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Sample records for zone beneath northeastern

  1. Seismic structure of southern margin of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake aftershocks area: slab-slab contact zone beneath northeastern Kanto, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Mizohata, S.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on the Japan Trench off the eastern shore of northern Honshu, Japan. The southward expansion of the afterslip area has reached the Kanto region, central Japan (Ozawa et al., 2011). The Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts beneath the Kanto region. The bottom of the PHS is in contact with the upper surface of the Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath northeastern Kanto. Detailed structure of the PHS-PAC contact zone is important to constrain the southward rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki Earthquake and provide new insight into the process of future earthquake occurrence beneath the Kanto region. Active and passive seismic experiments were conducted to obtain a structural image beneath northeastern Kanto in 2010 (Sato et al., 2010). The geometry of upper surface of the PHS has been revealed by seismic reflection profiling (Sato et al., 2010). Passive seismic data set is useful to obtain a deep structural image. Two passive seismic array observations were conducted to obtain a detailed structure image of the PHS-PAC contact zone beneath northeastern Kanto. One was carried out along a 50-km-long seismic line trending NE-SW (KT-line) and the other was carried out along a 65-km-long seismic line trending NW-SE (TM-line). Sixty-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on KT-line with 500 to 700 m interval and waveforms were continuously recorded during a four-month period from June, 2010. Forty-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on TM-line with about 1-2 km spacing and waveforms were continuously recorded during the seven-month period from June, 2010. Arrival times of earthquakes were used in a joint inversion for earthquake locations and velocity structure, using the iterative damped least-squares algorithm, simul2000 (Thurber and Eberhart-Phillips, 1999). The relocated hypocenter distribution shows that the seismicity along the upper surface of the PAC is located at depths of 45-75 km beneath

  2. High resolution image of uppermost mantle beneath NE Iran continental collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaghi, K.; Tatar, M.; Shomali, Z. H.; Kaviani, A.; Priestley, K.

    2012-10-01

    We invert 3775 relative P wave arrival times using the ACH damped least square method of Aki et al. (1977) to study upper mantle structure beneath the NE Iran continental collision zone. The data for this study were recorded by 17 three component broad-band stations operated from August 2006 to February 2008 along a profile from the center of Iranian Plateau, near Yazd, to the northeastern part of Iran on the Turan Platform just north of the Kopeh Dagh Mountains. The results confirm the previously known low velocity upper mantle beneath Central Iran. Our tomographic model reveals a deep high velocity anomaly. The surficial expressions of this anomaly are between the Ashkabad and Doruneh Faults, where the resolution and ray coverage are good. A transition zone in uppermost mantle is recognized under the Binalud foreland that we interpreted as suture zone between Iran and Turan platform. Our results indicate that Atrak Valley which is the boundary between the Binalud and Kopeh Dagh Mountains can be considered as the northeastern suture of the Iranian Plateau where Eurasia and Turan Platform under-thrust beneath the Binalud range and Central Iran.

  3. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul G; Shearer, Peter M

    2003-04-18

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (>/=13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  4. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Wolfe, C.J.; Okubo, P.G.; Shearer, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (???13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  5. Mantle transition zone structure beneath Tanzania, east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Thomas J.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Gurrola, Harold; Langston, Charles A.

    2000-03-01

    We apply a three-dimensional stacking method to receiver functions from the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment to determine relative variations in the thickness of the mantle transition zone beneath Tanzania. The transition zone under the Eastern rift is 30-40 km thinner than under areas of the Tanzania Craton in the interior of the East African Plateau unaffected by rift faulting. The region of transition zone thinning under the Eastern rift is several hundred kilometers wide and coincides with a 2-3% reduction in S wave velocities. The thinning of the transition zone, as well as the reduction in S wave velocities, can be attributed to a 200-300°K increase in temperature. This thermal anomaly at >400 km depth beneath the Eastern rift cannot be easily explained by passive rifting and but is consistent with a plume origin for the Cenozoic rifting, volcanism and plateau uplift in East Africa.

  6. High resolution P-wave velocity structure beneath Northeastern Tibet from multiscale seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Gao, X.; Chen, J.; Liu, Q.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    The continuing collision of the northward advancing Indian continent with the Eurasia results in the high elevations and thickened Tibetan Plateau. Numerous geologic and geophysical studies engaged in the mechanics of the Tibetan Plateau deformation and uplift. Many seismic experiments were deployed in south and central Tibet, such as INDEPTH and Hi-climb, but very few in northeastern Tibet. Between 2013 and 2015, The China Seismic Array-experiment operated 670 broadband seismic stations with an average station spacing of 35km. This seismic array located in northeastern Tibet and covered the Qilian Mountains, Qaidam Basin, and part of Songpan-Ganzi, Gobi-Alashan, Yangzi, and Ordos. A new multiscale seismic traveltime tomography technique with sparsity constrains were used to map the upper mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath northeastern Tibet. The seismic tomography algorithm employs sparsity constrains on the wavelet representation velocity model via the L1-norm regularization. This algorithm can efficiently deal with the uneven-sampled volume, and give multiscale images of the model. Our preliminary results can be summarized as follows: 1) in the upper mantle down to 200km, significate low-velocity anomalies exist beneath the northeastern Tibet, and slight high-velocity anomalies beneath the Qaidam basin; 2) under Gobi-Alashan, Yangzi, and Ordos, high-velocity anomalies appear to extend to a depth of 250km, this high-velocity may correspond to the lithosphere; 3) there exist relative high-velocity anomalies at depth of 250km-350km underneath north Tibet, which suggests lithospheric delamination; 4) the strong velocity contrast between north Tibet and Yangzi, Gabi-Alashan is visible down to 200km, which implies the north Tibet boundary.

  7. Mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youqiang; Zhao, Dapeng; Lei, Jianshe

    2017-10-01

    To better understand geodynamic processes of intracontinental mountain building, we conduct a systematic investigation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath the Tien Shan and its surrounding areas using a receiver function method under non-plane wave front assumption. The resulting apparent depths of the 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuities and the MTZ thickness display significant lateral variations. Both the central Tien Shan and the Pamir Plateau are characterized by a thick MTZ, which can be well explained by the existence of lithospheric segments resulted from possible break-off of the subducted slab or lithosphere delamination. A thin MTZ and an obviously depressed d410, which may be induced by asthenosphere upwelling associated with the dropping lithospheric segment, are revealed beneath the Kazakh Shield. Seismic evidence is obtained for the potential existence of lower mantle upwelling beneath the Tarim Basin based on the observed thin MTZ and relatively significant uplift of d660. The subduction of the Kazakh Shield and Tarim lithosphere driven by the India-Eurasia collision possibly plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt, and the lower mantle upwelling revealed beneath the Tarim Basin may promote the uplift of the Tien Shan by softening the upper mantle.

  8. The Moho discontinuity beneath Taiwan orogenic zone inferred from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Chen, C.; Liang, W.

    2013-12-01

    We determine the depth variations of the Moho discontinuity beneath Taiwan from receiver function analysis. Taiwan is a young (~6.5 Ma) orogenic zone as a consequence of oblique collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In northeastern Taiwan, the Philippine Sea Plate subducts northwestward under the Eurasian Plate along the Ryukyu Trench; in southern Taiwan, the Eurasian Plate subducts eastward beneath the Philippine Sea Plate along the Manila Trench. Recent tomographic models of Taiwan reveal P-wave velocity variations of the lithospheric structure that provide important constraints on the orogenic processes in this region. However, the depth variations of the Moho discontinuity, a key observation for better understanding crustal deformation, remain elusive. In this study, we aim to delineate the Moho depth variations by analyzing seismic converted phases indicative of the presence of discontinuity structure. We analyze waveform data from teleseismic events recorded at the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). Preliminary results of receiver functions beneath BATS stations in eastern Taiwan show that more than one converted phase (P-to-S) are likely present in crustal depths, suggesting possible multiple crustal layering, which may complicate the detection of the Moho. We further carry out synthetic experiments to explore possible crustal structures that reconcile our observations.

  9. Anomalous mantle transition zone beneath the Yellowstone hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying

    2018-06-01

    The origin of the Yellowstone and Snake River Plain volcanism has been strongly debated. The mantle plume model successfully explains the age-progressive volcanic track, but a deep plume structure has been absent in seismic imaging. Here I apply diffractional tomography to receiver functions recorded at USArray stations to map high-resolution topography of mantle transition-zone discontinuities. The images reveal a trail of anomalies that closely follow the surface hotspot track and correlate well with a seismic wave-speed gap in the subducting Farallon slab. This observation contradicts the plume model, which requires anomalies in the mid mantle to be confined in a narrow region directly beneath the present-day Yellowstone caldera. I propose an alternative interpretation of the Yellowstone volcanism. About 16 million years ago, a section of young slab that had broken off from a subducted spreading centre in the mantle first penetrated the 660 km discontinuity beneath Oregon and Idaho, and pulled down older stagnant slab. Slab tearing occurred along pre-existing fracture zones and propagated northeastward. This reversed-polarity subduction generated passive upwellings from the lower mantle, which ascended through a water-rich mantle transition zone to produce melting and age-progressive volcanism.

  10. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D. W.; Snyder, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is underlain by one of the deepest and most laterally extensive continental roots on the planet. Seismological constraints on the mantle structure beneath the region are presently lacking due to the paucity of stations in this remote area. Presented here is a receiver function study on transition zone structure using data from recently deployed seismic networks from the Hudson Bay region. High resolution images based on high signal-to-noise ratio data show clear arrivals from the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, revealing remarkably little variation in transition zone structure. Transition zone thickness is close to the global average (averaging 245 km across the study area), and any deviations in Pds arrival time from reference Earth models can be readily explained by upper-mantle velocity structure. The 520 km discontinuity is not a ubiquitous feature, and is only weakly observed in localised areas. These results imply that the Laurentian root is likely confined to the upper-mantle and if any mantle downwelling exists, possibly explaining the existence of Hudson Bay, it is also confined to the upper 400 km. Any thermal perturbations at transition zone depths associated with the existence of the root, whether they be cold downwellings or elevated temperatures due to the insulating effect of the root, are thus either non-existent or below the resolution of the study.

  11. Seismic triplication used to reveal slab subduction that had disappeared in the late Mesozoic beneath the northeastern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoran; Li, Qiusheng; Li, Guohui; Zhou, Yuanze; Ye, Zhuo; Zhang, Hongshuang

    2018-03-01

    We provided a new study of the seismic velocity structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath the northeastern South China Sea using P-wave triplications from two earthquakes at the central Philippines recorded by the Chinese Digital Seismic Network. Through fitting the observed and theoretical triplications modeled by the dynamic ray tracing method for traveltimes, and the reflectivity method for synthetic waveforms using grid-searching method, best-fit velocity models based on IASP91 were obtained to constrain the P-wave velocity structure of the MTZ. The models show that a high-velocity anomaly (HVA) resides at the bottom of MTZ. The HVA is 215 km to 225 km thick, with a P-wave velocity increment of 1.0% between 450 km and 665 km or 675 km transition and increase by 2.5-3.5% at 665 km or 675 km depth. The P-wave velocity increment ranges from approximately 0.3% to 0.8% below the 665 km or 675 km. We proposed that the HVA in the MTZ was caused by the broken fragments of a diving oceanic plate falling into the MTZ at a high angle, and/or by unstable thick continental lithosphere dropping into the MTZ sequentially or almost simultaneously.

  12. Seismic Structure of Mantle Transition Zone beneath Northwest Pacific Subduction Zone and its Dynamic Implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Guo, G.; WANG, X.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The northwest Pacific subduction region is an ideal location to study the interaction between the subducting slab and upper mantle discontinuities. Various and complex geometry of the Pacific subducting slab can be well traced downward from the Kuril, Japan and Izu-Bonin trench using seismicity and tomography images (Fukao and Obayashi, 2013). Due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the sea, investigation of the deep mantle structure beneath the broad sea regions is very limited. In this study, we applied the well- developed multiple-ScS reverberations method (Wang et al., 2017) to analyze waveforms recorded by the Chinese Regional Seismic Network, the densely distributed temporary seismic array stations installed in east Asia. A map of the topography of the upper mantle discontinuities beneath the broad oceanic regions in northwest Pacific subduction zone is imaged. We also applied the receiver function analysis to waveforms recorded by stations in northeast China and obtain the detailed topography map beneath east Asia continental regions. We then combine the two kinds of topography of upper mantle discontinuities beneath oceanic and continental regions respectively, which are obtained from totally different methods. A careful image matching and spatial correlation is made in the overlapping study regions to calibrate results with different resolution. This is the first time to show systematically a complete view of the topography of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities beneath the east Asia "Big mantle wedge" (Zhao and Ohtani, 2009) covering the broad oceanic and continental regions in the Northwestern Pacific Subduction zone. Topography pattern of the 660 and 410 is obtained and discussed. Especially we discovered a broad depression of the 410-km discontinuity covering more than 1000 km in lateral, which seems abnormal in the cold subducting tectonic environment. Based on plate tectonic reconstruction studies and HTHP mineral experiments, we

  13. P-wave attenuation in the Pacific slab beneath northeastern Japan revealed by the spectral ratio of intraslab earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Takahiro; Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru

    2018-05-01

    We investigate P-wave attenuation, Qp-1, in the Pacific slab beneath northeastern (NE) Japan, adopting for the first time the spectral ratio technique for intraslab earthquakes. When seismograms of two earthquakes are recorded at a station and their ray paths to the station are largely overlapped, station-dependent amplification and structural effects on the overlapped rays can be canceled out from the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of the seismograms. Therefore, adopting the spectral ratio technique for intraslab earthquakes has a great advantage for the precise evaluation of Qp-1 in the slab because the structural effects above the slab, including the high-attenuation mantle wedge, are removed. For estimating the intraslab Qp-1, we determined corner frequency of the intraslab earthquakes using the S-coda wave spectral ratio as the first step. Then, we evaluated the inter-event path attenuation, Δt*, from the ratio of the spectral amplitudes of P waves. The obtained result shows that P-wave attenuation in the Pacific slab marks Qp-1 of 0.0015 (Qp of ∼670) at depths of 50-250 km. This indicates that the P-wave attenuation in the Pacific slab is weaker than that in the mantle wedge. The relatively high-Qp-1 is correlated with the distributions of intraslab earthquakes, suggesting that the P-wave amplitude is more attenuated around active seismicity zones in the slab. Therefore, our observations likely indicate the presence of fractures, hydrous minerals, and dehydrated fluid around seismogenic zones in the slab at intermediate depths.

  14. Seismic Structure in the Vicinity of the Inner Core Boundary beneath northeastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibourichene, A. S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    The inner core boundary (ICB) separates the solid inner core from the liquid outer core. The crystallization of iron occurring at this limit induces the expulsion of lighter elements such as H, O, S, Si into the outer core, generating chemically-driven convection, which provides power for the geodynamo. Both the F layer, right above the ICB, and the uppermost inner core, are affected by this process so that their properties provide important constraints for a better understanding of core dynamics and, ultimately, the generation and sustained character of the earth's magnetic field. In this study, we investigate the evolution of model parameters (P-velocity, density and quality factor) with depth in the vicinity of the ICB. For this purpose, we combine observations of two body wave phases sensitive to this region: the PKP(DF) phase refracted in the inner core and the PKiKP reflected on the ICB. Variations in the PKP(DF)/PKiKP amplitude ratio and PKP(DF)-PKiKP differential travel times can be related to structure around the ICB. We use waveform data from earthquakes located in Sumatra and recorded by the dense USArray seismic network, which allows us to sample ICB structure beneath northeastern Asia. Observed waveforms are compared to synthetics computed using the DSM method (e.g., Geller et Takeuchi, 1995) in model AK135 (e.g., Montagner & Kennett, 1996) in order to measure amplitude and travel time anomalies. Previous studies (e.g., Tanaka, 1997 ; Cao and Romanowicz, 2004, Yu and Wen, 2006; Waszek and Deuss, 2011) have observed an hemispherical pattern in the vicinity of the ICB exhibiting a faster and more attenuated eastern hemisphere compared to the western hemisphere. The region studied is located in the eastern hemisphere. We find that, on average, travel time anomalies are consistent with previous studies of the eastern hemisphere, however, amplitude ratios are not. We conduct a parameter search for the 1D model that best fits our data. We also consider

  15. The upper-mantle transition zone beneath the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdo, Paula; Bonatto, Luciana; Badi, Gabriela; Piromallo, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the present work is the study of the upper mantle structure of the western margin of South America (between 26°S and 36°S) within an area known as the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone. For this purpose, we use teleseismic records from temporary broad band seismic stations that resulted from different seismic experiments carried out in South America. This area is characterized by on-going orogenic processes and complex subduction history that have profoundly affected the underlying mantle structure. The detection and characterization of the upper mantle seismic discontinuities are useful to understand subduction processes and the dynamics of mantle convection; this is due to the fact that they mark changes in mantle composition or phase changes in mantle minerals that respond differently to the disturbances caused by mantle convection. The discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km, generally associated to phase changes in olivine, vary in width and depth as a result of compositional and temperature anomalies. As a consequence, these discontinuities are an essential tool to study the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle. Here, we analyze the upper-mantle transition zone discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km as seen from Pds seismic phases beneath the Argentina-Chile flat subduction.

