This is a highly polluted basin with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations frequently exceeding Class V of the Chinese Surface Water Quality Standard (GB3838-2002). Climate change projections produced by 16 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios in the mid (2040-2060) and late (2070-2090) century were used to drive the SWAT model to evaluate the impacts of climate change on both the TN loads and the effectiveness of three water pollution control measures (reducing fertilizer use, constructing vegetative filter strips, and improving septic tank performance) in the basin. SWAT simulation results have indicated that climate change is likely to cause an increase in both monthly average and extreme TN loads in February, May, and November. The projected impact of climate change on TN loads in August is more varied between GCMs. In addition, climate change is projected to have a negative impact on the effectiveness of septic tanks in reducing TN loads, while its impacts on the other two measures are more uncertain. Despite the uncertainty, reducing fertilizer use remains the most effective measure for reducing TN loads under different climate change scenarios. Meanwhile, improving septic tank performance is relatively more effective in reducing annual TN loads, while constructing vegetative filter strips is more effective in reducing annual maximum monthly

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, TN, March 11, 1998

    SciT

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected action for the Salvage Yard, Former Ammunition Burnout Area (ABA), and Sanitary Landfill at MLAAP, located in Gibson and Carroll Counties, TN. This ROD addresses the final response action planned for the Salvage Yard, Former ABA, and Sanitary Landfill, including soil and groundwater. NFA is the selected remedy for soil and groundwater at the Salvage Yard, Former ABA, and Sanitary landfill. The selected remedy manages the risk to acceptable levels for both human health and the environment and is the final action planned.

  18. Study of the performance of the infrasound Station IS48TN during the period 2011 -2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejri, Chourouk

    2017-04-01

    The Infrasound Station IS48, in Kesra, Tunisia is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. IS48 is managed and maintained by the Tunisian NDC. Its good location in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea allows to have various and interesting detections. Several events were recorded and identified. But since 2010, the performance of the station has began to be noisy , due to a leakage in the pipe array, despite efforts to solve the issue through the pressure test and maintenance . To this issues, PTS decided to upgrade the WNRS at IS48TN.

  19. The Tn7 transposition regulator TnsC interacts with the transposase subunit TnsB and target selector TnsD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Spencer, Jeanelle M.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    The excision of transposon Tn7 from a donor site and its insertion into its preferred target site, attachment site attTn7, is mediated by four Tn7-encoded transposition proteins: TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD. Transposition requires the assembly of a nucleoprotein complex containing all four Tns proteins and the DNA substrates, the donor site containing Tn7, and the preferred target site attTn7. TnsA and TnsB together form the heteromeric Tn7 transposase, and TnsD is a target-selecting protein that binds specifically to attTn7. TnsC is the key regulator of transposition, interacting with both the TnsAB transposase and TnsD-attTn7. We show here that TnsC interacts directly with TnsB, and identify the specific region of TnsC involved in the TnsB–TnsC interaction during transposition. We also show that a TnsC mutant defective in interaction with TnsB is defective for Tn7 transposition both in vitro and in vivo. Tn7 displays cis-acting target immunity, which blocks Tn7 insertion into a target DNA that already contains Tn7. We provide evidence that the direct TnsB–TnsC interaction that we have identified also mediates cis-acting Tn7 target immunity. We also show that TnsC interacts directly with the target selector protein TnsD. PMID:24982178

  20. In-house preparation of lectin panel and detection of Tn polyagglutination.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Polyagglutination is a condition in which red cells are agglutinated by ABO-compatible adult human sera, but not by cord blood sera and may be acquired or inherited. Lectins are invaluable reagents in the investigation of red cells polyagglutination. We prepared in-house lectin panel and confirmed Tn polyagglutination in a pregnant lady. The lady was anemic and refused blood transfusion elsewhere due to serological discrepancy. We found ABO discrepancy and an incompatible minor cross-match in the initial investigation and suspected polyagglutination. Confirmation of polyagglutination was done using adult and cord sera. We then used the in-house lectin panels to detect the type of polyagglutination. The agglutination pattern with the various lectins was suggestive of Tn polyagglutination, which was further supported by the enzyme study. Most blood banks in India lack commercial lectin panels because of cost and procurement difficulty. Lectins play an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of polyagglutination and immunohematological management of patient. The important and basic lectins can be prepared in-house using specific raw seeds following standardized protocol.

  1. Recruitment of CRISPR-Cas systems by Tn7-like transposons.

    PubMed

    Peters, Joseph E; Makarova, Kira S; Shmakov, Sergey; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-08-29

    A survey of bacterial and archaeal genomes shows that many Tn7-like transposons contain minimal type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems that consist of fused cas8f and cas5f , cas7f , and cas6f genes and a short CRISPR array. Several small groups of Tn7-like transposons encompass similarly truncated type I-B CRISPR-Cas. This minimal gene complement of the transposon-associated CRISPR-Cas systems implies that they are competent for pre-CRISPR RNA (precrRNA) processing yielding mature crRNAs and target binding but not target cleavage that is required for interference. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that evolution of the CRISPR-Cas-containing transposons included a single, ancestral capture of a type I-F locus and two independent instances of type I-B loci capture. We show that the transposon-associated CRISPR arrays contain spacers homologous to plasmid and temperate phage sequences and, in some cases, chromosomal sequences adjacent to the transposon. We hypothesize that the transposon-encoded CRISPR-Cas systems generate displacement (R-loops) in the cognate DNA sites, targeting the transposon to these sites and thus facilitating their spread via plasmids and phages. These findings suggest the existence of RNA-guided transposition and fit the guns-for-hire concept whereby mobile genetic elements capture host defense systems and repurpose them for different stages in the life cycle of the element.

  2. [Improvement of butanol production by Escherichia coli via Tn5 transposon mediated mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Li, Yin

    2015-12-01

    For engineering an efficient butanol-producing Escherichia coli strain, many efforts have been paid on the known genes or pathways based on current knowledge. However, many genes in the genome could also contribute to butanol production in an unexpected way. In this work, we used Tn5 transposon to construct a mutant library including 1 196 strains in a previously engineered butanol-producing E. coli strain. To screen the strains with improved titer of butanol production, we developed a high-throughput method for pyruvate detection based on dinitrophenylhydrazine reaction using 96-well microplate reader, because pyruvate is the precursor of butanol and its concentration is inversely correlated with butanol in the fermentation broth. Using this method, we successfully screened three mutants with increased butanol titer. The insertion sites of Tn5 transposon was in the ORFs of pykA, tdk, and cadC by inverse PCR and sequencing. These found genes would be efficient targets for further strain improvement. And the genome scanning strategy described here will be helpful for other microbial cell factory construction.

  3. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It’s widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between -35 and -10 elements.

  4. Experimental manipulation of TN:TP ratiossuppress cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystinconcentration in large-scale in situ mesocosms

    Harris, Theodore D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    A global dataset was compiled to examine relations between the total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio (TN:TP) and microcystin concentration in lakes and reservoirs. Microcystin concentration decreased as TN:TP ratios increased, suggesting that manipulation of the TN:TP ratio may reduce microcystin concentrations. This relationship was experimentally tested by adding ammonium nitrate to increase the TN:TP ratio in large-scale (70 m3), in situ mesocosms located in a eutrophic reservoir that routinely experiences toxic blooms of cyanobacteria. At a TN:TP ratio >75:1, chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community in the mesocosms, while cyanobacterial biovolume was significantly reduced and microcystin was not detected. In contrast, the unmanipulated reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria, and microcystin was detected. Secchi depths were 1.1 to 1.8 times greater in the mesocosms relative to the reservoir. Cladoceran zooplankton had a larger body size (0.14 mm on average) in the mesocosms compared to conspecifics in the reservoir, which was likely related to the higher quality food. Combined, these empirical and experimental data indicate that although nutrient addition is counterintuitive to current cyanobacteria management practices, increasing the TN:TP ratio by adding nitrogen may be a potential short-term management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins when other alternatives (e.g., phosphorus reduction) are not possible. Additional experimental studies with careful controls are needed to define best management practices and identify any potential unintended consequences before nitrogen addition is implemented as a lake and reservoir management practice.

  5. A critical evaluation of the Beckman Coulter Access hsTnI: Analytical performance, reference interval and concordance.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Carel J; Tate, Jillian R; Wilgen, Urs; Cullen, Louise; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the analytical performance, outlier rate, carryover and reference interval of the Beckman Coulter Access hsTnI in detail and compared it with historical and other commercial assays. We compared the imprecision, detection capability, analytical sensitivity, outlier rate and carryover against two previous Access AccuTnI assay versions. We established the reference interval with stored samples from a previous study and compared the concordances and variances with the Access AccuTnI+3 as well as with two commercial assays. The Access hsTnI had excellent analytical sensitivity with the calibration slope 5.6 times steeper than the Access AccuTnI+3. The detection capability was markedly improved with the SD of the blank 0.18-0.20 ng/L, LoB 0.29-0.33 ng/L and LoD 0.58-0.69 ng/L. All the reference interval samples had a result above the LoB value. At a mean concentration of 2.83 ng/L the SD was 0.28 ng/L (CV 9.8%). Carryover (0.005%) and outlier (0.046%) rates were similar to the Access AccuTnI+3. The combined male and female 99th percentile reference interval was 18.2 ng/L (90% CI 13.2-21.1 ng/L). Concordance amongst the assays was poor with only 16.7%, 19.6% and 15.2% of samples identified by all 4 assays as above the 99th, 97.5th and 95th percentiles. Analytical imprecision was a minor contributor to the observed variances between assays. The Beckman Coulter Access hsTnI assay has excellent analytical sensitivity and precision characteristics close to zero. This allows cTnI measurement in all healthy individuals and the capability to identify numerically small differences between serial samples as statistically significant. Concordance in healthy individuals remains poor amongst assays. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-sensitive cardiac troponin hs-TnT levels in sudden deaths related to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Beausire, Tim; Faouzi, Mohamed; Palmiere, Cristian; Fracasso, Tony; Michaud, Katarzyna

    2018-06-04

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) related to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most prevalent causes of death in Europe. Postmortem evaluation of IHD remains a challenge because of possible non-specific autopsy finding in some autopsy cases, especially in early myocardial ischemia. High-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) is used today in clinical practice as the "gold standard" to diagnose the myocardial ischemia, and might also be applied as an ancillary tool for post-mortem evaluation. The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of post-mortem serum hs-TnT assay in cases of sudden death related to IHD. We will also investigate the influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempts on post-mortem hs-TnT levels. The hs-TnT values in serum were retrospectively analysed in 85 autopsy data. 52 cases with clinical history and morphological results suggesting cardiac ischemia were included in the study group (mean age 53.5; age range 34-75) and 33 cases in the control group (mean age 40.4; age range 15-69). The group's statistical comparison was performed using logistic regression model. Our study showed a significant non-linear association between hs-TnT serum values and post-mortem diagnosis of sudden deaths related to IHD (p-value 0.005). The shape of the relationship is showing that the probability of death due to IHD increases quickly with a light level of hs-TnT (maximum around 90ng/L) then decreases slightly while remaining at high in values. No significant difference in the hs-TnT serum values was found between the CPR and the non-CPR cases (p-value 0.304). The measurement of hs-TnT serum values might be considered as an ancillary tool for the evaluation of death related to IHD, while taking necessary precautions in the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Green digital signage using nanoparticle embedded narrow-gap field sequential TN-LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Sawai, Hiroya; Toshima, Naoki; Okita, Masaya; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Takatsu, Haruyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We have fabricated field sequential color (FSC)-LCDs using cells and modules of narrow-gap TN-LCDs with and without doping the nanoparticles of PCyD-ZrO2 and AF-SiO2. It is shown that the FSC-LCD exhibits a high optical efficiency of OE=4.5 that is defined as OE=[Luminance]/[W/m2]=(cd/W). This figure may provide us a good reference or to clear the Energy Star Program Version 5-3 that issues a guideline: LCD with 50 inch on the diagonal consumes the energy of 108W. Through this research it is claimed that our FSC=LCD may be a novel green digital signage.

  8. Plasmid-borne Tn5 insertion mutation resulting in accumulation of gentisate from salicylate.

    PubMed Central

    Monticello, D J; Bakker, D; Schell, M; Finnerty, W R

    1985-01-01

    Plasmid-borne Tn5 insertion mutants of a Pseudomonas species which accumulated 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (gentisate) following growth on 2-hydroxybenzoate (salicylate) were obtained from a pool of mutants that were unable to grow on naphthalene. One such mutant was characterized further. The ability of this mutant to oxidize gentisate was 100-fold less than the ability of a Nah+ Sal+ strain harboring the unmutagenized plasmid, although both strains oxidized and grew on salicylate. These bacteria were presumably able to metabolize salicylate via catechol, since they possessed an inducible, plasmid-encoded catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Our results suggest that there is an alternate, plasmid-encoded route of salicylate degradation via gentisate and that some plasmid-associated relationship between this pathway and naphthalene oxidation exists. PMID:2988437

  9. Immunization of breast cancer patients using a synthetic sialyl-Tn glycoconjugate plus Detox adjuvant.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G D; Reddish, M; Koganty, R R; Wong, T; Gandhi, S; Smolenski, M; Samuel, J; Nabholtz, J M; Longenecker, B M

    1993-01-01

    We have synthesized various formulations that have potential for active specific immunotherapy (ASI) of human cancers. Sialyl-Tn (STn) is a potentially important target structure for ASI because its expression on mucins is a strong, independent predictor of poor prognosis, suggesting that it may have functional significance in the metastatic process. In this first pilot study of synthetic sialyl-Tn hapten conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (STn-KLH), with Detox adjuvant, toxicity and humoral immunogenicity were assessed in 12 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Toxicity was minimal, restricted to local cutaneous reactions (apart from transient nausea and vomiting following single low-dose cyclophosphamide treatment). Using STn-conjugated human serum albumin in a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, it was shown that all patients developed IgM and IgG specific for the synthetic STn hapten. Following immunization, most patients were shown to develop increased titres of complement-mediated cytotoxic antibodies, partially inhibited by synthetic STn hapten, but not by the related TF hapten. We also detected IgM and IgG antibodies reactive with natural STn determinants expressed on ovine submaxillary mucin, the STn specificity of this reactivity being confirmed by hapten inhibition. Evaluation of clinical efficacy in a small pilot study is difficult. Five patients are alive 12 or more months after entry, and another 4 patients are alive 6 or more months after entry into the study. All 3 patients with known widespread bulky disease progressed despite ASI, 2 having died from widespread cancer. Two patients had partial responses, each lasting 6 months. While several patients had disease stability for 3-10 months, 1 patient with pulmonary metastases remains stable 15 months after entry into the program.

  10. TnSeq of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates reveals strain-specific antibiotic liabilities

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Allison F.; Rock, Jeremy M.; Krieger, Inna V.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Sacchettini, James C.; Fortune, Sarah M.

    2018-01-01

    Once considered a phenotypically monomorphic bacterium, there is a growing body of work demonstrating heterogeneity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in clinically relevant characteristics, including virulence and response to antibiotics. However, the genetic and molecular basis for most phenotypic differences among Mtb strains remains unknown. To investigate the basis of strain variation in Mtb, we performed genome-wide transposon mutagenesis coupled with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) for a panel of Mtb clinical isolates and the reference strain H37Rv to compare genetic requirements for in vitro growth across these strains. We developed an analytic approach to identify quantitative differences in genetic requirements between these genetically diverse strains, which vary in genomic structure and gene content. Using this methodology, we found differences between strains in their requirements for genes involved in fundamental cellular processes, including redox homeostasis and central carbon metabolism. Among the genes with differential requirements were katG, which encodes the activator of the first-line antitubercular agent isoniazid, and glcB, which encodes malate synthase, the target of a novel small-molecule inhibitor. Differences among strains in their requirement for katG and glcB predicted differences in their response to these antimicrobial agents. Importantly, these strain-specific differences in antibiotic response could not be predicted by genetic variants identified through whole genome sequencing or by gene expression analysis. Our results provide novel insight into the basis of variation among Mtb strains and demonstrate that TnSeq is a scalable method to predict clinically important phenotypic differences among Mtb strains. PMID:29505613

  11. EnviroAtlas -- Memphis, TN (2012) -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data Web Service

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ). The Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 2,733 km2 around the city of Memphis, surrounding towns, and rural areas. These leaf-on LC data and maps were derived from 1-m pixel, four-band (red, green, blue, and near-infrared) aerial photography acquired from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) on four dates in 2012: June 15, June 18, June 21 and June 23, and one date in 2013: July 12. Three separate LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data sets collected on February 19, 2009 00e2?? August 2, 2010, December 1-2, 2011 and January 23-24, 2012 were integrated for Shelby Co., TN, Crittenden Co., AR, and DeSoto Co, MS. Five MULC classes were mapped directly from the NAIP and LiDAR data: Water, Impervious, Soil, Trees, and Grass/Herbaceous. Agriculture was derived from USDA Common Land Unit (CLU) data. Woody and emergent wetlands were copied from existing National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data. Analysis of a random sampling of 612 photo-interpreted land cover reference points yielded an overall users accuracy of 86.9%. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-u

  12. EnviroAtlas -- Memphis, TN (2012) -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 2,733 km2 around the city of Memphis, surrounding towns, and rural areas. These leaf-on LC data and maps were derived from 1-m pixel, four-band (red, green, blue, and near-infrared) aerial photography acquired from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) on four dates in 2012: June 15, June 18, June 21 and June 23, and one date in 2013: July 12. Three separate LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data sets collected on February 19, 2009 00e2?? August 2, 2010, December 1-2, 2011 and January 23-24, 2012 were integrated for Shelby Co., TN, Crittenden Co., AR, and DeSoto Co, MS. Five MULC classes were mapped directly from the NAIP and LiDAR data: Water, Impervious, Soil, Trees, and Grass/Herbaceous. Agriculture was derived from USDA Common Land Unit (CLU) data. Woody and emergent wetlands were copied from existing National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data. Analysis of a random sampling of 612 photo-interpreted land cover reference points yielded an overall users accuracy of 86.9%. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as do

  13. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENT OF THE BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO SUMMERTIME PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL IN NASHVILLE, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements performed on PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, TN from June 21 to July 13, 1999, showed high levels of modern carbon, ranging from 56 to 80% of the total carbon in the samples. Radiocarbon measurements performed on dichloromethane extracts of...

  14. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Bevacqua, R. J.; Fernandez-Martin, R.; Canel, N. G.; Gibbons, A.; Texeira, D.; Lange, F.; Vans Landschoot, G.; Savy, V.; Briski, O.; Hiriart, M. I.; Grueso, E.; Ivics, Z.; Taboga, O.; Kues, W. A.; Ferraris, S.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:28301581

  15. 78 FR 54168 - Special Local Regulation, Cumberland River, Mile 157.0 to 159.0; Ashland City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... local regulation will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities... Local Regulation, Cumberland River, Mile 157.0 to 159.0; Ashland City, TN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary special local...

  16. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Clarksville, TN – Austin Peay)

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Austin Peay State University, in Clarksville, TN.

  17. Correlating Calcium Binding, Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, and Conformational Change in the Biosensor TN-XXL

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anselm; Russo, Luigi; Gensch, Thomas; Thestrup, Thomas; Becker, Stefan; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Griesinger, Christian; Witte, Gregor; Griesbeck, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators have become instrumental in imaging signaling in complex tissues and neuronal circuits in vivo. Despite their importance, structure-function relationships of these sensors often remain largely uncharacterized due to their artificial and multimodular composition. Here, we describe a combination of protein engineering and kinetic, spectroscopic, and biophysical analysis of the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium biosensor TN-XXL. Using fluorescence spectroscopy of engineered tyrosines, we show that two of the four calcium binding EF-hands dominate the FRET output of TN-XXL and that local conformational changes of these hands match the kinetics of FRET change. Using small-angle x-ray scattering and NMR spectroscopy, we show that TN-XXL changes from a flexible elongated to a rigid globular shape upon binding calcium, thus resulting in FRET signal output. Furthermore, we compare calcium titrations using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy with the ratiometric approach and investigate potential non-FRET effects that may affect the fluorophores. Thus, our data characterize the biophysics of TN-XXL in detail and may form a basis for further rational engineering of FRET-based biosensors. PMID:22677394

  18. Temperature-dependent instability of the cTnI subunit in NIST SRM2921 characterized by tryptic peptide mapping.

    PubMed

    van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Dalebout, Hans; Smit, Nico; Deelder, André M

    2012-08-01

    In this study temperature-dependent instability of the cTnI subunit of the three-protein complex NIST SRM2921 was demonstrated using a mass spectrometric tryptic peptide mapping approach. The results were compared to the cTnI subunit obtained as a protein standard from Calbiochem with identical amino acid sequence. Both the three-protein complex from NIST as well as the cTnI subunit were incubated at elevated temperatures and then evaluated with respect to the primary sequence. The corresponding peptide maps were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. From a Mascot database search in combination with "semiTrypsin" tolerance it was found that two peptide backbone cleavages had occurred in subunit cTnI in NIST SRM2921 material upon incubation at 37°C, namely between amino acids at 148/149 and 194/195. The Calbiochem standard did not show increased levels of "unexpected" peptides in tryptic peptide maps. One of the two peptide backbone cleavages could also be monitored using a "single-step" MALDI-MS approach, i.e. without the need for peptide separation. The amount of degradation appeared rather constant in replicate temperature-instability experiments. However, for accurate quantification internal labelled standards are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between the expression of TN and the efficiency of posterior spinal V osteotomy in patients with traumatic kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guohua; Zhang, Yinshun; Sun, Xianjie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the relationship between Tetranectin (TN) and efficiency of posterior spinal V osteotomy in patients with traumatic kyphosis. Methods: Ninety-two patients with traumatic kyphosis admitted in our hospital from February 2014 to June 2016 were included whose serum TN levels were examined by ELISA. Using the mean level of TN as cut-off value, patients were classified into TN high level group (group I) and TN low level group (group II). The observation indexes, including operation time, intra-operational loss of blood, Cobb angle, postoperative complications and recurrence rate of kyphosis within post-operational 6 months were recorded for comparison. Results: TN level was significantly higher in group I [(6.19 ± 0.33) μmol/L] than that in group II [(5.29 ± 0.34) μmol/L] (P < .05). There was no significant difference in average age, sex, lesion site and average time from injury to operation between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Compared to group II, operation time in group I was significantly shortened (5.02 ± 1.15 VS 4.58 ± 0.53, P = .023), the intra-operational loss of blood decreased (2418.56 ± 362.06 VS 2235.84 ± 325.63, P = .013), post-operational Cobb angle decreased (11.10 ± 1.31 VS 6.93 ± 1.04, P = .000), and the incidence of postoperative complications (nail-breaking, rod-breaking and looseness) and recurrence rate decreased (18.8% VS 4.5%, P = .036; 10.4% VS 0.0%, P = .028). Conclusion: Serum TN level is proved to be related to the efficiency of posterior spinal V osteotomy in patients with traumatic kyphosis, and may serve as a possible indicator for clinical treatment. PMID:29384840

  20. The relationship between the expression of TN and the efficiency of posterior spinal V osteotomy in patients with traumatic kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guohua; Zhang, Yinshun; Sun, Xianjie

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the relationship between Tetranectin (TN) and efficiency of posterior spinal V osteotomy in patients with traumatic kyphosis. Ninety-two patients with traumatic kyphosis admitted in our hospital from February 2014 to June 2016 were included whose serum TN levels were examined by ELISA. Using the mean level of TN as cut-off value, patients were classified into TN high level group (group I) and TN low level group (group II). The observation indexes, including operation time, intra-operational loss of blood, Cobb angle, postoperative complications and recurrence rate of kyphosis within post-operational 6 months were recorded for comparison. TN level was significantly higher in group I [(6.19 ± 0.33) μmol/L] than that in group II [(5.29 ± 0.34) μmol/L] (P < .05). There was no significant difference in average age, sex, lesion site and average time from injury to operation between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Compared to group II, operation time in group I was significantly shortened (5.02 ± 1.15 VS 4.58 ± 0.53, P = .023), the intra-operational loss of blood decreased (2418.56 ± 362.06 VS 2235.84 ± 325.63, P = .013), post-operational Cobb angle decreased (11.10 ± 1.31 VS 6.93 ± 1.04, P = .000), and the incidence of postoperative complications (nail-breaking, rod-breaking and looseness) and recurrence rate decreased (18.8% VS 4.5%, P = .036; 10.4% VS 0.0%, P = .028). Serum TN level is proved to be related to the efficiency of posterior spinal V osteotomy in patients with traumatic kyphosis, and may serve as a possible indicator for clinical treatment.

  1. Mobility and generation of mosaic non-autonomous transposons by Tn3-derived inverted-repeat miniature elements (TIMEs).

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not

  2. Establishment of an Arbitrary PCR for Rapid Identification of Tn917 Insertion Sites in Staphylococcus epidermidis: Characterization of Biofilm-Negative and Nonmucoid Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Nedelmann, Max; Kiel, Kathrin; Bartscht, Katrin; Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Dobinsky, Sabine; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis with the Enterococcus faecalis transposon Tn917 is a genetic approach frequently used to identify genes related with specific phenotypes in gram-positive bacteria. We established an arbitrary PCR for the rapid and easy identification of Tn917 insertion sites in Staphylococcus epidermidis with six independent, well-characterized biofilm-negative Tn917 transposon mutants, which were clustered in the icaADBC gene locus or harbor Tn917 in the regulatory gene rsbU. For all six of these mutants, short chromosomal DNA fragments flanking both transposon ends could be amplified. All fragments were sufficient to correctly identify the Tn917 insertion sites in the published S. epidermidis genomes. By using this technique, the Tn917 insertion sites of three not-yet-characterized biofilm-negative or nonmucoid mutants were identified. In the biofilm-negative and nonmucoid mutant M12, Tn917 is inserted into a gene homologous to the regulatory gene purR of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The Tn917 insertions of the nonmucoid but biofilm-positive mutants M16 and M20 are located in genes homologous to components of the phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) of B. subtilis, S. aureus, and Staphylococcus carnosus, indicating an influence of the PTS on the mucoid phenotype in S. epidermidis. PMID:14532029

  3. The effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with high NH4(+)-N concentration and low COD/TN ratio, and the effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal were investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time of 8h and 35°C. The results showed that the UMSR could treat the wastewater with a better synchronous removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN. The microaerobic UMSR allowed nitrifiers, and heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers to thrive in the flocs, revealing a multiple nitrogen removal mechanism in the reactor. Both the nitrifiers and denitrifiers would be restricted by an influent COD/TN ratio more than 0.82, resulting in a decrease of TN removal in the UMSR. To get a TN removal over 80% with a TN load removal above 0.86kg/(m(3)·d) in the UMSR, the influent COD/TN ratio should be less than 0.70. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It’s widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between −35 and −10 elements. PMID:27641146

  5. Novel Tn916-like elements confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus.

    PubMed

    Kambarev, Stanimir; Pecorari, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane

    2018-02-09

    Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides. However, the underlying antibiotic resistance mobilome of Sgg remains poorly understood. To investigate the mobile genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in multiresistant clinical Sgg. Isolate NTS31106099 was recovered from a patient with IE and CRC at Nantes University Hospital, France and studied by Illumina WGS and comparative genomics. Molecular epidemiology of the identified mobile element(s) was performed using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), PCR, PFGE and WGS. Mobility was investigated by PCR and filter mating. Two novel conjugative transposons, Tn6263 and Tn6331, confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical Sgg. They display classical family Tn916/Tn1545 modular architecture and harbour an aph(3')-III→sat4→ant(6)-Ia→erm(B) multiresistance gene cluster, related to pRE25 of Enterococcus faecium. These and/or closely related elements are highly prevalent among genetically heterogeneous clinical isolates of Sgg. Previously unknown Tn916-like mobile genetic elements conferring aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance make Sgg, collectively with other gut Firmicutes such as enterococci and eubacteria, a potential laterally active reservoir of these antibiotic resistance determinants among the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  6. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  7. KPC-4 Is Encoded within a Truncated Tn4401 in an IncL/M Plasmid, pNE1280, Isolated from Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Kendall A.; Van Schooneveld, Trevor C.; Thapa, Ishwor; Bastola, Dhundy; Williams, Laurina O.; Safranek, Thomas J.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Rupp, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the transfer of blaKPC-4 from Enterobacter cloacae to Serratia marcescens in a single patient. DNA sequencing revealed that KPC-4 was encoded on an IncL/M plasmid, pNE1280, closely related to pCTX-M360. Further analysis found that KPC-4 was encoded within a novel Tn4401 element (Tn4401f) containing a truncated tnpA and lacking tnpR, ISKpn7 left, and Tn4401 IRL-1, which are conserved in other Tn4401 transposons. This study highlights the continued evolution of Tn4401 transposons and movement to multiple plasmid backbones that results in acquisition by multiple species of Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23070154

  8. Plinian vs. phreatomagmatic eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Grímsvötn is a subglacial central volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the assumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Historical explosive eruptions are mostly of phreatomagmatic character whereas pure magmatic behaviour may characterize the largest eruptions. What causes this different eruption behaviour is uncertain. Here, we report petrological estimates of crystallization depth and volatile degassing as recorded by sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MI) hosted by ferromagnesian minerals and the groundmass glass. Tephra from four eruptions, AD 1823, 1873, 2004 and 2011, were selected. The 2011 and 1873 are the largest known historical eruptions, whereas the 2004 eruption is probably amongst the smallest. The repose time preceding those eruptions is surprisingly similar, or 6 to 7 years, and the major-element compositions are uniform. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene (cpx) and olivine are the three coexisting phases at the liquidus in the quartz-tholeiites of Grímsvötn. The cpx-melt geothermobarometer (Putirka 2008) applied to the 2011 tephra reveals that cpx crystallized over a large range of P from 60 to 640 MPa (depth range: 1.7-18km) and T between 1060 and 1175°C before the Plinian eruption, therefore mobilizing the entire crustal magma system. In contrast, the phreatomagmatic tephra do not record the shallowest crystallization but interestingly all four tephra have identical median entrapment pressure of approximately 400 MPa. Therefore, the depth from which the magma bodies are derived, does not explain the difference in explosivity between those eruptions nor the variable magma volume (V) produced. Sulfur concentrations in MI are only slightly higher in the Plinian products, the difference (10%) being insufficient to explain the different eruption regimes. The ΔS, the difference between the maximum S concentrations in MI and the mean of the groundmass glass for a given eruption, is higher in the Plinian tephra. Based on literature

  9. The fully synthetic MAG-Tn3 therapeutic vaccine containing the tetanus toxoid-derived TT830-844 universal epitope provides anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Laubreton, Daphné; Bay, Sylvie; Sedlik, Christine; Artaud, Cécile; Ganneau, Christelle; Dériaud, Edith; Viel, Sophie; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Amigorena, Sebastian; Gérard, Catherine; Lo-Man, Richard; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Malignant transformations are often associated with aberrant glycosylation processes that lead to the expression of new carbohydrate antigens at the surface of tumor cells. Of these carbohydrate antigens, the Tn antigen is particularly highly expressed in many carcinomas, especially in breast carcinoma. We designed MAG-Tn3, a fully synthetic vaccine based on three consecutive Tn moieties that are O-linked to a CD4+ T cell epitope, to induce anti-Tn antibody responses that could be helpful for therapeutic vaccination against cancer. To ensure broad coverage within the human population, the tetanus toxoid-derived peptide TT830-844 was selected as a T-helper epitope because it can bind to various HLA-DRB molecules. We showed that the MAG-Tn3 vaccine, which was formulated with the GSK proprietary immunostimulant AS15 and designed for human cancer therapy, is able to induce an anti-Tn antibody response in mice of various H-2 haplotypes, and this response correlates with the ability to induce a specific T cell response against the TT830-844 peptide. The universality of the TT830-844 peptide was extended to new H-2 and HLA-DRB molecules that were capable of binding this T cell epitope. Finally, the MAG-Tn3 vaccine was able to induce anti-Tn antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys, which targeted Tn-expressing tumor cells and mediated tumor cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MAG-Tn3 is a highly promising anticancer vaccine that is currently under evaluation in a phase I clinical trial.

  10. Expression of sialosyl-Tn in colony-forming unit-erythroid, erythroblasts, B cells, and a subset of CD4+ cells.

    PubMed

    Muroi, K; Suda, T; Nakamura, M; Okada, S; Nojiri, H; Amemiya, Y; Miura, Y; Hakomori, S

    1994-01-01

    The epitopes Tn and sialosyl-Tn are expressed on erythrocytes of individuals with a very rare blood group, who often suffer from "Tn syndrome." We surveyed expression of Tn and sialosyl-Tn in normal blood cells, malignant transformed cells, and progenitor stem cells from bone marrow (BM). An anti-Tn antibody, IE3, and an anti-sialosyl-Tn antibody, TKH2, were used in this study. TKH2 reacted with erythroblasts, B cells, and a subset of CD4+ cells; but not with erythrocytes. Erythroblastic cell lines (K562, HEL, and UT7/EPO) and B-cell lines (Daudi, Raji, and B-cell lines transformed by Epstein-Barr virus) showed reactivity to TKH2. Similar results from the reactivity of TKH2 with transformed cells from leukemia patients and lymphoma patients were obtained; TKH2 reacted with blasts from erythroleukemia (M6; for 4 of 4 cases) and with lymphocytes from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (3 of 3), B-cell lymphoma (5 of 5), and CD4+ adult T-cell leukemia (4 of 4), but did not react with blasts from acute myeloid leukemia (M0 to M5; 0 of 22) or acute lymphoid leukemia (B-lymphoid leukemia, 0 of 11; T-lymphoid leukemia, 0 of 2; undifferentiated leukemia, 0 of 1). IE3 did not react with all of the tested cells. CD2-CD19-TKH2+ normal BM cells (BMC) contained blasts and various maturation stages of erythroblasts. The TKH2+ cells produced a large number of colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) colonies, whereas they produced a small number of burst-forming unit-erythroid colonies and CFU-granulocyte-macrophage colonies. CD34+ normal BMC did not express Tn and sialosyl-Tn. These findings suggest that sialosyl-Tn expresses in CFU-E to erythroblasts.

  11. Magma plumbing in the Grímsvötn volcanic system, Iceland: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordarson, T.

    2016-12-01

    The basaltic Grímsvötn volcanic system (GVS) consists of Grímsvötn central volcano (GCV) and an immature fissure swarm extending 70 km to the southwest from GCV. The GCV has the highest eruption frequency of all central volcanos in Iceland, or 7 events per 100 years. In contrast, the GVS fissure swarm has only featured two events in postglacial times, the 1783-4 Laki and the prehistoric Lambavatnsgígar fissure eruptions. These two events account for 25% of the total Holocene magma output from the GVS and 80% of the output in historic time (i.e. last 1100 years). Although GVS magma plumbing has been a topic of research for four decades, its general structure, extent and geometry is still deliberated. Is mantle-derived magma delivered straight up beneath the GCV to an upper crustal magma chamber and then vertically to eruptions at the GCV and laterally to eruption on the GVS fissure swarm? Or does the system feature two levels of crustal storage, one in the upper crust beneath GCV and another at mid-crustal depth? Or is the structure of the GVS plumbing more complex? The data that we have so far and is pertinent to GVS magma plumbing is summarised below: Geophysical measurements imply that shallowest magma storage beneath GCV is at 3-4 km. The Zr and Nb concentrations in the tephra from the 1998 and 2004 GCV plus Laki eruptions show that the parent magmas for each was produced by different degrees of partial melting of a similar mantle source. It also demonstrates transport to the surface via separate pathways and that neither magma can be derived by fractional crystallization from a Laki-like magma. Detailed petrological studies on the Laki tephra and lava indicate polybaric magma evolution within the mid-crust (at 6 to 15 km depth), with further evolution at shallower depths induced either by disequilibrium crystal growth during ascent of magma from the mid-crust storage or a brief residence at 3-6 km depths. The Laki magma contains significant abundances of

  12. TnBP⁄Triton X-45 Treatment of Plasma for Transfusion Efficiently Inactivates Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ming-Li; Burnouf, Thierry; Chang, Shun-Pang; Hung, Ting-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.; Lin, Liang-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by clinical plasma remains high in countries with a high prevalence of hepatitis C, justifying the implementation of viral inactivation treatments. In this study, we assessed the extent of inactivation of HCV during minipool solvent/detergent (SD; 1% TnBP / 1% Triton X-45) treatment of human plasma. Luciferase-tagged infectious cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) particles were used to spike human plasma prior to treatment by SD at 31 ± 0.5°C for 30 min. Samples were taken before and after SD treatment and filtered on a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge to remove the SD agents. Risk of cytotoxicity was assessed by XTT cell viability assay. Viral infectivity was analyzed based on the luciferase signals, 50% tissue culture infectious dose viral titer, and immunofluorescence staining for HCV NS5A protein. Total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride contents were determined before and after SD treatment and C18 cartridge filtration. Binding analysis, using patient-derived HCV clinical isolates, was also examined to validate the efficacy of the inactivation by SD. SD treatment effectively inactivated HCVcc within 30 min, as demonstrated by the baseline level of reporter signals, total loss of viral infectivity, and absence of viral protein NS5A. SD specifically targeted HCV particles to render them inactive, with essentially no effect on plasma protein content and hemostatic function. More importantly, the efficacy of the SD inactivation method was confirmed against various genotypes of patient-derived HCV clinical isolates and against HCVcc infection of primary human hepatocytes. Therefore, treatment by 1% TnBP / 1% Triton X-45 at 31°C is highly efficient to inactivate HCV in plasma for transfusion, showing its capacity to enhance the safety of therapeutic plasma products. We propose that the methodology used here to study HCV infectivity can be valuable in the validation of viral inactivation and removal processes of human

  13. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  14. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Isobel M P; Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2013-09-13

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office's low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010); H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  15. Triboelectric Charging of Volcanic Ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel M. P.; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-09-01

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office’s low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010)1748-932610.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024004; H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)JMSJAU0026-1165]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  16. Tn5-Mob transposon mediated transfer of salt tolerance and symbiotic characteristics between Rhizobia genera.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Wu, Z; Gao, W; Li, J

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium meliloti 042B is a fast-growing, salt-tolerant and high efficiency nitrogen-fixing symbiont with alfalfa. Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 grows slowly, and cannot grow in YMA medium containing 0.1M NaCl, but nodulates and fixed nitrogen efficiently with soybean. Eighty-six transconjugants, called SR, were obtained by inserting Tn5-Mob randomly into genomes of 042B using pSUP5011 and helper plasmid RP4. Selecting 4 SR strains randomly and introducing DNA fragment of SR into USDA110 with helper plasmid R68.45 by triparental mating, 106 transconjugants, called BSR, were constructed. Most of BSR strains had the fast-growing phenotype and could tolerate 0.3-0.5M NaCl generally. Some of them produced melanine. When soybean and alfalfa were inoculated with these transconjugants BSR, 47 out of 90 BSR were found to nodulate in both of these plants, but no nitrogenase activity was observed with alfalfa; 26 strains could only nodulate and fix nitrogen in soybean; 13 strains could nodulate in alfalfa but did not fix nitrogen; 4 strains failed to nodulate in either soybean or alfalfa. Among them, 4 transconjugants which tolerated and fixed nitrogen efficiently in soybean were constructed.

  17. pp-GalNAc-T13 induces high metastatic potential of murine Lewis lung cancer by generating trimeric Tn antigen

    SciT

    Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Qing; Akita, Kaoru

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 was up-regulated in high metastatic sublines of Lewis lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 expression enhanced cell invasion activity in low metastatic sublines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trimeric Tn antigen was induced in the transfectant cells of ppGalNAc-T13 cDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A major protein carrying trimeric Tn structure was identified as Syndecan-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ppGalNAc-T13 resulted in the reduction of invasion and of metastasis.. -- Abstract: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. Thesemore » sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated

  18. Comparison of the gentamicin resistance transposon Tn5281 with regions encoding gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from diverse geographic locations.

    PubMed Central

    Hodel-Christian, S L; Murray, B E

    1992-01-01

    The genetic determinant encoding gentamicin resistance (Gmr) on the beta-lactamase encoding plasmid pBEM10 of Enterococcus faecalis HH22 is carried on a transposon, termed Tn5281, that is highly related to the staphylococcal Gmr transposons Tn4001 found in Australian isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Tn4031 found in United States isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. We have now studied plasmid DNA from Gmr strains of E. faecalis isolated from diverse geographical locations (Houston, Pennsylvania, Thailand, and Chile) by using restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization to determine whether other Gmr E. faecalis carry Tn5281 or a similar type of element. We also compared these enterococci to several United States isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with nonmobile Gmr determinants. Three E. faecalis isolates (from Houston and Chile) carried Tn5281-like elements, whereas two isolates (from Houston and Pennsylvania) had restriction endonuclease and DNA-DNA hybridization patterns more similar to those of the Tn4001-IS257 hybrid found in the nonmobile Gmr determinants in United States isolates of S. aureus. A strain from Thailand had a third pattern unrelated to either Tn5281 or the nonmobile Gmr determinants present in United States isolates of S. aureus. Our results demonstrate that there is both similarity and diversity between the Gmr determinant of strains of E. faecalis isolated in diverse geographic locations. Images PMID:1332593

  19. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciT

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  20. On the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions from Liouville classes L_1^\\alpha ({T^N})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmedov, Anvarjon; Materneh, Ehab; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of waves in quantum mechanics naturally implies that the decomposition of arbitrary wave packets in terms of monochromatic waves plays an important role in applications of the theory. When eigenfunction expansions does not converge, then the expansions of the functions with certain smoothness should be considered. Such functions gained prominence primarily through their application in quantum mechanics. In this work we study the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions from Liouville classes L_p^α ({T^N}), related to the self-adjoint extension of the Laplace operator in torus TN . The sufficient conditions for summability is obtained using the modified Poisson formula. Isomorphism properties of the elliptic differential operators is applied in order to obtain estimation for the Fourier series of the functions from the classes of Liouville L_p^α .

  1. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciT

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  2. Implications for future activity of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, from compositional time series of historical tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Marion; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Gudrun

    2014-05-01

    The nature of future eruptions of active volcanoes is hard to predict. Improved understanding of the past volcanic activity is probably the best way to infer future eruptive scenarios. The most active volcano in Iceland, Grímsvötn, last erupted in 2011 with consequences for habitants living close to the volcano and aviation in the North-Atlantic. In an effort to better understand the magmatic system of the volcano, we have investigated the compositions of 23 selected tephra layers representing the last 8 centuries of volcanic activity at Grímsvötn. The tephra was collected in the ablation area of outlet glaciers from Vatnajökull ice cap. The ice-conserved tephra are less prone to alteration than those exposed in soil sections. Major element analyses are indistinguishable and of quartz-normative tholeiite composition, and Sr and Nd isotope ratios are constant. In contrast, both trace element concentrations (Th range from 0.875 ppm to 1.37 ppm and Ni from 28.5 ppm to 56.6 ppm) in the basalts and Pb isotopes show small but significant variations. The high-precision analyses of Pb isotope ratios allow the identification of tephra samples (3 in total) with more radiogenic ratios than the bulk of the samples. The tephra of constant isotope ratios show linear increase in incompatible element concentrations with time. The rate of increasing concentrations permits exploring possible future scenarios assuming that the magmatic system beneath the volcano follows the established historical evolution. Assuming similar future behaviour of the magma system beneath Grímsvötn volcano, the linear increase in e.g. Th concentration suggests that the volcano is likely to principally produce basalts for the next 500-1000 years. Evolution of water concentration will most likely follow those of incompatible elements with consequent increases in explosiveness of future Grímsvötn eruptions.

  3. 2012 ESTCP Live Site Demonstrations, Spencer, TN. ESTCP MR-1165 Demonstration Data Report, Former Spencer Artillery Range TEMTADS Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-29

    Victoria Kantsios, 2 Glenn R. Harbaugh,3 and Daniel A. Steinhurst3 Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6110 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20375...Unclassified Unlimited 72 B.J. Spargo, NRL, Code 6110 (202) 404-6392 The TEMTADS 5×5 Array and TEMTADS MP 2 × 2 Cart were demonstrated at the former...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/ 6110 --13-9470 2012 ESTCP Live Site Demonstrations Spencer, TN ESTCP MR-1165 Demonstration

  4. Efficient transformation of sucrose into high pullulan concentrations by Aureobasidium melanogenum TN1-2 isolated from a natural honey.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Xue, Si-Jia; Li, Yan-Feng; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Hu, Zhong; Chi, Zhe

    2018-08-15

    A very high pullulan producing yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium melanogenum TN1-2 isolated from a natural honey was found to be able to produce 97.0 g/L of pullulan from 140.0 g/L sucrose at a flask level while it could yield 114.0 g/L of pullulan within 134 h during a 10-liter fermentation, the yield was 0.81 g/g and the productivity was 0.86 g/L/h. The high ability to biosynthesize pullulan by this yeast-like fungal strain TN1-2 was related to high glucosyltransferase activity, high phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, high content of its cellular glycerol and low glucose repressor. The Mw of the produced pullulan was 1.42 × 10 5  g/mol. The low Mw may be due to the high α-amylase, glucoamylase and isopullulanase activities. The intracellular level of trehalose had no influence on high pullulan production by the yeast-like fungal strain TN1-2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; ...

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ 202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ 199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ 202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ 199Hg of –0.26 ±more » 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ 202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ 202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.« less

  6. High-resolution surface connectivity measurements and runoff dynamics in five urban watersheds in Knoxville, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, T.

    2015-12-01

    Impervious surfaces and stormwater drainage networks transmit rainfall quickly to urban stream systems with greater frequency, volume, energy, and pollutant loadings than in predevelopment conditions. This has a well-established negative impact on stream ecology, channel morphology, and water quality. Green infrastructure retrofits for urban drainage systems promote more natural hydrologic pathways by disconnecting concentrated flows. However, they are expensive due to high land costs and physical constraints. If a systematic strategy for siting green infrastructure is sought to restore natural flows throughout an urban catchment, greater knowledge of the drainage patterns and areas contributing frequent surface runoff is necessary. Five diverse urban watersheds in Knoxville, TN, were assessed using high-resolution topography, land cover, and artificial drainage network data to identify how surface connectivity differs among watersheds and contributes to altered flow regimes. Rainfall-runoff patterns were determined from continuous rainfall and streamflow monitoring over the previous ten years. Fine-scale flowpath connectivity of impervious surfaces was measured by both a binary approach and by a method incorporating runoff potential by saturation excess. The effect of the spatial distribution of connected surfaces was investigated by incorporating several distance-weighting schema along established urban drainage flowpaths. Statistical relationships between runoff generation and connectivity were measured to determine the ability of these different measures of connectivity to predict runoff thresholds, frequency, volumes, and peak flows. Initial results suggest that rapid assessment of connected surficial flowpaths can be used to identify known green infrastructure assets and highly connected impervious areas and that the differences in connectivity measured between watersheds reflects differing runoff patterns observed in monitored data.

  7. Mn-oxidizing Bacteria in Oak Ridge, TN and the Potential for Mercury Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Han, F. X.

    2012-12-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, TN was highly contaminated with elemental mercury in the 1950 and 1960. The area is still experiencing the effects of mercury contamination, and researchers are searching for ways to remediate the EFPC. One possible mechanism for bioremediation is the use of biogenic Mn oxides to remove heavy metals from water systems. Six native Pseudomonas bacteria species were isolated from the EFPC in order to examine biogenic Mn oxides production and bioremediation of Oak Ridge slurries. To investigate the biochemical interactions of Pseudomonas and the native microbial communities with Hg, Mn, Fe, S, six different slurry treatment groups were compared using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Oak Ridge slurries were autoclaved to inhibit microbial growth (group 1), autoclaved and amended with HgS (group 2), autoclaved and amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 3), untreated slurry (group 4), normal slurry amended with HgS (group 5), and normal slurry amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 6). The comparison of the autoclaved groups with the counterpart untreated and normal Oak Ridge slurries highlighted important microbial interactions. Also, the Pseudomonas isolates were grown separately in a MnSO4 media, and the individual bacteria were monitored for Mn-oxidization using ICP-AES and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the slurry sediments, the Pseudomonas isolates did produce Mn oxides which bound to mercury, and mercury bound to organic matter significantly decreased. However, after a significant decrease of dissolved mercury in the water, dissolved mercury was cycled back into the water system on day 10 of the study. Additionally, two individual native Oak Ridge Pseudomonas isolates demonstrated Mn-oxidization. Biogenic Mn oxides have the potential to decrease mercury cycling, however there is

  8. Novel Structure of Enterococcus faecium-Originated ermB-Positive Tn1546-Like Element in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tsai-Wen; Hung, Wei-Chun; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Lee, Hao; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2016-10-01

    We determined the resistance determinants in 274 erythromycin-resistant methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates during a 13-year period, 2000 to 2012. The resistance phenotypes, inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (iMLS), constitutive MLS (cMLS), and macrolide-streptogramin (MS) resistance phenotypes, were examined by a double-disk diffusion D test. The ermB gene was more frequent (35%; 97/274) than ermC (27%; 75/274) or ermA (21%; 58/274). All 97 ermB-positive isolates harbored Tn551 and IS1216V The majority (89/97) of ermB-positive isolates displayed the cMLS phenotype and carried mobile element structure (MES)-like structures, which has been previously reported in sequence type 59 (ST59) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The remaining 8 ermB-carrying isolates, belonging to ST7 (n = 4), ST5 (n = 3), and ST59 (n = 1), were sasK intact and did not carry MES-like structures. Unlike a MES-like structure that was located on the chromosome, the ermB elements on sasK-intact isolates were located on plasmids by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and conjugation tests. Sequence data for the ermB-containing region (14,566 bp) from ST59 NTUH_3874 revealed that the best match was a Tn1546-like element in plasmid pMCCL2 DNA (GenBank accession number AP009486) of Macrococcus caseolyticus Tn1546 is recognized as an enterococcal transposon and was known from the vancomycin resistance gene cluster in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). So far, acquisitions of Tn1546 in S. aureus have occurred in clonal complex 5 (CC5) MRSA, but not in MSSA. This is the first report that MSSA harbors an Enterococcus faecium-originated ermB-positive Tn1546-like element located on a plasmid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Response of high-risk of recurrence/progression bladder tumours expressing sialyl-Tn and sialyl-6-T to BCG immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lima, L; Severino, P F; Silva, M; Miranda, A; Tavares, A; Pereira, S; Fernandes, E; Cruz, R; Amaro, T; Reis, C A; Dall'Olio, F; Amado, F; Videira, P A; Santos, L; Ferreira, J A

    2013-01-01

    Background: High risk of recurrence/progression bladder tumours is treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy after complete resection of the tumour. Approximately 75% of these tumours express the uncommon carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (Tn), a surrogate biomarker of tumour aggressiveness. Such changes in the glycosylation of cell-surface proteins influence tumour microenvironment and immune responses that may modulate treatment outcome and the course of disease. The aim of this work is to determine the efficiency of BCG immunotherapy against tumours expressing sTn and sTn-related antigen sialyl-6-T (s6T). Methods: In a retrospective design, 94 tumours from patients treated with BCG were screened for sTn and s6T expression. In vitro studies were conducted to determine the interaction of BCG with high-grade bladder cancer cell line overexpressing sTn. Results: From the 94 cases evaluated, 36 had recurrence after BCG treatment (38.3%). Treatment outcome was influenced by age over 65 years (HR=2.668; (1.344–5.254); P=0.005), maintenance schedule (HR=0.480; (0.246–0.936); P=0.031) and multifocallity (HR=2.065; (1.033–4.126); P=0.040). sTn or s6T expression was associated with BCG response (P=0.024; P<0.0001) and with increased recurrence-free survival (P=0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that sTn and/or s6T were independent predictive markers of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy (HR=0.296; (0.148–0.594); P=0.001). In vitro studies demonstrated higher adhesion and internalisation of the bacillus to cells expressing sTn, promoting cell death. Conclusion: s6T is described for the first time in bladder tumours. Our data strongly suggest that BCG immunotherapy is efficient against sTn- and s6T-positive tumours. Furthermore, sTn and s6T expression are independent predictive markers of BCG treatment response and may be useful in the identification of patients who could benefit more from this immunotherapy. PMID:24064971

  10. Bacteroides fragilis mobilizable transposon Tn5520 requires a 71 base pair origin of transfer sequence and a single mobilization protein for relaxosome formation during conjugation.

    PubMed

    Vedantam, Gayatri; Knopf, Sarah; Hecht, David W

    2006-01-01

    Tn5520 is the smallest known bacterial mobilizable transposon and was isolated from an antibiotic resistant Bacteroides fragilis clinical isolate. When a conjugation apparatus is provided in trans, Tn5520 is mobilized (transferred) efficiently within, and from, both Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia coli. Only two genes are present on Tn5520; one encodes an integrase, and the other a multifunctional mobilization (Mob) protein BmpH. BmpH is essential for Tn5520 mobility. The focus of this study was to identify the Tn5520 origin of conjugative transfer (oriT) and to study BmpH-oriT binding. We delimited the functional Tn5520 oriT to a 71 bp sequence upstream of the bmpH gene. A plasmid vector harbouring this minimal 71 bp oriT was mobilized at the same frequency as that of intact Tn5520. The minimal oriT contains one 17 bp inverted repeat (IR) sequence. We constructed and tested multiple IR mutants and showed that the IR was essential in its entirety for mobilization. A nick site sequence (5'-GCTAC-3') was also identified within the minimal oriT; this sequence resembled nick sites found in plasmids of Gram positive origin. We further showed that mutation of a highly conserved GC dinucleotide in the nick site sequence completely abolished mobilization. We also purified BmpH and showed that it specifically bound a Tn5520 oriT fragment in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We also identified non-nick site sequences within the minimal oriT that were essential for mobilization. We hypothesize that transposon-based single Mob protein systems may contribute to efficient gene dissemination from Bacteroides spp., because fewer DNA processing proteins are required for relaxosome formation.

  11. MnTnBuOE-2-PyP protects normal colorectal fibroblasts from radiation damage and simultaneously enhances radio/chemotherapeutic killing of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; Chatterjee, Arpita; Tong, Qiang; Lin, Chi; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E

    2016-06-07

    Manganese porphyrins have been shown to be potent radioprotectors in a variety of cancer models. However, the mechanism as to how these porphyrins protect normal tissues from radiation damage still remains largely unknown. In the current study, we determine the effects of the manganese porphyrin, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP, on primary colorectal fibroblasts exposed to irradiation. We found that 2 Gy of radiation enhances the fibroblasts' ability to contract a collagen matrix, increases cell size and promotes cellular senesence. Treating fibroblasts with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP significantly inhibited radiation-induced collagen contraction, preserved cell morphology and also inhibited cellular senescence. We further showed that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP enhanced the overall viability of the fibroblasts following exposure to radiation but did not protect colorectal cancer cell viability. Specifically, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with irradiation, caused a significant decrease in tumor clonogenicity. Since locally advanced rectal cancers are treated with chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery and non-metastatic anal cancers are treated with chemoradiation therapy, we also investigated the effects of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with radiation, 5-fluorouracil with and without Mitomycin C. We found that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with Mitomycin C or 5-fluorouracil further enhances those compounds' ability to suppress tumor cell growth. When MnTnBuOE-2-PyP was combined with the two chemotherapeutics and radiation, we observed the greatest reduction in tumor cell growth. Therefore, these studies indicate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP could be used as a potent radioprotector for normal tissue, while at the same time enhancing radiation and chemotherapy treatment for rectal and anal cancers.