  16. A detailed map of the 660-kilometer discontinuity beneath the izu-bonin subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Wicks, C W; Richards, M A

    1993-09-10

    Dynamical processes in the Earth's mantle, such as cold downwelling at subduction zones, cause deformations of the solid-state phase change that produces a seismic discontinuity near a depth of 660 kilometers. Observations of short-period, shear-to-compressional wave conversions produced at the discontinuity yield a detailed map of deformation beneath the Izu-Bonin subduction zone. The discontinuity is depressed by about 60 kilometers beneath the coldest part of the subducted slab, with a deformation profile consistent with the expected thermal signature of the slab, the experimentally determined Clapeyron slope of the phase transition, and the regional tectonic history.

  17. The mantle transition zone beneath Antarctica: Evidence for thermal upwellings and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew; Emry, Erica; Hansen, Samantha; Julia, Jordi; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard; Wiens, Douglas; Huerta, Audrey; Wilson, Terry

    2015-04-01

    West Antarctica has experienced abundant Cenozoic volcanism, and it is suspected that the region is influenced by upwelling thermal plumes from the lower mantle; however this has not yet been verified, because seismic tomography results are not well resolved at mantle transition zone (MTZ) depths. We use P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) from temporary and permanent arrays throughout Antarctica, including the Antarctic POLENET, TAMNET, TAMSEIS, and GAMSEIS arrays, to explore the characteristics of the MTZ beneath the continent. We obtained PRFs for earthquakes occurring at 30-90° with Mb>5.5 using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method filtered with a Gaussian-width of 0.5 and 1.0, corresponding to frequencies less than ~0.24 Hz and ~0.48 Hz, respectively. We combine P receiver functions as single-station and as common conversion point stacks and migrate them to depth using the ak135 1-d velocity model. Results from West Antarctica suggest that the thickness of the MTZ varies throughout the region with thinning beneath the Ruppert Coast of Marie Byrd Land and beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Whitmore Mountains. Also, prominent negative peaks are detected above the transition zone beneath much of West Antarctica and may be evidence for water-induced partial melt above the MTZ. Preliminary results from single-station stacks for the mantle transition zone beneath East Antarctica suggests that one section of East Antarctica, off of the South Pole may have slightly thinned transition zone. Results are forthcoming from the mantle transition zone beneath Victoria Land and the Northern Transantarctics. We propose that the MTZ beneath parts of West Antarctica and possibly also beneath one region of East Antarctica, is hotter than average, possibly due to material upwelling from the lower mantle. Furthermore, we propose that the transition zone beneath much of West Antarctica is water-rich and that upward migration of hydrated material results in formation of

  18. Seismic attenuation structure beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone in southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.; Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate seismic attenuation in terms of quality factors, QP and QS using P and S phases, respectively, beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone between 10°S and 18.5°S latitude in southern Peru. We first relocate 298 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 4.0-6.5 and depth ranges of 20-280 km. We measure t*, which is an integrated attenuation through the seismic raypath between the regional earthquakes and stations. The measured t* are inverted to construct three-dimensional attenuation structures of southern Peru. Checkerboard test results for both QP and QS structures ensure good resolution in the slab-dip transition zone between flat and normal slab subduction down to a depth of 200 km. Both QP and QS results show higher attenuation continued down to a depth of 50 km beneath volcanic arc and also beneath the Quimsachata volcano, the northernmost young volcano, located far east of the main volcanic front. We also observe high attenuation in mantle wedge especially beneath the normal subduction region in both QP and QS (100-130 in QP and 100-125 in QS) and slightly higher QP and QS beneath the flat-subduction and slab-dip transition regions. We plan to relate measured attenuation in the mantle wedge to material properties such as viscosity to understand the subduction zone dynamics.

  19. Mapping the mantle transition zone beneath the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge using Ps receiver functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, M. R.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Kendall, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the mechanisms taking place beneath ridges is important in order to understand how tectonic plates form and interact. Of particular interest is establishing the depth at which these processes originate. Anomalies such as higher temperature within the mantle transition zone may be inferred seismically if present. However, most ridges are found in remote locations beneath the oceans restricting seismologists to use far away land-based seismometers, which in turn limits the imaging resolution. In 2016, 39 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, along the Romanche and Chain fracture zones as part of the PI-LAB research project (Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Boundary). The one-year long seismic data is now retrieved and analysed to image the mantle transition zone beneath the ridge. We determine P-to-s (Ps) receiver functions to illuminate the 410- and 660-km depth mantle discontinuities using the extended multitaper deconvolution. The data from ocean-bottom seismometers have tilt and compliance noise corrections and is filtered between 0.05-0.2 Hz to enhance the signal. 51 teleseismic earthquakes generated hundreds of good quality waveforms, which are then migrated to depth in 3-D. The topography at the d410 deepens towards the west of the Romanche and Chain fracture zone by 15 km, whereas the topography of d660 shallows beneath the ridge between the two zones. Transition zone thickness thins from 5 to 20 km. Thermal anomalies determined from temperature relationships with transition zone thickness and depth variations of the d410 and d660 suggests hotter temperatures of about 200 K. Overall, the result suggests mid-ocean ridges may have associated thermal signatures as deep as the transition zone.

  20. Origin Of Methane Gas And Migration Through The Gas Hydrate Stability Zone Beneath The Permafrost Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A.; Namikawa, T.

    2005-12-01

    In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. Continuous downhole well log data as well as visible gas hydrates have confirmed pore-space hydrate as intergranular pore filling within sandy layers whose saturations are up to 80% in pore volume, but muddy sediments scarcely contain. Plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand core samples have been obtained from the Mallik wells. According to grain size distributions pore-space hydrate is dominant in medium- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Methane gas accumulation and original pore space large enough to occur within host sediments may be required for forming highly saturated gas hydrate in pore system. The distribution of a porous and coarser-grained host rock should be one of the important factors to control the occurrence of gas hydrate, as well as physicochemical conditions. Subsequent analyses in sedimentology and geochemistry performed on gas hydrate-bearing sandy core samples also revealed important geologic and sedimentological controls on the formation and concentration of natural gas hydrate. This appears to be a similar mode for conventional oil and gas accumulations. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicate that highly saturated sands may have permeability of a few millidarcies. The isotopic data of methane show that hydrocarbon gas contained in gas hydrate is generated by thermogenic decomposition of kerogen in deep mature sediments. Based on geochemical and geological data, methane is inferred to migrate upward closely associated with pore water hundreds of meters into and through the hydrate stability zone partly up to the permafrost zone and the surface along faults and

  1. Investigating Ultra-low Velocity Zones beneath the Southwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, S. E.; Hansen, S. E.; Garnero, E.

    2017-12-01

    The core mantle boundary (CMB), where the solid silicate mantle meets the liquid iron-nickel outer core, represents the largest density contrast on our planet, and it has long been recognized that the CMB is associated with significant structural heterogeneities. One CMB structure of particular interest are ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs), laterally-varying, 5-50 km thick isolated patches seen in some locations just above the CMB that are associated with increased density and reduced seismic wave velocities. These variable characteristics have led to many questions regarding ULVZ origins, but less than 40% of the CMB has been surveyed for the presence of ULVZs given limited seismic coverage of the lowermost mantle. Therefore, investigations that sample the CMB with new geometries are critical to further our understanding of ULVZs and their potential connection to other deep Earth processes. The Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network (TAMNNET), a 15-station seismic array that was recently deployed in Antarctica, provides a unique dataset to further study ULVZ structure with new and unique path geometry. Core-reflected ScP and PcP phases from the TAMNNET dataset particularly well sample the CMB in the vicinity of New Zealand in the southwestern Pacific, providing coverage between an area to the north where ULVZ structure has been previously identified and another region to the south, which shows no ULVZ evidence. By identifying and modeling pre- and post-cursor ScP and PcP energy, we are exploring a new portion of the CMB with a goal of better understanding potential ULVZ origins. Our study area also crosses the southern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP); therefore, our investigations may allow us to examine the possible relationship between LLSVPs and ULVZs.

  2. The Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Northeastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengiz, Özlem; Tuǧrul Başokur, Ahmet; Tolak Çiftçi, Elif

    2016-04-01

    The Northeastern Anatolia is located at the intensely deformed Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone (EACZ), and its tectonic framework is characterized by the collision of the Arabian plate with Eurasian. Although extensive attention is given to understand the crustal and upper mantle processes at this convergent boundary, there is still an ongoing debate over the geodynamic processes of the region. In this study, we were specifically interested in the geoelectric properties and thus geodynamics of the crust beneath the EACZ. Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were made on two profiles across the north of the EACZ in 1998 as part of a national project undertaken by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO). MT data in the frequency range of 300-0.001 Hz were collected from 168 stations located along 78 km north to south and 47 km west to east profiles where direct convergence occurs between Arabian and Eurasian plates. Two and three-dimensional inversion algorithms were used to obtain resistivity models of the study area. According to these models, the upper crust consists of low resistivity sedimentary rocks (<30 Ωm) that are underlain by highly resistive (~500-1000 Ωm) crystalline basement rocks of the Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex and Pontides. While the upper and lower crustal resistivity at the northern part of the study area shows a layered structure, significant horizontal and vertical variations for the rest of the EACZ exists on resistivity models. The broad low resistivity zones (<50 Ωm) observed at mid and lower crustal levels throughout the EACZ. These fluid-rich regions along with high temperatures could indicate weak zones representing the locations of active deformation induced by continent-continent collision and correlate with volcanic centers in the region. The variation in the resistivity structure supports the southward subduction model with the resistive continental block and the deep conductive zones presumably corresponding to the

  3. Layered Crustal and Mantle Structure and Anisotropy beneath the Afar Depression and Malawi Rift Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cory Alexander

    Although a wealth of geophysical data sets have been acquired within the vicinity of continental rift zones, the mechanisms responsible for the breakup of stable continental lithosphere are ambiguous. Eastern Africa is host to the largest contemporary rift zone on Earth, and is thus the most prominent site with which to investigate the processes which govern the rupture of continental lithosphere. The studies herein represent teleseismic analyses of the velocity and thermomechanical structure of the crust and mantle beneath the Afar Depression and Malawi Rift Zone (MRZ) of the East African Rift System. Within the Afar Depression, the first densely-spaced receiver function investigation of crustal thickness and inferred velocity attenuation across the Tendaho Graben is conducted, and the largest to-date study of the topography of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath NE Africa is provided, which reveals low upper-mantle velocities beneath the Afar concordant with a probable mantle plume traversing the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau. In the vicinity of the MRZ, a data set comprised of 35 seismic stations is employed that was deployed over a two year period from mid-2012 to mid-2014, belonging to the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays For African Rift Initiation) experiment. Accordingly, the first MTZ topography and shear wave splitting analyses were conducted in the region. The latter reveals largely plate motion-parallel anisotropy that is locally modulated by lithospheric thickness abnormalities adjacent to the MRZ, while the former reveals normal MTZ thicknesses and shallow discontinuities that support the presence of a thick lithospheric keel within the MRZ region. These evidences strongly argue for the evolution of the MRZ via passive rifting mechanisms absent lower-mantle influences.

  4. Three-dimensional structure and seismicity beneath the Central Vanuatu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foix, Oceane; Crawford, Wayne; Pelletier, Bernard; Regnier, Marc; Garaebiti, Esline; Koulakov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The 1400-km long Vanuatu subduction zone results from subduction of the oceanic Australian plate (OAP) beneath the North-Fijian microplate (NFM). Seismic and volcanic activity are both high, and several morphologic features enter into subduction, affecting seismicity and probably plate coupling. The Entrecasteaux Ridge, West-Torres plateau, and Bougainville seamount currently enter into subduction below the large forearc islands of Santo and Malekula. This collision coincides with a strongly decreased local convergence velocity rate - 35 mm/yr compared to 120-160 mm/yr to the north and south - and significant uplift on the overriding plate, indicating a high degree of deformation. The close proximity of large uplifted forearc islands to the trench provides excellent coverage of the megathrust seismogenic zone for a seismological study. We used 10 months of seismological data collected using the 30-instrument land and sea ARC-VANUATU seismology network to construct a 3D velocity model — using the LOTOS joint location/model inversion software — and locate 11655 earthquakes using the NonLinLoc software suite. The 3-D model reveals low P and S velocities in the first tens of kilometers beneath both islands, probably due to water infiltration in the heavily faulted upper plate. The model also suggests the presence of a subducted seamount beneath south Santo. The earthquake locations reveal a complex interaction of faults and stress zones related to high and highly variable deformation. Both brittle deformation and the seismogenic zone depth limits vary along-slab and earthquake clusters are identified beneath central and south Santo, at about 10-30 km of depth, and southwest of Malekula island between 10-20 km depth.

  5. [Characteristics of Waves Generated Beneath the Solar Convection Zone by Penetrative Overshoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julien, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to theoretically and numerically characterize the waves generated beneath the solar convection zone by penetrative overshoot. Three dimensional model simulations were designed to isolate the effects of rotation and shear. In order to overcome the numerically imposed limitations of finite Reynolds numbers (Re) below solar values, series of simulations were designed to elucidate the Reynolds-number dependence (hoped to exhibit mathematically simple scaling on Re) so that one could cautiously extrapolate to solar values.

  6. Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the

  7. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the mantle transition zone beneath United States inferred from seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's deep mantle is critical for the evolution of the solid Earth and the atmosphere. Mineral physics studies have revealed that Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in the mantle transition zone could store several times the volume of water in the ocean. However, the water content and its distribution in the transition zone remain enigmatic due to lack of direct observations. Here we use seismic data from the full deployment of the Earthscope Transportable Array to produce 3D image of P to S scattering of the mantle transition zone beneath the United States. We compute the image volume from 141,080 pairs of high quality receiver functions defined by the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey, reprocessed by the generalized iterative deconvolution method and imaged by the plane wave migration method. We find that the transition zone is filled with previously unrecognized small-scale heterogeneities that produce pervasive, negative polarity P to S conversions. Seismic synthetic modeling using a point source simulation method suggests two possible structures for these objects: 1) a set of randomly distributed blobs of slight difference in size, and 2) near vertical diapir structures from small scale convections. Combining with geodynamic simulations, we interpret the observation as compositional heterogeneity from small-scale, low-velocity bodies that are water enriched. Our results indicate there is a heterogeneous distribution of water through the entire mantle transition zone beneath the contiguous United States.

  8. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickael, B.; Nolet, G.; Villasenor, A.; Josep, G.; Thomas, C.