  12. MnTnBuOE-2-PyP protects normal colorectal fibroblasts from radiation damage and simultaneously enhances radio/chemotherapeutic killing of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosmacek, Elizabeth A.; Chatterjee, Arpita; Tong, Qiang; Lin, Chi; Oberley, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese porphyrins have been shown to be potent radioprotectors in a variety of cancer models. However, the mechanism as to how these porphyrins protect normal tissues from radiation damage still remains largely unknown. In the current study, we determine the effects of the manganese porphyrin, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP, on primary colorectal fibroblasts exposed to irradiation. We found that 2 Gy of radiation enhances the fibroblasts' ability to contract a collagen matrix, increases cell size and promotes cellular senesence. Treating fibroblasts with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP significantly inhibited radiation-induced collagen contraction, preserved cell morphology and also inhibited cellular senescence. We further showed that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP enhanced the overall viability of the fibroblasts following exposure to radiation but did not protect colorectal cancer cell viability. Specifically, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with irradiation, caused a significant decrease in tumor clonogenicity. Since locally advanced rectal cancers are treated with chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery and non-metastatic anal cancers are treated with chemoradiation therapy, we also investigated the effects of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with radiation, 5-fluorouracil with and without Mitomycin C. We found that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with Mitomycin C or 5-fluorouracil further enhances those compounds' ability to suppress tumor cell growth. When MnTnBuOE-2-PyP was combined with the two chemotherapeutics and radiation, we observed the greatest reduction in tumor cell growth. Therefore, these studies indicate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP could be used as a potent radioprotector for normal tissue, while at the same time enhancing radiation and chemotherapy treatment for rectal and anal cancers. PMID:27119354

  13. Optimization of high-rate TN removal in a novel constructed wetland integrated with microelectrolysis system treating high-strength digestate supernatant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Luchen; He, Keli; Wu, Shubiao; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Huang, Xu; Dong, Renjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential of high-rate TN removal in three aerated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to treat high-strength anaerobic digestate supernatant was evaluated. Different strategies of intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation were applied to compare their effect on nitrogen depuration performance. Additional glucose supply and iron-activated carbon based post-treatment systems were established and examined, respectively, to further remove nitrate that accumulated in the effluents from aerated wetlands. The results showed that intermittent aeration (1 h on:1 h off) significantly improved nitrification with ammonium removal efficiency of 90% (18.1 g/(m(2)·d)), but limited TN removal efficiency (53%). Even though effluent recirculation (a ratio of 1:1) increased TN removal from 53% to 71%, the effluent nitrate concentration was still high. Additional glucose was used as a post-treatment option and further increased the TN removal to 82%; however, this implementation caused additional organic pollution. Furthermore, the iron-activated carbon system stimulated with a microelectrolysis process achieved greater than 85% effluent nitrate removal and resulted in 86% TN removal. Considering the high TN removal rate, aerated constructed wetlands integrated with a microelectrolysis-driven system show great potential for treating high-strength digestate supernatant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciT

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cellsmore » as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.« less

  15. First results from TN273 studies of the SE Mariana Forearc rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Shimizu, N.; Martinez, F.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Manton, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    TN 273 aboard R/V Thomas Thompson (Dec. 22 2011- Jan. 22 2012) studied an unusual region of rifting affecting the southern Mariana forearc S.W. of Guam. The S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) formed by diffuse tectonic and volcanic deformation (Martinez and Sleeper, this meeting) ~2.7-3.7 Ma ago to accommodate opening of the southernmost Mariana Trough backarc basin. A total of 730 km linear-track of SEMFR seafloor was surveyed with deep-towed side-scan sonar IMI-30. 14 dredges provided samples of SEMFR igneous rocks, analyzed for whole rock (WR) and glass compositions. These new results coupled with results of earlier investigations confirm that SEMFR is dominated by Miocene lavas along with minor gabbro and diabase. SEMFR lavas range in major element composition from primitive basalt to fractionated andesite (Mg# = 0.36-0.73; SiO2 = 50-57 wt%), mainly controlled by crystal fractionation. Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns range from LREE-depleted, N-MORB-like to flat patterns, reflecting different mantle processes (i.e. different sources, degree of melting …). Glassy rinds and olivine-hosted melt inclusions in these lavas contain variable volatile compositions (F = 75-358 ppm, S = 35-1126 ppm, Cl= 74-1400 ppm, CO2 = 15-520 ppm, 0.36-2.36 wt% H2O). SEMFR lavas show spider diagrams with positive anomalies in LILE and negative anomalies in HSFE. SEMFR lavas have backarc basin-like (BAB-like) chemical composition (H2O < 2.5wt%, Ba/Yb~20, Nb/Yb~1 and ɛNd~9) along with stronger enrichment in Rb and Cs than arc and BAB lavas, as demonstrated by their higher Rb/Th and Cs/Ba ratios in WR and glasses, which may reflect the role of the ultra-shallow fluids. Ultra-shallow fluids are derived from the top of the subducting slab, beneath the forearc, where most of the water and the fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Cs, Ba,) are thought to be released (Schmidt and Poli, 1998, EPSL, Savov et al., 2005, G-3). Our results suggest that i) SEMFR lavas formed by metasomatism of a BAB mantle

  16. Mini epidemic of isoniazide resistant TB in rural TN: a need for supervised preventive therapy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay; Keith, Rob; Al Hasan, Muhannad; Ryland, Byrd; Roy, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    With the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the late 1980s, multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) also became a serious challenge to the TB control programs across the United States (US). While the incidence of TB resumed a downward trend in the mid 1900s, drug-resistant TB continues to be a national and international problem. We reviewed the public health data of drug-resistant TB cases (1996-2002) in Greene County, TN, with a detailed analysis of their contact investigation. Our study included demographic data of age, sex, race, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and other known risk factors for drug-resistant TB. Contact investigation of two patients with isoniazide-resistant active pulmonary TB led to the discovery of two additional cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, one of them being a 14-month-old child. All four of the patients were U.S. born, had negative HIV tests, and lacked other risk factors for drug-resistant TB. In all four cases, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were resistant to isoniazide, three were streptomycin resistant, and was ethambutol resistant. A total of 65 close contacts were identified, 11 of whom had a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test indicating latent TB infection. Based on the American Thoracic Society's recommendations, the contacts with a positive PPD were prescribed rifampin for chemo-prevention rather than INH. However, one active case was detected from this infected contact who had failed to comply with chemo-preventive therapy. The second active case was a child who developed active pulmonary TB before chemoprevention could be initiated. Drug culture profile and DNA analysis (RFLP) confirmed the same source for TB transmission. The 11/65 (16.5 percent) infection rate among the contact was comparable to the state average (p < 0.05), but the case rate of 4/65 (6.15 percent) was high. In two out of four active cases, who were family members of the known cases, active infection could have been

  17. Comparison of cardiac TnI outliers using a contemporary and a high-sensitivity assay on the Abbott Architect platform.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J B; Southby, S J; Stuart, L A; Mackay, R; Florkowski, C M; George, P M

    2014-07-01

    Assays for cardiac troponin (cTn) have undergone improvements in sensitivity and precision in recent years. Increased rates of outliers, however, have been reported on various cTn platforms, typically giving irreproducible, falsely higher results. We aimed to evaluate the outlier rate occurring in patients with elevated cTnI using a contemporary and high-sensitivity assay. All patients with elevated cTnI (up to 300 ng/L) performed over a 21-month period were assayed in duplicate. A contemporary assay (Abbott STAT Troponin-I) was used for the first part of the study and subsequently a high-sensitivity assay (Abbott STAT High-Sensitive Troponin-I) was used. Outliers exceeded a calculated critical difference (CD) (CD = z × √2 × SDAnalytical) where z = 3.5 (for probability of 0.0005) and critical outliers also were on a different side of the decision level. The respective outlier and critical outlier rates were 0.22% and 0.10% for the contemporary assay (n = 4009) and 0.18% and 0.13% for the high-sensitivity assay (n = 3878). There was no significant reduction in outlier rate between the two assays (χ(2) = 0.034, P = 0.854). Fifty-six percent of outliers occurred in samples where cTn was an 'add-on' test (and was stored and refrigerated prior to assay). Despite recent improvements in cTn methods, outliers (including critical outliers) still occur at a low rate in both a contemporary and high-sensitivity cTnI assay. Laboratory and clinical staff should be aware of this potential analytical error, particularly in samples with suboptimal sample handling such as add-on tests. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Characterization of Tn1546 in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from canine urinary tract infections: evidence of gene exchange between human and animal enterococci.

    PubMed

    Simjee, S; White, D G; McDermott, P F; Wagner, D D; Zervos, M J; Donabedian, S M; English, L L; Hayes, J R; Walker, R D

    2002-12-01

    Thirty-five enterococcal isolates were recovered from dogs diagnosed with urinary tract infections at the Michigan State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital over a 2-year period (1996 to 1998). Isolated species included Enterococcus faecium (n = 13), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 7), Enterococcus gallinarum (n = 11), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (n = 4). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed several different resistance phenotypes, with the majority of the enterococcal isolates exhibiting resistance to three or more antibiotics. One E. faecium isolate, CVM1869, displayed high-level resistance to vancomycin (MIC > 32 micro g/ml) and gentamicin (MIC > 2,048 micro g/ml). Molecular analysis of this isolate revealed the presence of Tn1546 (vanA), responsible for high-level vancomycin resistance, and Tn5281 carrying aac6'-aph2", conferring high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that CVM1869 was a canine E. faecium clone that had acquired Tn1546, perhaps from a human vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. Transposons Tn5281 and Tn1546 were located on two different conjugative plasmids. Sequence analysis revealed that in Tn1546, ORF1 had an 889-bp deletion and an IS1216V insertion at the 5' end and an IS1251 insertion between vanS and vanH. To date, this particular form of Tn1546 has only been described in human clinical vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates unique to the United States. Additionally, this is the first report of a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolated from a companion animal in the United States.

  19. Carcinoma autoantigens T and Tn and their cleavage products interact with Gal/GalNAc-specific receptors on rat Kupffer cells and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schlepper-Schäfer, J; Springer, G F

    1989-10-09

    We studied interactions of isolated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T)- and Tn-specific glycoproteins with the Gal/GalNAc-specific receptors on rat Kupffer cells and compared them to those with rat hepatocytes. Immunoreactive T and Tn are specific pancarcinoma epitopes. Electron microscopy of gold-labelled T and Tn antigens revealed their specific binding to Kupffer cells, followed by their uptake via the coated pit/vesicle pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Preincubation of Kupffer cells with GalNAc and GalNAc-BSA, but not GlcNAc or GlcNAc-BSA specifically inhibited binding of the T and Tn glycoproteins. Desialylated, isologous erythrocytes (T RBC) are known to bind to the Gal/GalNAc receptors of rat Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. This attachment was specifically inhibited by T and Tn in a concentration-dependent manner: 50% T RBC-Kupffer cell contacts were inhibited at 8.5.10(-6) mM T and 8.5.10(-5) mM Tn antigen concentrations, respectively. The corresponding figures for hepatocytes were 6.10(-6) mM T and 1.2.10(-6) mM Tn antigen. Amino-terminal cleavage products of the T glycoprotein, possessing clusters terminating in non-reducing Gal/GalNAc, inhibited T RBC binding to Kupffer cells and hepatocytes usually at 10(-2) to 10(-5) mM concentrations, whereas GalNAc, galactose and galactose glycosides inhibited at millimolar concentrations. Galactose-unrelated carbohydrates were inactive at concentrations greater than or equal to 50 mM.

  20. Dynamic Equilibrium of Cardiac Troponin C's Hydrophobic Cleft and Its Modulation by Ca2+ Sensitizers and a Ca2+ Sensitivity Blunting Phosphomimic, cTnT(T204E).

    PubMed

    Schlecht, William; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2017-10-18

    Several studies have suggested that conformational dynamics are important in the regulation of thin filament activation in cardiac troponin C (cTnC); however, little direct evidence has been offered to support these claims. In this study, a dye homodimerization approach is developed and implemented that allows the determination of the dynamic equilibrium between open and closed conformations in cTnC's hydrophobic cleft. Modulation of this equilibrium by Ca 2+ , cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), Ca 2+ -sensitizers, and a Ca 2+ -desensitizing phosphomimic of cTnT (cTnT(T204E) is characterized. Isolated cTnC contained a small open conformation population in the absence of Ca 2+ that increased significantly upon the addition of saturating levels of Ca 2+ . This suggests that the Ca 2+ -induced activation of thin filament arises from an increase in the probability of hydrophobic cleft opening. The inclusion of cTnI increased the population of open cTnC, and the inclusion of cTnT had the opposite effect. Samples containing Ca 2+ -desensitizing cTnT(T204E) showed a slight but insignificant decrease in open conformation probability compared to samples with cardiac troponin T, wild type [cTnT(wt)], while Ca 2+ sensitizer treated samples generally increased open conformation probability. These findings show that an equilibrium between the open and closed conformations of cTnC's hydrophobic cleft play a significant role in tuning the Ca 2+ sensitivity of the heart.

  1. Radioprotection of the Brain White Matter by Mn(III) N-Butoxyethylpyridylporphyrin-Based Superoxide Dismutase Mimic MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Douglas H.; Tovmasyan, Artak; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Rajic, Zrinka; Weitner, Tin; Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Buckley, Anne F.; Prasad, Mark R.; Young, Kenneth H.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; Peters, Katherine B.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Herndon, James E.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial irradiation is a standard therapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors. A major drawback of radiotherapy (RT), however, is long-term cognitive loss that affects quality of life. Radiation-induced oxidative stress in normal brain tissue is thought to contribute to cognitive decline. We evaluated the effectiveness of a novel mimic of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-butoxyethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin), to provide long-term neuroprotection following 8 Gy of whole brain irradiation. Long-term RT damage can only be assessed by brain imaging and neurocognitive studies. C57BL/6J mice were treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ before and after RT and evaluated three months later. At this time point, drug concentration in the brain was 25 nmol/L. Mice treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT exhibited MRI evidence for myelin preservation in the corpus callosum compared with saline/RT treatment. Corpus callosum histology demonstrated a significant loss of axons in the saline/RT group that was rescued in the MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT group. In addition, the saline/RT groups exhibited deficits in motor proficiency as assessed by the rotorod test and running wheel tests. These deficits were ameliorated in groups treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT. Our data demonstrate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ is neuroprotective for oxidative stress damage caused by radiation exposure. In addition, glioblastoma cells were not protected by MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ combination with radiation in vitro. Likewise, the combination of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ with radiation inhibited tumor growth more than RT alone in flank tumors. In summary, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ has dual activity as a neuroprotector and a tumor radiosensitizer. Thus, it is an attractive candidate for adjuvant therapy with RT in future studies with patients with brain cancer. PMID:25319393

  2. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen pools in permafrost zones of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhiwei; Sheng, Yu; Fang, Hongbing; Zhao, Yonghua; Hu, Guojie; Li, Wangping; Pang, Qiangqiang; Shi, Jianzong; Mo, Bentian; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Xirui; Li, Xiaodong; Ding, Yongjian

    2018-02-26

    There are several publications related to the soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). However, most of these reports were from different parts of the plateau with various sampling depth. Here, we present the results from a systematic sampling and analysis of 200 soil pits. Most of the pits were deeper than 2 m from an east-west transect across the plateau. The SOC and total nitrogen (TN) pools of the 148 × 10 4  km 2 , the area of the permafrost zone, for the upper 2 m soils calculated from the vegetation map were estimated to be 17.07 Pg (interquartile range: 11.34-25.33 Pg) and 1.72 Pg (interquartile range: 1.08-2.06 Pg), respectively. We also predicted the distribution of land cover types in 2050 and 2070 using decision tree rules and climate scenarios, and then predicted SOC and TN pools of this region. The results suggested that the SOC and TN pools will decrease in the future. The results not only contribute to the carbon and nitrogen storage and stocks in the permafrost regions as a whole but most importantly, to our knowledge of the possible changes of C and N storage on the QTP in the future.

  3. Diagnostic value of analysis of H-FABP, NT-proBNP, and cTnI in heart function in children with congenital heart disease and pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F-J; Zhou, C-Y; Tian, Y-J; Xiao, A-J; Li, P-L; Wang, Y-H; Jia, J-W

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the expression of heart-fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cTnI in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and pneumonia, and evaluate its diagnostic value in heart failure (HF). The levels of serum H-FABP, NT-proBNP, and cardiac troponin 1 (cTnI) were measured by immunoassays in 22 children with CHD, pneumonia, and HF (group I), 25 children with CHD and pneumonia (group II), and 25 healthy children without CHD or pneumonia (control group). The concentration and positive rate of serum H-FABP, NT-proBNP, and cTnI were significantly higher in group I than those in group II. Compared to control group, these indexes were increased in both group I and group II. There were statistical significant differences in the positive rate of NT-proBNP and cTnI but not H-FABP between groups of patients with different classes of heart function. The levels of H-FABP, NT-proBNP, and cTnI were correlated with heart function, and can be used for the diagnosis of early-stage HF in children with CHD.

  4. Comparison of the new high sensitive cardiac troponin T with myoglobin, h-FABP and cTnT for early identification of myocardial necrosis in the acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Kerstin; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Becker, Maike; Hess, Georg; Zdunek, Dietmar; Katus, Hugo A

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine the performance of the new high sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay (TnThs) for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compare it with the fourth generation cTnT assay, myoglobin and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP). Ninety-four patients with diagnosis of suspected ACS without ST-segment elevation admitted to our chest pain unit were included. Patients were divided according to time from onset of symptoms to presentation into an early presenter group (<4 h) and a late presenter group (≥4 h). A median of six samples (range 2-8) were available per patient. The diagnostic performance of TnThs was assessed using ROC analysis. Areas under the curve (AUC) of baseline and follow-up results of TnThs, cTnT, myoglobin, and h-FABP were compared using c statistics. The TnThs assay allows an excellent prediction of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) at presentation, particularly among late presenters. A follow-up sample improves diagnostic performance in a time-dependent manner. The AUC of TnThs was superior to cTnT at all time points. The performance of TnThs was at least as good as myoglobin and h-FABP at presentation and during follow-up. A baseline sample of TnThs allows an earlier prediction of non-STEMI than the less sensitive and precise fourth generation cTnT assay. Probably, this excellent performance of TnThs at baseline and follow-up could obviate the need for other early markers of necrosis in future.

  5. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  6. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  7. Work zone safety analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  8. California tree seed zones

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  9. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  10. Longleaf pine site zones

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  11. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  12. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Sabbatini, Paul J

    2016-04-22

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011-Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient's pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36-68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability.

  13. A role for Tn6029 in the evolution of the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci in genomic island 3 in enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Charles, Ian G; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    In enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC) O104 the complex antibiotic resistance gene loci (CRL) found in the region of divergence 1 (RD1) within E. coli genomic island 3 (GI3) contains blaTEM-1, strAB, sul2, tet(A)A, and dfrA7 genes encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim respectively. The precise arrangement of antibiotic resistance genes and the role of mobile elements that drove the evolutionary events and created the CRL have not been investigated. We used a combination of bioinformatics and iterative BLASTn searches to determine the micro-evolutionary events that likely led to the formation of the CRL in GI3 using the closed genome sequences of EAHEC O104:H4 strains 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 and high quality draft genomes of EAHEC E. coli O104:H4 isolates from sporadic cases not associated with the initial outbreak. Our analyses indicate that the CRL in GI3 evolved from a progenitor structure that contained an In2-derived class 1 integron in a Tn21/Tn1721 hybrid backbone. Within the hybrid backbone, a Tn6029-family transposon, identified here as Tn6029C abuts the sul1 gene in the 3'-Conserved Segment (-CS) of a class 1 integron generating a unique molecular signature that has only previously been observed in pASL01a, a small plasmid found in commensal E. coli in West Africa. From this common progenitor, independent IS26-mediated events created two novel transposons identified here as Tn6029D and Tn6222 in 2011C-3493 and 2009EL-2050 respectively. Analysis of RD1 within GI3 reveals IS26 has played a crucial role in the assembly of regions within the CRL.

  14. An unusual Tn21-like transposon containing an ars operon is present in highly arsenic-resistant strains of the biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Tuffin, I Marla; de Groot, Peter; Deane, Shelly M; Rawlings, Douglas E

    2005-09-01

    A transposon, TnAtcArs, that carries a set of arsenic-resistance genes was isolated from a strain of the moderately thermophilic, sulfur-oxidizing, biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus caldus. This strain originated from a commercial plant used for the bio-oxidation of gold-bearing arsenopyrite concentrates. Continuous selection for arsenic resistance over many years had made the bacterium resistant to high concentrations of arsenic. Sequence analysis indicated that TnAtcArs is 12 444 bp in length and has 40 bp terminal inverted repeat sequences and divergently transcribed resolvase and transposase genes that are related to the Tn21-transposon subfamily. A series of genes consisting of arsR, two tandem copies of arsA and arsD, two ORFs (7 and 8) and arsB is situated between the resolvase and transposase genes. Although some commercial strains of At. caldus contained the arsDA duplication, when transformed into Escherichia coli, the arsDA duplication was unstable and was frequently lost during cultivation or if a plasmid containing TnAtcArs was conjugated into a recipient strain. TnAtcArs conferred resistance to arsenite and arsenate upon E. coli cells. Deletion of one copy of arsDA had no noticeable effect on resistance to arsenite or arsenate in E. coli. ORFs 7 and 8 had clear sequence similarity to an NADH oxidase and a CBS-domain-containing protein, respectively, but their deletion did not affect resistance to arsenite or arsenate in E. coli. TnAtcArs was actively transposed in E. coli, but no increase in transposition frequency in the presence of arsenic was detected. Northern hybridization and reporter gene studies indicated that although ArsR regulated the 10 kb operon containing the arsenic-resistance genes in response to arsenic, ArsR had no effect on the regulation of genes associated with transposition activity.

  15. A TALE of transposition: Tn3-like transposons play a major role in the spread of pathogenicity determinants of Xanthomonas citri and other xanthomonads.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P; Moreira, Leandro M; Belasque, José; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Inês T; Ferro, Jesus A; Chandler, Michael; Varani, Alessandro M

    2015-02-17

    Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. Xanthomonas genomes carry many insertion sequences (IS) and transposons, which play an important role in their evolution and architecture. This study reveals a key relationship between transposons and pathogenicity determinants in

  16. Conformational organizations of G-quadruplexes composed of d(G(4)T(n))(3)G(4).

    PubMed

    Wong, Wan Chi; Zhuang, Jinyi; Ng, Selina Ling Ling; New, Lilian Li Lin; Hiew, Shuhui; Guo, Juanjuan; Yang, Zhaoqi; Li, Tianhu

    2010-08-01

    Structural polymorphism is one of the important issues with regard to G-quadruplexes because the structural diversity may significantly affect their biological functions in vivo and their physical property in nano-material. A series of oligonucleotides with four repeat guanines sequence [d(G(4)T(n))(3)G(4) (n=1-6)] were designed. In this study, the effects of loop length on the formation of structures of G-quadruplex were investigated through the result of CD (circular dichroism) and 20% non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our studies demonstrate that the length of loop in 100mM KCl solution could predict the conformation of G-quadruplex. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Capability Description for NASA's F/A-18 TN 853 as a Testbed for the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA F/A-18 tail number (TN) 853 full-scale Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) testbed has been designed with a full array of capabilities in support of the Aviation Safety Program. Highlights of the system's capabilities include: 1) a quad-redundant research flight control system for safely interfacing controls experiments to the aircraft's control surfaces; 2) a dual-redundant airborne research test system for hosting multi-disciplinary state-of-the-art adaptive control experiments; 3) a robust reversionary configuration for recovery from unusual attitudes and configurations; 4) significant research instrumentation, particularly in the area of static loads; 5) extensive facilities for experiment simulation, data logging, real-time monitoring and post-flight analysis capabilities; and 6) significant growth capability in terms of interfaces and processing power.

  18. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciT

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previouslymore » benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.« less

  19. Ionothermal synthesis of discrete supertetrahedral Tn (n = 4, 5) clusters with tunable components, band gaps, and fluorescence properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Dan; Li, Wei; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Li, Jian-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of crystalline molecularly supertetrahedral Tn clusters with variable sizes and components is of vital importance for the fundamental study of their physicochemical properties. However, setting up an efficient method to stabilize large discrete Tn clusters is a challenge due to their high negative charges and polymerization nature. In this work, we report on the ionothermal synthesis of three discrete T4 cluster compounds, namely [Bmmim]5[(CH3)2NH2]4[NH4][M4In16S31(SH)4]·6H2O (M = Mn (1), Zn (2), Cd (3), Bmmim = 1-buty-2,3-dimethyl-imidazolium), and four discrete T5 cluster compounds, namely [Bmmim]10[NH4]3[Cu5Ga30-xInxS52(SH)4] (x = 6.6 (5), 14.5 (6), 23.8 (7), and 30 (8)). The compound [Bmmim]10[NH4]3[Cu5Ga30S52(SH)4] (4) previously reported by us features a discrete T5 cluster. The steep UV-Vis absorption edges indicate band gaps of 2.20 eV for 1, 2.64 eV for 2, 2.69 eV for 3, 3.04 eV for 4, 2.65 eV for 5, 2.48 eV for 6, 2.32 eV for 7, and 2.30 eV for 8. The compositions of T5 clusters could be varied with the ratios of Ga : In in the starting reagents, providing an opportunity to systematically control the band gaps and fluorescence performances of T5 cluster-based compounds. This research might advance the understanding of the ionothermal preparation and functionality tuning of crystalline chalcogenides.

  20. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    DOE PAGES

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; ...

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFamore » and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaF a and rsaF b by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaF a and RsaF b in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.« less

  1. Habitable Zone Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.; Lota, J.

    2012-12-01

    The location of the habitable zone around a star depends upon stellar luminosity and upon the properties of a potentially habitable planet such as its mass and near-surface volatile inventory. Stellar luminosity generally increases as a star ages whilst planetary properties change through time as a consequence of biological and geological evolution. Hence, the location of the habitable zone changes through time as a result of both stellar evolution and planetary evolution. Using the Earth's Phanerozoic temperature history as a constraint, it is shown that changes in our own habitable zone over the last 540 My have been dominated by planetary evolution rather than solar evolution. Furthermore, sparse data from earlier times suggests that planetary evolution may have dominated habitable zone development throughout our biosphere's history. Hence, the existence of a continuously habitable zone depends upon accidents of complex bio-geochemical evolution more than it does upon relatively simple stellar-evolution. Evolution of the inner margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations. Evolution of the outer margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations.

  2. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  3. Tn (N-acetyl-d-galactosamine-O-serine/threonine) immunization protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury in adult mice through inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Ming; Hwang, Jaulang; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Shiah, Her-Shyong

    2018-06-01

    Prolonged hyperoxia exposure leads to inflammation and acute lung injury. Since hyperoxia activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and proinflammatory mediators in lung fibroblasts and murine lungs, and proinflammatory cytokines upregulate Tn (N-acetyl-d-galactosamine-O-serine/threonine) expression in human gingival fibroblasts. We hypothesized connections exist between Tn expression and inflammation regulation. Thus, we immunized adult mice with Tn antigen to examine whether Tn vaccine can protect against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting NF-κB activity and cytokine expression through the action of anti-Tn antibodies. Five-week-old female C57BL/6NCrlBltw mice were subcutaneously immunized with Tn antigen four times at biweekly intervals, and one additional immunization was performed at 1 week after the fourth immunization. Four days after the last immunization, mice were exposed to room air (RA) or hyperoxia (100% O 2 ) for up to 96 h. Four study groups were examined: carrier protein + RA (n = 6), Tn vaccine + RA (n = 6), carrier protein + O 2 (n = 6), and Tn vaccine + O 2 (n = 5). We observed that hyperoxia exposure reduced body weight, increased alveolar protein and cytokine (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) levels, increased mean linear intercept (MLI) values and lung injury scores, and increased lung NF-κB activity. By contrast, Tn immunization increased serum anti-Tn antibody titers and reduced the cytokine levels, MLI values, and lung injury scores. Furthermore, the alleviation of lung injury was accompanied by a reduction in NF-κB activity. Therefore, we proposed that Tn immunization attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury in adult mice by inhibiting the NF-κB activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 21099 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C., (Polysilicon), Clarksville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1895] Grant of Authority for Subzone... foreign commerce, and for other purposes,'' and authorizes the Foreign-Trade Zones Board to grant to..., and when the activity results in a significant public benefit and is in the public interest; Whereas...

  5. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  6. Speeds in school zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  7. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  8. Comparison of windthrow damage among thinned and unthinned hardwoods and adjacent pine stands following a late winter tornado on the Cumberland Plateau near Sewanee, TN

    Karen Kuers; Samuel C. Grinstead

    2006-01-01

    In March, 2004, prior to spring leaf-out, an F0 tornado snapped or uprooted 672 trees across 25 ha of the western margin of the Cumberland Plateau near Sewanee, TN. A ridgeline separated the impacted area into two parts: westward-facing slopes of mature hardwoods and eastward-facing slopes with thinned and unthinned hardwoods, pine stands, and clearcuts. Greatest...

  9. Use of the multipurpose transposon Tn KPK2 for the mutational analysis of chromosomal regions upstream and downstream of the sipF gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Müller, P

    2004-04-01

    The DNA regions upstream and downstream of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum gene sipF were cloned by in vivo techniques and subsequently sequenced. In order to study the function of the predicted genes, a new transposon for in vitro mutagenesis, Tn KPK2, was constructed. This mutagenesis system has a number of advantages over other transposons. Tn KPK2 itself has no transposase gene, making transposition events stable. Extremely short inverted repeats minimize the length of the transposable element and facilitate the determination of the nucleotide sequence of the flanking regions. Since the transposable element carries a promoterless ' phoA reporter gene, the appearance of functional PhoA fusion proteins indicates that Tn KPK2 has inserted in a gene encoding a periplasmic or secreted protein. Although such events are extremely rare, because the transposon has to insert in-frame, in the correct orientation, and at an appropriate location in the target molecule, a direct screening procedure on agar indicator plates permits the identification of candidate clones from large numbers of colonies. In this study, Tn KPK2 was used for the construction of various symbiotic mutants of B. japonicum. One of the mutant strains, A2-10, which is defective in a gene encoding a protein that comigrates with bacterioferritin ( bcpB), was found to induce the formation of small and ineffective nodules.

  10. Enhanced nitrogen removal from piggery wastewater with high NH4+ and low COD/TN ratio in a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Nan, Jun; Xu, Pianpian

    2018-02-01

    To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH 4 + -N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria. The packed bed allowed the microaerobic biofilm process perform well at a low reflux ratio of 35 with a NH 4 + -N and TN removal as high as 93.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Compared with the previously developed upflow microaerobic sludge reactor, the UMBR had not changed the dominant anammox approach to nitrogen removal, but was more cost-efficiently in treating organic wastewater with high NH 4 + -N and low COD/TN ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the separated liquid phase of hog manure by the multi-zone BioCAST technology.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Laleh; Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Afroze, Niema; Godbout, Stephane; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-06-15

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) at concentrations of 960 ± 38 to 2400 ± 96 mg/L, 143 ± 9 to 235 ± 15 mg/L and 25 ± 2 to 57 ± 4 mg/L, respectively, from the separated liquid phase of hog manure by the multi-zone BioCAST technology is discussed. Despite the inhibitory effect of hog waste toward microbial activities, removal efficiencies up to 89.2% for COD, 69.2% for TN and 47.6% for TP were obtained during 185 d of continuous operation. The free ammonia inhibition was postulated to be responsible for the steady reduction of COD and TP removal with the increase of TN/TP ratio from 3.6 to 5.8. On the contrary, the increase of COD/TN ratio from 4.8 to 14.1 improved the removal of all contaminants. Nitrogen removal did not show any dependence on the COD/TP ratio, despite the steady increase of COD and TP removal with this ratio in the range of 19.3-50.6. The removal efficiencies of organic and inorganic contaminants increased progressively owing to the adaptation of microbial biomass, resulting from the presence of suspended biomass in the mixed liquor that circulated continuously between the three zones of aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic, as well as the attached biomass immobilized inside the aerobic zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Koning, Rosella A.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA2mob, present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA2mob operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA2mob operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA2mob operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain. PMID:27994575

  13. Asia-Pacific consensus statement on the optimal use of high-sensitivity troponin assays in acute coronary syndromes diagnosis: focus on hs-TnI

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jack Wei Chieh; Lam, Carolyn S P; Kasim, Sazzli Shahlan; Aw, Tar Choon; Abanilla, Joel M; Chang, Wei-Ting; Dang, Van Phuoc; Iboleon-Dy, Maria; Mumpuni, Sari Sri; Phommintikul, Arintaya; Ta, Manh Cuong; Topipat, Punkiat; Yiu, Kai Hang; Cullen, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Objective High-sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) assays need to be applied appropriately to improve diagnosis and patient outcomes in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods Experts from Asia Pacific convened in 2015 to provide data-driven consensus-based, region-specific recommendations and develop an algorithm for the appropriate incorporation of this assay into the ACS assessment and treatment pathway. Results Nine recommendations were developed by the expert panel: (1) troponin is the preferred cardiac biomarker for diagnostic assessment of ACS and is indicated for patients with symptoms of possible ACS; (2) hs-Tn assays are recommended; (3) serial testing is required for all patients; (4) testing should be performed at presentation and 3 hours later; (5) gender-specific cut-off values should be used for hs-Tn I assays; (6) hs-Tn I level >10 times the upper limit of normal should be considered to ‘rule in’ a diagnosis of ACS; (7) dynamic change >50% in hs-Tn I level from presentation to 3-hour retest identifies patients at high risk for ACS; (8) where only point-of-care testing is available, patients with elevated readings should be considered at high risk, while patients with low/undetectable readings should be retested after 6 hours or sent for laboratory testing and (9) regular education on the appropriate use of troponin tests is essential. Conclusions We propose an algorithm that will potentially reduce delays in discharge by the accurate ‘rule out’ of non-ACS patients within 3 hours. Appropriate research should be undertaken to ensure the efficacy and safety of the algorithm in clinical practice, with the long-term goal of improvement of care of patients with ACS in Asia Pacific. PMID:28466882

  14. Troponin C Mutations Partially Stabilize the Active State of Regulated Actin and Fully Stabilize the Active State When Paired with Δ14 TnT.