    2013-12-01

    During Cenozoic, geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks now available in Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will bring new constraints on the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath Alborán Sea, a strong (~ 4%) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly and its extent at depth are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favoring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper-mantle, several high intensity slow anomalies are widely observed in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at surface with the position of the orogens (Rif and Atlas) and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot) upper mantle, with piece of evidence for a lateral connection with the Canary volcanic islands, likely indicating a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  9. Late Spring Nitrate Distributions Beneath the Ice-Covered Northeastern Chukchi Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Mills, Matthew M.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Lowry, Kate E.; Pickart, Robert S.; Schlitzer, Reiner

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of late springtime nutrient concentrations in Arctic waters are relatively rare due to the extensive sea ice cover that makes sampling difficult. During the SUBICE (Study of Under-ice Blooms In the Chukchi Ecosystem) cruise in May-June 2014, an extensive survey of hydrography and prebloom concentrations of inorganic macronutrients, oxygen, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and chlorophyll a was conducted in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Cold (<-1.5°C) winter water was prevalent throughout the study area, and the water column was weakly stratified. Nitrate (NO3-) concentration averaged 12.6 ± 1.92 μM in surface waters and 14.0 ± 1.91 μM near the bottom and was significantly correlated with salinity. The highest NO3- concentrations were associated with winter water within the Central Channel flow path. NO3- concentrations were much reduced near the northern shelf break within the upper halocline waters of the Canada Basin and along the eastern side of the shelf near the Alaskan coast. Net community production (NCP), estimated as the difference in depth-integrated NO3- content between spring (this study) and summer (historical), varied from 28 to 38 g C m-2 a-1. This is much lower than previous NCP estimates that used NO3- concentrations from the southeastern Bering Sea as a baseline. These results demonstrate the importance of using profiles of NO3- measured as close to the beginning of the spring bloom as possible when estimating local NCP. They also show that once the snow melts in spring, increased light transmission through the sea ice to the waters below the ice could fuel large phytoplankton blooms over a much wider area than previously known.

  10. Judith River Formation beneath Fort Peck Indian Reservation - proven high plains gas frontier in northeastern Montana

    SciT

    Monson, L.M.

    1988-07-01

    As one of the progradational sequences in the Late Cretaceous, the Claggett-Judith River cycle created potential reservoirs for shallow biogenic gas. From west to east across the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana, in a distance of 75 mi (121 km), the Judith River Formation changes from a 350-ft (107-m) accumulation of fine-grained nonmarine clastics, to a 130-ft (39-m) deposit of fine-grained sandstone. Three units are present in the subsurface of the central part of the reservation. A continuous basal sandstone, 30-130 ft (9-39 m) thick, formed in a coastal environment. This unit thickens in the direction of progradation, whichmore » may indicate the addition of sand bodies in a shelf environment. The middle unit is a 20 to 50-ft (6 to 15-m) sequence of shale and siltstone. Capping the Judith River is a sandstone 20-50 ft (6-15 m) thick, which formed either as a shore facies in the regressive cycle or as a shelf sandstone prior to the final Cretaceous transgression that deposited the overlying Bearpaw Shale. Stratigraphic traps exist in the upper and lower sandstone units due to variation in grain size and clay content associated with the progradational facies changes. In addition, Laramide structures associated with the Poplar dome and Wolf Creek nose have created local trapping mechanisms. Judith River gas has been produced for operational use since 1952 in the East Poplar field. Shows have been reported in central reservation wells, although high mud weights and deeper exploration targets have prevented adequate evaluation of the Judith River gas frontier.« less

  11. Seismic evidence for a possible deep crustal hot zone beneath Southwest Washington.

    PubMed

    Flinders, Ashton F; Shen, Yang

    2017-08-07

    Crustal pathways connecting deep sources of melt and the active volcanoes they supply are poorly understood. Beneath Mounts St. Helens, Adams, and Rainier these pathways connect subduction-induced ascending melts to shallow magma reservoirs. Petrogenetic modeling predicts that when these melts are emplaced as a succession of sills into the lower crust they generate deep crustal hot zones. While these zones are increasingly recognized as a primary site for silicic differentiation at a range of volcanic settings globally, imaging them remains challenging. Near Mount Rainier, ascending melt has previously been imaged ~28 km northwest of the volcano, while to the south, the volcano lies on the margin of a broad conductive region in the deep crust. Using 3D full-waveform tomography, we reveal an expansive low-velocity zone, which we interpret as a possible hot zone, linking ascending melts and shallow reservoirs. This hot zone may supply evolved magmas to Mounts St. Helens and Adams, and possibly Rainier, and could contain approximately twice the melt volume as the total eruptive products of all three volcanoes combined. Hot zones like this may be the primary reservoirs for arc volcanism, influencing compositional variations and spatial-segmentation along the entire 1100 km-long Cascades Arc.

  12. Seismic evidence for a possible deep crustal hot zone beneath Southwest Washington

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Crustal pathways connecting deep sources of melt and the active volcanoes they supply are poorly understood. Beneath Mounts St. Helens, Adams, and Rainier these pathways connect subduction-induced ascending melts to shallow magma reservoirs. Petrogenetic modeling predicts that when these melts are emplaced as a succession of sills into the lower crust they generate deep crustal hot zones. While these zones are increasingly recognized as a primary site for silicic differentiation at a range of volcanic settings globally, imaging them remains challenging. Near Mount Rainier, ascending melt has previously been imaged ~28 km northwest of the volcano, while to the south, the volcano lies on the margin of a broad conductive region in the deep crust. Using 3D full-waveform tomography, we reveal an expansive low-velocity zone, which we interpret as a possible hot zone, linking ascending melts and shallow reservoirs. This hot zone may supply evolved magmas to Mounts St. Helens and Adams, and possibly Rainier, and could contain approximately twice the melt volume as the total eruptive products of all three volcanoes combined. Hot zones like this may be the primary reservoirs for arc volcanism, influencing compositional variations and spatial-segmentation along the entire 1100 km-long Cascades Arc.

  13. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Mickael; Nolet, Guust; Thomas, Christine; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks available in western Mediterranean region (IberArray, PICASSO and MOROCCO-MUENSTER networks) to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone. This model is based on teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Such a tomography is required to scrutinize the nature and extent of the thermal anomalies inferred beneath Northern Africa, especially in the Atlas ranges region and associated to sparse volcanic activities. Tomography is notably needed to help in determining the hypothetical connection between those hot anomalies and the Canary Island hotspot as proposed by geochemistry studies. It also provides new insights on the geometry of the subducting slab previously inferred from tomography, GPS measurements or shear-wave splitting patterns beneath the Alboran Sea and the Betic ranges and is indispensable for deciphering the complex geodynamic history of the Western Mediterranean region. We shall present the overall statistics of the delays, their geographical distribution, as well as the first inversion results.

  14. Interaction of the Cyprus/Tethys Slab With the Mantle Transition Zone Beneath Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Taylor, G.; Cornwell, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean are dominated by northward motion of the Arabian/African continents and subduction of the oldest oceanic crust on the planet along the Aegean and Cyprean trenches. These slabs have previously been imaged using seismic tomography on a continental scale, but detailed information regarding their descent from upper to lower mantle and how they interact with the mantle transition zone have been severely lacking. The Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was a 73 station passive seismic deployment active between 2012-2013 with the primary aim of imaging shallow structure beneath the North Anatolian Fault. However, we exploit the exceptional dataset recorded by DANA to characterise a region where the Cyprus Slab impinges upon the mantle transition zone beneath northern Turkey, providing arguably the most detailed view of a slab as it transits from the upper to lower mantle. We map varying depths and amplitudes of the transition zone seismic discontinuities (`410', `520' and `660') in 3D using over 1500 high quality receiver functions over an area of approximately 200km x 300km. The `410' is observed close to its predicted depth, but the `660' is depressed to >670 km across the entirety of the study region. This is consistent with an accumulation of cold subducted material at the base of the upper mantle, and the presence of a `520' discontinuity in the vicinity of the slab surface also suggests that the slab is present deep within the transition zone. Anomalous low velocity layers above and within the transition zone are constrained and may indicate hydration and ongoing mass/fluid flux between upper and lower mantle in the presence of subduction. The results of the study have implications not only for the regional geodynamics of Anatolia, but also for slab dynamics globally.

  15. Mantle transition zone thinning beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a whole-mantle superplume structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-07-01

    to S conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities observed in receiver function stacks reveal a mantle transition zone that is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average in a region ~200-400 km wide extending in a SW-NE direction from central Zambia, across Tanzania and into Kenya. The thinning of the transition zone indicates a ~190-300 K thermal anomaly in the same location where seismic tomography models suggest that the lower mantle African superplume structure connects to thermally perturbed upper mantle beneath eastern Africa. This finding provides compelling evidence for the existence of a continuous thermal structure extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface associated with the African superplume.

  16. Seismic imaging of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the northern Red Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broad-band seismic data on the African Plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here, we report the first comprehensive image of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660-km discontinuities with those observed on the Arabian side. Our results show that when a standard earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically towards the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. The observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD. Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  17. Three-dimensional structure and seismicity beneath the Central Vanuatu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foix, O.; Crawford, W. C.; Koulakov, I.; Regnier, M. M.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The 1 400 km long Vanuatu subduction zone marks the subduction of the oceanic Australia plate beneath the North-Fijian microplate. Seismic and volcanic activity is high, and several morphologic features enter into subduction, affecting seismicity and probably plate coupling. The Northern d'Entrecasteaux Ridge, West-Torres plateau, and Bougainville seamount currently enter into subduction below the forearc islands of Santo and Malekula. This subduction/collision coincides with a strongly decreased local convergence velocity rate at the trench (35 mm/yr compared to 120-160 mm/yr to the north and south) and significant uplift on the overriding plate. Two large forearc islands located 20-30 km from the subduction front Santo and Malekula to the trench allow excellent coverage of the megathrust seismogenic zone for a seismological study. We use data from the 10 months, 30-station amphibious ARC-VANUATU seismology network to construct a 3D velocity model and locate 11 617 earthquakes. The 3D model reveals low P and S velocities in the uppermost tens of kilometers in front of the Northern d'Entrecasteaux Ridge and the Bougainville Guyot. These anomalies may be due to heavy faulting of related subducted features, possibly including important water infiltration. We also identify a possible seamount entered into subduction beneath a smaller uplifted island between the two main islands. The spatial distribution of earthquakes is highly variable, as is the depth limit of the seismogenic zone, suggests a complex interaction of faults and stress zones related to high and highly variable stress that may be associated with the subducted features.

  18. Weak ductile shear zone beneath the western North Anatolian Fault Zone: inferences from earthquake cycle model constrained by geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Wright, T. J.; Houseman, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    After large earthquakes, rapid postseismic transient motions are commonly observed. Later in the loading cycle, strain is typically focused in narrow regions around the fault. In simple two-layer models of the loading cycle for strike-slip faults, rapid post-seismic transients require low viscosities beneath the elastic layer, but localized strain later in the cycle implies high viscosities in the crust. To explain this apparent paradox, complex transient rheologies have been invoked. Here we test an alternative hypothesis in which spatial variations in material properties of the crust can explain the geodetic observations. We use a 3D viscoelastic finite element code to examine two simple models of periodic fault slip: a stratified model in which crustal viscosity decreases exponentially with depth below an upper elastic layer, and a block model in which a low viscosity domain centered beneath the fault is embedded in a higher viscosity background representing normal crust. We test these models using GPS data acquired before and after the 1999 Izmit/Duzce earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey). The model with depth-dependent viscosity can show both high postseismic velocities, and preseismic localization of the deformation, if the viscosity contrast from top to bottom of layer exceeds a factor of about 104. However, with no lateral variations in viscosity, this model cannot explain the proximity to the fault of maximum postseismic velocities. In contrast, the model which includes a localized weak zone beneath the faulted elastic lid can explain all the observations, if the weak zone extends down to mid-crustal levels and outward to 10 or 20 km from the fault. The non-dimensional ratio of relaxation time to earthquake repeat time, τ/Δt, is the critical parameter in controlling the observed deformation. In the weak-zone model, τ/Δt should be in the range 0.005 to 0.01 in the weak domain, and larger than ~ 1.0 elsewhere. This implies a viscosity

  19. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Trench Canyon Fault Zone, Mono Lake, Northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, M. W.; Jayko, A. S.; Roeske, S.; McClain, J. S.; Hart, P. E.; Boyle, M.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution seismic imaging of Mono Lake, located in northeastern California, has revealed an approximately northwest striking fault in the area to the west of aerially exposed Negit Volcano. This fault, henceforth referred to as the Trench Canyon Fault (TCF), has also been mapped onshore along a correlating strike as far north as Cedar Hill Volcano, located to the northeast of the lake on the California/Nevada border. Onshore, the TCF was mapped for approximately 10 kilometers using air photos, DEM images, and standard geologic pace and compass mapping techniques. The TCF post- dates the last glacial maximum, evidenced by the cutting of wave cut benches along Cedar Hill Volcano. Relict, non-historic shorelines, left by the steady evaporation of Mono Lake beginning approximately 13k, are also repeatedly cut by the fault. Additional evidence of fault presence includes sag ponds, pressure ridges, tectonically fractured rocks, and normal fault scarps found along strike. Offshore, DEM images show a northeast striking structure to the northwest of Negit Volcano, which is co-linear with the onshore TCF. High resolution seismic imaging of the structure, using an applied acoustic/SIG mini-sparker system, reveals steeply dipping Holocene sediments, as well as volcanic deposits from active vents which have erupted in the last 1000 years, offset by the fault. Detailed structural analysis of the previously unstudied Trench Canyon Fault (TFC) and faults in the Cedar Hill region of northern California, along with seismic studies of sediments beneath Mono Lake not only allow for a better comprehension of this minor fault system, but provide greater understanding of the larger and more complex Walker Lane Shear Zone. Fault analyses, combined and correlated with those from CHV, give a better understanding of how slip is transferred into the complicated Mina defection to the east, from the dextral and normal faults along the Sierra Nevada Range front.

  20. Upper Mantle Velocity Structure beneath the Northeastern Philippine Sea Constrained by Waveform Modeling of P Triplicated Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Rhie, J.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    A study on the detailed velocity structures of the stagnant Pacific slab is important to understand the complex processes happening in the upper mantle. Although waveform modeling of P triplicated phases can reveal the detailed velocity structures especially for the discontinuities, the regions where the method can be applied are limited due to uneven distribution of earthquakes and stations. In this study, we used waveforms generated by two deep earthquakes near Izu-Bonin Trench and recorded by stations in South Korea. These event-station pairs are appropriate to study the upper mantle structures beneath the northeastern Philippine Sea, where no previous results by triplicated waveform modeling have been reported. In this region, the subducting Pacific slab seems to hit the 660 km discontinuity and become stagnant. We applied the reflectivity method to calculate waveforms and found the best fitting model by trial-and-error and manual inspection. In general, our best model is similar to M3.11, which is widely accepted 1D model for the regions where the stagnant slab exists and the 660 km discontinuity is depressed by the slab. The most noticeable feature of our model is that P wave velocities of inside and above the slab are considerably higher and lower than ones for M3.11, respectively. This specific velocity model is necessary to explain arrivals of two distinct phases identified in observed waveforms; one refracts inside the slab and the other reflects on the upper boundary of the slab. To understand the cause of the differences between our model and M3.11, further studies including thermal and mechanical modelling of the slab in this region will be recommended.

  1. Seismic Migration Imaging of the Mantle Transition Zone Beneath Continental US with Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Schmandt, B.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle transition zone has been widely studied by multiple sub-fields in geosciences including seismology, mineral physics and geodynamics. Due to the relatively high water storage capacity of olivine polymorphs (wadsleyite and ringwoodite) inside the transition zone, it is proposed to be a potential geochemical water reservoir that may contain one or more ocean masses of water. However, there is an ongoing debate about the hydration level of those minerals and how it varies from place to place. Considering that dehydration melting, which may happen during mantle flow across phase transitions between hydrated olivine polymorphs, may be seismically detectable, large-scale seismic imaging of heterogeneous scattering in the transition zone can contribute to the debate. To improve our understanding of the properties of the mantle transition zone and how they relate to mantle flow across its boundaries, it is important to gain an accurate image with large spatial coverage. The accuracy is primarily limited by the density of broadband seismic data and the imaging algorithms applied to the data, while the spatial coverage is limited by the availability of wide-aperture (>500 km) seismic arrays. Thus, the emergence of the USArray seismic data set (www.usarray.org) provides a nearly ideal data source for receiver side imaging of the mantle transition zone due to its large aperture ( 4000 km) with relatively small station spacing ( 70 km), which ensures that the transition zone beneath it is well sampled by teleseismic waves. In total, more than 200,000 P to S receiver functions will be used for imaging structures in depth range of 300 km to 800 km beneath the continental US with an improved 3D Kirchhoff pre-stacking migration method. The method uses 3-D wave fronts calculated for P and S tomography models to more accurately calculate point scattering coefficients and map receiver function lag times to 3-D position. The new images will help resolve any laterally sporadic

  2. Multiple mantle upwellings through the transition zone beneath the Afar Depression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Thompson, D. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Goitom, B.; Ogubazghi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 7 other regional experiments and global network stations across Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S-wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. Estimates of transition zone thickness suggest that this is unlikely to be an artefact of mantle discontinuity topography as a transition zone of normal thickness underlies the majority of Afar and surrounding regions. However, a low velocity layer is evident directly above the 410 discontinuity, co-incident with some of the lowest seismic velocities suggesting that smearing of a strong low velocity layer of limited depth extent may contribute to the tomographic models in north-east Afar. The combination of seismic constraints suggests that small low temperature (<50K) upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. These, combined with possible evidence of melt above the 410 discontinuity can explain the seismic velocity models. Our images of secondary upwellings suggest that

  3. Assessing controls on perched saturated zones beneath the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Waste byproducts associated with operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have the potential to contaminate the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Recharge to the ESRP aquifer is controlled largely by the alternating stratigraphy of fractured volcanic rocks and sedimentary interbeds within the overlying vadose zone and by the availability of water at the surface. Beneath the INTEC facilities, localized zones of saturation perched on the sedimentary interbeds are of particular concern because they may facilitate accelerated transport of contaminants. The sources and timing of natural and anthropogenic recharge to the perched zones are poorly understood. Simple approaches for quantitative characterization of this complex, variably saturated flow system are needed to assess potential scenarios for contaminant transport under alternative remediation strategies. During 2009-2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, employed data analysis and numerical simulations with a recently developed model of preferential flow to evaluate the sources and quantity of recharge to the perched zones. Piezometer, tensiometer, temperature, precipitation, and stream-discharge data were analyzed, with particular focus on the possibility of contributions to the perched zones from snowmelt and flow in the neighboring Big Lost River (BLR). Analysis of the timing and magnitude of subsurface dynamics indicate that streamflow provides local recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and deep perched saturated zones within 150 m of the BLR; at greater distances from the BLR the influence of streamflow on recharge is unclear. Perched water-level dynamics in most wells analyzed are consistent with findings from previous geochemical analyses, which suggest that a combination of annual snowmelt and anthropogenic sources (for example, leaky pipes and drainage ditches) contribute to recharge of shallow and

  4. Subduction of aseismic ridges beneath the Caribbean Plate: Implications for the tectonics and seismic potential of the northeastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, William R.; Sykes, Lynn R.

    1984-06-01

    Normal seafloor entering the Puerto Rico and northern Lesser Antillean trenches in the northeastern Caribbean is interrupted by a series of aseismic ridges on the North and South American plates. These topographic features lie close to the expected trend of fracture zones created about 80-110 m.y. ago when this seafloor was formed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The northernmost of the ridges that interact with the Lesser Antillean subduction zone, the Barracuda Ridge, intersects the arc in a region of high seismic activity. Some of this seismicity including a large shock in 1974, occurs within the overthrust plate and may be related to the deformation of the Caribbean plate as it overrides the ridge. A large bathymetric high, the Main Ridge, is oriented obliquely to the Puerto Rico trench and intersects the subduction zone north of the Virgin Islands in another cluster of seismic activity along the inner wall of the trench. Data from a seismic network in the northeastern Caribbean indicate that this intersection is also characterized by both interpolate and intraplate seismic activity. Magnetic anomalies, bathymetric trends, and the pattern of deformed sediments on the inner wall of the trench strongly suggest that the Main and Barracuda ridges are parts of a formerly continuous aseismic ridge, a segment of which has recently been overridden by the Caribbean plate. Reconstruction of mid-Miocene to Recent plate motions also suggest that at least two aseismic ridges, and possibly fragments of the Bahama Platform, have interacted with the subduction zone in the northeastern Caribbean. The introduction of these narrow segments of anomalous seafloor into the subduction zone has segmented the arc into elements about 200 km long. These ridges may act as tectonic barriers or asperities during the rupture processes involved in large earthquakes. They also leave a geologic imprint on segments of the arc with which they have interacted. A 50-km landward jump of the locus of

  5. Evidence for an upper mantle low velocity zone beneath the southern Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone

    Benz, H.M.; McCarthy, J.

    1994-01-01

    A 370-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile recorded during the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) detected an upper mantle P-wave low-velocity zone (LVZ) in the depth range 40 to 55 km beneath the Basin and Range in southern Arizona. Interpretation of seismic data places constraints on the sub-crustal lithosphere of the southern Basin and Range Province, which is important in light of the active tectonics of the region and the unknown role of the sub-crustal lithosphere in the development of the western United States. Forward travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques are used to model this shallow upper mantle LVZ. Modeling results show that the LVZ is defined by a 5% velocity decrease relative to a Pn velocity of 7.95 km s−1, suggesting either a ∼3–5% mafic partial melt or high-temperature, sub-solidus peridotite.

  6. Preliminary results of characteristic seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone

    SciT

    Wiyono, Samsul H., E-mail: samsul.wiyono@bmkg.go.id; Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Jakarta 10610; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    Determining of seismic anisotropy allowed us for understanding the deformation processes that occured in the past and present. In this study, we performed shear wave splitting to characterize seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone. For about 1,610 XKS waveforms from INATEWS-BMKG networks have been analyzed. From its measurements showed that fast polarization direction is consistent with trench-perpendicular orientation but several stations presented different orientation. We also compared between fast polarization direction with absolute plate motion in the no net rotation and hotspot frame. Its result showed that both absolute plate motion frame had strong correlation with fast polarization direction. Strongmore » correlation between the fast polarization direction and the absolute plate motion can be interpreted as the possibility of dominant anisotropy is in the asthenosphere.« less

  7. Imaging of Fine Shallow Structure Beneath the Longmenshan Fault Zone from Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Campillo, M.; Chen, J.; Liu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Short period seismic ambient noise group velocity dispersion curve, obtained from cross correlation of vertical component of 57 stations around the Longmenshan fault zone deployed after the Wenchuan earthquake and continuously observed for 1 year, is used to inverse the S wave velocity structure of the top 25 km of the central to northern part of Longmenshan fault zone. A iterative correction method based on 3-D simulation is proposed to reduce the influence of elevation. After 7 times of correction, a fine shllow S-wave velocity structure comes out. The results show that (1) Velocity structure above 10 km keeps good consistency with the surface fault system around Longmenshan, and controls the deep extension features of most major faults. Below the depth of 15 km, the velocity structure presents cross tectonic frame work along both Longmenshan and Minshan. The complex structure may have affected the rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake. (2) The depth velocity structure profiles give good constraint for the deep geometry of main faults. The characteristics of the high angle, listric, reverse structure of the Longmenshan faults is further confirmed by our results.(3) At southern part of the study area, low-velocity structure is found at about 20km depth beneath the Pengguan massif, which is related to the low velocity layer in the middle crust of Songpan-Ganzi block. This may be an evidence for the existence of brittle-ductile transition zone in southern part of the rupture zone of the Wenchuan earthquake at the depth around 22km. Our results show the great potential of short period ambient noise tomography with data from densepassive seismic array in the study of fine velocity structure and fault zone imaging.

  8. Bioremediation of RDX in the vadose zone beneath the Pantex Plant

    SciT

    Shull, T.L.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.; McKinney, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved high explosives (HE), in particular RDX and HMX, is well documented in the perched aquifer beneath the Pantex Plant, but the distribution of HE in the vadose zone has not yet been well defined. Although current remediation activities focus on the contamination in the perched aquifer, eventually regulatory concern is likely to turn to the residual contamination in the vadose zone. Sources of HE include the infiltration of past wastewater discharges from several HE-processing facilities through the ditch drainage system and leachate from former Landfill 3. With limited existing data on the HE distribution in themore » vadose zone and without preventive action, it must be assumed that residual HE could be leached into infiltrating water, providing a continuing supply of contamination to the perched aquifer. The purpose of this project was to more closely examine the fate and transport of HE in the vadose zone through mathematical modeling and laboratory experimentation. In particular, this report focuses on biodegradation as one possible fate of HE. Biodegradation of RDX in the vadose zone was studied because it is both present in highest concentration and is likely to be of the greatest regulatory concern. This study had several objectives: determine if indigenous soil organisms are capable of RDX biodegradation; determine the impact of electron acceptor availability and nutrient addition on RDX biodegradation; determine the extent of RDX mineralization (i.e., conversion to inorganic carbon) during biodegradation; and estimate the kinetics of RDX biodegradation to provide information for mathematical modeling of fate and transport.« less

  9. Root zone of the Late Proterozoic Salma Caldera, northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    1985-11-01

    The eroded root of the late Proterozoic Salma caldera crops out in a striking, roughly elliptical feature, about 27 km long and 22 km wide, near the northeastern edge of the Arabian Shield. The caldera is genetically part of an elongate alkalic granitic massif (Jabal Salma) that extends 35 km from the caldera to the southwest. Comenditic ash flow tuff and lava(?) of the caldera fill, probably more than 1 km thick, are the oldest recognized rocks of the caldera complex. These rocks were erupted during caldera collapse associated with the rapid evacuation of the upper, mildly peralkalic part of a zoned magma reservoir. Within the caldera fill, a massive, lithic-rich intracaldera rhyolite, probably a lava in excess of 1 km thick, is overlain by a layered ash flow sequence. Numerous megabreccia blocks, probably derived from the caldera wall, occur in the massive rhyolite. Open folds in the layered volcanic rocks may be due to high-temperature slumping of the rocks toward the center of the caldera following collapse. Later peralkalic granite that intruded the caldera ring fracture zone occurs in an arcuate pattern outside the area of exposed caldera fill. After caldera collapse, metaluminous to peraluminous magma rose beneath the caldera at approximately 580 Ma and solidified as biotite alkali granite, rim syenogranite, and late, high-level granophyre. Rare earth element abundances indicate that the layered rhyolite tuff, peralkalic granite, and granophyre are chemically more evolved than the biotite alkali granite and rim syenogranite. The granophyre intruded the caldera fill as a dome-shaped body composed of numerous sheetlike masses. Granophyric texture resulted from rapid pressure release and quenching accompanying the intrusion of each sheet. Maximum penetration of the granophyre into overlying rocks occurred in the central region and along the west side of the caldera, where the caldera fill volcanic rocks have been removed by erosion. No apparent structural

  10. A Receiver Function Study of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. H.; Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms, and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broadband seismic data on the African plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here we report the first results from a receiver function study of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660) with those observed on the Arabian side. Results using more than 6000 P-to-S receiver functions recorded at 49 broadband seismic stations in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and adjacent areas show that when the IASP91 Earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically toward the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. Highly correlated d410 and d660 depths suggest that the observed apparent depth variations are mostly caused by lateral velocity anomalies in the upper mantle, while the 15 km additional depression of the d660 relative to the d410 requires either a colder-than-normal MTZ or the presence of water in the MTZ. We tested several models involving upper mantle and MTZ velocity anomalies and undulations of the MTZ discontinuities due to temperature anomalies and water content, and found that the observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD (Mohamed et al., 2014, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu284). Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  11. Concentration of Natural Gas Hydrate Beneath the Permafrost Zone: Implications for Geochemical and Hydrologic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A.; Namikawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids made of water molecules containing various gas molecules. The geological evaluations have suggested worldwide methane contents of gas hydrate beneath deep sea floors as well as permafrost-related zones to about twice the total reserves of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon. Scientific and economic interests are increasing in gas hydrate as a new energy resource and a potential greenhouse gas. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled in the Canadian Arctic that clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. Continuous downhole well log data, anomalies of chloride contents in pore waters, core temperature depression as well as visible gas hydrates have confirmed the highly saturated pore-space hydrate as intergranular pore filling within sandy layers, whose saturations are higher than 70% in pore volume. Muddy sediments scarcely contain gas hydrate. The Nankai Trough runs along the Japanese Island, where forearc basins and accretionary prisms developed extensively and BSRs (bottom simulating reflectors) have been recognized widely. The METI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 also revealed the presence of pore-space hydrate filling intergranular pore of sandy layers. It is remarked that there are many similar features in appearance and characteristics between the Mallik and Nankai Trough areas with observations of well-interconnected and highly saturated pore-space hydrate. It is necessary for evaluating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to know both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and measurements of water permeability for them indicate that highly saturated sands may have permeability of a few millidarcies. Subsequent analyses in sedimentology and geochemistry performed on gas hydrate-bearing sands revealed important geologic and sedimentologic controls on the formation and concentration of gas hydrate. It is suggested that the

  12. Velocity structure of the mantle transition zone beneath the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohui; Bai, Ling; Zhou, Yuanze; Wang, Xiaoran; Cui, Qinghui

    2017-11-01

    P-wave triplications related to the 410 km discontinuity (the 410) were clearly observed from the vertical component seismograms of three intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred in the Indo-Burma Subduction Zone (IBSZ) and were recorded by the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). By matching the observed P-wave triplications with synthetics through a grid search, we obtained the best-fit models for four azimuthal profiles (I-IV from north to south) to constrain the P-wave velocity structure near the 410 beneath the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A ubiquitous low-velocity layer (LVL) resides atop the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The LVL is 25 to 40 km thick, with a P-wave velocity decrement ranging from approximately - 5.3% to - 3.6% related to the standard Earth model IASP91. An abrupt transition in the velocity decrement of the LVL was observed between profiles II and III. We postulate that the mantle structure beneath the southeastern margin of the TP is primarily controlled by the southeastern extrusion of the TP to the north combined with the eastward subduction of the Indian plate to the south, but not affected by the Emeishan mantle plume. We attribute the LVL to the partial melting induced by water and/or other volatiles released from the subducted Indian plate and the stagnant Pacific plate, but not from the upwelling or the remnants of the Emeishan mantle plume. A high-velocity anomaly ranging from approximately 1.0% to 1.5% was also detected at a depth of 542 to 600 km, providing additional evidence for the remnants of the subducted Pacific plate within the MTZ.

  13. The South Tibetan Tadpole Zone: Ongoing density sorting at the Moho beneath the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone (and beneath volcanic arcs?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Peter; Hacker, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    at less than 700°C (e.g. Jackson 02). We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al 92, 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al 05; Monsalve et al 08) to develop the hypothesis that there is rapid growth of garnet at 80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust, causing increased rock densities. Dense eclogites founder into the mantle, while relatively buoyant lithologies accumulate in thickening lower crust. Mantle return flow plus radioactive heating in thick, felsic crust maintains high temperature, facilitating formation of hybrid magmas and pyroxenites. The crustal volume grows at 760 cubic m/yr/m of strike length. Moho-depth earthquakes may be due to localized deformation and thermal runaway in weak layers and along the margins of dense, foundering diapirs (e.g., Larsen & Yuen 97; Braeck & Podladchikov 07; Kelemen & Hirth 07; Lister et al 08; Kufner et al 16). A similar process may take place at some convergent margins, where forearc crust is thrust beneath hot, magmatic arc crust, leading to extensive, Moho-depth density sorting and hybrid crust-mantle magmatism in Arc Tadpole Zones.