    PubMed

    Baxley, Tamatha; Johnson, Dylan; Pinto, Jose R; Chalovich, Joseph M

    2017-06-13

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin-associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. The extent of activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca 2+ and activating cross-bridges (i.e., S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration stabilizes the most active state (M state) of the actin-tropomyosin-troponin complex (regulated actin). Ca 2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin, and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I. Cardiac dysfunction is also associated with mutations of troponin C (TnC). Troponin C mutants A8V, C84Y, and D145E increase the Ca 2+ sensitivity of ATPase activity. We show that these mutants change the distribution of regulated actin states. The A8V and C84Y TnC mutants decreased the inactive B state distribution slightly at low Ca 2+ concentrations, but the D145E mutants had no effect on that state. All TnC mutants increased the level of the active M state compared to that of the wild type, at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration. Troponin complexes that contained two mutations that stabilize the active M state, A8V TnC and Δ14 TnT, appeared to be completely in the active state in the presence of only Ca 2+ . Because Ca 2+ gives full activation, in this situation, troponin must be capable of positioning tropomyosin in the active M state without the need for rigor myosin binding.

  15. Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements carrying mef(I) and catQ determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Morroni, Gianluca; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2014-10-01

    The linkage between the macrolide efflux gene mef(I) and the chloramphenicol inactivation gene catQ was first described in Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain Spn529), where the two genes are located in a module designated IQ element. Subsequently, two different defective IQ elements were detected in Streptococcus pyogenes (strains Spy029 and Spy005). The genetic elements carrying the three IQ elements were characterized, and all were found to be Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). The ICE from S. pneumoniae (ICESpn529IQ) was sequenced, whereas the ICEs from S. pyogenes (ICESpy029IQ and ICESpy005IQ, the first Tn5253-like ICEs reported in this species) were characterized by PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and restriction analysis. ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ were found to share the intSp 23FST81 integrase gene and an identical Tn916 fragment, whereas ICESpy005IQ has int5252 and lacks Tn916. All three ICEs were found to lack the linearized pC194 plasmid that is usually associated with Tn5253-like ICEs, and all displayed a single copy of a toxin-antitoxin operon that is typically contained in the direct repeats flanking the excisable pC194 region when this region is present. Two different insertion sites of the IQ elements were detected, one in ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ, and another in ICESpy005IQ. The chromosomal integration of the three ICEs was site specific, depending on the integrase (intSp 23FST81 or int5252). Only ICESpy005IQ was excised in circular form and transferred by conjugation. By transformation, mef(I) and catQ were cotransferred at a high frequency from S. pyogenes Spy005 and at very low frequencies from S. pneumoniae Spn529 and S. pyogenes Spy029. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Association of Elevated High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T(hs-cTnT) Levels with Hemorrhagic Transformation and 3-Month Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Hao, Zilong; Tao, Wendan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Elevated levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and can predict poor outcome and mortality after stroke. Whether elevated hs-cTnT levels can also predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or prognosis in AIS patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains unclear. Methods Data from the Chengdu Stroke Registry on consecutive AIS patients with RHD admitted to West China Hospital within1 month of stroke onset from October 2011 to February 2014 were examined. Clinico-demographic characteristics, HT, functional outcomes and stroke recurrence were compared between patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels(≥14ng/L) and patients with normal hs-cTnT levels (<14ng/L). Results The final analysis involved 84 patients (31 males; mean age, 61.6±12.2years), of whom serum hs-cTnT levels were elevated in 58.3%. Renal impairment was independently associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels (OR 4.184, 95%CI 1.17 to 15.01, P = 0.028), and patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels were at significantly higher risk of HT, 3-month mortality and 3-month disability/mortality (all P≤0.029). After controlling for age, sex, hypertension, renal impairment and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission, the risk of HT and 3-month mortality was, respectively, 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher in patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels than in patients with normal hs-cTnT levels. Conclusion Elevated hs-cTnT levels are independently associated with HT and 3-month mortality in AIS patients with RHD. These results with a small cohort should be verified and extended in large studies. PMID:26849554

  17. Association of Elevated High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T(hs-cTnT) Levels with Hemorrhagic Transformation and 3-Month Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Rheumatic Heart Disease in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Hao, Zilong; Tao, Wendan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) occur in a substantial proportion of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and can predict poor outcome and mortality after stroke. Whether elevated hs-cTnT levels can also predict hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or prognosis in AIS patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains unclear. Data from the Chengdu Stroke Registry on consecutive AIS patients with RHD admitted to West China Hospital within 1 month of stroke onset from October 2011 to February 2014 were examined. Clinico-demographic characteristics, HT, functional outcomes and stroke recurrence were compared between patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels (≥14 ng/L) and patients with normal hs-cTnT levels (<14 ng/L). The final analysis involved 84 patients (31 males; mean age, 61.6±12.2 years), of whom serum hs-cTnT levels were elevated in 58.3%. Renal impairment was independently associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels (OR 4.184, 95%CI 1.17 to 15.01, P = 0.028), and patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels were at significantly higher risk of HT, 3-month mortality and 3-month disability/mortality (all P≤0.029). After controlling for age, sex, hypertension, renal impairment and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission, the risk of HT and 3-month mortality was, respectively, 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher in patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels than in patients with normal hs-cTnT levels. Elevated hs-cTnT levels are independently associated with HT and 3-month mortality in AIS patients with RHD. These results with a small cohort should be verified and extended in large studies.

  18. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  19. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  20. Volcano Deformation and Eruption Forecasting using Data Assimilation: Case of Grimsvötn volcano in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bato, Mary Grace; Pinel, Virginie; Yan, Yajing

    2016-04-01

    The recent advances in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) imaging and the increasing number of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) networks recorded on volcanoes provide continuous and spatially extensive evolution of surface displacements during inter-eruptive periods. For basaltic volcanoes, these measurements combined with simple dynamical models (Lengliné et al. 2008 [1], Pinel et al, 2010 [2], Reverso et al, 2014 [3]) can be exploited to characterise and constrain parameters of one or several magmatic reservoirs using inversion methods. On the other hand, data assimilation-a time-stepping process that best combines models and observations, sometimes a priori information based on error statistics to predict the state of a dynamical system-has gained popularity in various fields of geoscience (e.g. ocean-weather forecasting, geomagnetism and natural resources exploration). In this work, we aim to first test the applicability and benefit of data assimilation, in particular the Ensemble Kalman Filter [4], in the field of volcanology. We predict the temporal behaviors of the overpressures and deformations by applying the two-magma chamber model of Reverso et. al., 2014 [3] and by using synthetic deformation data in order to establish our forecasting strategy. GPS time-series data of the recent eruptions at Grimsvötn volcano is used for the real case applicability of the method. [1] Lengliné, O., D Marsan, J Got, V. Pinel, V. Ferrazzini, P. Obuko, Seismicity and deformation induced by magma accumulation at three basaltic volcanoes, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B12305, 2008. [2] V. Pinel, C. Jaupart and F. Albino, On the relationship between cycles of eruptive activity and volcanic edifice growth, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res, 194, 150-164, 2010 [3] T. Reverso, J. Vandemeulebrouck, F. Jouanne, V. Pinel, T. Villemin, E. Sturkell, A two-magma chamber as a source of deformation at Grimsvötn volcano, Iceland, JGR, 2014 [4] Evensen, G., The Ensemble Kalman

  1. Water/magma mass fractions in phreatomagmatic eruption plumes - constraints from the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.; Pálsson, F.; Thordarson, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Larsen, G.; Hognadottir, T.; Oddsson, B.; Oladottir, B. A.; Gudnason, J.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive interaction of magma and water leads to vaporization and introduces external water vapor to volcanic plumes. Theoretical considerations on the effect of external water magma ratio on volcanic plumes indicate that plume buoyancy should be enhanced by external water fractions up to at least 30%, while fractions reaching 40% should lead to plume collapse. The basaltic VEI 4 eruption of Grímsvötn in May 2011 produced a 15-20 km high eruption plume and over 100 km wide umbrella cloud. External water interacted with the magma and entered the plume from the melting out of a 100-150 m deep ice cauldron that had acquired a volume of 0.1 km3 at the end of the eruption. About 0.7 km3 of tephra was produced in the eruption whereof about half was erupted in phreatomagmatic phases and the other half in magmatic phases. During the dry, magmatic phases melting was apparently not fast enough to supply sufficient external water to the vents to control the style of activity. The only source of external water was the melting out of the ice cauldron since no changes took place in the level of the larger, subglacial lake in the center of the Grímsvötn caldera, and no meltwater was drained from the caldera. The eruption site therefore had little or no hydrological connection with the adjacent subglacial lake. Water remaining at the eruption site at the end of the eruption was miniscule compared to the amount of ice melted. Hence, most of the meltwater was vaporized and carried away as a part of the eruption plume. About one third of the thermal energy of the magma erupted was used to melt, heat up and vaporize water. A large part of this water was released from the plume through condensation and re-freezing, manifested in hail-rich tephra deposited out to several kilometers from the vent. The data indicate that the external water/tephra mass ratio in the phreatomagmatic phases was 20-25%, but similar to 5% for the predominantly magmatic phases.

  2. Freeway work zone lane capacity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  3. The Dandridge-Vonore Fault Zone in the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (and Rejuvenation of the Smokies?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, R. T.; Hatcher, R. D., Jr.; Forman, S. L.; Gamble, E. D. S.; Warrell, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) trends 045o from NE Alabama and NW Georgia through Tennessee to SE Kentucky, and seismicity is localized 5-26 km deep in the basement. The ETSZ is the second most seismically active region in North America east of the Rocky Mountains, although no historic earthquakes larger than Mw 4.8 have been recorded here. Late Quaternary paleoiseismic evidence suggests that the ETSZ is capable of M7+ earthquakes and that neotectonic faults may have significantly influenced the regional relief. We have identified an 80 km-long, 060o-trending corridor in eastern Tennessee that contains collinear northeast-striking thrust, strike-slip, and normal Quaternary faults with displacements of 1-2 m, herein termed the Dandridge-Vonore fault zone (DVFZ). French Broad River alluvium in the northeast DVFZ near Dandridge, TN, is displaced by a 050o-striking, SE-dipping thrust fault and by a set of related fissures that record at least two significant post 25 ka paleo-earthquakes. Southwest of Dandridge near Alcoa, TN, a 060o-striking, SE-dipping thrust fault cuts Little River alluvium and records two significant post-15 ka paleo-earthquakes. Farther southwest at Vonore, colluvium with alluvial cobbles is thrust >1 m by a 057o-striking, steeply SE-dipping fault that may also have a significant strike-slip component, and Little Tennessee River alluvium is dropped >2 m along a 070o- striking normal fault. The DVFZ partly overlaps and is collinear with a local trend of maximum seismicity that extends 30 km farther SW of the DVFZ (as currently mapped), for a total length of 110 km. The DVFZ is coincident with a steep gradient in S-wave velocities (from high velocity on the SE to low velocity on the NW) at mid-crustal depths of 20 to 24 km, consistent with a fault and source zone at hypocentral depths in the crystalline basement. Moreover, the DVFZ parallels the NW foot of Blue Ridge Mountains, and the sense of thrusting at all sites of Quaternary faulting

  4. The L‐type Ca2+ channel facilitates abnormal metabolic activity in the cTnI‐G203S mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Helena; Johnstone, Victoria; Cserne Szappanos, Henrietta; Richman, Tara; Tsoutsman, Tatiana; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Key points Genetic mutations in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) are associated with development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy characterized by myocyte remodelling, disorganization of cytoskeletal proteins and altered energy metabolism.The L‐type Ca2+ channel is the main route for calcium influx and is crucial to cardiac excitation and contraction. The channel also regulates mitochondrial function in the heart by a functional communication between the channel and mitochondria via the cytoskeletal network.We find that L‐type Ca2+ channel kinetics are altered in cTnI‐G203S cardiac myocytes and that activation of the channel causes a significantly greater increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and metabolic activity in cTnI‐G203S cardiac myocytes.These responses occur as a result of impaired communication between the L‐type Ca2+ channel and cytoskeletal protein F‐actin, involving decreased movement of actin–myosin and block of the mitochondrial voltage‐dependent anion channel, resulting in a ‘hypermetabolic’ mitochondrial state.We propose that L‐type Ca2+ channel antagonists, such as diltiazem, might be effective in reducing the cardiomyopathy by normalizing mitochondrial metabolic activity. Abstract Genetic mutations in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) account for 5% of families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is associated with disorganization of cytoskeletal proteins and altered energy metabolism. The L‐type Ca2+ channel (ICa‐L) plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. This involves a functional communication between the channel and mitochondria via the cytoskeletal network. We investigate the role of ICa‐L in regulating mitochondrial function in 25‐ to 30‐week‐old cardiomyopathic mice expressing the human disease‐causing mutation Gly203Ser in cTnI (cTnI‐G203S). The inactivation rate of ICa‐L is significantly faster in cTnI‐G203S myocytes [cTnI‐G203S: τ1 = 40.68 ± 3.22, n

  5. Dike zones on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  6. Transposon mutagenesis in Bifidobacterium breve: construction and characterization of a Tn5 transposon mutant library for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lorena; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Lanigan, Noreen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are claimed to contribute positively to human health through a range of beneficial or probiotic activities, including amelioration of gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders, and therefore this particular group of gastrointestinal commensals has enjoyed increasing industrial and scientific attention in recent years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these probiotic mechanisms are still largely unknown, mainly due to the fact that molecular tools for bifidobacteria are rather poorly developed, with many strains lacking genetic accessibility. In this work, we describe the generation of transposon insertion mutants in two bifidobacterial strains, B. breve UCC2003 and B. breve NCFB2258. We also report the creation of the first transposon mutant library in a bifidobacterial strain, employing B. breve UCC2003 and a Tn5-based transposome strategy. The library was found to be composed of clones containing single transposon insertions which appear to be randomly distributed along the genome. The usefulness of the library to perform phenotypic screenings was confirmed through identification and analysis of mutants defective in D-galactose, D-lactose or pullulan utilization abilities.

  7. ISAba1 and Tn6168 acquisition by natural transformation leads to third-generation cephalosporins resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Sara; Rosário, Natasha; Ben Cheikh, Hadhemi; Da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2018-05-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii has intrinsic beta-lactamase genes, namely ampC and bla OXA-51 -like, which are only strongly expressed when the ISAba1 insertion sequence is upstream the 5' end of the genes. A second ampC gene has also been identified in some clinical A. baumannii strains. The increased expression of these genes leads to resistance to beta-lactams, including third-generation cephalosporins and/or carbapenems. The aim of this work was to assess the involvement of natural transformation in the transfer of chromosomal ampC-associated mobile elements, and related changes in the resistance profile of recipient cells. Natural transformation assays with the naturally competent A. baumannii A118 clinical isolate as recipient cell and the multidrug resistant A. baumannii Ab51 clinical isolate as the source of donor DNA produced transformants. All tested transformants showed integration of the ISAba1 close to the ampC gene. In two transformants, the ISAba1 was acquired by transposition and inserted between the usual folE and the ampC genes. The remaining transformants acquired the ISAba1 adjacent to a second ampC gene, as part of Tn6168, likely by homologous recombination. Our study demonstrates that natural transformation can contribute to the widespread of beta-lactams resistance, and acquisition of non-resistant determinants can lead to changes in the susceptibility profile of A. baumannii strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transposon Tn10 contains two structural genes with opposite polarity between tetA and IS10R.

    PubMed Central

    Schollmeier, K; Hillen, W

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the central part of Tn10 has been determined from the rightmost HindIII site to IS10R. This sequence contains two open reading frames with opposite polarity. The in vivo transcription start points in this sequence have been determined by S1 mapping. These results define one minor and two major promoters. The transcription starts of the two major promoters are only 18 base pairs apart, and the transcripts show different polarity and overlap by 18 base pairs. The nucleotide sequence reveals two regions with palindromic symmetry which may serve as operators. Their possible involvement in the regulation of transcription of both genes is discussed. Taken together these results allow for a maximal coding capacity of 138 amino acids directed toward IS10R and 197 amino acids directed toward tetA. The possible function of these gene products is discussed. The accompanying article (Braus et al., J. Bacteriol. 160:504-509, 1984) presents evidence that these genes are expressed. Images PMID:6094471

  9. Development of stable reporter system cloning luxCDABE genes into chromosome of Salmonella enterica serotypes using Tn7 transposon.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin; Karsi, Attila; Germon, Pierre; Wills, Robert W; Lawrence, Mark L; Bailey, Richard H

    2010-07-23

    Salmonellosis may be a food safety problem when raw food products are mishandled and not fully cooked. In previous work, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella enterica serotypes using a plasmid-based reporting system that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products in short term studies. In this study, we report the use of a Tn7-based transposon system for subcloning of luxCDABE genes into the chromosome of eleven Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from the broiler production continuum. We found that the lux operon is constitutively expressed from the chromosome post-transposition and the lux cassette is stable without external pressure, i.e. antibiotic selection, for all Salmonella enterica serotypes used. Bioluminescence expression is based on an active electron transport chain and is directly related with metabolic activity. This relationship was quantified by measuring bioluminescence against a temperature gradient in aqueous solution using a luminometer. In addition, bioluminescent monitoring of two serotypes confirmed that our chicken skin model has the potential to be used to evaluate pathogen mitigation strategies. This study demonstrated that our new stable reporting system eliminates bioluminescence variation due to plasmid instability and provides a reliable real-time experimental system to study application of preventive measures for Salmonella on food products in real-time for both short and long term studies.

  10. Novel anti-Sialyl-Tn monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates demonstrate tumor specificity and anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Jillian M; Galvao da Silva, Ana Paula; Eavarone, David A; Ghaderi, Darius; Zhang, Mai; Brady, Dane; Wicks, Joan; DeSander, Julie; Behrens, Jeff; Rueda, Bo R

    Targeted therapeutics that can differentiate between normal and malignant tumor cells represent the ideal standard for the development of a successful anti-cancer strategy. The Sialyl-Thomsen-nouveau antigen (STn or Sialyl-Tn, also known as CD175s) is rarely seen in normal adult tissues, but it is abundantly expressed in many types of human epithelial cancers. We have identified novel antibodies that specifically target with high affinity the STn glycan independent of its carrier protein, affording the potential to recognize a wider array of cancer-specific sialylated proteins. A panel of murine monoclonal anti-STn therapeutic antibodies were generated and their binding specificity and efficacy were characterized in vitro and in in vivo murine cancer models. A subset of these antibodies were conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). These ADCs demonstrated in vitro efficacy in STn-expressing cell lines and significant tumor growth inhibition in STn-expressing tumor xenograft cancer models with no evidence of overt toxicity.

  11. The Tn Antigen-Specific Lectin from Ground Ivy Is an Insecticidal Protein with an Unusual Physiology1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weifang; Hause, Bettina; Peumans, Willy J.; Smagghe, Guy; Mackie, Anne; Fraser, Robin; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Leaves of ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea) contain a lectin (called Gleheda) that is structurally and evolutionary related to the classical legume lectins. Screening of a population of wild plants revealed that Gleheda accounts for more than one-third of the total leaf protein in some clones, whereas it cannot be detected in other clones growing in the same environment. Gleheda is predominantly expressed in the leaves where it accumulates during early leaf maturation. The lectin is not uniformly distributed over the leaves but exhibits a unique localization pattern characterized by an almost exclusive confinement to a single layer of palisade parenchyma cells. Insect feeding trials demonstrated that Gleheda is a potent insecticidal protein for larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Because Gleheda is not cytotoxic, it is suggested that the insecticidal activity is linked to the carbohydrate-binding specificity of the lectin, which as could be demonstrated by agglutination assays with different types of polyagglutinable human erythrocytes is specifically directed against the Tn antigen structure (N-acetylgalactosamine O-linked to serine or threonine residues of proteins). PMID:12857814

  12. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Moughan, Jennifer; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Pedersen, John E.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Mayer, Robert J.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray’s test. Results Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories. PMID:24035327

  13. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  14. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  15. Zone of intrusion study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-15

    The Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) performed an analysis using LS-DYNA simulation to investigate the zone of intrusion (ZOI) of an NCHRP Report No. 350 2000p pickup truck when impacting a 40-in. high F-shape parapet. : The ZOI for the 40-in...

  16. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  18. Crossing Comfort Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, D. Soyini

    1993-01-01

    Offers a narrative based on a real event, in the form of a "docustory," describing that moment when teaching worked--when, in an instructional setting, communication was "perfect" or "excellent." Describes how three very different students, in a course on the cultures of women of color, moved beyond comfort zones while working together on a class…

  19. Two types of phytases (histidine acid phytase and β-propeller phytase) in Serratia sp. TN49 from the gut of Batocera horsfieldi (coleoptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Yang, Peilong; Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yao, Bin

    2011-11-01

    Microbial phytases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous, especially in symbiotic plants and animals. In this study, we identified two types of phytases in Serratia sp. TN49 that was harbored in the gut of Batocera horsfieldi (Coleoptera) larvae. The two phytases, an acidic histidine acid phosphatase (PhyH49) and an alkaline β-propeller phytase (PhyB49), shared low identities with known phytases (61% at most). PhyH49 and PhyB49 produced in Escherichia coli exhibited maximal activities at pH 5.0 (60°C) and pH 7.5-8.0 (45°C), respectively, and are complementary in phytate degradation over the pH range 2.0-9.0. Serratia sp. TN49 harboring both PhyH49 and PhyB49 might make it more adaptive to environment change, corresponding to the evolution trend of microorganism.

  20. Characterization of Tn3000, a Transposon Responsible for blaNDM-1 Dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil, Nepal, Morocco, and India.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juliana Coutinho; da Silva, Maria José Félix; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Nascimento; Barros, Elaine Menezes; Pereira, Mayne de Oliveira; Seco, Bruna Mara Silva; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Leiroz, Leonardo Kalab; de Oliveira, Théo Gremen Mimary; de Faria-Júnior, Célio; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barth, Afonso Luís; Sampaio, Suely Carlos Ferreira; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Poirel, Laurent; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2015-12-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the blaNDM genes have been found in many different genetic contexts, and a wide diversity of plasmid scaffolds bearing those genes has been found. In August 2013, we identified NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter hormaechei strains from a single rectal swab sample from a patient hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who had no history of travel abroad. Complete DNA sequencing using the Illumina platform and annotation of the two plasmids harboring the blaNDM-1 gene, one from each strain, showed that they belonged to incompatibility groups IncFIIK and IncX3 and harbored a novel transposon named Tn3000. Similar genetic structures have been identified among other isolates in Brazil but also on plasmids from other continents. Our findings suggest that the blaNDM-1 gene may be transmitted by Tn3000 in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  2. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  3. Effect of the polymer concentration on the ON/OFF states of a TN-LCD: polyvinyl alcohol vs. soy lecithin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss Martinez, Romeo; Gonzalez Murguia, Jose Luis

    2011-03-01

    In this work we study the response of a Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display (TN-LCD) by varying both the concentration and the polymer used for the microgroove. We compare the performance of two polymers: polyvinyl alcohol and soy lecithin. In particular, the light transmission for the ON/OFF states is evaluated. The polyvinyl alcohol is a polymer widely used in LCDs while lecithin soy is a natural polymer.

  4. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  5. A simple and novel method for RNA-seq library preparation of single cell cDNA analysis by hyperactive Tn5 transposase.

    PubMed

    Brouilette, Scott; Kuersten, Scott; Mein, Charles; Bozek, Monika; Terry, Anna; Dias, Kerith-Rae; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Shintani, Yasunori; Coppen, Steven; Ikebe, Chiho; Sawhney, Vinit; Campbell, Niall; Kaneko, Masahiro; Tano, Nobuko; Ishida, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Ken; Yashiro, Kenta

    2012-10-01

    Deep sequencing of single cell-derived cDNAs offers novel insights into oncogenesis and embryogenesis. However, traditional library preparation for RNA-seq analysis requires multiple steps with consequent sample loss and stochastic variation at each step significantly affecting output. Thus, a simpler and better protocol is desirable. The recently developed hyperactive Tn5-mediated library preparation, which brings high quality libraries, is likely one of the solutions. Here, we tested the applicability of hyperactive Tn5-mediated library preparation to deep sequencing of single cell cDNA, optimized the protocol, and compared it with the conventional method based on sonication. This new technique does not require any expensive or special equipment, which secures wider availability. A library was constructed from only 100 ng of cDNA, which enables the saving of precious specimens. Only a few steps of robust enzymatic reaction resulted in saved time, enabling more specimens to be prepared at once, and with a more reproducible size distribution among the different specimens. The obtained RNA-seq results were comparable to the conventional method. Thus, this Tn5-mediated preparation is applicable for anyone who aims to carry out deep sequencing for single cell cDNAs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bio-preservative effect of the essential oil of the endemic Mentha piperita used alone and in combination with BacTN635 in stored minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Lahmar, Aida; Ennouri, Karim; Mtibaa-Chakchouk, Ahlem; Sellem, Imen; Najah, Soumaya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2016-07-01

    The major compounds in Mentha piperita essential oil (EOMP) were menthol (33.59%) and iso-menthone (33%). The biopreservative effect of EOMP used alone at 0.25 or 0.5% and in combination with the semi-purified bacteriocin BacTN635 at 500 or 1000AU/g, on minced beef meat was evaluated by microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses during storage at 4°C for 21days. EOMP used alone limited the microbial deterioration of minced meat (P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination between EOMP and BacTN635 led to a decrease in TBARS values and slowed down the accumulation of MetMb. This combination was more efficient (P<0.05) against microflora proliferation and enhanced the sensory acceptability extending thus the shelf life of meat beef by approximately 7days. On the basis of these results, physicochemical and sensorial parameters could be used for constructing regression models to predict overall acceptability. Overall, the strongest preservative effect was achieved by using the combination of EOMP at 0.5% with BacTN535 at 1000AU/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  8. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn ash plumes as seen by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of a volcanic plume introduces a dynamic, localized, short-term heterogeneity in the atmosphere. Satellite-imagery based remote sensing techniques provide good spatial coverage for the detection of such plumes, but slow satellite repeat times (>30 minutes) and cloud cover can delay, if not entirely prevent, the detection. GPS, in turn, provides excellent temporal coverage, but requires favorable satellite-station-geometry such that the signal propagates through the plume if it is to be used for plume detection and analysis. Two methods exist to detect / analyze ash plumes with GPS: (a) Ash-heavy plumes result in signal dispersion and hence a lowered signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A lowered SNR, recorded by some receivers, can provide useful information about the plume, such as location and velocity of ascent. These data can be evaluated directly as they are recorded by the receiver; without the need of solving for a receiver's position. (b) Wet plumes refract the GPS signals piercing the plume and hence induce a propagation delay. When solving for a receiver position GPS analysis tools do not model this localized phase delay effect and solutions for plume-piercing satellites do not fit the data well. This can be exploited for plume analysis such as the estimation of changes to the atmospheric refractivity index. We analyze GPS data of the ~2 month 2010 Eyafjallajökull erption and the week-long 2011 Grímsvötn eruption to infer a first order estimate of plume geometry and its progression. Using SNR and phase delay information, we evaluate the evolution of the partitioning of wet versus dry parts of the plume. During the GPS processing we iteratively solve for phase-delay and position and fix other parameters, hence reducing the mapping of least-squares misfit into position estimates and other parameters. Nearly continuous webcam imagery provides independent observations of first-order plume characteristics for the Eyafjallajökull event.

  9. Emamectin benzoate induces ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in Trichoplusia Tn5B1-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Luan, Shaorong; Yun, Xinming; Rao, Wenbing; Xiao, Ciying; Xu, Zhikang; Lang, Jialin; Huang, Qingchun

    2017-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide, possesses high efficacy and beneficial selective toxicity in agriculture, but so far the EMB-induced cytotoxic action in arthropod insect remains unclear. The present studies were carried out to characterize the property of EMB on the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in Trichoplusia Tn5B1-4 cell model. Following the exposure to EMB at 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 μM, the cells changed to be round, suspended and aggregated, and the decline of cell proliferating ability and cell viability was positively related with the exposure time. Median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of EMB on cell viability was 3.72 μM during 72 h exposure. Apoptosis was induced in 29.8% (24 h) and 39.5% (48 h) of the cells by EMB at 15 μM, showing chromatin condensation in nuclei. The content of ROS in the cells increased rapidly as the concentration of EMB increased, and the pre-incubation of the cells with vitamin E significantly reduced the ROS accumulation. In the treatment of 15 μM EMB, the migrated cell nucleus with DNA strand breaks appeared a teardrop, pear-shaped, or large fan-like tail, and 63.1% of γH2AX-positive cells contained more than four foci, accompanying with high expression level of caspase-3 in time-dependent manner, which consequently led to cell apoptotic death. These evidences in ROS-mediated DNA damage and cell apoptosis induced by EMB may be helpful for deep understanding the cytotoxic action of EMB based on cell model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Non-Cellulose-Producing Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Generated by Tn5 Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Xiao, Chaowen; Tien, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The acs operon of Gluconacetobacter is thought to encode AcsA, AcsB, AcsC, and AcsD proteins that constitute the cellulose synthase complex, required for the synthesis and secretion of crystalline cellulose microfibrils. A few other genes have been shown to be involved in this process, but their precise role is unclear. We report here the use of Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis to identify and characterize six non-cellulose-producing (Cel−) mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769. The genes disrupted were acsA, acsC, ccpAx (encoding cellulose-complementing protein [the subscript “Ax” indicates genes from organisms formerly classified as Acetobacter xylinum]), dgc1 (encoding guanylate dicyclase), and crp-fnr (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase transcriptional regulator). Protein blot analysis revealed that (i) AcsB and AcsC were absent in the acsA mutant, (ii) the levels of AcsB and AcsC were significantly reduced in the ccpAx mutant, and (iii) the level of AcsD was not affected in any of the Cel− mutants. Promoter analysis showed that the acs operon does not include acsD, unlike the organization of the acs operon of several strains of closely related Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Complementation experiments confirmed that the gene disrupted in each Cel− mutant was responsible for the phenotype. Quantitative real-time PCR and protein blotting results suggest that the transcription of bglAx (encoding β-glucosidase and located immediately downstream from acsD) was strongly dependent on Crp/Fnr. A bglAx knockout mutant, generated via homologous recombination, produced only ∼16% of the wild-type cellulose level. Since the crp-fnr mutant did not produce any cellulose, Crp/Fnr may regulate the expression of other gene(s) involved in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:24013627

  11. Hfq restructures RNA-IN and RNA-OUT and facilitates antisense pairing in the Tn10/IS10 system

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph A.; Ellis, Michael J.; Hossain, Shahan; Haniford, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Hfq functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in a wide range of bacteria, usually by promoting base-pairing of mRNAs and trans-encoded sRNAs that share partial sequence complementarity. It is less clear if Hfq is required for pairing of cis-encoded RNAs (i.e., antisense RNAs) with their target mRNAs. In the current work, we have characterized the interactions between Escherichia coli Hfq and the components of the Tn10/IS10 antisense system, RNA-IN and RNA-OUT. We show that Hfq interacts with RNA-OUT through its proximal RNA-binding surface, as is typical for Hfq and trans-encoded sRNAs. In contrast, RNA-IN binds both proximal and distal RNA-binding surfaces in Hfq with a higher affinity for the latter, as is typical for mRNA interactions in canonical sRNA-mRNA pairs. Importantly, an amino acid substitution in Hfq that interferes with RNA binding to the proximal site negatively impacts RNA-IN:OUT pairing in vitro and suppresses the ability of Hfq to negatively regulate IS10 transposition in vivo. We also show that Hfq binding to RNA-IN and RNA-OUT alters secondary structure elements in both of these RNAs and speculate that this could be important in how Hfq facilitates RNA-IN:OUT pairing. Based on the results presented here, we suggest that Hfq could be involved in regulating RNA pairing in other antisense systems, including systems encoded by other transposable elements. PMID:23510801

  12. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  13. Aeration Zone Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, B.

    The International Symposium on Recent Investigations in the Zone of Aeration (RIZA) was organized by the Institute for Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry of the Technical University of Munich and held October 1-5, 1984, in the lecture halls of the Grosshadern Klinik in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). P. Udluft, B. Merkel, and K.-H. Prüsl, all of the university, were responsible for the organization of the symposium, which was under the patronage of K.-E. Quentin. There were over 200 participants from 22 different countries, among them Australia, Canada, China, India, and the United States. The topics of the symposium were the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes in the unsaturated zone, the region between the surface and the groundwater level. Here a number of complex processes occur that on the one hand are of natural origin and on the other hand are influenced by human activities in a number of ways.

  14. Crash characteristics at work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and traffic. A clear understanding of the characteristics of work zone crashes will enhance the selection...

  15. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  16. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  17. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  18. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets."

  19. TN_50mwind

    average wind resource potential for the state of Tennessee at a 50 meter height. Purpose: Provide any purpose whatsoever, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the data. Further LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED

  20. TN International and ITS operational feedback regarding the decommissioning of obsolete casks dedicated to the transport and/or storage of nuclear raw materials, fuel and used fuel

    SciT

    Blachet, L.; Bimet, F.; Rennesson, N.

    2008-07-01

    Within the AREVA group, TN International is a major actor regarding the design of casks and transportation for the nuclear cycle. In the early 2005, TN International has started the project of decommissioning some of its own equipment and was hence the first company ever in the AREVA Group to implement this new approach. In order to do so, TN International has based this project by taking into account the AREVA Sustainable Development Charter, the French regulatory framework, the ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - National Agency for the radioactive waste management) requirements and has deployedmore » a step by step methodology such as radiological characterization following a logical route. The aim was to define a standardized process with optimized solutions regarding the diversity of the cask's fleet. As a general matter, decommissioning of nuclear casks is a brand new field as the nuclear field is more familiar with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and/or nuclear power plant. Nevertheless existing workshops, maintenance facilities, measurements equipments and techniques have been exploited and adapted by TN International in order to turn an ambitious project into a permanent and cost-effective activity. The decommissioning of the nuclear casks implemented by TN International regarding its own needs and the French regulatory framework is formalized by several processes and is materialized for instance by the final disposal of casks as they are or in ISO container packed with cut-off casks and big bags filled with crushed internal cask equipments, etc. The first part of this paper aims to describe the history of the project that started with a specific environmental analysis which took into account the values of AREVA as regards the Sustainable Development principles that were at the time and are still a topic of current concern in the world. The second part will deal with the definition, the design and the implementation of

  1. Figure 12(a) Effects of Inclining Water. Figure 12(b) Sand. NASA document NASA-TN-D-56 An investigation to determine conditions under which downwash from VTOL aircraft will start surface erosion from various types of terrain

    1959-05-04

    Figure 12(a) Effects of Inclining Water. Figure 12(b) Sand. NASA-TN-D-56 An investigation to determine conditions under which downwash from VTOL aircraft will start surface erosion from various types of terrain.

  2. 'Test n Treat (TnT)'- Rapid testing and same-day, on-site treatment to reduce rates of chlamydia in sexually active further education college students: study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Kerry-Barnard, Sarah; Fleming, Charlotte; Reid, Fiona; Phillips, Rachel; Drennan, Vari M; Adams, Elisabeth J; Majewska, Wendy; Balendra, Anjella; Harding-Esch, Emma; Cousins, Emma; Tariq Sadiq, S; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2018-06-05

    Sexually active young people attending London further education (FE) colleges have high rates of chlamydia, but screening rates are low. We will conduct a cluster randomised feasibility trial of frequent, rapid, on-site chlamydia testing and same-day treatment (Test and Treat (TnT)) in six FE colleges (with parallel qualitative and economic assessments) to assess the feasibility of conducting a future trial to investigate if TnT reduces chlamydia rates. We will recruit 80 sexually active students aged 16-24 years from public areas at each of six colleges. All participants (total n = 480) will be asked to provide samples (urine for males, self-taken vaginal swabs for females) and complete questionnaires on sexual lifestyle and healthcare use at baseline and after 7 months. Participants will be informed that baseline samples will not be tested for 7 months and be advised to get screened separately. Colleges will be randomly allocated to the intervention (TnT) or the control group (no TnT). One and 4 months after recruitment, participants at each intervention college (n = 3) will be texted and invited for on-site chlamydia tests using the 90-min Cepheid GeneXpert system. Students with positive results will be asked to see a visiting nurse health adviser for same-day treatment and partner notification, (backed by genitourinary medicine follow-up). Participants in control colleges (n = 3) will receive 'thank you' texts 1 and 4 months after recruitment. Seven months after recruitment, participants from both groups will be invited to complete questionnaires and provide samples for TnT. All samples will be tested, and same-day treatment offered to students with positive results. Acceptability of TnT will be assessed by qualitative interviews of purposively sampled students (n = 30) and college staff (n = 12). We will collect data on costs of TnT and usual healthcare. Findings will provide key values to inform feasibility, sample size and timescales of a

  3. Fibonacci-like zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Liu, Mengsi; Xia, Tian; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    We present a new family of diffractive lenses, Fibonacci-like zone plates, generated with a modified Fibonacci sequence. The focusing properties and the evolution of transverse diffraction pattern for the Fibonacci-like zone plates have been analytically investigated both theoretically and experimentally and compared with the corresponding Fresnel zone plates of the same resolution. The results demonstrate that the Fibonacci-like zone plates possess the self-similar property and the multifocal behavior. Furthermore, the Fibonacci-like zone plate beams are found to possess the self-reconstruction property, and would be promising for 3D optical tweezers, laser machining, and optical imaging.

  4. The generalized mean zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper a generalized mean zone plate is proposed, which generates twin foci located at the positions satisfying the expression of the generalized mean, which includes the m-golden mean, precious mean, and so on. The generalized mean zone plate can be designed to generate twin foci with various position ratios. The diffraction properties of the generalized mean zone plates have been investigated with simulations and experiments. The results show that the ratio of the positions of the twin foci for the generalized mean zone plate can be designed with the selected zone plate parameters.

  5. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  6. Smartphones and Time Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  7. Marginal Ice Zone Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    A Voyage of Discovery. George Deacon 70th An-niversary Volume, (M. Angel, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p.15-41. Coachman, L.K., C.A. Barnes, 1961...some polar contrasts. In: S "" RUsium on Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, ( George Deacon, ed.), Sci- 72 Lebedev, A.A., 1968: Zone of possible icing of...Atlantic and Western Europe. British Meteorological Office. Geophysical Memoirs, 4(41). Brost , R.A., J.C. Wyngaard, 1978: A model study of the stably

  8. Coffee and Cigarette Consumption and Perceived Effects in Recovering Alcoholics Participating in Alcoholics Anonymous in Nashville, TN

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Michael S.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Finlayson, A.J. Reid; Fischer, Edward F.; Martin, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members represent an important and relatively understudied population for improving our understanding of alcohol dependence recovery since over one million Americans participate in the program. Further insight into coffee and cigarette use by these individuals is necessary given AA members’ apparent widespread consumption and the recognized health consequences and psychopharmacological actions of these substances. Methods Volunteers were sought from all open-AA meetings in Nashville, TN during the summer of 2007 to complete a questionnaire (n=289, completion rate=94.1%) including timeline followback for coffee, cigarette, and alcohol consumption; the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale; coffee consumption and effects questions; the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND); and the Smoking Effects Questionnaire. Results Mean (±SD) age of onset of alcohol consumption was 15.4±4.2 years and mean lifetime alcohol consumption was 1026.0±772.8 kg ethanol. Median declared alcohol abstinence was 2.1 years (range: 0 days–41.1 years) and median lifetime AA attendance was 1000.0 meetings (range: 4–44209 meetings); average AA affiliation score was 7.6±1.5. Most (88.5%) individuals consumed coffee and approximately 33% of coffee consumers drank more than four cups per day (M=3.9±3.9). The most common self-reported reasons for coffee consumption and coffee-associated behavioral changes were related to stimulatory effects. More than half (56.9%) of individuals in AA smoked cigarettes. Of those who smoked, 78.7% consumed at least half a pack of cigarettes per day (M=21.8±12.3). Smokers’ FTND scores were 5.8±2.4; over 60% of smokers were highly or very highly dependent. Reduced negative affect was the most important subjective effect of smoking. Conclusions A greater proportion of AA participants drink coffee and smoke cigarettes in larger per capita amounts than observed in general US populations. The effects of these

  9. [Current approach to zoning atomic shipbuilding plants].

    PubMed

    Blekher, A Ia

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the currently introduced radiation-and-hygienic system for zoning atomic shipbuilding plants, in accordance with which three radiation-and-hygienic zones (a strict regime zone, a controlled approach zone, and a free regime zone) are established at the plant site and two zones (a sanitary-and-protective zone and a follow-up zone) are also established outside the plant site.

  10. Which Biomarker is the Best for Predicting Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: NT-ProBNP, Cardiac TnT, or hsCRP?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyung Jung; Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although numerous previous studies have explored various biomarkers for their ability to predict mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, these studies have been limited by retrospective analyses, mostly prevalent dialysis patients, and the measurement of only 1 or 2 biomarkers. This prospective study was aimed to evaluate the association between 3 biomarkers and mortality in incident 335 ESRD patients starting continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in Korea. According to the baseline NT-proBNP, cTnT, and hsCRP levels, the patients were stratified into tertiles, and cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortalities were compared. Additionally, time-dependent ROC curves were constructed, and the net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of the models with various biomarkers were calculated. We found the upper tertile of NT-proBNP was significantly associated with increased risk of both CV and all-cause mortalities. However, the upper tertile of hsCRP was significantly related only to the high risk of all-cause mortality even after adjustment for age, sex, and white blood cell counts. Moreover, NT-proBNP had the highest predictive power for CV mortality, whereas hsCRP was the best prognostic marker for all-cause mortality among these biomarkers. In conclusions, NT-proBNP is a more significant prognostic factor for CV mortality than cTnT and hsCRP, whereas hsCRP is a more significant predictor than NT-proBNP and cTnT for all-cause mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:26554763

  11. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection of tetR of Tn10 in Escherichia coli using SYBR Green and the Opticon.

    PubMed

    Morsczeck, Christian; Langendörfer, Daniel; Schierholz, Jörg Michael

    2004-06-30

    Bacteria of implant infections are extremely resistant to antibiotics. One reason for this antibiotic resistance are transposons; the well-known transposon Tn10, for example, mediates tetracycline resistance to Escherichia coli. Two genes of Tn10, tetA and tetR, are essential for the mechanism of resistance. These genes encode a drug-specific efflux protein and a tetracycline repressor protein, respectively. Tn10 is also widely used in molecular biology. For example, tTA, a recombinant derivate of tetR, has been utilised for a highly efficient gene regulation system in mammalian cells. We have examined E. coli isolates from implant infections for tetracycline resistance and for the presence of tetR. A real-time PCR assay was developed for detection of tetR with SybrGreen using the Opticon PCR machine of MJ Research. This method offers a quick, sensitive, efficient, and reliable approach to the detection and quantification of genes. Clinical isolates of E. coli were examined successfully for tetracycline resistance and for the presence of tetR. The real-time PCR is effective using a variety of templates including isolated E. coli DNA, pure colonies, or liquid culture sources. Using quantified standard DNA, this assay can accurately detect as few as 15 copies. Moreover, this assay has the ability to quantify the number of tetR genes in the presence of contaminating mammalian DNA. In conclusion, the tetR real-time PCR offers new methods for detection and quantification of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and tTA in transfected cell-lines or transgenic animals.

  12. Volcanic ash leaching as a means of tracing the environmental impact of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Cabré, J; Aulinas, M; Rejas, M; Fernandez-Turiel, J L

    2016-07-01

    The Grímsvötn volcanic eruption, from 21 to 28 May, 2011, was the largest eruption of the Grímsvötn Volcanic System since 1873, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of magnitude 4. The main geochemical features of the potential environmental impact of the volcanic ash-water interaction were determined using two different leaching methods as proxies (batch and vertical flow-through column experiments). Ash consists of glass with minor amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, diopside, olivine and iron sulphide; this latter mineral phase is very rare in juvenile ash. Ash grain morphology and size reflect the intense interaction of magma and water during eruption. Batch and column leaching tests in deionised water indicate that Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Cl, S and F had the highest potential geochemical fluxes to the environment. Release of various elements from volcanic ash took place immediately through dissolution of soluble salts from the ash surface. Element solubilities of Grímsvötn ash regarding bulk ash composition were <1 %. Combining the element solubilities and the total estimated mass of tephra (7.29 × 10(14) g), the total inputs of environmentally important elements were estimated to be 8.91 × 10(9) g Ca, 7.02 × 10(9) g S, 1.10 × 10(9) g Cl, 9.91 × 10(8) g Mg, 9.91 × 10(8) g Fe and 1.45 × 10(8) g P The potential environmental problems were mainly associated with the release of F (5.19 × 10(9) g).

  13. [Establishment of Reference Value of Hs-cTnT in Sichuan Region and Its Diagnostic Value in Patients with Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Du, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Hua-Lan; Wang, Wei-Qing; Nie, Xin; Li, Gui-Xing

    2017-11-01

    To establish the reference value of high sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and the efficiency of reference value in the diagnosis of chest pain. Volunteers from eight independent communities in Chengdu,Sichuan were selected with detailed records of physical examination,electrocardiogram,ultrasound examination. The level of hs-cTnT for healthy volunteers was tested to determine ninety-ninth percentile references according to sex and ages. 2 249 patients with chest pain in the emergency department of Western China Hospital from July 2009 to July 2014 were enrolled to measure the efficiency of reference value for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI). There were 1 305 volunteers included finally. Among them,the mean hs-cTnT level of male was 4.3 (3.2-5.9) ng/L,which was significantly higher than that of female 3.0 (3.0-3.1) ng/L ( P <0.01) . The correlation coefficient between age and hs-cTnT level was 0.43 (male) and 0.29 (female),and the P -value was less than 0.01. The 99th percentile values of male were 10.8 ng/L,15.4 ng/L and 19.7 ng/L for <45 yr.,45-<60 yr. and ≥60 yr.,respectively. Those values of female were 4.6 ng/L,8.9 ng/L,18.8 ng/L,respectively. There was no difference in sensitivity and specificity between the value we figured out and manufactures provided (14.0 ng/L) for those<60 yr.. For the patients ≥60 yr.,the sensitivity and negative predictive value did not show diversity ( P >0.05) but the specificity and positive predictive value showed significant difference (male: 0.67 vs. 0.56 and 0.83 vs. 0.79, P <0.05;female:0.75 vs. 0.68 and 0.74 vs. 0.69, P <0.05). We recommends that the ninety-ninth percentile reference value of patients<60 yr. should be 14.0 ng/L,while 20.0 ng/L for those patients≥60 yr.

  14. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  15. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls.

    SciT

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-06-21

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container typesmore » for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion.« less

  16. Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer.

    PubMed

    Baram, S; Kurtzman, D; Ronen, Z; Peeters, A; Dahan, O

    2014-01-01

    Dairy waste lagoons are considered to be point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl(-)), different nitrogen-species and pathogens/microorganisms. The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such lagoons on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on a spatial statistical analysis of Cl(-) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration distributions in the saturated and the vadose (unsaturated) zones. The method provides quantitative data on the relation between the locations of dairy lagoons and the spatial variability in Cl(-) and TN concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that despite the small surface area covered by the dairy lagoons in this region (0.8%), leachates from lagoons have contributed 6.0% and 12.6% of the total mass of Cl(-) and TN (mainly as NO3(-)-N) added to the aquifer. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl(-) and TN to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N. Mass balance calculations, for the vadose zone of the entire region, indicated that drying of the lagoons would decrease the regional groundwater salinization process (11% of the total Cl(-) load is stored under lagoons). A more considerable reduction in the groundwater contamination by NO3(-)-N is expected (25% of the NO3(-)-N load is stored under lagoons). Results

  17. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P < 0.0001). Our findings that zonal differences in normal tissue persist in tumor tissue and that these differences are associated with Gleason score and sample type suggest that subtypes potentially resulting from different etiologic pathways might arise in these zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  18. Linear and exponential TAIL-PCR: a method for efficient and quick amplification of flanking sequences adjacent to Tn5 transposon insertion sites.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xianbo; Lin, Xinjian; Chen, Jichen

    2017-11-02

    Current genome walking methods are very time consuming, and many produce non-specific amplification products. To amplify the flanking sequences that are adjacent to Tn5 transposon insertion sites in Serratia marcescens FZSF02, we developed a genome walking method based on TAIL-PCR. This PCR method added a 20-cycle linear amplification step before the exponential amplification step to increase the concentration of the target sequences. Products of the linear amplification and the exponential amplification were diluted 100-fold to decrease the concentration of the templates that cause non-specific amplification. Fast DNA polymerase with a high extension speed was used in this method, and an amplification program was used to rapidly amplify long specific sequences. With this linear and exponential TAIL-PCR (LETAIL-PCR), we successfully obtained products larger than 2 kb from Tn5 transposon insertion mutant strains within 3 h. This method can be widely used in genome walking studies to amplify unknown sequences that are adjacent to known sequences.

  19. Survival of Escherichia coli with and without ColE1::Tn5 after aerosol dispersal in a laboratory and a farm environment.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, B; Flynn, P; Kamely, D; Levy, S B

    1988-01-01

    The survival of a laboratory strain and a naturally occurring fecal strain of Escherichia coli, with and without a Tn5-containing derivative of ColE1, was examined after aerosol dispersal in a laboratory office and a barn under ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Following the release of paired strains, air and diverse types of surfaces were assayed for the test organisms. In both environments, the number of airborne bacteria declined rapidly within the first 2 h. Longer survival was found on surfaces and varied with surface type: recovery was greatest from wood products. Organisms persisted for 1 day in the office and for up to 20 days in the barn. Survival of the fecal strain was better than that of the laboratory strain in both test environments. In general, plasmid-bearing strains fared similarly to their plasmidless parents, but in several comparisons the ColE1::Tn5-containing strain showed enhanced survival. These studies have implications for the present and proposed release of genetically engineered organisms with and without plasmid vectors. PMID:2843099

  20. [Nutrient Characteristics and Nitrogen Forms of Rhizosphere Soils Under Four Typical Plants in the Littoral Zone of TGR].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-feng; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Yue, Jun-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), which is the largest water conservancy project ever built in tne world, produced a drawdown area of about 348.93 km2 because of water level control. The biological geochemical cycle of the soil in the drawdown zone has been changed as the result of long-term winter flooding and summer drought and vegetation covering. The loss of soil nitrogen in the drawdown zone poses a threat to the water environmental in TGR. Pengxi river, is an important anabranch, which has the largest drawdown area has been selected in the present study. The four typical vegetation, contained Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Anthium sibiricum and Zea mays L. as the control, were studied to measure nutrient characteristics and nitrogen forms of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in three distribution areas with different soil types (paddy soil, purple soil and fluvo-aquic soils). The variables measured included organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), hydrolysis N, available P and available K, pH, ion-exchangeable N (IEE-N), weak acid extractable N (CF-N) , iron-manganese oxides N (IMOF-N), organic matter sulfide N (OSF-N), added up four N forms for total transferable N (TF-N) and TN minus TF-N for non-transferable N (NTF-N). The results showed: (1) pH of rhizosphere soil was generally lower than that of non-rhizosphere soil under different vegetation in different type soils because the possible organic acid and H+ released form plant roots and cation absorption differences, and the OM, TP, TN and hydrolysis N of rhizosphere soil were generally higher than those of non-rhizosphere soil, and that the enrichment ratio (ER) of all the four nutrient indicators showed Cyperus rotundus > Cynodon dactylon > Zea mays L. > Anthium sibiricum. Available P showed enrichment in the rhizosphere of three natural vegetations but lose under corn, and available K, TK showed different ER in different conditions. (2) IEF-N CF

  1. Achieving That Elusive "Leadership Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the "leadership zone" happens when librarians tap into the extraordinary skills lying within to overcome obstacles and transform sometimes-difficult situations into meaningful outcomes. Maturing into an experienced leader who stays in the leadership zone requires knowledge, training, and practice. This article provides tactical…

  2. Estimation of earthquake effects associated with a great earthquake in the New Madrid seismic zone

    Hopper, Margaret G.; Algermissen, Sylvester Theodore; Dobrovolny, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates have been made of the effects of a large Ms = 8.6, Io = XI earthquake hypothesed to occur anywhere in the New Madrid seismic zone. The estimates are based on the distributions of intensities associated with the earthquakes of 1811-12, 1843 and 1895 although the effects of other historical shocks are also considered. The resulting composite type intensity map for a maximum intensity XI is believed to represent the upper level of shaking likely to occur. Specific intensity maps have been developed for six cities near the epicentral region taking into account the most likely distribution of site response in each city. Intensities found are: IX for Carbondale, IL; VIII and IX for Evansville, IN; VI and VIII for Little Rock, AR; IX and X for Memphis, TN; VIII, IX, and X for Paducah, KY; and VIII and X for Poplar Bluff, MO. On a regional scale, intensities are found to attenuate from the New Madrid seismic zone most rapidly to the west and southwest sides of the zone, most slowly to the northwest along the Mississippi River, on the northeast along the Ohio River, and on the southeast toward Georgia and South Carolina. Intensities attenuate toward the north, east, and south in a more normal fashion. Known liquefaction effects are documented but much more research is needed to define the liquefaction potential.

  3. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  4. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contact Zone: Missoula

    2015-07-23

    A rock outcrop dubbed "Missoula," near Marias Pass on Mars, is seen in this image mosaic taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager on NASA's Curiosity rover. Pale mudstone (bottom of outcrop) meets coarser sandstone (top) in this geological contact zone, which has piqued the interest of Mars scientists. White mineral veins that fill fractures in the lower rock unit abruptly end when they meet the upper rock unit. Such clues help scientists understand the possible timing of geological events. First, the fine sediment that now forms the lower unit would have hardened into rock. It then would have fractured, and groundwater would have deposited calcium sulfate minerals into the fractures. Next, the coarser sediment that forms the upper unit would have been deposited. The area pictured is about 16 inches (40 centimeters) across. The image was taken on the 1,031st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 1, 2015). MAHLI was built by Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed and built the project's Curiosity rover. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19829

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  7. Jovian 'Twilight Zone'

    2018-03-01

    This image captures the swirling cloud formations around the south pole of Jupiter, looking up toward the equatorial region. NASA's Juno spacecraft took the color-enhanced image during its eleventh close flyby of the gas giant planet on Feb. 7 at 7:11 a.m. PST (10:11 a.m. EST). At the time, the spacecraft was 74,896 miles (120,533 kilometers) from the tops of Jupiter's clouds at 84.9 degrees south latitude. Citizen scientist Gerald Gerald Eichstädt processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. This image was created by reprocessing raw JunoCam data using trajectory and pointing data from the spacecraft. This image is one in a series of images taken in an experiment to capture the best results for illuminated parts of Jupiter's polar region. To make features more visible in Jupiter's terminator -- the region where day meets night -- the Juno team adjusted JunoCam so that it would perform like a portrait photographer taking multiple photos at different exposures, hoping to capture one image with the intended light balance. For JunoCam to collect enough light to reveal features in Jupiter's dark twilight zone, the much brighter illuminated day-side of Jupiter becomes overexposed with the higher exposure. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21980

  8. Different Variations of Néel Temperature TN and Kondo Temperature TK in the Alloy System Ce(Ru1-xOsx)2Al10 under Uniaxial Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Hayashi, Kyosuke; Umeo, Kazunori; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2018-05-01

    We report magnetic, transport, and specific-heat measurements for single crystals of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) Kondo semiconductor alloy series Ce(Ru1-xOsx)2Al10 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), which crystallize into an orthorhombic structure. The specific-heat and resistivity data show that the isoelectronic substitution does not damage the hybridization gap or the AFM transition. The Kondo temperature TK increases linearly with x, whereas the Néel temperature TN exhibits a maximum value of 29.2 K for x = 0.71. Under increasing uniaxial pressure P || a, TN increases for x = 0 but decreases for x = 1, while TK increases in the entire range of x. Under P || b, in contrast, TN increases steadily in the whole range of x while TK remains unchanged for each x. The strongly anisotropic change in TN indicates the presence of another mechanism to enhance TN in this system in addition to the anisotropic hybridization of the 4f state with conduction bands.

  9. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  10. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  11. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  12. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  13. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.169 Section 165.169 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  14. 49 CFR 71.11 - Alaska zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska zone. 71.11 Section 71.11 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.11 Alaska zone. The sixth zone, the Alaska standard time zone, includes the entire State of Alaska, except as provided in § 71.12...

  15. 49 CFR 71.13 - Samoa zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samoa zone. 71.13 Section 71.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.13 Samoa zone. The eighth zone, the Samoa standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 169 degrees...

  16. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.6 Central zone. The third zone, the central standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the boundary line between the eastern and central standard time zones described in § 71.5 and east of the...

  17. 49 CFR 71.4 - Eastern zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastern zone. 71.4 Section 71.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.4 Eastern zone. The second zone, the eastern standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of 67°30″ W...

  18. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″ W...