  14. Behaviour of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Indian Ocean from PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Anne-Sophie; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    As part of the RHUM-RUM project we investigate the upwelling plume beneath the island La Réunion, located in the Indian Ocean 200 km east of Madagascar. This plume belongs to one of the most active hotspot regions in the world and is still active today. Understanding the depth origin and dimensions of such a plume helps to better understand mantle processes and the heat flux of the Earth. If the plume originates at the core-mantle boundary the Earth is cooled down differently compared with an indirect cooling of plumes originating in the upper mantle. Here we use underside reflections of PP and SS waves off the seismic discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth that arrive as precursors to the main phase in order to investigate the topography of these discontinuities that mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone. If hotter or colder material intersects the mantle transition zone, the discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth are deflected, hence the topography of the mantle transition zone can be an indicator for an upwelling plume. The 410 km discontinuity, which exists due to the phase change of olivine to spinel, should be depressed significantly in the presence of hot upwelling material. Because of the opposite Clapeyron slope of the phase change of spinel to magnesiowuestite and perovskite at 660 km depth, the topography of this discontinuity should be elevated. For this study we analyse over 200 events with Mw ≥ 5.8 and bounce points distributed over the entire Indian Ocean. Array seismology methods, such as vespagrams and slowness-backazimuth analysis, are used to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio and detect and identify precursors. Using different source-receiver combinations enables us to get a dense coverage of bounce points of PP and SS waves in the Indian Ocean and especially around La Réunion, also with crossing ray paths. The differential travel times of PP and SS arrivals and their precursors of robust stacks are converted into

  15. Warm water and life beneath the grounding zone of an Antarctic outlet glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shin; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Fukuda, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Ice-ocean interaction plays a key role in rapidly changing Antarctic ice sheet margins. Recent studies demonstrated that warming ocean is eroding floating part of the ice sheet, resulting in thinning, retreat and acceleration of ice shelves and outlet glaciers. Field data are necessary to understand such processes, but direct observations at the interface of ice and the ocean are lacking, particularly beneath the grounding zone. To better understand the interaction of Antarctic ice sheet and the ocean, we performed subglacial measurements through boreholes drilled in the grounding zone of Langhovde Glacier, an outlet glacier in East Antarctica. Langhovde Glacier is located at 69°12'S, 39°48'E, approximately 20 km south of a Japanese research station Syowa. The glacier discharges ice into Lützow-holm Bay through a 3-km-wide floating terminus at a rate of 130 m a-1. Fast flowing feature is confined by bedrock to the west and slow moving ice to the east, and it extends about 10 km upglacier from the calving front. In 2011/12 austral summer season, we operated a hot water drilling system to drill through the glacier at 2.5 and 3 km from the terminus. Inspections of the boreholes revealed the ice was underlain by a shallow saline water layer. Ice and water column thicknesses were found to be 398 and 24 m at the first site, and 431 and 10 m at the second site. Judging from ice surface and bed elevations, the drilling sites were situated at within a several hundred meters from the grounding line. Sensors were lowered into the boreholes to measure temperature, salinity and current within the subglacial water layer. Salinity and temperature from the two sites were fairly uniform (34.25±0.05 PSU and -1.45±0.05°C), indicating vertical and horizontal mixing in the layer. The measured temperature was >0.7°C warmer than the in-situ freezing point, and very similar to the values measured in the open ocean near the glacier front. Subglacial current was up to 3 cm/s, which

  16. Variations in the mantle transition zone beneath the Ethiopian Rift and Afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Hetenyi, G.; Blanchard, T.; Stuart, G. W.

    2010-12-01

    We use receiver functions calculated on broadband seismological data across Ethiopia to identify and map 3-D changes in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness beneath the Ethiopian rift, Afar and the uplifted Ethiopian Plateau. The MTZ that divides the upper and lower mantle in the Earth is marked by discontinuities whose position and nature is controlled by local temperature and composition. It is commonly assumed that positive temperature anomalies cause an overall thinning of the MTZ by deepening the mineral phase transition of olivine (α-spinel) to wadsleyite (β-spinel) at around 410 km depth and shallowing the mineral phase transition of ringwoodite (γ-spinel) to magnesiowustite-perovskite at around 660 km depth. Such regions of anomalously hot mantle have been interpreted to extend from the core-mantle boundary (e.g. the African Superplume) to the Earth's surface from global tomographic models. Previous studies in Ethiopia or Afar that invoke receiver functions are mainly restricted to illuminating the MTZ beneath permanent seismological stations and, together with a regional receiver function study, all have found difficulty in imaging the discontinuities. They were unable to provide conclusive evidence for a thinned transition zone and could not constrain lateral changes in MTZ thickness that are required to assess whether the African Superplume intersects the MTZ beneath Ethiopia. We use seismological data from permanent stations as well as from four temporary arrays to compute receiver functions. We perform time-to-depth migration using the common conversion point (CCP) method with a regional velocity model that includes the slow mantle anomalies to estimate the depth-to-discontinuties and produce an MTZ thickness map. The signature of both the 410 and the 660 km discontinuities is clearly identified across ~500x500 km2. The 410 is relatively flat at 444±10 km depth throughout the region. The 660 is more perturbed with steep topographic changes

  17. Ps mantle transition zone imaging beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains: Evidence for an upwelling hydrous mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Dueker, Kenneth G.; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We analyze teleseismic P-to-S conversions for high-resolution imaging of the mantle transition zone beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains using data from a dense PASSCAL seismic broadband deployment. A total of 6,021 P-to-S converted receiver functions are constructed using a multi-channel minimum-phase deconvolution method and migrated using the common converted point technique with the 3-D teleseismic P- and S-wave tomography models of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010). The image finds that the average depths of the 410-km discontinuity (the 410) and 660-km discontinuity (the 660) at 408 ± 1.9 km and 649 ± 1.6 km respectively. The peak-to-peak topography of both discontinuities is 33 km and 27 km respectively. Additionally, prominent negative polarity phases are imaged both above and below the 410. To quantify the mean properties of the low-velocity layers about 410 km, we utilize double gradient layer models parameterization to fit the mean receiver function waveform. This waveform fitting is accomplished as a grid-search using anelastic synthetic seismograms. The best-fitting model reveals that the olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation width is 21 km, which is significantly larger than anhydrous mineral physics prediction (4-10 km) (Smyth and Frost, 2002). The findings of a wide olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation and the negative polarity phases above and below the 410, suggest that the mantle, at least in the 350-450 km depth range, is significantly hydrated. Furthermore, a conspicuous negative polarity phase below the 660 is imaged in high velocity region, we speculate the low velocity layer is due to dehydration flux melting in an area of convective downwelling. Our interpretation of these results, in tandem with the tomographic image of a Farallon slab segment at 800 km beneath the region (Schmandt and Humphreys, 2010), is that hydrous and upwelling mantle contributes to the high-standing Colorado Rocky Mountains.

  18. High Resolution Seismic Images of Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Q.; Wang, P.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Shim, S.

    2009-12-01

    Taking advantage of the abundance of natural sources (earthquakes) in western Pacific subduction zones and the many seismograph stations in the Americas, we use inverse scattering - a generalized Radon transform - of SS precursors to image the transition zone discontinuities underneath Hawaii and the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. The GRT makes use of scattering theory and extracts structural information from broad band data windows that include precursors to SS (which are the specular reflections at the discontinuities that form the main arrivals) as well as non-specular scattered energy (which is often discarded as noise). More than 150,000 seismograms (from the IRIS Data Management Center) are used to form a 3-D image of the transition zone discontinuities beneath the central Pacific. In addition to clear signals near 410, 520, and 660 km depth, the data also reveal scatter interfaces near 370 km dept and between 800-1000 km depth, which may be regional, laterally intermittent scatter horizons. Our images reveal a conspicuous uplift of the 660 discontinuity in a region of 800km in diameter to the west of the active volcanoes of Hawaii. No correspondent localized depression of the 410 discontinuity is found. Instead, we find a smaller scale anomaly suggesting that the 410 discontinuity is locally elevated in the same region. This may indicate the presence of melt or minor chemical constitutes. The lack of correlation between and differences in lateral length scale of the topographies of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are also consistent with a deep-mantle plume impinging on the transition zone, creating a pond of hot material underneath 660 discontinuity, and with secondary plumes connecting to the present-day hotspot at Earth’s surface. Our observations suggest that more complicated plume morphology and plume dynamics within the Earth's mantle should be taken into account to describe the plumes and, in particular, mass transport across the transition zone

  19. Constraining the hydration of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Northern Chile using subduction zone guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed from earthquakes at 180-280 km depth recorded at stations in the fore-arc of Northern Chile, where the 44 Ma Nazca plate subducts beneath South America. Characteristic P-wave dispersion is observed at several stations in the Chilean fore-arc with high frequency energy (>5 Hz) arriving up to 3 s after low frequency (<2 Hz) arrivals. This dispersion has been attributed to low velocity structure within the subducting Nazca plate which acts as a waveguide, retaining and delaying high frequency energy. Full waveform modelling shows that the single LVL proposed by previous studies does not produce the first motion dispersion observed at multiple stations, or the extended P-wave coda observed in arrivals from intermediate depth events within the Nazca plate. These signals can however be accurately accounted for if dipping low velocity fault zones are included within the subducting lithospheric mantle. A grid search over possible LVL and faults zone parameters (width, velocity contrast and separation distance) was carried out to constrain the best fitting model parameters. Our results imply that fault zone structures of 0.5-1.0 km thickness, and 5-10 km spacing, consistent with observations at the outer rise are present within the subducted slab at intermediate depths. We propose that these low velocity fault zone structures represent the hydrated structure within the lithospheric mantle. They may be formed initially by normal faults at the outer rise, which act as a pathway for fluids to penetrate the deeper slab due to the bending and unbending stresses within the subducting plate. Our observations suggest that the lithospheric mantle is 5-15% serpentinised, and therefore may transport approximately 13-42 Tg/Myr of water per meter of arc. The guided wave observations also suggest that a thin LVL (∼1 km thick) interpreted as un-eclogitised subducted oceanic crust persists to depths of at least 220 km. Comparison of the inferred seismic

  20. Zircon Zoning, Trace Elements and U-Pb Dates Reveal Crustal Foundering Beneath the Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Shaffer, M. E. F.; Ratschbacher, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Xenoliths that erupted in the SE Pamir of Tajikistan at 11.2 Ma from 1000-1050°C and 90 km depth illuminate what happens when crust founders into the mantle. The xenoliths are a broad range of crustal rock types and contain abundant xenoliths whose U-Pb isotopic ratios and trace-element contents were examined by laser-ablation split stream inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the grains shows igneous cores with oscillatory zoning overprinted by substantial recrystallization. The bulk of the U-Pb dates are concordant and range from 160 Ma to 11 Ma. The range of dates suggest that the xenoliths were likely derived from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Andean-style magmatic arc and its Proterozoic-Mesozoic host rocks along the southern margin of Asia. The zircons show distinct changes in Eu anomaly, Lu/Gd ratio, and Ti concentrations that are interpreted to indicate garnet growth and minimal heating at 22-20 Ma, and then 200-300°C of heating, 25 km of burial, and alkali-carbonate melt injection at 14-11 Ma. These changes are interpreted to coincide with: i) heat input due to Indian slab breakoff at 22‒20 Ma; ii) rapid thickening and foundering of the Pamir lithosphere at 14‒11 Ma, prior to and synchronous with collision between deep Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath the Pamir.

  1. Waveform Modeling Reveals Important Features of the Subduction Zone Seismic Structure Beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luccio, F.; Persaud, P.; Pino, N. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Li, D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic images of the slab in southern Italy indicate a complex geodynamic system, although these images are strongly affected by limitations due to instrumental coverage, in terms of depth resolution and lateral extent. To help improve our knowledge of the structure of the Calabrian subduction zone, we analyze waveforms of regional events that occurred between 2001 and 2015 beneath the Tyrrhenian sea in the western Mediterranean. The selected events are deeper than 200 km and they were recorded at the Italian seismic network managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Italy. We have also included recordings at ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones, which were installed for a few months in 2000-2001, 2004-2005 and 2007-2008. Accurate selection of the source-to receiver raypaths can reveal significant differences at receivers, which are perpendicular to the trench with respect to other stations. P-wave complexity, converted phases and frequency content are some of the features we have observed for selected events. To investigate the slab structure, we model the waveforms using the 2D staggered grid Finite Difference method on graphics processing units developed by Li et al. (Geophys. J. Int., 2014).

  2. Intermittent tremor migrations beneath Guerrero, Mexico, and implications for fault healing within the slow slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yajun; Rubin, Allan M.

    2017-01-01

    Slow slip events exhibit significant complexity in slip evolution and variations in recurrence intervals. Behavior that varies systematically with recurrence interval is likely to reflect different extents of fault healing between these events. Here we use high-resolution tremor catalogs beneath Guerrero, Mexico, to investigate the mechanics of slow slip. We observe complex tremor propagation styles, including rapid tremor migrations propagating either along the main tremor front or backward, reminiscent of those in northern Cascadia. We also find many migrations that originate well behind the front and repeatedly occupy the same source region during a tremor episode, similar to those previously reported from Shikoku, Japan. These migrations could be driven by slow slip in the surrounding regions, with recurrence intervals possibly modulated by tides. The propagation speed of these migrations decreases systematically with time since the previous migration over the same source area. Tremor amplitudes seem consistent with changes in the propagation speeds being controlled primarily by changes in the slip speeds. One interpretation is that the high propagation speeds and inferred high slip speeds during the migrations with short recurrence intervals are caused by incomplete healing within the host rock adjacent to the shear zone, which could lead to high permeability and reduced dilatant strengthening of the fault gouge. Similar processes may operate in other slow slip source regions such as Cascadia.

  3. Imaging Seismic Zones and Magma beneath Mount St. Helens with the iMUSH Broadband Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Crosbie, K.; Crosson, R. S.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thelen, W. A.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Bachmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    We deployed 70 broadband seismometers from 2014 to 2016 to image the seismic velocity structure beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH), Washington, as part of the collaborative imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) project. The broadband array had a 100 km diameter centered on MSH with an average station spacing of 10 km, augmented by dozens of permanent stations. We picked P- and S-wave arrival times and also incorporated picks from the permanent network. More than 400 local events M>0.5 occurred during the deployment, providing over 12,000 P-wave and 6,000 S-wave arrival times. In addition, we incorporated 23 explosions that were part of the active-source component of iMUSH. We used the program struct3DP to invert travel times to obtain a 3-D seismic velocity model and relocated hypocenters, with travel times computed using a 3-D eikonal-equation solver. Principal features of our 3-D model include: (1) Low P- and S-wave velocities along the St. Helens seismic Zone (SHZ), striking NNW-SSE north of MSH from near the surface to where we lose resolution at 15-20 km depth. This anomaly corresponds to high conductivity as imaged by iMUSH magnetotelluric studies. The SHZ also coincides with a sharp boundary in continental Moho reflectivity that has been interpreted as the eastern boundary of a serpentinized mantle wedge (Hansen et al, 2016). We speculate that the SHZ and low velocities are related to fluids rising from the eastern boundary of the wedge; (2) A 4-5% negative P- and S-wave velocity anomaly beneath MSH at depths of 6-15 km with a quasi-cylindrical geometry and a diameter of 5 km, probably indicating a magma storage region. Based on resolution testing of similar-sized features, it is possible that the velocity anomaly we see underneath MSH is narrower and higher (i.e., more negative) amplitude; (3) A broad, high-amplitude, low P-wave velocity region below 10-km depth extending between Mount Adams and Mount Rainier along and to the east of the main Cascade arc

  4. Evidence from P-wave receiver functions for lower mantle plumes and mantle transition zone water beneath West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Emry, E.; Juliá, J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Wiens, D. A.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    West Antarctica has experienced abundant Cenozoic volcanism, and it is suspected that the region is influenced by upwelling thermal plumes from the lower mantle; however this has not yet been verified, because seismic tomography results are not well resolved at mantle transition zone (MTZ) depths. We use P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) from the 2007-2013 Antarctic POLENET array to explore the characteristics of the MTZ throughout Marie Byrd Land and the West Antarctic Rift System. We obtained over 8000 high-quality PRFs for earthquakes occurring at 30-90° with Mb>5.5 using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method filtered with a Gaussian-width of 0.5 and 1.0, corresponding to frequencies less than ~0.24 Hz and ~0.48 Hz, respectively. We stack P receiver functions as single-station and by common conversion point and migrate them to depth using the ak135 1-d velocity model. Results suggest that the thickness of the MTZ varies throughout the region with thinning beneath the Ruppert Coast of Marie Byrd Land and beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Whitmore Mountains. We identify the 520' discontinuity throughout much of West Antarctica; the discontinuity is most prominent beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Whitmore Mountains. Additionally, prominent negative peaks are detected above the transition zone beneath much of West Antarctica and may be evidence for water-induced partial melt above the MTZ. We propose that the MTZ beneath West Antarctica is hotter than average in some regions, possibly due to material upwelling from the lower mantle. Furthermore, we propose that the transition zone is water-rich and that upward migration of hydrated material results in formation of a partial melt layer above the MTZ.