  19. 49 CFR 71.14 - Chamorro Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chamorro Zone. 71.14 Section 71.14 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.14 Chamorro Zone. The ninth zone, the Chamorro standard time zone, includes the Island of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern...

  20. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of the boundary line between the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east of the...

  1. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The fifth zone, the Pacific standard time zone, includes that part of the continental United States that is west of the boundary line between the mountain and Pacific standard time zones described in § 71.9, but...

  2. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC STIRRING IN ZONE REFINING

    SciT

    Braun, I.; Frank, F.C.; Marshall, S.

    1958-02-01

    The efficiency of the zone refining process can obviously be increased by stirring the molten zone to disperse the impurity-rich layer at the solid- liquid surface. Induction heating is sometimes preferred to radiant heat because it produces more convection, but no marked improvement has been reported. Pfann and Dorsi(1967) have described a method of stirring the melt by passing an electric current through the ingot and compressing a magnetic field across the molten zone. Preliminary results obtained by using a rotating magnetic field us the stirring agent during the purification of aluminum are described. (A.C.)

  4. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, drawbridge operation regulations and regulated navigation areas, all...

  5. Effects of dexmedetomidine on H-FABP, CK-MB, cTnI levels, neurological function and near-term prognosis in patients undergoing heart valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Qiang; Guo, Hao; Li, Zhishan; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Lei; Guo, Yongqing

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), and troponin I (cTnI) levels, neurological function and near-term prognosis in patients undergoing heart valve replacement. Patients undergoing heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to remifentanil anesthesia (control group, n=48) or dexmedetomidine anesthesia (observation group, n=48). Hemodynamic parameters were measured before anesthesia induction (T1), 1 min after intubation (T2), 10 min after start of surgery (T3), and on completion of surgery (T4). Levels of plasma H-FABP, CK-MB and cTnI were measured 10 min before anesthesia induction (C1), 10 min after start of surgery (C2), on completion of surgery (C3), 6 h after surgery (C4), and 24 h after surgery (C5). S100β protein and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were detected 10 min before anesthesia induction (C1), and 24 h after surgery (C5). Neurological and cardiac function was evaluated 24 h after surgery. Incidence of cardiovascular adverse events was recorded for 1 year of follow-up. There were no significant differences in the average heart rate between the two groups during the perioperative period. The mean arterial pressure in the observation group was significantly lower than control group (P<0.05). Levels of H-FABP, CK-MB and cTnI at C2, C3, C4 and C5, were significantly higher than C1, but significantly lower in the observation versus control group (P<0.05). Twenty-four hours after surgery, levels of S100β and NSE in both groups were higher than those before induction (P<0.05), but significantly lower in the observation versus control group (P<0.05). Twenty-four hours after surgery, neurological function scores were better, and myocardial contractility and arrhythmia scores significantly lower in the observation versus control group (P<0.05 for all). After follow-up for 1 year, incidence of cardiovascular adverse events was significantly lower

  6. The impact of systems-of-care on pharmacoinvasive management with streptokinase: The subgroup analysis of the TN-STEMI programme.

    PubMed

    Raja, Deep Chandh; Subban, Vijayakumar; Victor, Suma M; Joseph, George; Thomson, Viji Samuel; Kannan, Kumaresan; Gnanaraj, Justin Paul; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Thenpally, Jose G; Livingston, Nandhini; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Alexander, Thomas; Mullasari, Ajit S

    We evaluated the impact of implementation of the TN-STEMI programme on various characteristics of the pharmacoinvasive group by comparing clinical as well as angiographic outcomes between the pre- and post-implementation groups. The TN-STEMI programme involved 2420 patients of which 423 patients had undergone a pharmacoinvasive strategy of reperfusion. Of these, 407 patients had a comprehensive blinded core-lab evaluation of their angiograms post-lysis and clinical evaluation of various parameters including time-delays and adverse cardio- and cerebro-vascular events at 1year. Streptokinase was used as the thrombolytic agent in 94.6% of the patients. In the post-implementation phase, there was a significant improvement in 'First medical contact (FMC)-to-ECG' (11 vs. 5min, p<0.001) and 'Lysis-to-angiogram' (98.3 vs. 18.2h, p<0.001) times. There was also a significant improvement in the number of coronary angiograms performed within 24h (20.7% vs. 69.3%, p<0.001). The 'Time-to-FMC' (160 vs. 135min, p=0.07) and 'Total ischemic time' (210 vs. 176min, p=0.22) also showed a decreasing trend. IRA patency rate (70.2% vs. 86%, p<0.001) and thrombus burden (TIMI grade 0: 49.1% vs. 73.4%, p<0.001) were superior in this group. The MACCE rates were similar except for fewer readmissions (29.8% vs. 12.6%, p=0.0002) and target revascularizations at 1year (4.8% vs. none, p=0.002) in the post-implementation group. The implementation of a system-of-care (hub-and-spoke model) in the pharmacoinvasive group of the TN-STEMI programme demonstrated shorter lysis-to-angiogram times, better TIMI flow patterns and lower thrombus burden in the post-implementation phase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Improving work zone safety through speed management.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    Safety hazards are increased in highway work zones as the dynamics of a work zone introduce a constantly changing : environment with varying levels of risk. Excessive speeding through work and maintenance zones is a common occurrence : which elevates...

  8. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and highly sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) as markers of myocardial injury and cardiovascular events in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

    PubMed

    Connolly, M; Shand, J; Kinnin, M; Menown, I; Kurth, M J; Lamont, J; Mc Eneaney, D

    2018-01-01

    Type 4a myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when myocardial injury is combined with either symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischaemia, new left bundle branch block, angiographic loss of patency of a major artery or imaging suggestive of new loss of myocardium. Myocardial injury is defined as a rise of >5 x 99th upper reference limit (URL) of 14 ng/l (i.e. >70 ng/l) for highly sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) at 6 h if hsTnT was normal at baseline or >20% rise from 0 to 6 h if hsTnT was >14 ng/l at baseline. To assess the prognostic value of biomarkers of myocardial injury following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A cohort of 209 patients were included of whom 144 (68.9%) were male, mean age was 68.8 years, 28 (13.4%) were smokers, 31 (14.8%) were diabetic, 199 (95.2%) had hypercholesterolaemia and 138 (66.0%) had hypertension. We evaluated hsTnT, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), troponin I (TnI), creatine kinase MB type (CKMB), myoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) and carbonic anhydrase III (CA III) at 0, 4, 6 and 24 h following elective PCI. Patients were followed up at 1 year to assess for major adverse clinical events (MACE). Myocardial injury was observed in 37 (17.7%) patients. Median hsTnT/H-FABP at 4 h were most predictive. MACE was noted in 6 (2.9%) patients, 3 had type 4a MI post PCI, P = 0.036. Median 4 h hsTnT/H-FABP were most predictive of myocardial injury following PCI. H-FABP and hsTnT were predictive of MACE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Crash characteristics at work zones

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-05-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for vehicle drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and the traffic, and therefore aggravate the existing traffic conditions.

  10. Work zone and operation enhancements.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  11. Selective methanol or formate production during continuous CO₂ fermentation by the acetogen biocatalysts engineered via integration of synthetic pathways using Tn7-tool.

    PubMed

    Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Methanol-resistant mutant acetogen Clostridium sp. MT1424 originally producing only 365 mM acetate from CO₂/CO was engineered to eliminate acetate production and spore formation using Cre-lox66/lox71-system to power subsequent methanol production via expressing synthetic methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase, three copies of each, assembled in cluster and integrated to chromosome using Tn7-based approach. Production of 2.2 M methanol was steady (p < 0.005) in single step fermentations of 20 % CO₂ + 80 % H₂ blend (v/v) 25 day runs each in five independent repeats. If the integrated cluster comprised only three copies of formate dehydrogenase the respective recombinants produced 95 mM formate (p < 0.005) under the same conditions. For commercialization, the suggested source of inorganic carbon would be CO₂ waste of IGCC power plant. Hydrogen may be produced in situ via powered by solar panels electrolysis.

  12. A neutral molecular-based layered magnet [Fe(C2O4)(CH3OH)]n exhibiting magnetic ordering at TN approximately 23 K.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jinbiao; Li, Junchao; Zhu, Daoben

    2008-10-07

    Solvothermal synthesis of FeCl(2).4H2O and H2C2O(4).2H2O in methanol at 120 degrees C yielded yellow plate-like crystals of [Fe(C2O4)(CH3OH)]n. Each iron atom is in a distorted octahedral environment, being bonded to four oxygen atoms from two bisbidentate oxalate anions, one O atom of a chelating oxalate anion and one O atom from a methanol molecule as an oxalate group bridging ligand in a five-coordination mode. The neutral layer of [Fe(C2O4)(CH3OH)]n with a [4,4] net along the ac plane. There is no interaction between layers. A long range magnetic ordering with spin canting at TN approximately 23 K was observed and confirmed by AC susceptibility measurements.

  13. Postoperative change of anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich and Tn IgG level: the follow-up study of gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Smorodin, Eugeniy-P; Kurtenkov, Oleg-A; Sergeyev, Boris-L; Kodar, Kristel-E; Chuzmarov, Valentin-I; Afanasyev, Vladimir-P

    2008-07-21

    To study the influence of tumor removal on the serum level of IgG antibodies to tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF), Tn carbohydrate epitopes and xenogeneic alphaGal, and to elucidate on the change of the level during the follow-up as well as its association with the stage and morphology of the tumor and the values of blood parameters in gastrointestinal cancer. Sixty patients with gastric cancer and 34 patients with colorectal cancer in stages I-IV without distant metastases were subjected to follow-up. The level of antibodies in serum was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using synthetic polyacrylamide (PAA) glycoconjugates. Biochemical and haematological analyses were performed using automated equipment. In gastrointestinal cancer, the TF antibody level was found to have elevated significantly after the removal of G3 tumors as compared with the preoperative level (u = 278.5, P < 0.05). After surgery, the TF and Tn antibody level was elevated in the majority of gastric cancer patients (sign test, 20 vs 8, P < 0.05, and 21 vs 8, P < 0.05, respectively). In gastrointestinal cancer, the elevated postoperative level of TF, Tn and alphaGal antibodies was noted in most patients with G3 tumors (sign test, 22 vs 5, P < 0.01; 19 vs 6, P < 0.05; 24 vs 8, P < 0.01, respectively), but the elevation was not significant in patients with G1 + G2 resected tumors. The postoperative follow-up showed that the percentage of patients with G3 resected tumors of the digestive tract, who had a mean level of anti-TF IgG above the cut-off value (1.53), was significantly higher than that of patients with G1 + G2 resected tumors (c2 = 3.89, all patients; c2 = 5.34, patients without regional lymph node metastases; P < 0.05). The percentage of patients with a tumor in stage I, whose mean anti-TF IgG level remained above the cut-off value (1.26), was significantly higher than that of patients with the cancer in stages III-IV (c2 = 4.71, gastric cancer; c2 = 4

  14. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  15. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems.

  17. A randomised phase II study of sialyl-Tn and DETOX-B adjuvant with or without cyclophosphamide pretreatment for the active specific immunotherapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Miles, D W; Towlson, K E; Graham, R; Reddish, M; Longenecker, B M; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J; Rubens, R D

    1996-10-01

    Studies in animal models of mouse mammary carcinoma have shown that ovine submaxillary mucin, which carries multiple sialyl-Tn (STn) epitopes, is effective in stimulating an immune response and inhibiting tumour growth. In similar studies using carbohydrate antigens, pretreatment with low-dose cyclophosphamide has been shown to be important in modulating the immune response to antigen possibly by inhibiting suppresser T-cell activity. In a clinical trial assessing the efficacy and toxicity of synthetic STn, patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to receive 100 micrograms STn linked to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) with DETOX-B adjuvant given by subcutaneous injection at weeks 0, 2, 5 and 9 with or without low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX, 300 mg m-2) pretreatment, 3 days before the start of immunotherapy. Patients with responding or stable disease after the first four injections were eligible to receive STn-KLH at 4 week intervals. The main toxicity noted was the development of subcutaneous granulomata at injection sites. Of 23 patients randomised, 18 received four injections, 5 patients having developed progressive disease during the initial 12 week period. Two minor responses were noted in the 18 patients who received four active specific immunotherapy (ASI) injections and a further five patients had stable disease. Six patients continued ASI at 4 week intervals and a partial response was noted in a patient who had previously had stable disease. All patients developed IgG and IgM responses to sialyl-Tn and levels of IgM antibodies were significantly higher in those patients who were pretreated with CTX. Measurable tumour responses have been recorded following ASI with STn-KLH plus DETOX and the immunomodulatory properties of low-dose CTX have been confirmed.

  18. A randomised phase II study of sialyl-Tn and DETOX-B adjuvant with or without cyclophosphamide pretreatment for the active specific immunotherapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, D. W.; Towlson, K. E.; Graham, R.; Reddish, M.; Longenecker, B. M.; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J.; Rubens, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Studies in animal models of mouse mammary carcinoma have shown that ovine submaxillary mucin, which carries multiple sialyl-Tn (STn) epitopes, is effective in stimulating an immune response and inhibiting tumour growth. In similar studies using carbohydrate antigens, pretreatment with low-dose cyclophosphamide has been shown to be important in modulating the immune response to antigen possibly by inhibiting suppresser T-cell activity. In a clinical trial assessing the efficacy and toxicity of synthetic STn, patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to receive 100 micrograms STn linked to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) with DETOX-B adjuvant given by subcutaneous injection at weeks 0, 2, 5 and 9 with or without low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX, 300 mg m-2) pretreatment, 3 days before the start of immunotherapy. Patients with responding or stable disease after the first four injections were eligible to receive STn-KLH at 4 week intervals. The main toxicity noted was the development of subcutaneous granulomata at injection sites. Of 23 patients randomised, 18 received four injections, 5 patients having developed progressive disease during the initial 12 week period. Two minor responses were noted in the 18 patients who received four active specific immunotherapy (ASI) injections and a further five patients had stable disease. Six patients continued ASI at 4 week intervals and a partial response was noted in a patient who had previously had stable disease. All patients developed IgG and IgM responses to sialyl-Tn and levels of IgM antibodies were significantly higher in those patients who were pretreated with CTX. Measurable tumour responses have been recorded following ASI with STn-KLH plus DETOX and the immunomodulatory properties of low-dose CTX have been confirmed. PMID:8883420

  19. First detection of the staphylococcal trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the dfrK-carrying transposon Tn559 in enterococci.

    PubMed

    López, María; Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan; Torres, Carmen

    2012-02-01

    The trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK has been recently described in Staphylococcus aureus, but so far has not been found in other bacteria. A total of 166 enterococci of different species (E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, E. durans, E. gallinarum, and E. casseliflavus) and origins (food, clinical diseases in humans, healthy humans or animals, and sewage) were studied for their susceptibility to trimethoprim as determined by agar dilution (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) and the presence of (a) the dfrK gene and its genetic environment and (b) other dfr genes. The dfrK gene was detected in 49% of the enterococci (64% and 42% of isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥2 mg/L or ≤1 mg/L, respectively). The tet(L)-dfrK linkage was detected in 21% of dfrK-positive enterococci. The chromosomal location of the dfrK gene was identified in one E. faecium isolate in which the dfrK was not linked to tet(L) gene but was part of a Tn559 element, which was integrated in the chromosomal radC gene. This Tn559 element was also found in 14 additional isolates. All combinations of dfr genes were detected among the isolates tested (dfrK, dfrG, dfrF, dfrK+dfrG, dfrK+dfrF, dfrF+dfrG, and dfrF+dfrG+dfrK). The gene dfrK gene was found together with other dfr genes in 58% of the tested enterococci. This study suggested an exchange of the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK between enterococci and staphylococci, as previously observed for the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrG.

  20. The global aftershock zone

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  1. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  2. 77 FR 50929 - Security Zones; 2012 RNC Bridge Security Zones, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; 2012 RNC Bridge Security Zones, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone, Tampa, FL... temporary security zones around certain bridges on the waters of Pinellas County and Tampa Bay, Florida..., or mooring on waters within 50 yards of the designated bridges during the times that the security...

  3. Fracture process zone in granite

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Effects of short-term tocopherol (T) feeding on structure-localized protein tyrosine nitration (pTN) patterns of mitochondrial ATPase following endotoxin (LPS) challenge in beef calves.

    Mitochondrial ATPase/Complex-V (MCV) is an electron transport chain (ETC) component needed for ATP synthesis. The ETC, exquisitely sensitive to proinflammatory mediators (PIM), generates oxynitrogen reactants leading to pTN formation as mitochondrial membrane leakage occurs. Immunohistochemical loca...

  5. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  6. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  7. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section... AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones § 165.30 Security zones. (a) A security zone is an area of land, water, or land and water which is so designated by...

  8. Laser Vacuum Furnace for Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zurburg, F. W.; Penn, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser beam scanned to produce moving melt zone. Experimental laser vacuum furnace scans crystalline wafer with high-power CO2-laser beam to generate precise melt zone with precise control of temperature gradients around zone. Intended for zone refining of silicon or other semiconductors in low gravity, apparatus used in normal gravity.

  9. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  10. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  11. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  12. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  13. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States located...

  14. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  15. 47 CFR 5.313 - Innovation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Innovation zones. 5.313 Section 5.313... Licenses § 5.313 Innovation zones. (a) An innovation zone is a specified geographic location with pre... own motion or in response to a request from the public. Innovation zones will be announced via public...

  16. 47 CFR 5.313 - Innovation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Innovation zones. 5.313 Section 5.313... Licenses § 5.313 Innovation zones. (a) An innovation zone is a specified geographic location with pre... own motion or in response to a request from the public. Innovation zones will be announced via public...

  17. Approximate Model of Zone Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzianik, František

    2011-12-01

    The process of zone sedimentation is affected by many factors that are not possible to express analytically. For this reason, the zone settling is evaluated in practice experimentally or by application of an empirical mathematical description of the process. The paper presents the development of approximate model of zone settling, i.e. the general function which should properly approximate the behaviour of the settling process within its entire range and at the various conditions. Furthermore, the specification of the model parameters by the regression analysis of settling test results is shown. The suitability of the model is reviewed by graphical dependencies and by statistical coefficients of correlation. The approximate model could by also useful on the simplification of process design of continual settling tanks and thickeners.

  18. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  19. Association of Genome-Wide Variation with Highly Sensitive Cardiac Troponin-T (hs-cTnT) Levels in European- and African-Americans: A Meta-Analysis from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and the Cardiovascular Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Barbalic, Maja; Brautbar, Ariel; Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Tang, Weihong; Mosley, Thomas H.; Rotter, Jerome I.; deFilippi, Christopher R.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rice, Ken; Heckbert, Susan R.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of cardiac troponin T measured by a highly sensitive assay (hs-cTnT) are strongly associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF). No large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of hs-cTnT has been reported to date. We sought to identify novel genetic variants that are associated with hs-cTnT levels. Methods and Results We performed a GWAS in 9,491 European-Americans and 2,053 African-Americans free of CHD and HF from 2 prospective cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). GWASs were conducted in each study and race stratum. Fixed-effect meta-analyses combined the results of linear regression from 2 cohorts within each race stratum, and then across race strata to produce overall estimates and p-values. The meta-analysis identified a significant association at chromosome 8q13 (rs10091374, p = 9.06 × 10−9) near the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. Over-expression of NCOA2 can be detected in myoblasts An additional analysis using logistic regression and the clinically motivated 99th percentile cut-point detected a significant association at 1q32 (rs10091374, p = 9.06 × 10−8) in the gene TNNT2, which encodes the cardiac troponin T protein itself. The hs-cTnT-associated SNPs were not associated with CHD in a large case-control study, but rs12564445 was significantly associated with incident HF in ARIC European-Americans (HR = 1.16, p-value = 0.004). Conclusions We identified 2 loci, near NCOA2 and in the TNNT2 gene, at which variation was significantly associated with hs-cTnT levels. Further use of the new assay should enable replication of these results. PMID:23247143

  20. Methods for converting industrial zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  1. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  2. 76 FR 63202 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on a review of safety and security zones around critical infrastructure in the... Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor--Safety and Security Zone regulation and the Security Zones; Captain...

  3. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  4. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  5. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  6. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. 165.911 Section 165.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine...

  7. First Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Containing a mecB-Carrying Gene Complex Independent of Transposon Tn6045 in a Macrococcus caseolyticus Isolate from a Canine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Schwendener, Sybille; Thomann, Andreas; Gobeli Brawand, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    A methicillin-resistant mecB-positive Macrococcus caseolyticus (strain KM45013) was isolated from the nares of a dog with rhinitis. It contained a novel 39-kb transposon-defective complete mecB-carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmecKM45013). SCCmecKM45013 contained 49 coding sequences (CDSs), was integrated at the 3′ end of the chromosomal orfX gene, and was delimited at both ends by imperfect direct repeats functioning as integration site sequences (ISSs). SCCmecKM45013 presented two discontinuous regions of homology (SCCmec coverage of 35%) to the chromosomal and transposon Tn6045-associated SCCmec-like element of M. caseolyticus JCSC7096: (i) the mec gene complex (98.8% identity) and (ii) the ccr-carrying segment (91.8% identity). The mec gene complex, located at the right junction of the cassette, also carried the β-lactamase gene blaZm (mecRm-mecIm-mecB-blaZm). SCCmecKM45013 contained two cassette chromosome recombinase genes, ccrAm2 and ccrBm2, which shared 94.3% and 96.6% DNA identity with those of the SCCmec-like element of JCSC7096 but shared less than 52% DNA identity with the staphylococcal ccrAB and ccrC genes. Three distinct extrachromosomal circularized elements (the entire SCCmecKM45013, ΨSCCmecKM45013 lacking the ccr genes, and SCCKM45013 lacking mecB) flanked by one ISS copy, as well as the chromosomal regions remaining after excision, were detected. An unconventional circularized structure carrying the mecB gene complex was associated with two extensive direct repeat regions, which enclosed two open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF46 and ORF51) flanking the chromosomal mecB-carrying gene complex. This study revealed M. caseolyticus as a potential disease-associated bacterium in dogs and also unveiled an SCCmec element carrying mecB not associated with Tn6045 in the genus Macrococcus. PMID:25987634

  8. Clinical use of submaximal treadmill exercise testing and assessments of cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and cTnI in dogs with presymptomatic mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Leona; Mohr, Annika; Ripoli, Florenza Lüder; Schulze, Nayeli; Penter, Camila Duarte; Hungerbuehler, StephanOscar; Bach, Jan-Peter; Lucas, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Exercise intolerance is the first symptom of heart disease. Yet an objective and standardised method in canine cardiology to assess exercise capacity in a clinical setting is lacking. In contrast, exercise testing is a powerful diagnostic tool in humans, providing valuable information on prognosis and impact of therapeutic intervention. To investigate whether an exercise test reveals differences between dogs with early stage mitral regurgitation (MR) and dogs without cardiac disease, 12 healthy beagles (healthy group, HG) and 12 dogs with presymptomatic MR (CHIEF B1 / B2, patient group, PG) underwent a six-stage submaximal exercise test (ET) on a motorised treadmill. They trotted in their individual comfort speed for three minutes per stage, first without incline, afterwards increasing it by 4% for every subsequent stage. Blood samples were taken at rest and during two 3-minute breaks in the course of the test. Further samples were taken after the completion of the exercise test and again after a 3-hour recovery period. Measured parameters included heart rate, lactate and the cardiac biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide and cardiac Troponin I. The test was performed again under the same conditions in the same dogs three weeks after the first trial to evaluate individual repeatability. Cardiac biomarkers increased significantly in both HG and PG in the course of the test. The increase was more pronounced in CHIEF B1 / B2 dogs than in the HG. N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide increased from 435 ± 195 to 523 ± 239 pmol/L (HG) and from 690 to 815 pmol/L (PG). cTnI increased from 0.020 to 0.024 ng/mL (HG) and from 0.06 to 0.08 ng/ml (PG). The present study provides a method to assess exercise-induced changes in cardiac biomarkers under clinical conditions. The increase of NT-proBNP and cTnI is more pronounced in dogs with early-stage MR than in healthy dogs. Results indicate that measuring the parameters before and after exercise is adequate

  9. Clinical use of submaximal treadmill exercise testing and assessments of cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and cTnI in dogs with presymptomatic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Wall, Leona; Mohr, Annika; Ripoli, Florenza Lüder; Schulze, Nayeli; Penter, Camila Duarte; Hungerbuehler, StephanOscar; Bach, Jan-Peter; Lucas, Karin; Nolte, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    Exercise intolerance is the first symptom of heart disease. Yet an objective and standardised method in canine cardiology to assess exercise capacity in a clinical setting is lacking. In contrast, exercise testing is a powerful diagnostic tool in humans, providing valuable information on prognosis and impact of therapeutic intervention. To investigate whether an exercise test reveals differences between dogs with early stage mitral regurgitation (MR) and dogs without cardiac disease, 12 healthy beagles (healthy group, HG) and 12 dogs with presymptomatic MR (CHIEF B1 / B2, patient group, PG) underwent a six-stage submaximal exercise test (ET) on a motorised treadmill. They trotted in their individual comfort speed for three minutes per stage, first without incline, afterwards increasing it by 4% for every subsequent stage. Blood samples were taken at rest and during two 3-minute breaks in the course of the test. Further samples were taken after the completion of the exercise test and again after a 3-hour recovery period. Measured parameters included heart rate, lactate and the cardiac biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide and cardiac Troponin I. The test was performed again under the same conditions in the same dogs three weeks after the first trial to evaluate individual repeatability. Cardiac biomarkers increased significantly in both HG and PG in the course of the test. The increase was more pronounced in CHIEF B1 / B2 dogs than in the HG. N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide increased from 435 ± 195 to 523 ± 239 pmol/L (HG) and from 690 to 815 pmol/L (PG). cTnI increased from 0.020 to 0.024 ng/mL (HG) and from 0.06 to 0.08 ng/ml (PG). The present study provides a method to assess exercise-induced changes in cardiac biomarkers under clinical conditions. The increase of NT-proBNP and cTnI is more pronounced in dogs with early-stage MR than in healthy dogs. Results indicate that measuring the parameters before and after exercise is adequate

  10. Work zone positive protection guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project was to develop implementation guidance that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) can use to make better decisions regarding when and where to use positive : protection in work zones and when to consider exposure c...

  11. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  12. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; González, Frank I.; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  13. Fifty years of shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  14. The TRAPPIST-1 Habitable Zone

    2017-02-22

    The TRAPPIST-1 system contains a total of seven planets, all around the size of Earth. Three of them -- TRAPPIST-1e, f and g -- dwell in their star's so-called "habitable zone." The habitable zone, or Goldilocks zone, is a band around every star (shown here in green) where astronomers have calculated that temperatures are just right -- not too hot, not too cold -- for liquid water to pool on the surface of an Earth-like world. While TRAPPIST-1b, c and d are too close to be in the system's likely habitable zone, and TRAPPIST-1h is too far away, the planets' discoverers say more optimistic scenarios could allow any or all of the planets to harbor liquid water. In particular, the strikingly small orbits of these worlds make it likely that most, if not all of them, perpetually show the same face to their star, the way our moon always shows the same face to the Earth. This would result in an extreme range of temperatures from the day to night sides, allowing for situations not factored into the traditional habitable zone definition. The illustrations shown for the various planets depict a range of possible scenarios of what they could look like. The system has been revealed through observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) telescope, as well as other ground-based observatories. The system was named for the TRAPPIST telescope. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21424

  15. Seismic fault zone trapped noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Roux, P.

    2014-07-01

    Systematic velocity contrasts across and within fault zones can lead to head and trapped waves that provide direct information on structural units that are important for many aspects of earthquake and fault mechanics. Here we construct trapped waves from the scattered seismic wavefield recorded by a fault zone array. The frequency-dependent interaction between the ambient wavefield and the fault zone environment is studied using properties of the noise correlation field. A critical frequency fc ≈ 0.5 Hz defines a threshold above which the in-fault scattered wavefield has increased isotropy and coherency compared to the ambient noise. The increased randomization of in-fault propagation directions produces a wavefield that is trapped in a waveguide/cavity-like structure associated with the low-velocity damage zone. Dense spatial sampling allows the resolution of a near-field focal spot, which emerges from the superposition of a collapsing, time reversed wavefront. The shape of the focal spot depends on local medium properties, and a focal spot-based fault normal distribution of wave speeds indicates a ˜50% velocity reduction consistent with estimates from a far-field travel time inversion. The arrival time pattern of a synthetic correlation field can be tuned to match properties of an observed pattern, providing a noise-based imaging tool that can complement analyses of trapped ballistic waves. The results can have wide applicability for investigating the internal properties of fault damage zones, because mechanisms controlling the emergence of trapped noise have less limitations compared to trapped ballistic waves.