  5. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-source attenuation of high-frequency body waves beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Shahram; Sedaghati, Farhad; Nazemi, Nima

    2018-03-01

    Attenuation characteristics in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) are estimated from 157 local seismograph recordings out of 46 earthquakes of 2.6 ≤ M ≤ 4.1 with hypocentral distances up to 60 km and focal depths down to 25 km. Digital waveform seismograms were obtained from local earthquakes in the NMSZ recorded by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis. Using the coda normalization method, we tried to determine Q values and geometrical spreading exponents at 13 center frequencies. The scatter of the data and trade-off between the geometrical spreading and the quality factor did not allow us to simultaneously derive both these parameters from inversion. Assuming 1/ R 1.0 as the geometrical spreading function in the NMSZ, the Q P and Q S estimates increase with increasing frequency from 354 and 426 at 4 Hz to 729 and 1091 at 24 Hz, respectively. Fitting a power law equation to the Q estimates, we found the attenuation models for the P waves and S waves in the frequency range of 4 to 24 Hz as Q P = (115.80 ± 1.36) f (0.495 ± 0.129) and Q S = (161.34 ± 1.73) f (0.613 ± 0.067), respectively. We did not consider Q estimates from the coda normalization method for frequencies less than 4 Hz in the regression analysis since the decay of coda amplitude was not observed at most bandpass filtered seismograms for these frequencies. Q S/ Q P > 1, for 4 ≤ f ≤ 24 Hz as well as strong intrinsic attenuation, suggest that the crust beneath the NMSZ is partially fluid-saturated. Further, high scattering attenuation indicates the presence of a high level of small-scale heterogeneities inside the crust in this region.

  7. Transition zone structure beneath Ethiopia from 3-D fast marching pseudo-migration stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Lopez, A.; Levin, V.

    2008-12-01

    Several models for the origin of the Afar hotspot have been put forth over the last decade, but much ambiguity remains as to whether the hotspot tectonism found there is due to a shallow or deeply seated feature. Additionally, there has been much debate as to whether the hotspot owes its existence to a 'classic' mantle plume feature or if it is part of the African Superplume complex. To further understand the origin of the hotspot, we employ a new receiver function stacking method that incorporates a fast-marching three- dimensional ray tracing algorithm to improve upon existing studies of the mantle transition zone structure. Using teleseismic data from the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment and the EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Grand Lithospheric Experiment) experiment, we stack receiver functions using a three-dimensional pseudo- migration technique to examine topography on the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Previous methods of receiver function pseudo-migration incorporated ray tracing methods that were not able to ray trace through highly complicated 3-D structure, or the ray tracing techniques only produced 3-D time perturbations associated 1-D rays in a 3-D velocity medium. These previous techniques yielded confusing and incomplete results for when applied to the exceedingly complicated mantle structure beneath Ethiopia. Indeed, comparisons of the 1-D versus 3-D ray tracing techniques show that the 1-D technique mislocated structure laterally in the mantle by over 100 km. Preliminary results using our new technique show a shallower then average 410 km discontinuity and a deeper than average 660 km discontinuity over much of the region, suggested that the hotspot has a deep seated origin.

  8. 2-dimensional triplicated waveform modeling of the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.; Chen, L.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) of Northeast Asia has long been investigated by geoscientists for its critical importance where the subducted Pacific slab is stagnant above the 660km discontinuity, accompanied by complicated mantle processes. Taking advantages of the frequent occurrent deep earthquakes in subduction zone and dense seismic arrays in Northeast China, we successfully constructed the fine-scale P and SH velocity structure of a narrow azimuthal fan area based on 2-Dimensional (2D) triplicated waveform modeling for three deep close earthquakes, in which the triplicated waveforms are very sensitive to MTZ velocity structure in general, particularly the morphology of the stagnant slab in Northeast Asia. In our 2D triplication study, for the first time, we show a quite consistent feature of a high velocity layer for both Vp and Vs with the thickness of 140km and the length of 1200km just atop the 660km discontinuity, the western edge of the stagnant slab intersect with the North-South Gravity Lineament in China and has the subducting age of 30 Ma. Compared with a quite normal Vp, the Shear wave velocity reduction of -0.5% in the slab and -2.5% in the upper MTZ is required to reconcile the SH waves featured by the broad BOD. The high Vp/Vs ratio beneath Northeast Asia may imply a water-rich MTZ with the H2O content of 0.1-0.3 wt%. Particularly, a low velocity anomaly of about 150km wide was detected in the overall high-velocity stagnant slab by both P and SH triplicated waveform modeling, with the velocity anomaly value of -1% and -3%, respectively. The gap/window in the stagnant slab may provide a passage for hot deeper mantle materials to penetrate through the thick slab and feed the surface Changbaishan volcano. We also speculate that the existence of such a gap can be the manifestation of the original heterogeneity in the subducted slab and will further exacerbatethe impending gravitational instability and speed up mantle avalanche.

  9. Tracking the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northeastern Great Basin, Nevada and Utah

    Rodriguez, B.D.; Williams, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important to know whether major mining districts in north-central Nevada are underlain by crust of the Archean Wyoming craton, known to contain major orogenic gold deposits or, alternatively, by accreted crust of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Determining the location and orientation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone between these provinces is also important because it may influence subsequent patterns of sedimentation, deformation, magmatism, and hydrothermal activity. The suture zone is exposed in northeastern Utah and south-western Wyoming and exhibits a southwest strike. In the Great Basin, the suture zone strike is poorly constrained because it is largely concealed below a Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic miogeocline and Cenozoic basin fill. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of three regional north-south magnetotelluric sounding profiles in western Utah, north-central Nevada, and northeastern Nevada, and one east-west profile in northeastern Nevada, reveals a deeply penetrating (>10 km depth), broad (tens of kilometers) conductor (1-20 ohm-meters) that may be the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone, which formed during Early Proterozoic rifting of the continent and subsequent Proterozoic accretion. This major crustal conductor changes strike direction from southwest in Utah to northwest in eastern Nevada, where it broadens to ???100 km width that correlates with early Paleozoic rifting of the continent. Our results suggest that the major gold belts may be over-isolated blocks of Archean crust, so Phanerozoic mineral deposits in this region may be produced, at least in part, from recycled Archean gold. Future mineral exploration to the east may yield large gold tonnages. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  10. Evolution of rhyolitic magmas in the crustal magmatic system beneath the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. R.; Kamenetsky, V.; McPhie, J.; Wallace, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) produces the most frequent rhyolitic eruptions on Earth. This volcanic arc is also characterized by bimodal volcanism, with eruptions of andesite (primarily in the NE and SW of the zone) and minor basalt. Here we use melt inclusions (MI) to investigate the magmatic evolution of rhyolites in the TVZ and their link to TVZ basalts. Our study focuses on recent (<50 ka) explosive rhyolitic eruptions, as well as several small-volume explosive basaltic eruptions, from the Okataina Volcanic Centre in the northern part of the TVZ. The rhyolitic melts of the TVZ are thought to be formed via fractionation of a basaltic parent plus assimilation of metasedimentary crust. Trace element data from our TVZ melt inclusions lend support to this idea, with constant ratios of incompatible trace elements (e.g., U/Th) in the TVZ basalts and rhyolites. Assuming that these elements are completely incompatible, we have calculated that the TVZ rhyolites can be produced by ~80% fractional crystallization of a basaltic parent. We have also used MI volatile contents to assess the pressures (and thus depths) in the crust of magma emplacement and differentiation. Both the TVZ rhyolites and basalts are volatile-rich. Quartz-hosted MI in the rhyolites typically contain 5.5- 7.6 wt% H2O and up to 2500 ppm Cl, and olivine-hosted MI in the basalts contain up to 4.5 wt% H2O and 1250 ppm Cl. The H2O concentrations imply crystallization pressures of at least 200-440 MPa for the rhyolites, which correspond to depths of ~8-16 km. However, the presence of rhyolitic MI with lower H2O (3.5-5 wt%) suggests that crystallization may have occurred over a wide range of pressures. Additionally, the basalts erupted in the TVZ likely crystallized at minimum pressures of 100-200 MPa. Together, this suggests that basaltic and rhyolitic melt zones occur over a wide range of depths (~4-16 km). Furthermore, the emplacement of the basaltic parent and the AFC process to create the rhyolites had

  11. The Honey Lake fault zone, northeastern California: Its nature, age, and displacement

    SciT

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Grose, T.L.T.

    The Honey Lake fault zone of northeastern California is composed of en echelon, northwest trending faults that form the boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin Ranges provinces. As such the Honey Lake fault zone can be considered part of the Sierra Nevada frontal fault system. It is also part of the Walker Lane of Nevada. Faults of the Honey Lake zone are vertical with right-lateral oblique displacements. The cumulative vertical component of displacement along the fault zone is on the order of 800 m and right-lateral displacement is at least 10 km (6 miles) but could be considerablymore » more. Oligocene to Miocene (30 to 22 Ma) age rhyolite tuffs can be correlated across the zone, but mid-Miocene andesites do not appear to be correlative indicating the faulting began in early to mid-Miocene time. Volcanic rocks intruded along faults of the zone, dated at 16 to 8 Ma, further suggest that faulting in the Honey Lake zone was initiated during mid-Miocene time. Late Quaternary to Holocene activity is indicated by offset of the 12,000 year old Lake Lahontan high stand shoreline and the surface rupture associated with the 1950 Fort Sage earthquake.« less

  12. The mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Depression and adjacent regions: implications for mantle plumes and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Afar Depression and its adjacent areas are underlain by an upper mantle marked by some of the world's largest negative velocity anomalies, which are frequently attributed to the thermal influences of a lower-mantle plume. In spite of numerous studies, however, the existence of a plume beneath the area remains enigmatic, partially due to inadequate quantities of broad-band seismic data and the limited vertical resolution at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) depth of the techniques employed by previous investigations. In this study, we use an unprecedented quantity (over 14 500) of P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 139 stations from 12 networks to image the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and map the spatial variation of the thickness of the MTZ. Non-linear stacking of the RFs under a 1-D velocity model shows robust P-to-S conversions from both discontinuities, and their apparent depths indicate the presence of an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the entire study area. The Afar Depression and the northern Main Ethiopian Rift are characterized by an apparent 40-60 km depression of both MTZ discontinuities and a normal MTZ thickness. The simplest and most probable interpretation of these observations is that the apparent depressions are solely caused by velocity perturbations in the upper mantle and not by deeper processes causing temperature or hydration anomalies within the MTZ. Thickening of the MTZ on the order of 15 km beneath the southern Arabian Plate, southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden, which comprise the southward extension of the Afro-Arabian Dome, could reflect long-term hydration of the MTZ. A 20 km thinning of the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau is observed and interpreted as evidence for a possible mantle plume stem originating from the lower mantle.

  13. A preparation zone for volcanic explosions beneath Naka-dake crater, Aso volcano, as inferred from magnetotelluric surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Wataru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Takakura, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    The 1st crater of Naka-dake, Aso volcano, is one of the most active craters in Japan, and known to have a characteristic cycle of activity that consists of the formation of a crater lake, drying-up of the lake water, and finally a Strombolian-type eruption. Recent observations indicate an increase in eruptive activity including a decrease in the level of the lake water, mud eruptions, and red hot glows on the crater wall. Temporal variations in the geomagnetic field observed around the craters of Naka-dake also indicate that thermal demagnetization of the subsurface rocks has been occurring in shallow subsurface areas around the 1st crater. Volcanic explosions act to release the energy transferred from magma or volcanic fluids. Measurement of the subsurface electrical resistivity is a promising method in investigating the shallow structure of the volcanic edifices, where energy from various sources accumulates, and in investigating the behaviors of magma and volcanic fluids. We carried out audio-frequency magnetotelluric surveys around the craters of Naka-dake in 2004 and 2005 to determine the detailed electrical structure down to a depth of around 1 km. The main objective of this study is to identify the specific subsurface structure that acts to store energy as a preparation zone for volcanic eruption. Two-dimensional inversions were applied to four profiles across the craters, revealing a strongly conductive zone at several hundred meters depth beneath the 1st crater and surrounding area. In contrast, we found no such remarkable conductor at shallow depths beneath the 4th crater, which has been inactive for 70 years, finding instead a relatively resistive body. The distribution of the rotational invariant of the magnetotelluric impedance tensor is consistent with the inversion results. This unusual shallow structure probably reflects the existence of a supply path of high-temperature volcanic gases to the crater bottom. We propose that the upper part of the

  14. Preliminary Results of Crustal Structure beneath the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone Using Teleseismic Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Aziz Zanjani, A.; Hu, S.; Liu, Y.; Herrmann, R. B.; Conder, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a on-going EarthScope FlexArray project, we deployed 45 broadband seismographs in a 300-km-long linear profile across the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone (WVSZ). Here we present preliminary results of crustal structure beneath WVSZ based on teleseismic receiver functions and ambient noise tomography. We combined waveform data of the temporary stations in 2014 with those of permanent seismic stations and the transportable array stations in our study area since 2011. We found 656 teleseismic events with clear P-wave signals and obtained 2657 good-quality receiver functions of 84 stations using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method. We estimated crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath each station using the H-κ stacking method. A high-resolution crustal structural image along the linear profile was obtained using the Common-Conversion-Point (CCP) stacking method. We also measured Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities from 5 to 50 s by cross-correlating ambient noises between stations and did joint-inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersions for S-velocity structures beneath selected stations. The results show that the average crustal thickness in the region is 47 km with a gentle increase of crustal thickness from southeast to northwest. A mid-crustal interface is identified in the CCP image that also deepens from 15 km in the southeastern end to >20 km in the northwest. The CCP image shows that the low-velocity sedimentary layer along the profile is broad and is thickest (~10 km) near the center of the Wabash Valley. Beneath the center of the Valley there is a 40-km-wide positive velocity discontinuity at a depth of 40 km in the lower crust that might be the top of a rift pillow in this failed continental rift. Further results using 3D joint inversion and CCP migration will be presented at the meeting.

  15. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    SciT

    Syuhada, E-mail: hadda9@gmail.com; Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences; Hananto, Nugroho D.

    2015-04-24

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stationsmore » by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.« less

  16. New Insights on Seismicity and the Velocity Structure beneath the Western Segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Kahraman, M.; Mutlu, A. K.; Cambaz, D.; Turkelli, N.; Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Utkucu, M.

    2014-12-01

    To extensively investigate the upper crustal structure beneath the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in Sakarya and the surroundings, a temporary seismic network consisting of 70 stations (with nearly 7km station spacing) was deployed in early May 2012 and operated for 18 months during the Faultlab experiment encompassing both the northern and southern strands of the fault in between the area of 1999 İzmit and Düzce mainshock ruptures. With the help of this new and extensive data set, our main objective is to provide new insights on the most recent micro-seismic activity and the velocity structure beneath the region. Out of 2437 events contaminated by the explosions, we extracted 1344 well located earthquakes with a total of 31595 P and 18512 S phase readings which lead to an avarage Vp/Vs ratio of ~1.82 extracted from the wadati diagram. The enhanced station coverage decreased the magnitude threshold to 0.1 where the horizontal and vertical location errors did not exceed 0.5 km and 2.0 km, respectively. Average RMS values were calculated within the range of 0.05-0.4 seconds. We observed significant seismic activity along both branches of the fault where the depth of the seismogenic zone was confined to 15 km. Focal parameters of 41 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 1.8 were also determined using both Regional Moment Tensor Inversion and P first arrival time methods. Focal mechanism solutions confirm that Sakarya and its vicinity could be defined by a compressional regime showing a primarily oblique-slip motion character. Furthermore, we selected the earthquakes recorded by at least 8 stations with azimuthal gaps less than 200° for the ongoing tomographic inversion that would enable us to accurately map the complex upper crustal velocity structure with high resolution beneath this segment of the NAFZ.