  16. Zircon growth in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of direct dating of the deformation process is critical for understanding of orogenic belts evolution. Establishing the age of deformation by isotopic methods is indispensable in the case of uneven deformation overlapping, when later deformation inherits the structural plan of the early strains, and to distinguish them on the basis of the structural data only is impossible. A good example of zircon from the shear zones is zircon formed under the eclogite facies conditions. On the one hand, the composition of zircon speaks about its formation simultaneously to eclogitic paragenesis (Rubatto, Herman, 1999; Rubatto et al., 2003). On the other hand, geological studies show that mineral reactions of eclogitization are often held only in areas of shear deformations, which provides access of fluid to the rocks (Austrheim, 1987; Jamtveit et al., 2000; Bingen et al., 2004). Zircons from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Tanaelv and Kolvitsa belts (Kola Peninsula, the Baltic Shield) have showed that the metamorphic zircon growth is probably controlled by the metamorphic fluid regime, as evidenced by an increase of zircon quantity with the degree of shearing. The internal structure of zircon crystals can provide an evidence of zircon growth synchronous with shearing. The studied crystals have a sector zoning and often specific "patchy" zoning (Fig. 1), which speaks about rapid change of growth conditions. Such internal structure can be compared with the "snowball" garnet structure reflecting the rotation of crystals during their growth under a shift. Rapidly changing crystallization conditions can also be associated with a small amount of fluid, where supersaturation is changing even at a constant temperature. Thus, the growth of metamorphic zircon in shear zones is more likely to occur in the fluid flow synchronous with deformation. A distinctive feature of zircons in these conditions is isometric shape and sector "patchy" zoning. The work was supported by

  17. Tn-Seq Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization Reveals a Role for T6SS-Mediated Antibacterial Activity in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Waldor, Matthew K.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Analysis of genes required for host infection will provide clues to the drivers of evolutionary fitness of pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, a mounting threat to global heath. We used transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) to comprehensively assess the contribution of nearly all V. cholerae genes toward growth in the infant rabbit intestine. Four hundred genes were identified as critical to V. cholerae in vivo fitness. These included most known colonization factors and several new genes affecting the bacterium's metabolic properties, resistance to bile, and ability to synthesize cyclic AMP-GMP. Notably, a mutant carrying an insertion in tsiV3, encoding immunity to a bacteriocidal type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector VgrG3, exhibited a colonization defect. The reduced in vivo fitness of tsiV3 mutants depends on their cocolonization with bacterial cells carrying an intact T6SS locus and VgrG3 gene, suggesting that the V. cholerae T6SS is functional and mediates antagonistic interbacterial interactions during infection. PMID:24331463

  18. Possible Non-volcanic Tremor Discovered in the Reelfoot Fault Zone, Northern Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, C. A.; Williams, R. A.; Magnani, M.; Rieger, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    A swarm of ~80 microearthquakes was fortuitously detected in 20, 14 second-duration long-offset vibroseis shotgathers collected for a seismic reflection experiment near Mooring, TN, directly over the Reelfoot fault zone on the afternoon of 16 November 2006. These natural events show up in the shotgathers as near-vertically incident P waves with a dominant frequency of 10-15 Hz. The reflection line was 715m in length consisting of 144 channels with a sensor spacing of 5m, 8Hz vertical geophones, and recording using a Geometrics 24bit Geode seismograph. Small variations in event moveout across the linear array indicate that the seismicity was not confined to the same hypocenter and probably occurred at depths of approximately 10 km. The largest events in the series are estimated to have local magnitudes of ~-1 if at 10 km distance from the array. This is about 2.5 magnitude units lower than the threshold for local events detected and located by the CERI cooperative network in the area. The seismicity rate was ~1000 events per hour based on the total time duration of the shotgathers. The expected number of earthquakes of ML greater than or equal to -1 for the entire central United States is only 1 per hour. This detection of microseismic swarms in the Reelfoot fault zone indicates active physical processes that may be similar to non-volcanic tremor seen in the Cascadia and San Andreas fault zones and merits long-term monitoring to understand its source.

  19. Differences in the Composition of Archaeal Communities in Sediments from Contrasting Zones of Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xianfang; Xing, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In shallow lakes, different primary producers might impact the physiochemical characteristics of the sediment and the associated microbial communities. Until now, little was known about the features of sediment Archaea and their variation across different primary producer-dominated ecosystems. Lake Taihu provides a suitable study area with cyanobacteria- and macrophyte-dominated zones co-occurring in one ecosystem. The composition of the sediment archaeal community was assessed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing technology, based on which the potential variation with respect to the physiochemical characteristics of the sediment was analyzed. Euryarchaeota (30.19% of total archaeal sequences) and Bathyarchaeota (28.00%) were the two most abundant phyla, followed by Crenarchaeota (11.37%), Aigarchaeota (10.24%) and Thaumarchaeota (5.98%). The differences found in the composition of the archaeal communities between the two zones was significant (p = 0.005). Sediment from macrophyte-dominated zones had high TOC and TN content and an abundance of archaeal lineages potentially involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as the order Thermoplasmatales. In the area dominated by Cyanobacteria, archaeal lineages related to sulfur metabolism, for example, Sulfolobales and Desulfurococcales, were significantly enriched. Among Bathyarchaeota, subgroups MCG-6 and MCG-15 were significantly accumulated in the sediment of areas dominated by macrophytes whereas MCG-4 was consistently dominant in both type of sediments. The present study contributes to the knowledge of sediment archaeal communities with different primary producers and their possible biogeochemical functions in sediment habitats. PMID:27708641

  20. 76 FR 38297 - Safety Zone; Marine Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte Marie Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...'' W [DATUM: NAD 83]. (ii) Enforcement Period. This safety zone will be enforced on July 4, 2011 from 9...'' N, 086[deg]39'08.52'' W [DATUM: NAD 83]. (ii) Enforcement Period. This safety zone will be enforced...: NAD 83], with the West Bay shoreline forming the South and West boundaries of the zone. (ii...

  1. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  2. Infrared zone-scanning system.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Aleksandr; Popov, Gennady

    2006-03-20

    Challenges encountered in designing an infrared viewing optical system that uses a small linear detector array based on a zone-scanning approach are discussed. Scanning is performed by a rotating refractive polygon prism with tilted facets, which, along with high-speed line scanning, makes the scanning gear as simple as possible. A method of calculation of a practical optical system to compensate for aberrations during prism rotation is described.

  3. The Base Zone Protection Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    The Base Zone Protection Problem Dinesh C. Verma IBM T. J. Watson Research Center Hawthorne, NY 10549 Theodore Brown, Amotz Bar Noy and...al. 2008 have tried to develop the impact of terrain on the coverage area of a sensor and simulated its impact on sensor coverage. Kumar et al...conference on Wireless sensor networks and applications. WSNA 03, ACM Press, 2003, pp. 115--121. Kumar S., Lai T. and Arora A., “Barrier Coverage

  4. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciT

    Fusselman, Steve

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from themore » outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to

  5. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map

    those with slower Internet access. Users may also simply type in a ZIP Code and find the hardiness zone : Find Javascript is not enabled in this Internet Browser For a better experience throughout this web site, please enable Javascript in your Internet Browser What is a Captcha and why am I seeing one (on

  6. Evaluation of Work Zone Speed Reduction Measures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-04-01

    The Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) has made improving work zone (WZ) safety a high priority. Managing vehicle speeds through work zones is perceived to be an important factor in achieving this goal. A number of speed reduction techniques are...

  7. Downtown Crossing: Auto Restricted Zone in Boston

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-07-01

    The Downtown Crossing auto restricted zone, implemented in 1978, involved the : elimination of all auto traffic froma zone of twelve blocks encompassing six : different streets in Bostn's central business district. Some of the blocks were : pedestria...

  8. New York City green loading zones study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact and potential benefits of Green Loading Zones (GLZs)a policy solution to incentivize further : electric truck adoption with the creation of curbside loading zones that are exclusively available to...

  9. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... States that is west of the boundary line between the eastern and central standard time zones described in... between the central and mountain time zones. The Chicago, Rock Island and Gulf Railway Company and the...

  10. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  11. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  12. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  13. Research notes : helping businesses in work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-03-01

    Many business owners fear that highway construction projects will significantly reduce traffic to their businesses. Customers complain about the difficulty in finding business driveways in work zones. Drivers are guided through most work zone using o...

  14. Life zone investigations in Wyoming

    Cary, Merritt

    1917-01-01

    Wyoming is among the foremost of our States in its wealth of natural scenery, culminating in the grandeur of Yellowstone National Park, one of the wonders of the world. In addition to this distinction it posseses vast open plains and lofty mountains whence flow the headwaters of mighty river systems emptying far away to the west into the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast into the Gulf of Mexico, and to the southwest into the Gulf of California. The various slope exposures of its mountain ranges, the fertility of its intervening valleys or basins, and the aridity of its desert spaces present a study of geographic and vertical distribution of wild life that is in many particulars unique.The study of geographic and vertical distribution of life with the governing factors and attendant problems is valuable as a matter of scientific research and in the attainment of practical knowledge. The Biological Survey has been making detailed investigations of the transcontinental life belts, or zones, of North America for some years, and this work has been carried on with special reference to their practical value. It has become increasingly evident that life zones furnish a fairly accurate index to average climatic conditions and, therefore, are useful as marking the limits of agricultural possibilities, so far as these are dependent upon climate. The knowledge thus gained has been published and made available as the investigations have progressed and the life zones have been mapped.1

  15. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... common or contract carriers transporting goods to or from the zone. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area...

  16. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... common or contract carriers transporting goods to or from the zone. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area...

  17. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... common or contract carriers transporting goods to or from the zone. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area...

  18. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... common or contract carriers transporting goods to or from the zone. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area...

  19. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... common or contract carriers transporting goods to or from the zone. [T.D. 86-16, 51 FR 5049, Feb. 11... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area...

  20. Zone heating for fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower reaction zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  1. Recent findings relating to firefighter safety zones

    Bret Butler; Russ Parsons; William Mell

    2015-01-01

    Designation of safety zones is a primary duty of all wildland firefighters. Unfortunately, information regarding what constitutes an adequate safety zone is inadequately defined. Measurements of energy release from wildland fires have been used to develop an empirically based safety zone guideline. The basis for this work is described here.

  2. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Red River in the State of North..., extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to protect persons and vessels from...

  3. Does zoning winter recreationists reduce recreation conflict?

    Aubrey Miller; Jerry J. Vaske; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson

    2016-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation - often by nonmotorized and motorized activity - is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation...

  4. Does zoning winter recreationists reduce recreation conflict?

    Aubrey D. Miller; Jerry J. Vaske; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; Elizabeth K. Roberts

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation - often by nonmotorized and motorized activity - is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation...

  5. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any particular... that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  6. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any particular... that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  7. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any particular... that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  8. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any particular... that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  9. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any particular... that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  10. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not include...

  11. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not include...

  12. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not include...

  13. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David

    2010-01-01

    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  14. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  15. The androgen receptor controls expression of the cancer-associated sTn antigen and cell adhesion through induction of ST6GalNAc1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer; Oltean, Sebastian; Vodák, Daniel; Wilson, Brian T.; Livermore, Karen E.; Zhou, Yan; Star, Eleanor; Floros, Vasileios I.; Johannessen, Bjarne; Knight, Bridget; McCullagh, Paul; McGrath, John; Crundwell, Malcolm; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Robson, Craig N.; Leung, Hing Y.; Harries, Lorna W.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Mills, Ian G.; Elliott, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation of stable tumours in mice, reduced cell adhesion and induced a switch towards a more mesenchymal-like cell phenotype in vitro. ST6GalNAc1 has a dynamic expression pattern in clinical datasets, being significantly up-regulated in primary prostate carcinoma but relatively down-regulated in established metastatic tissue. ST6GalNAc1 is frequently upregulated concurrently with another important glycosylation enzyme GCNT1 previously associated with prostate cancer progression and implicated in Sialyl Lewis X antigen synthesis. Together our data establishes an androgen-dependent mechanism for sTn antigen expression in PCa, and are consistent with a general role for the androgen receptor in driving important coordinate changes to the glycoproteome during PCa progression. PMID:26452038

  16. Assessment of Regeneration of Bone in the Extracted Third Molar Sockets Augmented Using Xenograft (CollaPlugTN Zimmer) in Comparison with the Normal Healing on the Contralateral Side.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Murugan; Balaji, M; Krishnaraj, R; Narayanan, Vivek; Thangavelu, Annamalai

    2017-11-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is a significant clinical problem. Bone loss in third molar region following extraction or surgical removal not only leads to periodontal problems in second molar region but also it may lead to some serious problems like increased incidence of angle fractures. In order to reduce the risks following third molar surgery, the socket should be augmented with bone grafts. In recent days guided tissue regeneration is the most accepted and successful technique followed many authors and its efficacy has been proved. Based upon our clinical experience, the use of bio absorbable collagen wound dressing such as CollaPlug TN has achieved quick healing and more primary wound coverage. Amongst the graft materials collagen is preferable due to its high biocompatibility and hemostatic ability. This study was done to assess the regeneration of bone in the extracted third molar sockets using xenograft (CollaPlug TN -Zimmer) which was compared with the normal healing on the contra lateral side. The assessment was done to analyze post-operative healing complications and to compare the bone density formed between control site and implant site radiologically. On this basis of this study, the use of collaplugTN appears to be beneficial to the patient in postoperative wound healing and also for better bone formation. The use of this material was advantageous because of its simplicity of application cost effectiveness and availability. There is enhanced wound healing and early bone formation.

  17. Seismic tremor signals from Bárðarbunga, Grímsvötn and other glacier covered volcanoes in Iceland's Vatnajökull ice cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristin S.; Eibl, Eva; Bean, Chris; Roberts, Matthew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Jóhannesson, Tómas

    2016-04-01

    Many of Iceland's most active volcanoes, like Grímsvötn and Bárðarbunga are located under glaciers giving rise to a range of volcanic hazards having both local and cross-border effects on humans, infrastructures and aviation. Volcanic eruptions under ice can lead to explosive hydromagmatic volcanism and generate small to catastrophic subglacial floods that may take hours to days to emerge from the glacier edge. Unrest in subglacial hydrothermal systems and the draining of subglacial meltwater can also lead to flood hazards. These processes and magma-ice interactions in general, generate seismic tremor signals that are commonly observed on seismic systems during volcanic unrest and/or eruptions. The tremor signals exhibit certain characteristics in frequency content, amplitude and behavior with time, but their characteristics overlap. Ability to discriminate between the different processes in real-time or near-real time can support early eruption and flood warnings and help mitigate their detrimental effects. One of the goals set forth in the FUTUREVOLC volcano supersite project was in fact to understand and discriminate between the different types of seismic tremor recorded at subglacial volcanoes. In that pursuit, the seismic network was expanded into the Vatnajökull glacier with four permanent stations on rock and in the ice, in addition to three seismic arrays installed at the ice margin, to enable location and possible tracking of the tremor sources. To track subglacial floods with better resolution three GPS receivers were also installed on the ice, one in an ice cauldron above the Skaftárkatlar geothermal melting area and two down glacier, above the track of the expected subglacial flood. During FUTUREVOLC this infrastructure has recorded all the types of process expected: Magmatic dyke intrusion and propagation from Bárðarbunga, subaerial fissure eruption of that magma at Holuhraun, two subglacial floods, one small and one large, draining from the

  18. 76 FR 17782 - Security Zone: Passenger Vessels, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...-AA87 Security Zone: Passenger Vessels, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone AGENCY... extending the effective period for temporary fixed and moving security zones around certain passenger vessels in the Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone through October 1, 2011. Temporary...

  19. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local..., telephone (202) 372-3862. For questions on viewing, or on submitting material to the docket, contact Ms...

  20. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  1. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is being established to ensure the... Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn across latitude 46[deg]20'00'' N, including...

  2. 78 FR 41694 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified dates and times. This action is necessary to ensure the safety of vessels...

  3. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... York Zone on the specified date and time. This action is necessary to ensure the safety of vessels and... regulation for the safety zone described in 33 CFR 165.160 will be enforced on the date and time listed in... Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a safety zone in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified date and time. This action is necessary to ensure the safety of vessels and...

  5. 77 FR 19970 - Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone... Marine Science Technician First Class Nolan L. Ammons, Sector St. Petersburg Prevention Department, Coast... proposed rule would establish seven temporary security zones in the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone...

  6. 77 FR 30245 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... by adding three permanent safety zones within the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life and property on navigable waters during each event. This action...

  7. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... zones for annual events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone. This proposed rule adds events not... proposed rule will add additional events not previously published in the regulations found in 33 CFR 165...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  8. WorkZoneQ user guide for two-lane freeway work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    WorkZoneQ was developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to implement the results of the previous study, : Queue and Users Costs in Highway Work Zones. This report contains the WorkZoneQ user guide. WorkZoneQ : consists of eight Excel ...

  9. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  10. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... USCG-2009-1081 New Orleans, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/23/2009 USCG-2009-1084 Rio Vista, CA...-1096 Port Portland Zone......... Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 7/3/2010 USCG-2009-0040 La Push, WA Safety...-0950 Madisonville, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/31/2009 USCG-2009-0951 Lower Mississippi River...

  11. Modulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We report results from a field experiment investigating the influence of volcanic tephra coverage on glacier ablation. These influences are known to be significantly different from those of moraine debris on glaciers due to the contrasting grain size distribution and thermal conductivity. Thus far, the influences of tephra deposits on glacier ablation have rarely been studied. For the experiment, artificial plots of two different tephra types from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes were installed on a snow-covered glacier surface of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. Snow-surface lowering and atmospheric conditions were monitored in summer 2015 and compared to a tephra-free reference site. For each of the two volcanic tephra types, three plots of variable thickness ( ˜ 1.5, ˜ 8.5 and ˜ 80 mm) were monitored. After limiting the records to a period of reliable measurements, a 50-day data set of hourly records was obtained, which can be downloaded from the Pangaea data repository (https://www.pangaea.de; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.876656). The experiment shows a substantial increase in snow-surface lowering rates under the ˜ 1.5 and ˜ 8.5 mm tephra plots when compared to uncovered conditions. Under the thick tephra cover some insulating effects could be observed. These results are in contrast to other studies which depicted insulating effects for much thinner tephra coverage on bare-ice glacier surfaces. Differences between the influences of the two different petrological types of tephra exist but are negligible compared to the effect of tephra coverage overall.

  12. A novel low-temperature-active β-glucosidase from symbiotic Serratia sp. TN49 reveals four essential positions for substrate accommodation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2011-10-01

    A 2,373-bp full-length gene (bglA49) encoding a 790-residue polypeptide (BglA49) with a calculated mass of 87.8 kDa was cloned from Serratia sp. TN49, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of longhorned beetle (Batocera horsfieldi) larvae. The deduced amino acid sequence of BglA49 showed the highest identities of 80.1% with a conceptually translated protein from Pantoea sp. At-9b (EEW02556), 38.3% with the identified glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-glucosidase from Clostridium stercorarium NCBI 11754 (CAB08072), and <15.0% with the low-temperature-active GH 3 β-glucosidases from Shewanella sp. G5 (ABL09836) and Paenibacillus sp. C7 (AAX35883). The recombinant enzyme (r-BglA49) was expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed the typical characteristics of low-temperature-active enzymes, such as low temperature optimum (showing apparent optimal activity at 35°C), activity at low temperatures (retaining approximately 60% of its maximum activity at 20°C and approximately 25% at 10°C). Compared with the thermophilic GH 3 β-glucosidase, r-BglA49 had fewer hydrogen bonds and salt bridges and less proline residues. These features might relate to the increased structure flexibility and higher catalytic activity at low temperatures of r-BglA49. The molecular docking study of four GH 3 β-glucosidases revealed five conserved positions contributing to substrate accommodation, among which four positions of r-BglA49 (R192, Y228, D260, and E449) were identified to be essential based on site-directed mutagenesis analysis.

  13. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  14. Combining Shigella Tn-seq data with gold-standard E. coli gene deletion data suggests rare transitions between essential and non-essential gene functionality.

    PubMed

    Freed, Nikki E; Bumann, Dirk; Silander, Olin K

    2016-09-06

    Gene essentiality - whether or not a gene is necessary for cell growth - is a fundamental component of gene function. It is not well established how quickly gene essentiality can change, as few studies have compared empirical measures of essentiality between closely related organisms. Here we present the results of a Tn-seq experiment designed to detect essential protein coding genes in the bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri 2a 2457T on a genome-wide scale. Superficial analysis of this data suggested that 481 protein-coding genes in this Shigella strain are critical for robust cellular growth on rich media. Comparison of this set of genes with a gold-standard data set of essential genes in the closely related Escherichia coli K12 BW25113 revealed that an excessive number of genes appeared essential in Shigella but non-essential in E. coli. Importantly, and in converse to this comparison, we found no genes that were essential in E. coli and non-essential in Shigella, implying that many genes were artefactually inferred as essential in Shigella. Controlling for such artefacts resulted in a much smaller set of discrepant genes. Among these, we identified three sets of functionally related genes, two of which have previously been implicated as critical for Shigella growth, but which are dispensable for E. coli growth. The data presented here highlight the small number of protein coding genes for which we have strong evidence that their essentiality status differs between the closely related bacterial taxa E. coli and Shigella. A set of genes involved in acetate utilization provides a canonical example. These results leave open the possibility of developing strain-specific antibiotic treatments targeting such differentially essential genes, but suggest that such opportunities may be rare in closely related bacteria.

  15. Use of a Tn5-based transposon system to create a cost-effective Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production from lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current methods of ethanol production from lignocelluloses generate a mixture of sugars, primarily glucose and xylose; the fermentation cells are always exposed to stresses like high temperature and low nutritional conditions that affect their growth and productivity. Stress-tolerant strains capable of using both glucose and xylose to produce ethanol with high yield are highly desirable. Results A recombinant Zymomonas mobilis (Z. mobilis) designated as HYMX was constructed by integrating seven genes (Pfu-sHSP, yfdZ, metB, xylA, xylB, tktA and talB) into the genome of Z. mobilis CP4 (CP4) via Tn5 transposon in the present study. The small heat shock protein gene (Pfu-sHSP) from Pyrococcus furious (P. furious) was used to increase the heat-tolerance, the yfdZ and metB genes from E. coli were used to decrease the nutritional requirement. To overcome the bottleneck of CP4 being unable to use pentose, xylose catabolic genes (xylA, xylB, tktA and talB) from E. coli were integrated into CP4 also for construction of the xylose utilizing metabolic pathway. Conclusions The genomic integration confers on Z. mobilis the ability to grow in medium containing xylose as the only carbon source, and to grow in simple chemical defined medium without addition of amino acid. The HYMX demonstrated not only the high tolerance to unfavorable stresses like high temperature and low nutrient, but also the capability of converting both glucose and xylose to ethanol with high yield at high temperature. What’s more, these genetic characteristics were stable up to 100 generations on nonselective medium. Although significant improvements were achieved, yeast extract is needed for ethanol production. PMID:23635356

  16. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, Fred; Woodhouse, Mark; Huppert, Herbert E.; Prata, Andrew; Thordarson, Thor; Carn, Simon

    2017-09-01

    The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21-28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  17. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  18. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  19. New Radiation Zones on Jupiter

    2017-12-11

    This graphic shows a new radiation zone surrounding Jupiter, located just above the atmosphere near the equator, that has been discovered by NASA's Juno mission. The new radiation zone is depicted here as a glowing blue area around the planet's middle. This radiation zone includes energetic hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur ions moving at close to the speed of light (referred to as "relativistic" speeds). It resides inside Jupiter's previously known radiation belts. The zone was identified by the mission's Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI), enabled by Juno's unique close approach to the planet during the spacecraft's science flybys (2,100 miles or 3,400 kilometers from the cloud tops). Juno scientists believe the particles creating this region of intense radiation are derived from energetic neutral atoms -- that is, fast-moving atoms without an electric charge -- coming from the tenuous gas around Jupiter's moons Io and Europa. The neutral atoms then become ions -- atoms with an electric charge -- as their electrons are stripped away by interaction with the planet's upper atmosphere. (This discovery is discussed further in an issue of the journal Geophysical Research Letters [Kollmann et al. (2017), Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 5259-5268].) Juno also has detected signatures of a population of high-energy, heavy ions in the inner edges of Jupiter's relativistic electron radiation belt. This radiation belt was previously understood to contain mostly electrons moving at near light speed. The signatures of the heavy ions are observed at high latitude locations within the electron belt -- a region not previously explored by spacecraft. The origin and exact species of these heavy ions is not yet understood. Juno's Stellar Reference Unit (SRU-1) star camera detects the signatures of this population as extremely high noise in images collected as part of the mission's radiation monitoring investigation. The locations where the heavy ions were detected are

  20. Development of GIS Database for New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanemeskel, Y. T.; Vlahovic, G.; Arroucau, P.; Malhotra, R.; Powell, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) of the central Mississippi river valley is currently the most seismically active region in the central and eastern United States. A number of earthquakes occurred in NMSZ between 1811 and 1812, of which three major earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 7 destroyed the town of New Madrid, Missouri. Intraplate seismicity like the New Madrid seismicity is difficult to explain in the framework of plate tectonics and requires analyzing various geological, geophysical and seismological data to better understand its causes. ArcGIS® 9.3.1 software with license type ArcEditor was used to build a geodatabase containing multiple layers that are useful for the study of intraplate seismicity. These layers include earthquake locations, gravity and magnetic anomalies, lithology, topography, velocity anomalies as resolved by arrival time tomography and geological structures like intrusions and faults. The data for these layers were obtained from the U.S Geological Survey, from the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis, TN, and from paper maps. Zipped files of various formats (.xls, .shp, .txt, .tar, etc) were downloaded and converted to a format compatible with ArcGIS. To keep compatibility of the data, editing of the attribute table of the raw data was completed before importing the data to Arc Catalog. Geo-referencing and digitizing processes were also done to import layers of contour lines and geological structures with correct vector information from papers maps. Layers were clipped in order to make sure that they fit the spatial extent of the study area (from 34°S to 40°N in latitude and from 93°W to 86°W in longitude). The New Madrid seismicity will be analyzed by looking for possible relationships that exist between the data layers using various spatial and geostatistical tools. For example the distribution of earthquakes will be analyzed with respect to the potential field and velocity

  1. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    PubMed

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  2. Radiotherapy in marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage nodal and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Materials and methods Patients with stage I (n = 22) and stage II (n = 8) MZL, who were treated with RT were reviewed. The primary tumor localisation was in the orbita (n = 12), stomach (n = 8), head and neck other than the orbita (n = 8), breast (n = 1) and one case of marginal zone lymphoma of the skin (n = 1). The median radiotherapy dose was 40 Gy (5 to 45 Gy). Results The median follow-up time was 103 months. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 85 ± 7% and 71 ± 9%, respectively. There was no infield recurrence. Recurrence occurred outside of the radiation field in six patients. The relapses were treated with salvage RT and had excellent local control (100%) at five years after salvage RT. Conclusions Localized extranodal MZL have an excellent prognosis following moderate-dose RT. RT is also an effective salvage therapy in cases of localized recurrence. Further clinical studies should evaluate the optimal dose for MZL. PMID:23281682

  3. Time-lapse ERT and DTS for seasonal and short-term monitoring of an alpine river hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Laura, Busato; Mariateresa, Perri; Giorgio, Cassiani

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the area located beneath and adjacent to rivers and streams, where the interactions between surface water and groundwater take place. This complex physical domain allows the transport of several substances from a stream to the unconfined aquifer below, and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in the river ecosystem. The importance of the hyporheic zone makes its characterization a goal shared by several disciplines, which range from applied geophysics to biogeochemistry, from hydraulics to ecology. The frontier field of HZ characterization stays in applied non-invasive methodologies as Electrical Resistivity Tomography - ERT - and Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS. ERT is commonly applied in cross-well configuration or with a superficial electrodes deployment while DTS is used in hydro-geophysics in the last decade, revealing a wide applicability to the typical issues of this field of study. DTS for hydro-geophysics studies is based on Raman scattering and employs heat as tracer and uses a fiber-optic cable to acquire temperature values. We applied both techniques for an alpine river case studies located in Val di Sole, TN, Italy. The collected measurements allow high-resolution characterization of the hyporheic zone, overcoming the critical problem of invasive measurements under riverbeds. In this work, we present the preliminary results regarding the characterization of the hyporheic zone of the alpine river obtained combining ERT and DTS time-lapse measurements. The data collection benefits from an innovative instrumentation deployment, which consists of both an ERT multicore cable and a DTS fiber-optic located in two separated boreholes drilled 5m under the watercourse and perpendicular to it. In particular we present the first year monitoring results and a short time-lapse monitoring experiment conducted during summer 2015. The site and the results here described are part of the EU FP7 CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the

  4. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    SciT

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The modelmore » also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of

  5. Distribution of Oxytetracycline Resistance Plasmids between Aeromonads in Hospital and Aquaculture Environments: Implication of Tn1721 in Dissemination of the Tetracycline Resistance Determinant Tet A

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Glenn; Huys, Geert; Swings, Jean; Mcgann, Patrick; Hiney, Maura; Smith, Peter; Pickup, Roger W.

    2000-01-01

    Oxytetracycline-resistant (OTr) mesophilic aeromonads were recovered from untreated hospital effluent (72 isolates) and from fish farm hatchery tanks (91 isolates) at sites within the English Lake District, Cumbria, England. The transfer of OTr plasmids from these isolates was investigated. Using Escherichia coli J53-1 as a recipient, 11 isolates from the hospital site and 6 isolates from the fish farm site transferred OTr plasmids (designated pFBAOT1 to 17). Original isolates were identified using fatty acid methyl ester and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism comparisons as either Aeromonas hydrophila HG3 (eight isolates), A. veronii b.v. sobria HG8 (six isolates), and A. caviae HGB5 (one isolate). One isolate remained unidentified, and one could not be assigned a taxonomic designation beyond the genus level. Plasmids pFBAOT1 to -17 were screened for the presence of the tetracycline resistance determinants Tet A to E and Tet G. Only determinant Tet A (10 plasmids) was detected in these plasmids, with 7 tet gene determinants remaining unclassified. In all cases, Tet A was located on a 5.5-kb EcoRI restriction fragment. Hybridization with inc-rep probes N, P, Q, W, and U showed pFBAOT3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -9, and -11, from the hospital environment, to be IncU plasmids. Further, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses and DNA probing demonstrated that pFBAOT plasmids were closely related to IncU OTr plasmids pASOT, pASOT2, pASOT3, pRAS1 (originally isolated from A. salmonicida strains from fish farms in Scotland and Norway, respectively), and pIE420 (isolated from a German hospital E. coli strain). In addition, DNA analyses demonstrated that plasmids pRAS1 and pIE420 had identical RFLP profiles and that all fragments hybridized to each other. The presence of tetracycline resistance transposon Tn1721 in its entirety or in a truncated form in these plasmids was demonstrated. These results provided direct evidence that related tetracycline

  6. Multichannel imager for littoral zone characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joe; Sofianos, James; Boucher, Cynthia; Gilbert, Gary

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an approach to utilize a multi-channel, multi-spectral electro-optic (EO) system for littoral zone characterization. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) presents their EO sensor systems for the surf zone environmental assessment and potential surf zone target detection. Specifically, an approach is presented to determine a Surf Zone Index (SZI) from the multi-spectral EO sensor system. SZI provides a single quantitative value of the surf zone conditions delivering an immediate understanding of the area and an assessment as to how well an airborne optical system might perform in a mine countermeasures (MCM) operation. Utilizing consecutive frames of SZI images, ACT is able to measure variability over time. A surf zone nomograph, which incorporates targets, sensor, and environmental data, including the SZI to determine the environmental impact on system performance, is reviewed in this work. ACT's electro-optical multi-channel, multi-spectral imaging system and test results are presented and discussed.

  7. Vegetation zones in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Holtanova, Eva; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava

    2017-04-01

    Climate patterns analysis can be performed for individual climate variables separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. some kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. Thus, the Köppen-Trewartha classification provides integrated assessment of temperature and precipitation together with their annual cycle as well. This way climate classifications also can be used as a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. The Köppen-Trewartha classification is applied on full CMIP5 family of more than 40 GCM simulations and CRU dataset for comparison. This evaluation provides insight on the GCM performance and errors for simulations of the 20th century climate. Common regions are identified, such as Australia or Amazonia, where many state-of-the-art models perform inadequately. Moreover, the analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble for future under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 is performed to assess the climate change for future. There are significant changes for some types in most models e.g. increase of savanna and decrease of tundra for the future climate. For some types significant shifts in latitude can be seen when studying their geographical location in selected continental areas, e.g. toward higher latitudes for boreal climate. Quite significant uncertainty can be seen for some types. For Europe, EuroCORDEX results for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution are validated using Köppen-Trewartha types in comparison to E-OBS based classification. ERA-Interim driven simulations are compared to both present conditions of CMIP5 models as well as their downscaling by EuroCORDEX RCMs. Finally, the climate change signal assessment is provided using the individual climate types. In addition to the changes assessed similarly as for GCMs analysis in terms of the area

  8. Crustal growth in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    There is a broad interest in understanding the physical principles leading to arc magmatisim at active continental margins and different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the composition and evolution of the continental crust. It is widely accepted that water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle allowing for "flux melting" of the hydrated mantle. However, relamination of subducted crustal material to the base of the continental crust has been recently suggested to account for the growth and composition of the continental crust. We use petrological-thermo-mechanical models of active subduction zones to demonstrate that subduction of crustal material to sublithospheric depth may result in the formation of a tectonic rock mélange composed of basalt, sediment and hydrated /serpentinized mantle. This rock mélange may evolve into a partially molten diapir at asthenospheric depth and rise through the mantle because of its intrinsic buoyancy prior to emplacement at crustal levels (relamination). This process can be episodic and long-lived, forming successive diapirs that represent multiple magma pulses. Recent laboratory experiments of Castro et al. (2013) have demonstrated that reactions between these crustal components (i.e. basalt and sediment) produce andesitic melt typical for rocks of the continental crust. However, melt derived from a composite diapir will inherit the geochemical characteristics of its source and show distinct temporal variations of radiogenic isotopes based on the proportions of basalt and sediment in the source (Vogt et al., 2013). Hence, partial melting of a composite diapir is expected to produce melt with a constant major element composition, but substantial changes in terms of radiogenic isotopes. However, crustal growth at active continental margins may also involve accretionary processes by which new material is added to the continental crust. Oceanic plateaus and other

  9. Kepler Small Habitable Zone Planets

    2015-07-23

    Of the 1,030 confirmed planets from Kepler, a dozen are less than twice the size of Earth and reside in the habitable zone of their host stars. In this diagram, the sizes of the exoplanets are represented by the size of each sphere. These are arranged by size from left to right, and by the type of star they orbit, from the M stars that are significantly cooler and smaller than the sun, to the K stars that are somewhat cooler and smaller than the sun, to the G stars that include the sun. The sizes of the planets are enlarged by 25 times compared to the stars. The Earth is shown for reference. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19827

  10. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-35 Section 3.05-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in New...

  11. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-35 Section 3.05-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in New...

  12. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA. The...

  13. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-20 Section 3.25-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-20 Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector North Carolina's office is located in Wilmington, NC...

  14. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-35 Section 3.05-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in New...

  15. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA. The...

  16. 33 CFR 3.05-20 - Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-20 Section 3.05-20 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-20 Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Southeastern New England's office is...

  17. 33 CFR 3.65-15 - Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-15 Section 3.65-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-15 Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Columbia River's office is located in Astoria...

  18. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-35 Section 3.05-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in New...

  19. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA. The...

  20. 33 CFR 3.05-20 - Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-20 Section 3.05-20 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-20 Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Southeastern New England's office is...

  1. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA. The...

  2. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-20 Section 3.25-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-20 Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector North Carolina's office is located in Wilmington, NC...

  3. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-20 Section 3.25-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-20 Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector North Carolina's office is located in Wilmington, NC...

  4. 33 CFR 3.65-15 - Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-15 Section 3.65-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-15 Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Columbia River's office is located in Astoria...

  5. 33 CFR 3.05-20 - Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-20 Section 3.05-20 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-20 Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Southeastern New England's office is...

  6. 33 CFR 3.05-20 - Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-20 Section 3.05-20 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-20 Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Southeastern New England's office is...

  7. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA. The...

  8. 33 CFR 3.65-15 - Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-15 Section 3.65-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-15 Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Columbia River's office is located in Astoria...

  9. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-35 Section 3.05-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in New...

  10. 33 CFR 3.65-15 - Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-15 Section 3.65-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-15 Sector Columbia River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Columbia River's office is located in Astoria...

  11. 33 CFR 3.05-20 - Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-20 Section 3.05-20 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-20 Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Southeastern New England's office is...

  12. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-20 Section 3.25-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-20 Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector North Carolina's office is located in Wilmington, NC...

  13. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    PubMed

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  14. Specialized zones of development in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose using the term "distal elongation zone" (DEZ) rather than "postmitotic isodiametric growth zone" to refer to the group of cells between the apical meristem and the elongation zone in plant roots. Reasons presented for the change are that the proposed DEZ includes many cells that are still dividing, most cells in the region are not isodiametric, and the pattern of cell expansion in this region varies with position in the region. Cells in the DEZ respond to gravistimulation, mechanical impedance, electrotropic stimulation, water stress, and auxin. Differences in gene expression patterns between DEZ cells and cells in the main elongation zone are noted.

  15. Interfacial Reduction-Oxidation Mechanisms Governing Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciT

    Principal Investigator: Baolin Deng, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Co-Principal Investigator: Silvia Sabine Jurisson, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Co-Principal Investigator: Edward C. Thornton, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA

    2008-05-12

    There are many soil contamination sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) installations that contain radionuclides and toxic metals such as uranium (U), technetium (Tc), and chromium (Cr). Since these contaminants are the main 'risk drivers' at the Hanford site (WA) and some of them also pose significant risk at other DOE facilities (e.g., Oak Ridge Reservation - TN; Rocky Flats - CO), development of technologies for cost effective site remediation is needed. Current assessment indicates that complete removal of these contaminants for ex-situ disposal is infeasible, thus in-situ stabilization through reduction to insoluble species is considered one of themore » most important approaches for site remediation. In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) is a technology developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for vadose zone soil remediation. The ISGR approach uses hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) for reductive immobilization of contaminants that show substantially lower mobility in their reduced forms (e.g., Tc, U, and Cr). The technology can be applied in two ways: (i) to immobilize or stabilize pre-existing contaminants in the vadose zone soils by direct H{sub 2}S treatment, or (ii) to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that prevents the migration of contaminants. Direct treatment involves reduction of the contaminants by H{sub 2}S to less mobile species. Formation of a PRB is accomplished through reduction of ferric iron species in the vadose zone soils by H{sub 2}S to iron sulfides (e.g., FeS), which provides a means for capturing the contaminants entering the treated zone. Potential future releases may occur during tank closure activities. Thus, the placement of a permeable reactive barrier by ISGR treatment can be part of the leak mitigation program. Deployment of these ISGR approaches, however, requires a better understanding of the immobilization kinetics and mechanisms, and a better assessment of the long-term effectiveness of treatment. The

  16. Nitrogen dynamics in a tidal river zone influenced by highly urbanization, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Onodera, S. I.; Shimizu, Y.; Maruyama, Y.; Jin, G.; Aritomi, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal river and estuary are the transition zone between freshwater and seawater with high biological production. These areas have characteristics of water level fluctuation which causes surface water-groundwater interaction and the associated change in dynamics of nitrogen. Generally in coastal megacities, severe groundwater depression and high contaminants load influence on the environment of tidal river. However, these effects on the nitrogen dynamics and its load from a river to sea have not been fully evaluated in previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of the nitrogen dynamics with the surface water-groundwater interaction in the tidal river zone of Osaka metropolitan city, western Japan. We conducted the field survey from the river mouth to the 7km upstream area of Yamato River, which has a length of 68km and a watershed area of 1,070 km2. Spatial variations in radon (222Rn) concentrations and the difference of hydraulic potential between river waters and the pore waters suggest that the groundwater discharges to the river channel in the upstream area. In contrast, the river water recharged into the groundwater near the river mouth area. It may be caused by the lowering of groundwater level associated with the excess abstraction in the urban area. The spatial and temporal variations in nutrient concentration indicate that nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration changed temporally and it was negatively correlated with dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration. Based on the mass balance estimation in winter and summer periods, nitrogen was removed in tidal river zone in both periods which was estimated to be about 10 % of total nitrogen (TN) load from the upstream. However, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and DON was re-produced in winter and summer periods, respectively. NO3-N concentrations were negatively correlated with velocity of river water, which suggests the progress of denitrification in the tidal river zone under

  17. Evaluation of work zone speed limits : an objective and subjective analysis of work zones in Missouri.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    This study objectively and subjectively examined speed characteristics and driver compliance with the posted speed limit : in Missouri work zones. The objective evaluation collected vehicle speeds from four work zones with different : configurations ...

  18. Synthesis of research on work zone delays and simplified application of QuickZone analysis tool.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to synthesize the latest information on work zone safety and management and identify case studies in which FHWAs decision support tool QuickZone or other appropriate analysis tools could be applied. The results ...

  19. The historical trend in float zone crystal diameters and power requirements for float zoned silicon crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The power needed to zone silicon crystals by radio frequency heating was analyzed. The heat loss mechanisms are examined. Curves are presented for power as a function of crystal diameter for commercial silicon zoning.

  20. 77 FR 42176 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... fireworks launch site located at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This zone will be... fireworks launch site located at position 41-39'- 19'' N, 082-48'-57'' W (NAD 83). This zone will be...'' W (NAD 83). This zone will be enforced one evening during the first week in July. The safety zone...

  1. Diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates with VanA, VanB, and VanD phenotypes and susceptibility to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Cha, J O; Yoo, J I; Kim, H K; Kim, H S; Yoo, J S; Lee, Y S; Jung, Y H

    2013-10-01

    To investigate diversity in the vanA cluster in Enterococcus faecium isolates from nontertiary hospitals. We identified 43 vanA-positive Ent. faecium isolates, including two vancomycin-susceptible isolates, from hospitals between 2003 and 2006. Of these isolates, >85% were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. The vanA cluster was classified into six types using overlapping PCR, but the prototype transposon Tn1546 was not found. Most vanA-positive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) carried IS1216V and belonged to Type III (58·1%) or Type II (20·9%). vanY, vanZ and IS1216V were observed in the left and right ends of Type III with long-range PCR. IS1216V was also observed within vanS and vanX in the two vancomycin-susceptible isolates and in two vancomycin-resistant isolates. No VRE isolates with VanB and VanD phenotypes contained point mutations in vanS, unlike in previous reports. Sequence types (STs) of all isolates belonged to clonal complex 17, and ST78 was predominant. Insertion sequences, especially IS1216V, cause structural variation in the vanA cluster. We report the first observation of vanY and vanZ at the left end of Tn1546 in clinical isolates. This is the first report of the frequency of vancomycin resistance and diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Ent. faecium isolates from nontertiary hospitals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. 77 FR 9528 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Waterway Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on February 17, 2012, through 11...

  3. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on September 12, 2013 through 11:59 p.m...

  4. 78 FR 54588 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6:00 a.m. on September 2, 2013 through 11:59 p.m...

  5. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Morgan City--07-012 New Iberia, LO Safety Zones (Parts 147 and 10/2/2007 165). COTP Morgan City--07-014... Iberia, LO Safety Zones (Parts 147 and 10/11/2007 165). COTP San Francisco Bay 06-013 Carquinez Strait...-0043 Savannah, GA Security zones (Part 165)..... 1/24/2008 USCG-2008-0050 Atchafalaya Bay, LO...

  6. 77 FR 75559 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-1064] Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a safety zone in the Captain of the Port New...

  7. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Port Hampton Roads Zone. 165.503 Section 165.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.503 Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone. (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  8. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Hampton Roads Zone. 165.503 Section 165.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.503 Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone. (a) Definitions. As used in this... been authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP), Hampton Roads, Virginia to act on his or her behalf...

  9. Seed zones and breeding zones for sugar pine in southwestern Oregon.

    Robert K. Campbell; Albert I. Sugano

    1987-01-01

    Provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) in southwestern Oregon. Zones are based on a map of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 142 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in a common garden. Within...

  10. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0192] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes AGENCY... 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These safety zones will ensure the safety of...

  11. 76 FR 41073 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    .... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing security zones around cruise ships in the... creates security zones for all navigable waters around certain cruise ships in the Southeastern New... temporary security zone regulation in Sec. 165.T01-0864. On April 5, 2011, we published a notice of proposed...

  12. 75 FR 63714 - Security Zone: Passenger Vessels, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ..., in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted for inflation) or more in any... Security Zone: Passenger Vessels, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone AGENCY: Coast... moving security zones around passenger vessels in the Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port...

  13. 75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between... surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between Chimney Point, VT and Crown Point, NY. This... of debris from the old Crown Point bridge demolition. The debris must be cleared from the navigable...

  14. Carbon stable isotope (δ13C) and elemental (TOC, TN, C/N) geochemistry in salt marsh surface sediments (Western Brittany, France): Adequate proxies for relative sea-level reconstruction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goslin, Jerome; Sans-jofre, Pierre; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing a dense network of precise and reliable records of Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) changes is still a major challenge for the paleo climate scientific community. In some regions, the use of traditional foraminifera-based transfer function is prevented by micro-fauna scarcity (e.g. Stéphan et al., 2014, Goslin et al., 2015), thus fostering the need for alternative proxies to be developed and used. Rather recently, isotopic and elemental geochemistry tools have been shown to form promising alternative proxies for RSL reconstruction (e.g. Wilson et al., 2005, Engelhart et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2015). Questions remain nonetheless open regarding the possibility for such markers to allow (i) distinguishing between freshwater and brackish to marine domains (this condition being needed if RSL index-points are to be derived from sedimentary markers) and (ii) to adequately identify the source of the organic matter preserved in the sediment. Concerns about the preservation of carbon and nitrogen compounds during diagenesis have also arose questioning the reliability of such markers for paleo-environmental reconstruction purposes (Wilson et al., 2005; Lamb et al., 2006). We analyzed stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and Total Nitrogen (TN) values within 94 surface sediments sampled across two C-3 plants dominated saltmarshes (Brittany, France). The distributions of δ13C, TOC, TN and C/N values is observed to follow clear and strong elevation-dependent trends. Some slight local variability appears between the studied sites that can be easily explained by the different morphological configuration and functioning of these latter. An indicator is found that allows sediments from below and above the high-tide level to be discriminated. This finding forms an interesting advance in the field as it permits to ensure that samples formed under saline conditions and thus suggests that these can be used as stand-alone proxies for RSL

  15. Seed zones for maintaining adapted plant populations

    J. Bradley St. Clair; G. Randy Johnson; Vicky J. Erickson; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Seed zones delineate areas within which plant materials can be transferred with little risk that they will be poorly adapted to their new location. They ensure successful restoration and revegetation, and help maintain the integrity of natural genetic structure. The value of seed zones is recognized in numerous policy statements from federal and state agencies. Results...

  16. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants

    Andrew D. Bower; J. Bradley St.Clair; Vicky Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum...

  17. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...] RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The... has made several amendments to the Uniform Time Act, 15 U.S.C. 260-267. Consequently, the Department's...

  18. Stabilization of a salamander moving hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Visser, Michaël; de Leeuw, Maarten; Zuiderwijk, Annie; Arntzen, Jan W

    2017-01-01

    When related species meet upon postglacial range expansion, hybrid zones are frequently formed. Theory predicts that such zones may move over the landscape until equilibrium conditions are reached. One hybrid zone observed to be moving in historical times (1950-1979) is that of the pond-breeding salamanders Triturus cristatus and Triturus marmoratus in western France. We identified the ecological correlates of the species hybrid zone as elevation, forestation, and hedgerows favoring the more terrestrial T. marmoratus and pond density favoring the more aquatic T. cristatus . The past movement of the zone of ca. 30 km over three decades has probably been driven by the drastic postwar reduction of the "bocage" hedgerow landscape, favoring T. cristatus over T. marmoratus . No further hybrid zone movement was observed from 1979 to the present. To explain the changing dynamics of the hybrid zone, we propose that it stalled, either because an equilibrium was found at an altitude of ca. 140 m a.s.l. or due to pond loss and decreased population densities. While we cannot rule out the former explanation, we found support for the latter. Under agricultural intensification, ponds in the study area are lost at an unprecedented rate of 5.5% per year, so that remaining Triturus populations are increasingly isolated, hampering dispersal and further hybrid zone movement.

  19. A broader classification of damage zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Dimmen, V.; Rotevatn, A.; Sanderson, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    Damage zones have previously been classified in terms of their positions at fault tips, walls or areas of linkage, with the latter being described in terms of sub-parallel and synchronously active faults. We broaden the idea of linkage to include structures around the intersections of non-parallel and/or non-synchronous faults. These interaction damage zones can be divided into approaching damage zones, where the faults kinematically interact but are not physically connected, and intersection damage zones, where the faults either abut or cross-cut. The damage zone concept is applied to other settings in which strain or displacement variations are taken up by a range of structures, such as at fault bends. It is recommended that a prefix can be added to a wide range of damage zones, to describe the locations in which they formed, e.g., approaching, intersection and fault bend damage zone. Such interpretations are commonly based on limited knowledge of the 3D geometries of the structures, such as from exposure surfaces, and there may be spatial variations. For example, approaching faults and related damage seen in outcrop may be intersecting elsewhere on the fault planes. Dilation in intersection damage zones can represent narrow and localised channels for fluid flow, and such dilation can be influenced by post-faulting stress patterns.

  20. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal Register Environmental Documents in coordination with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management (MA CZM) and EPA Region 1 Office of Ecosystem Protection (OEP) staff.

  1. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case, the...

  2. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case, the...

  3. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case, the...

  4. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case, the...

  5. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case, the...

  6. Interactive Map | USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map

    Choose Basemap: Terrain Road Map Satellite Image Turn on Basemap Roads and Labels Zone Color Transparency menu to switch between Terrain, Road Map, and Satellite Image. Turn on Basemap Roads and Labels Click option is available only for Terrain and Satellite Image basemap choices. Zone Color Transparency The

  7. Efforts to update firefighter safety zone guidelines

    Bret Butler

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones for firefighters during daily fire management operations. To be effective (timely, repeatable, and accurate), these decisions rely on good training and judgment, but also on clear, concise guidelines. This article is a summary of safety zone guidelines and the...

  8. What's New | USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map

    water may provide milder winter weather and be in a warmer zone. Climate Change Climate changes are year), changes in zones are not reliable evidence of whether there has been global warming. Compared a result of a more recent averaging period (1974-1986 vs. 1976-2005). However, some of the changes

  9. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  10. 33 CFR 2.28 - Contiguous zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contiguous zone. 2.28 Section 2.28 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.28 Contiguous zone. (a) For the purposes of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33...

  11. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones § 165.30...

  12. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones § 165.30...

  13. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones § 165.30...

  14. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones § 165.30...

  15. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements as for the electric fire detecting system, § 76.27-5. (b) [Reserved] ...

  16. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements as for the electric fire detecting system, § 76.27-5. (b) [Reserved] ...

  17. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements as for the electric fire detecting system, § 76.27-5. (b) [Reserved] ...

  18. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements as for the electric fire detecting system, § 76.27-5. (b) [Reserved] ...

  19. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements as for the electric fire detecting system, § 76.27-5. (b) [Reserved] ...

  20. Evaluation of work zone enhancement software programs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-09-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) is looking for software tools that can assist in : developing effective plans to manage and communicate work zone activities. QuickZone, CA4PRS, : VISSIM, and Spreadsheet models are the tools that MoD...

  1. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  2. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  3. Work Zone Intrusion Report Interface Design

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-02-02

    While necessary for roadways, work zones present a safety risk to crew. Half of road workers deaths between 2005 and 2010 were due to collisions with motorists intruding on the work zone. Therefore, addressing intrusions is an important step for ensu...

  4. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  5. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  6. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  7. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    SciT

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I.; Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: jose.lages@utinam.cnrs.fr

    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples ofmore » the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.« less

  8. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  9. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  10. Dissemination and Persistence of blaCTX-M-9 Are Linked to Class 1 Integrons Containing CR1 Associated with Defective Transposon Derivatives from Tn402 Located in Early Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids of IncHI2, IncP1-α, and IncFI Groups

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Valverde, Aránzazu; Machado, Elisabete; Galán, Juan-Carlos; Peixe, Luísa; Carattoli, Alessandra; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the diversity of In60, a class 1 integron bearing CR1 and containing blaCTX-M-9, and its association with Tn402, Tn21, and classical conjugative plasmids among 45 CTX-M-9-producing clinical strains (41 Escherichia coli strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, 1 Salmonella enterica strain, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae strain). Forty-five patients in a Spanish tertiary care hospital were studied (1996 to 2003). The diversity of In60 and association of In60 with Tn402 or mercury resistance transposons were investigated by overlapping PCR assays and/or hybridization. Plasmid characterization included comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns and determination of incompatibility group by PCR-based replicon typing, sequencing, and hybridization. CTX-M-9 plasmids belonged to IncHI2 (n = 26), IncP-1α (n = 10), IncFI (n = 4), and IncI (n = 1) groups. Genetic platforms containing blaCTX-M-9 were classified in six types in relation to the In60 backbone and in eight subtypes in relation to Tn402 derivatives. They were associated with Tn21 sequences when located in IncP-1α or IncHI2 plasmids. Our study identified blaCTX-M-9 in a high diversity of CR1-bearing class 1 integrons linked to different Tn402 derivatives, often to Tn21, highlighting the role of recombination events in the evolution of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The presence of blaCTX-M-9 on broad-host-range IncP-1α plasmids might contribute to its dissemination to hosts that were not members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:16870767

  11. 'Test n Treat (TnT)': a cluster-randomised feasibility trial of frequent, rapid-testing and same-day, on-site treatment to reduce rates of chlamydia in high-risk further education college students: statistical analysis plan.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rachel; Oakeshott, Pippa; Kerry-Barnard, Sarah; Reid, Fiona

    2018-06-05

    There are high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in ethnically diverse, sexually active students aged 16-24 years attending London further education (FE) colleges. However, uptake of chlamydia screening remains low. The TnT study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a future trial in FE colleges to investigate if frequent, rapid, on-site testing and treatment (TnT) reduces chlamydia rates. This article presents the statistical analysis plan for the main study publication as approved and signed off by the Trial Management Group prior to the first data extraction for the final report. TnT is a cluster-randomised feasibility trial conducted over 7 months with parallel qualitative and economic assessments. Colleges will be randomly allocated into the intervention (TnT) or the control group (no TnT). Six FE colleges in London will be included. At each college for 2 days, 80 consecutive sexually active students aged 16-24 years (total 480 students across all six colleges) will be recruited from public areas and asked to provide baseline samples. One and 4 months after recruitment intervention colleges will be visited on two consecutive days by the TnT team where participating students will be texted and invited to come for same-day, on-site, rapid chlamydia testing and, if positive, treatment. Participants in the control colleges will receive 'thank you' texts 1 and 4 months after recruitment. Seven months after recruitment, participants from both groups will be invited to complete questionnaires and provide samples for TnT. All samples will be tested, and same-day treatment offered to participants with positive results. Key feasibility outcomes include: recruitment rates, testing and treatment uptake rates (at 1 and 4 months) and follow-up rates (at 7 months). ISRCTN 58038795 . Registered on 31 August 2016.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen mobilization along thermokarst-affected permafrost coasts and its degradation mechanisms before entering the near shore zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanski, G.; Ruttor, S.; Lantuit, H.; Knoblauch, C.; Strauss, J.; Radosavljevic, B.; Ramage, J. L.; Fritz, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is more than any other region on Earth affected by changing climate conditions. Ice-rich and unlithified permafrost coasts are particularly susceptible for these changes. These coasts erode at a great pace, which is facilitated by thermokarst processes and wave action due to longer open water periods. Organic matter that has been frozen for millennia is mobilized and can be either emitted as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, redeposited on the land surface, or transported into the nearshore zone of the ocean. However, only little is known about the degradation processes after mobilization from permafrost until entering the aquatic system. It is the aim of this study to capture the degradation dynamics of organic carbon and nitrogen at the land-ocean-interface before entering nearshore zone, where it can potentially affect marine chemistry and ecosystems. In this study we investigated a retrogressive thaw slump, a thermokarst feature that is abundant along the ice-rich permafrost coast of the Canadian Arctic. Samples have been taken systematically along transects in undisturbed, i.e. not affected by thermokarst yet (tundra, permafrost headwall), and disturbed areas (mudpool, slump deposits, thaw stream). Total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC) as well as total and dissolved nitrogen (TN and DN) were analyzed to estimate the loss from undisturbed to disturbed areas. Stable carbon isotopes, C/N-ratios, inorganic nutrients, and lipid biomarkers have been analyzed to determine potential degradation processes. The results show no substantial changes of stable carbon isotopes and C/N-ratios (for TOC). However, high concentrations of ammonium in the mudpool (fresh thawed material) and low C/N-rations (for DOC) within the thaw stream indicate rapid metabolization of organic material. In conclusion we show that organic carbon and nutrients undergo substantial changes upon thaw and are subject to degradation before entering the nearshore zone.

  13. 19 CFR 146.44 - Zone-restricted status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zone-restricted status. 146.44 Section 146.44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Status of Merchandise in a Zone § 146.44 Zone-restricted status. (a) General. Merchandise taken into a zone for the sole purpose of exportation, destruction (except...

  14. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii and...

  15. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  16. GOJJAM ZONE, WESTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Mulusew

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is one of the harmful traditional practices among women and girls. More than 130 million girls and women live today who have undergone female genital mutilation. In Ethiopia, a high prevalence (74.3% national and 68.5% in Amhara region) has been reported. This study was aimed to identify determinant factors of female genital mutilation practices in East Gojjam Zone, Western Amhara, Ethiopia community based cross sectional study was conducted among 730 women aged 15-49 years and having children < 5 years old in September, 2014. Data were collected using a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe study objectives, and bivariate and multivariate analysis to identify determinant factors to female genital mutilation. 718 women and 805 daughters participated in the study. FGM prevalence was 689 (96%) and 403 (49%) among women and daughters< 5 years of age, respectively. Type1 and type 2 FGMs were common and daughters <1 years of age exhibited 91% female genital mutilation. Daughters' age, parent education level, residence, women circumcision history, culture, health education, frequent health extension workers follow up and participation in anti FGM interventions were risk factors to female genital mutilation practice. Female genital mutilation practices continues to be a major problem to women and daughter <5 years of age in the study area. A number of factors were associated with FGM practices including daughters’ age, parent education level, residence, health education, culture, mothers circumcision history, frequent health extensions workers follow up and participation in anti FGM interventions were determinants to higher FGM practices.

  17. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    SciT

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{submore » 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.« less

  18. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  19. Defining the Fresnel zone for broadband radiation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jeremy; Mittleman, Daniel

    2002-11-01

    The concept of the Fresnel zone is central to many areas of imaging. In tomographic imaging, the transverse spatial resolution can be limited by the size of the first Fresnel zone, usually defined only for monochromatic radiation. With the increasing prevalence of broadband tomographic imaging systems, a generalization of this concept is required. Here, a proposed generalization is described in the context of femtosecond optics, and experimentally verified using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Based on this definition, a simple zone plate design is demonstrated.

  20. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.