  17. Fluid pressure development beneath the décollement at the Nankai subduction zone: its implications for slow earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, T.; Kamiya, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Inagaki, F.; Kubo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Pore fluid pressure along a fault zone is very important for understanding earthquake generation processes in subduction zones. However, quantitative constraints on the pore pressure are quite limited. Here we report two estimates of the pore pressure developed within the underthrust sediments in the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto, Japan, using the shipboard data obtained during IODP Expedition 370 (Heuer et al., 2017). First estimates are based on the depth trend of porosity data in the lower Shikoku Basin (LSB) facies, in which the décollement zone has propagated. Porosities in the LSB facies generally decrease with depth, but turn to increase by 5-7% below the décollement zone at 760 mbsf. Deeper than 830 mbsf, porosities resume a general compaction trend. By applying the method followed by Screaton et al. (2002) in which the downward porosity-increase is reflected by an excess pore pressure, we estimated the highest excess pore pressure of 4.2 MPa (λ* = 0.4: a ratio of excess pore pressure to effective overburden stress) at 1020 mbsf within the underthrust sediments. Another estimate is based on the analysis of upwelling drilling-mud flow from the borehole, which is a direct evidence the development of overpressure. We assumed that the borehole penetrated a disc-shaped high pore pressure zone with 10 m thickness and the steady-state flow. Then the pore pressure for a given radius of the disc-shaped zone, which is necessary for explaining the observed flow rate, was calculated using Darcy's law. The calculation yields that the pore pressure exceeded by 2-4 MPa above hydrostatic in case of the 10-13 m2 permeability and the 100-1000 m radius of the disc-shaped zone. Our analysis indicates a significant development of excess pore pressure beneath the décollement zone, most likely at the depth of 1020 mbsf where the highest overpressure was estimated from the downhole porosity trend and also an anomaly in relative hydrocarbon gas concentrations. Friction

  18. Inferences of Complex Anisotropic Layering and Mantle Flow Beneath the Malawi Rift Zone from Shear-Wave Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Reed, C. A.; Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mdala, H. S.; Massinque, B.; Mutamina, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Measuring the magnitude and orientation of seismic anisotropy beneath actively extending rift zones provides invaluable estimates of the influence of numerous geodynamic parameters upon their evolution. In order to infer the character and origin of extensional forces acting upon the Malawi Rift Zone (MRZ) and Luangwa Rift Zone (LRZ) of southern Africa, we installed 33 Seismic Arrays For African Rift Initiation (SAFARI) three-component broadband seismic stations in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia between 2012-2014. Shear-wave splitting parameters, including the fast-component polarization orientation and the splitting time, are extracted from 142 events recorded during that time period for a total of 642 well-defined PKS, SKKS, and SKS phase measurements. Polarizations trend NE-SW along the western flank of the LRZ, whereupon they demonstrate an abrupt shift to N-S within the rift valley and the eastern flank. SWS orientations shift increasingly counterclockwise toward the east until, at 33°E, they shift from WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW, suggesting a systematic change in dominant mantle fabric orientation. The resulting fast orientations demonstrate remarkable variability within the MRZ, with E-W measurements in the north rotating counterclockwise toward the south to N-S within the southernmost MRZ. Measurements revert to E-W and NE-SW orientations toward the east in Mozambique, suggesting the presence of complex two-layer anisotropy. Azimuthal variations of SWS parameters recorded by stations within the central MRZ exhibit excellent 90° periodicity, further suggesting complex anisotropic layering. Lateral variation of measurements between the northern and southern MRZ imply the modulation of the mantle flow system beneath the active rift zone.

  19. Seismic evidence for water transport out of the mantle transition zone beneath the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The mantle transition zone has been considered a major water reservoir in the deep Earth. Mass transfer across the transition-zone boundaries may transport water-rich minerals from the transition zone into the water-poor upper or lower mantle. Water release in the mantle surrounding the transition zone could cause dehydration melting and produce seismic low-velocity anomalies if some conditions are met. Therefore, seismic observations of low-velocity layers surrounding the transition zone could provide clues of water circulation at mid-mantle depths. Below the Alpine orogen, a depressed 660-km discontinuity has been imaged clearly using seismic tomography and receiver functions, suggesting downwellings of materials from the transition zone. Multitaper-correlation receiver functions show prominent ∼0.5-1.5% velocity reductions at ∼750-800-km depths, possibly caused by partial melting in the upper part of lower mantle. The gap between the depressed 660-km discontinuity and the low-velocity layers is consistent with metallic iron as a minor phase in the topmost lower mantle reported by laboratory studies. Velocity drops atop the 410-km discontinuity are observed surrounding the Alpine orogeny, suggesting upwelling of water-rich rock from the transition zone in response to the downwelled materials below the orogeny. Our results provide evidence that convective penetration of the mantle transition zone pushes hydrated minerals both upward and downward to add hydrogen to the surrounding mantle.

  20. Mantle transition zone beneath northeast China from P-receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    We used receiver functions to examine lateral topographical variations on the 410- and 660-km beneath northeast China and particularly the Kuril-Japan arc junctions. Compared to other receiver functions studies, our analysis was based on greater station coverage of higher density by combining all recent seismic arrays so far deployed in northeast China. Our image shows that the 410-km is featured by a ~10-20 km uplift extending in the NNE direction beneath some areas of the Quaternary basaltic rocks distributed at Abaga and at Wudalianchi. The Clapeyron slope of the olivine phase transiton at 410-km suggests that the uplift is compatible with a negative thermal anomaly. We also confirm a significant depression of the 660 from the Changbai volcanism in the north to Korea in the south along the NW-SE direction. The depression is also accompanied by an uplift of the 660 to the west. The shallow 660-km discontinuity is also particularly detected beneath the Kuril-Japan arc junctions, while it was not detected before. The thermal anomaly at 410 km depth is most likely a remnant of a detached mantle lithosphere that recently sank to depth, thus providing robust evidence for the source and evolution of these basalts. The depression of the 660-km discontinuity may support that the subducting Pacific slab bends sharply and becomes stagnant when it meets strong resistance at a depth of about 670 km. After accumulation to a great extent the stagnant slab finally penetrates into the lower mantle. Combined with the previous triplicated studies, the shallow 660-km may suggest that descending Pacific slab at its leading and junction edges might be accommodated by a tearing near a depth of 660 km. Acknowledgements. Two liner seismic arrays were deployed by the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration. The data of the permanent stations were provided by the Data Management Centre of China, National Seismic Network at the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake

  1. Upper mantle and transition zone structure beneath Ethiopia: Regional evidence for the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Nyblade, A. A.; Pasyanos, M.; Owens, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    Throughout much of the Cenozoic, Ethiopia has undergone extensive tectonism, including rifting, volcanism and uplift, and the origin of this tectonism remains enigmatic. While the cause of the tectonism has often been attributed to one or more mantle plumes, recent global tomographic studies suggest that the African Superplume, a broad, through-going mantle upwelling, may be related to the tectonism. To further understand the origin of the tectonism in Ethiopia, we employ a variety of methods, including an S wave travel time body wave tomography, receiver function analysis of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, and surface wave tomography. Using data from the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment [2000-2002], we computed new S wave models of the upper mantle seismic velocity structure from 150 - 400 km depth. The S wave model revealed an elongated low wave speed region that is deep (> 300 km) and wide (> 500 km). The location of the low wave speed anomaly aligns with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but the center of the anomaly shifts to the west with depth. Results from receiver function stacking of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities show a shallow 660 beneath most of Ethiopia, implying that the low wave speed anomaly found in the S wave model likely extends to at least 660 km depth. This result suggests that the low velocity anomaly may be related to the African Superplume. A group velocity surface wave tomographic study of East Africa was also computed using data from permanent and temporary stations from Africa and Arabia. Results of this study reveal low Sn velocities beneath much of the region, and suggest that low elevations found in the region between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus likely reflect an isostatic response to crustal thinning. If the crust in this region had not been thinned by approximately 10 - 15 km, then it is likely that the high elevation of the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus would be

  2. Observations of SKS splitting beneath the Central and Southern External Dinarides in the Adria-Eurasia convergence zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subašić, Senad; Prevolnik, Snježan; Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan

    2017-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the greater region of the Central and Southern External Dinarides is estimated from observations of SKS splitting. The area is located in the broad and complex Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary zone, where the Adriatic microplate interacts with the Dinarides. We analyzed recordings of 12 broadband seismic stations located in the Croatian coastal region. Evidence of seismic anisotropy was found beneath all stations. Fast axis directions are oriented approximately in the NE-SW to NNE-SSW direction, perpendicularly to the strike of the Dinarides. Average delay times range between 0.6 and 1.0 s. A counter-clockwise rotation in average fast axis directions was observed for the stations in the northern part with respect to the stations in the southern part of the studied area. Fast axis directions coincide with the assumed direction of asthenospheric flow through a slab-gap below the Northern and Central External Dinarides, with the maximum tectonic stress orientation in the crust, and with fast directions of Pg and Sg-waves in the crust. These observations suggest that the detected SKS birefringence is primarily caused by the preferred lattice orientation of mantle minerals generated by the asthenospheric flow directed SW-NE to SSW-NNE, with a possible contribution from the crust.

  3. Variations of soil microbial community structures beneath broadleaved forest trees in temperate and subtropical climate zones

    SciT

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. Furthermore, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRImore » (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from 0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomybased association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-fortime substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.« less

  4. Variations of soil microbial community structures beneath broadleaved forest trees in temperate and subtropical climate zones

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; ...

    2017-02-10

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. Furthermore, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRImore » (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from 0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomybased association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-fortime substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.« less

  5. Strength of the Subduction Plate Interface beneath the Seismogenic Zone: A Microstructural Investigation of Deformation Mechanisms within a Phyllosilicate- and Amphibole-rich Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Šilerová, D.

    2017-12-01

    interface beneath the seismogenic zone was therefore controlled by multiple syn-kinematic mechanisms, with overall strength dominated by the rheology of phyllosilicates and amphibole, generating very low viscosities at the plate interface and enhancing strain localization.

  6. Lateral Variations of the Mantle Transition Zone Structure beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau Revealed by P-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Ai, Y.; Jiang, M.; He, Y.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The deep structure of the southeastern Tibetan plateau is of great scientific importance to a better understanding of the India-Eurasia collision as well as the evolution of the magnificent Tibetan plateau. In this study, we collected 566 permanent and temporary seismic stations deployed in SE Tibet, with a total of 77853 high quality P-wave receiver functions been extracted by maximum entropy deconvolution method. On the basis of the Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking technique, we mapped the topography of the 410km and 660km discontinuities (hereinafter called the `410' and the `660'), and further investigated the lateral variation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness beneath this region. The background velocity model deduced from H-κ stacking results and a previous body-wave tomographic research was applied for the correction of the crustal and upper mantle heterogeneities beneath SE Tibet for CCP stacking. Our results reveal two significantly thickened MTZ anomalies aligned nearly in the south-north direction. The magnitude of both anomalies are 30km above the global average of 250km. The southern anomaly located beneath the Dianzhong sub-block and the Indo-China block is characterized by a slightly deeper `410' and a greater-than-normal `660', while the northern anomaly beneath western Sichuan has an uplifted `410' and a depressed `660'. Combining with previous studies in the adjacent region, we suggest that slab break-off may occurred during the eastward subduction of the Burma plate, with the lower part of the cold slab penetrated into the MTZ and stagnated at the bottom of the `660' which may cause the southern anomaly in our receiver function images. The origin of the Tengchong volcano is probably connected to the upwelling of the asthenospheric material caused by the slab break-off or to the ascending of the hot and wet material triggered by the dehydration of stagnant slab in the MTZ. The anomaly in the north, on the other hand, might be

  7. Topography of the Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Beneath Alaska and Its Geodynamic Implications: Constraints From Receiver Function Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Haider H.; Gao, Stephen S.; Kong, Fansheng; Liu, Kelly H.

    2017-12-01

    The 410 and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660, respectively) beneath Alaska and adjacent areas are imaged by stacking 75,296 radial receiver functions recorded by 438 broadband seismic stations with up to 30 years of recording period. When the 1-D IASP91 Earth model is used for moveout correction and time depth conversion, significant and spatially systematic variations in the apparent depths of the d410 and d660 are observed. The mean apparent depth of the d410 and d660 for the entire study area is 417 ± 12 km and 665 ± 12 km, respectively, and the mean mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness is 248 ± 8 km which is statistically identical to the global average. For most of the areas, the undulations of the apparent depths of the d410 and d660 are highly correlated, indicating that lateral velocity variations in the upper mantle above the d410 contribute to the bulk of the observed apparent depth variations by affecting the traveltimes of the P-to-S converted phases from both discontinuities. Beneath central Alaska, a broad zone with greater than normal MTZ thicknesses and shallower than normal d410 is imaged, implying that the subducting Pacific slab has reached the MTZ and is fragmented or significantly thickened. Within the proposed Northern Cordilleran slab window, an overall thinner than normal MTZ is observed and is most likely the result of a depressed d410. This observation, when combined with results from seismic tomography investigations, may indicate advective thermal upwelling from the upper MTZ through the slab window.

  8. Deep magma body beneath the summit and rift zones of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Delaney, P.T.; Fiske, R.S.; Miklius, Asta; Okamura, A.T.; Sako, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    A magnitude 7.2 earthquake in 1975 caused the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to move seaward in response to slippage along a deep fault. Since then, a large part of the volcano's edifice has been adjusting to this perturbation. The summit of Kilauea extended at a rate of 0.26 meter per year until 1983, the south flank uplifted more than 0.5 meter, and the axes of both the volcano's rift zones extended and subsided; the summit continues to subside. These ground-surface motions have been remarkably steady and much more widespread than those caused by either recurrent inflation and deflation of the summit magma chamber or the episodic propagation of dikes into the rift zones. Kilauea's magmatic system is, therefore, probably deeper and more extensive than previously thought; the summit and both rift zones may be underlain by a thick, near vertical dike-like magma system at a depth of 3 to 9 kilometers.

  9. Deep magma body beneath the summit and rift zones of kilauea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Delaney, P T; Fiske, R S; Miklius, A; Okamura, A T; Sako, M K

    1990-03-16

    A magnitude 7.2 earthquake in 1975 caused the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to move seaward in response to slippage along a deep fault. Since then, a large part of the volcano's edifice has been adjusting to this perturbation. The summit of Kilauea extended at a rate of 0.26 meter per year until 1983, the south flank uplifted more than 0.5 meter, and the axes of both the volcano's rift zones extended and subsided; the summit continues to subside. These ground-surface motions have been remarkably steady and much more widespread than those caused by either recurrent inflation and deflation of the summit magma chamber or the episodic propagation of dikes into the rift zones. Kilauea's magmatic system is, therefore, probably deeper and more extensive than previously thought; the summit and both rift zones may be underlain by a thick, near vertical dike-like magma system at a depth of 3 to 9 kilometers.

  10. Geophysical and Geochemical Signatures Associated with Mantle Fluids Beneath an Active Shear Zone, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, K.; Asamori, K.; Sueoka, S.; Tamura, H.; Shimizu, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 1997, the Kagoshima earthquake doublet, consisting of two closely associated Mw ~ 6 strike-slip events, five km and 48 days apart, has occurred in southwest Japan. The location is where an E-W trending discontinuity along 32°N latitude on southern Kyushu Island is clearly defined in GPS velocities, indicating the presence of a highly active left-lateral shear zone. However, there have not been any obvious indications of active faulting at the surface prior to the earthquake doublet, which could be associated with this shear zone. Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric sounding data obtained in the source region of the earthquake doublet reveals a near-vertical conductive zone with a width of 20 km, extending down to the base of the crust and perhaps into the upper mantle toward the Okinawa trough. The prominent conductor corresponds to the western part of the active shear zone. Elevated 3He/4He ratios in groundwaters sampled from hot spring and drinking water wells suggest the emission of mantle-derived helium from the seismic source region. The geophysical and geochemical observations are significant indications that the invasion of mantle fluids into the crust, driven by upwelling asthenosphere from the Okinawa trough, triggers the notable left-lateral shearing in the zone in the present-day subduction system. In addition, the existence of aqueous fluids in and below the seismogenic layer could change the strength of the zones, and alter the local stress regime, resulting in the occurrence of the 1997 earthquake doublet.

  11. Investigation of mantle kinematics beneath the Hellenic-subduction zone with teleseismic direct shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confal, Judith M.; Eken, Tuna; Tilmann, Frederik; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Çubuk-Sabuncu, Yeşim; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2016-12-01

    The subduction and roll-back of the African plate beneath the Eurasian plate along the arcuate Hellenic trench is the dominant geodynamic process in the Aegean and western Anatolia. Mantle flow and lithospheric kinematics in this region can potentially be understood better by mapping seismic anisotropy. This study uses direct shear-wave splitting measurements based on the Reference Station Technique in the southern Aegean Sea to reveal seismic anisotropy in the mantle. The technique overcomes possible contamination from source-side anisotropy on direct S-wave signals recorded at a station pair by maximizing the correlation between the seismic traces at reference and target stations after correcting the reference stations for known receiver-side anisotropy and the target stations for arbitrary splitting parameters probed via a grid search. We obtained splitting parameters at 35 stations with good-quality S-wave signals extracted from 81 teleseismic events. Employing direct S-waves enabled more stable and reliable splitting measurements than previously possible, based on sparse SKS data at temporary stations, with one to five events for local SKS studies, compared with an average of 12 events for each station in this study. The fast polarization directions mostly show NNE-SSW orientation with splitting time delays between 1.15 s and 1.62 s. Two stations in the west close to the Hellenic Trench and one in the east show N-S oriented fast polarizations. In the back-arc region three stations exhibit NE-SW orientation. The overall fast polarization variations tend to be similar to those obtained from previous SKS splitting studies in the region but indicate a more consistent pattern, most likely due to the usage of a larger number of individual observations in direct S-wave derived splitting measurements. Splitting analysis on direct shear waves typically resulted in larger split time delays compared to previous studies, possibly because S-waves travel along a longer path

  12. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciT

    Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.; Scatena, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed inmore » the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the

  13. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

  14. Landslide Risk: Economic Valuation in The North-Eastern Zone of Medellin City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Johnny Alexander; Hidalgo, César Augusto; Johana Marín, Nini

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters of a geodynamic nature can cause enormous economic and human losses. The economic costs of a landslide disaster include relocation of communities and physical repair of urban infrastructure. However, when performing a quantitative risk analysis, generally, the indirect economic consequences of such an event are not taken into account. A probabilistic approach methodology that considers several scenarios of hazard and vulnerability to measure the magnitude of the landslide and to quantify the economic costs is proposed. With this approach, it is possible to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the risk by landslides, allowing the calculation of the economic losses before a potential disaster in an objective, standardized and reproducible way, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The possibility of comparing different scenarios facilitates the urban planning process, the optimization of interventions to reduce risk to acceptable levels and an assessment of economic losses according to the magnitude of the damage. For the development and explanation of the proposed methodology, a simple case study is presented, located in north-eastern zone of the city of Medellín. This area has particular geomorphological characteristics, and it is also characterized by the presence of several buildings in bad structural conditions. The proposed methodology permits to obtain an estimative of the probable economic losses by earthquake-induced landslides, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The obtained estimative shows that the structural intervention of the buildings produces a reduction the order of 21 % in the total landslide risk.

  15. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Huet, B.; Labrousse, L.; Yao, K.; Agard, P.; Jolivet, L.

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr-Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes extremely penetrative but

  16. Using P-wave Triplications to Constrain the Mantle Transition Zone beneath Central Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H. C.; Tseng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Iranian Plateau is a tectonically complex region resulting from the continental collision between the African and Eurasian plates. The convergence of the two continents created the Zagros Mountains, the high topography southwest of Iran, and active seismicity along the Zagros-Bitlis suture. Tomographic studies in Iran reveal low seismic speeds and high attenuation of Sn wave in the uppermost mantle beneath the Iranian Plateau relative to adjacent regions. The deeper structure, however, remains curiously inconclusive. By contrast, a prominent fast seismic anomaly is found under central Tibet near depth of 600 km in the mantle transition zone (TZ), and it is speculated to be the remnant of lithosphere detached during the continental collision. We conduct a comparative study that utilizes triplicate arrivals of high-resolution P waveforms to investigate the velocity structure of mantle beneath the central Iranian Plateau and surroundings. Due to the abrupt increase in seismic wave speeds and density across the 410- and 660-km discontinuities, seismic waves at epicentral distances of 15-30 degrees would form multiple arrivals and the relative times and amplitudes between them are most sensitive to the variations in seismic speeds near the TZ. We combine several broadband arrays to construct 8 seismic profiles, each about 800 km long, that mainly sample the TZ under central Iranian Plateau, Turan shield and part of South Caspian basin. Move-outs between arrivals are clear in the profiles. Relative timings suggest a slightly smaller 660-km contrast under stable Turan shield. In the next stage, it is necessary to model waveforms after the source effect being removed properly. Our preliminary tests show that the F-K method can efficiently calculate the synthetic seismograms. We will determine the 1D velocity model for each sampled sector by minimizing the overall misfits between observed and predicted waveforms. The lateral variations may be further explored by

  17. Controls on deep drainage beneath the root soil zone in snowmelt-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. C.; Harpold, A. A.; Kampf, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt is the dominant source of streamflow generation and groundwater recharge in many high elevation and high latitude locations, yet we still lack a detailed understanding of how snowmelt is partitioned between the soil, deep drainage, and streamflow under a variety of soil, climate, and snow conditions. Here we use Hydrus 1-D simulations with historical inputs from five SNOTEL snow monitoring sites in each of three regions, Cascades, Sierra, and Southern Rockies, to investigate how inter-annual variability on water input rate and duration affects soil saturation and deep drainage. Each input scenario was run with three different soil profiles of varying hydraulic conductivity, soil texture, and bulk density. We also created artificial snowmelt scenarios to test how snowmelt intermittence affects deep drainage. Results indicate that precipitation is the strongest predictor (R2 = 0.83) of deep drainage below the root zone, with weaker relationships observed between deep drainage and snow persistence, peak snow water equivalent, and melt rate. The ratio of deep drainage to precipitation shows a stronger positive relationship to melt rate suggesting that a greater fraction of input becomes deep drainage at higher melt rates. For a given amount of precipitation, rapid, concentrated snowmelt may create greater deep drainage below the root zone than slower, intermittent melt. Deep drainage requires saturation below the root zone, so saturated hydraulic conductivity serves as a primary control on deep drainage magnitude. Deep drainage response to climate is mostly independent of soil texture because of its reliance on saturated conditions. Mean water year saturations of deep soil layers can predict deep drainage and may be a useful way to compare sites in soils with soil hydraulic porosities. The unit depth of surface runoff often is often greater than deep drainage at daily and annual timescales, as snowmelt exceeds infiltration capacity in near-surface soil layers

  18. Ductile shear zones beneath strike-slip faults: Implications for the thermomechanics of the San Andreas fault zone

    Thatcher, W.; England, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    We have carried out two-dimensional (2-D) numerical experiments on the bulk flow of a layer of fluid that is driven in a strike-slip sense by constant velocities applied at its boundaries. The fluid has the (linearized) conventional rheology assumed to apply to lower crust/upper mantle rocks. The temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of the fluid and the shear heating that accompanies deformation have been incorporated into the calculations, as has thermal conduction in an overlying crustal layer. Two end-member boundary conditions have been considered, corresponding to a strong upper crust driving a weaker ductile substrate and a strong ductile layer driving a passive, weak crust. In many cases of practical interest, shear heating is concentrated close to the axial plane of the shear zone for either boundary condition. For these cases, the resulting steady state temperature field is well approximated by a cylindrical heat source embedded in a conductive half-space at a depth corresponding to the top of the fluid layer. This approximation, along with the application of a theoretical result for one-dimensional shear zones, permits us to obtain simple analytical approximations to the thermal effects of 2-D ductile shear zones for a range of assumed rheologies and crustal geotherms, making complex numerical calculations unnecessary. Results are compared with observable effects on heat flux near the San Andreas fault using constraints on the slip distribution across the entire fault system. Ductile shearing in the lower crust or upper mantle can explain the observed increase in surface heat flux southeast of the Mendocino triple junction and match the amplitude of the regional heat flux anomaly in the California Coast Ranges. Because ductile dissipation depends only weakly on slip rate, faults moving only a few millimeters per year can be important heat sources, and the superposition of effects of localized ductile shearing on both currently active and now

  19. Identification of the Low-velocity Zone Beneath the Northern Taiwan by the P-wave Delays Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. W.; Che-Min, L.

    2017-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, located in northern Taiwan is near to the Tatun volcano group and the Shanchiao fault which is an active fault. This region is a complex tectonic environment. The Tatun volcano group is seen as a dormant volcano. Recently, the location of the magma reservoir of the Tatun volcano was discussed again. However, the volume and the location of the magma reservoir are still unclear. There are several seismic networks operated by different institutions around Taipei and Tatun volcano. In this study, we combined the data of these networks to analysis the P-wave arrival times for clarifying the magma reservoir. The events with hypocenters are deeper than 100 km and the local magnitude (ML) are larger than 4.0 were collected to analysis. Our results show that the stations could be separated into three groups by the slope of the P-wave arrival time. They are distributed at the western of the Basin edge, the Jin-Shan Plain areal and the Taipei Basin, respectively. When the epicenter distance of the different stations is the same, the P-wave arrival time of the stations on the west side of the basin edge will be 0.3 0.5 seconds later than that in the Taipei Basin, and the stations on the Jin-Shan Plain will be 0.1 0.4 seconds later than in the Taipei Basin. The slope of the P-wave arrival time in 3 groups is very different, indicating that the low-velocity zone is existed in shallow crustal beneath of these areas. However, the low-velocity zone can be connected to the magma reservoir of the Tatun volcano group or submarine volcano of Keelung Island or not? It can be discussed the correlation between the magma reservoir and the low-velocity zone by more events collected.

  20. Spatial variation of slip behavior beneath the Alaska Peninsula along Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Peninsula, including the Shumagin and Semidi segments in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, is one of the best places in the world to study along-strike variations in the seismogenic zone. Understanding the cause of along-strike variations on the plate interface and seismic potential is significant for better understanding of the dynamic mechanical properties of faults and the rheology of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle in subduction zones. GPS measurements can be used to study these properties and estimate the slip deficit distribution on the plate interface. We re-surveyed pre-existing (1992-2001) campaign GPS sites in 2016 and estimated a new dense and highly precise GPS velocity field for the Alaska Peninsula. We find evidence for only minimal time variations in the slip distribution in the region. We used the TDEFNODE software package to invert for the slip deficit distribution from the new velocities. There are long-wavelength systematic misfits to the vertical velocities from the optimal model that fits the horizontal velocities well, which cannot be explained by altering the slip distribution on the subduction plate interface. Possible explanations for the systematic misfit are still under investigation since the plate geometry, GIA effect and reference frame errors do not explain the misfits. In this study, we use only the horizontal velocities. We divided the overall Alaska Peninsula area into three sub-areas, which have strong differences in the pattern of the observed deformation, and explored optimal models for each sub-area. The width of the locked region decreases step-wise from NE to SW along strike. Then we compared each of these models to all of the data to identify the locations of the along-strike boundaries that mark the transition from strongly to weakly coupled segments of the margin. We identified three sharp boundaries separating segments with different fault slip deficit rate distributions. Significant change in fault

  1. Shear deformation in the northeastern margin of the Izu collision zone, central Japan, inferred from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doke, R.; Harada, M.; Miyaoka, K.; Satomura, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu collision zone, which is characterized by the collision between the Izu-Bonin arc (Izu Peninsula) and the Honshu arc (the main island of Japan), is located in the northernmost part of the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate. Particularly in the northeastern margin of the zone, numerous large earthquakes have occurred. To clarify the convergent tectonics of the zone related to the occurrence of these earthquakes, in this study, we performed Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and analysis around the Izu collision zone. Based on the results of mapping the steady state of the GPS velocity and strain rate fields, we verified that there has been wide shear deformation in the northeastern part of the Izu collision zone, which agrees with the maximum shear directions in the left-lateral slip of the active faults in the study area. Based on the relative motion between the western Izu Peninsula and the eastern subducting forearc, the shear zone can be considered as a transition zone affected by both collision and subduction. The Higashi-Izu Monogenic Volcano Group, which is located in the southern part of the shear deformation zone, may have formed as a result of the steady motion of the subducting PHS plate and the collision of the Izu Peninsula with the Honshu arc. The seismic activities in the Tanzawa Mountains, which is located in the northern part of the shear deformation zone, and the eastern part of the Izu Peninsula may be related to the shear deformation zone, because the temporal patterns of the seismic activity in both areas are correlated.

  2. Geohydrology, water quality, and nitrogen geochemistry in the saturated and unsaturated zones beneath various land uses, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California, 1991-93

    Rees, Terry F.; Bright, Daniel J.; Fay, Ronald G.; Christensen, Allen H.; Anders, Robert; Baharie, Brian S.; Land, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Eastern Municipal Water District, the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, and the Orange County Water District, has completed a detailed study of the Hemet groundwater basin. The quantity of ground water stored in the basin in August 1992 is estimated to be 327,000 acre-feet. Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 380 to 700 mg/L (milligrams per liter), except in small areas where the concentration exceeded 1,000 mg/L. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L nitrate (as nitrogen) in the southeastern part of the basin, in the Domenigoni Valley area, and beneath a dairy in the Diamond Valley area. Seven sites representing selected land uses-- residential, turf grass irrigated with reclaimed water, citrus grove, irrigated farm, poultry farm, and dairy (two sites)--were selected for detailed study of nitrogen geochemistry in the unsaturated zone. For all land uses, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the unsaturated zone.Although nitrate was seasonally present in the shallow unsaturated zone beneath the residential site, it was absent at moderate depths, suggesting negligible migration of nitrate from the surface at this time. Microbial denitrification probably is occurring in the shallow unsaturated zone. High nitrate concentrations in the deep unsaturated zone (greater than 100 ft) suggest either significantly higher nitrate loading at some time in the past, or lateral movement of nitrate at depth. Nitrate also is seasonally present in the shallow unsaturated zone beneath the reclaimed-water site, and (in contrast with the residential site), nitrate is perennially present in the deeper unsaturated zone. Microbial denitrification in the unsaturated zone and in the capillary fringe above the water table decreases the concentrations of nitrate in pore water to below the MCL before reaching the water table

  3. Tomographic Imaging of the Peru Subduction Zone beneath the Altiplano and Implications for Andean Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. M.; Foote, E. J.; Stubailo, I.; Phillips, K. E.; Clayton, R. W.; Skinner, S.; Audin, L.; Tavera, H.; Dominguez Ramirez, L. A.; Lukac, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    This work describes preliminary tomography results from the Peru Seismic Experiment (PERUSE) a 100 station broadband seismic network installed in Peru. The network consists a linear array of broadband seismic stations that was installed mid-2008 that runs from the Peruvian coast near Mollendo to Lake Titicaca. A second line was added in late 2009 between Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Teleseismic and local earthquake travel time residuals are being combined in the tomographic inversions. The crust under the Andes is found to be 70-80 km thick decreasing to 30 km near the coast. The morphology of the Moho is consistent with the receiver function images (Phillips et al., 2010; this meeting) and also gravity. Ray tracing through the heterogeneous structure is used to locate earthquakes. However the rapid spatial variation in crustal thickness, possibly some of the most rapid in the world, generates shadow zones when using conventional ray tracing for the tomography. We use asymptotic ray theory that approximates effects from finite frequency kernels to model diffracted waves in these regions. The observation of thickened crust suggests that models that attribute the recent acceleration of the Altiplano uplift to crustal delamination are less likely than those that attribute it to crustal compression.

  4. Mantle transition zone beneath the central Tien Shan: Lithospheric delamination and mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey; Vinnik, Lev; Makeyeva, Larissa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) under the central Tien Shan in central Asia by using recordings of seismograph stations in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and adjacent northern China. We apply P-wave receiver functions techniques and evaluate the differential time between the arrivals of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic boundaries. The differential time is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km boundary. Under part of the southern central Tien Shan with the lowest S wave velocity in the uppermost mantle and the largest thickness of the crust, the thickness of the MTZ increases by 15-20 km relative to the ambient mantle and the reference model IASP91. The increased thickness is a likely effect of low (about - 150 K) temperature. This anomaly is indicative of delamination and sinking of the mantle lithosphere. The low temperature in the MTZ might also be a relic of subduction of the oceanic lithosphere in the Paleozoic, but this scenario requires strong coupling and coherence between structures in the MTZ and in the lithosphere during plate motions in the last 300 Myr. Our data reveal a reduction of thickness of the MTZ of 10-15 km under the Fergana basin, in the neighborhood of the region of small-scale basaltic volcanism at the time near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The reduced thickness of the MTZ is the effect of a depressed 410-km discontinuity, similar to that found in many hotspots. This depression suggests a positive temperature anomaly of about 100-150 K, consistent with the presence of a thermal mantle plume. A similar depression on the 410-km discontinuity is found underneath the Tarim basin.

  5. Preliminary assessment of a previously unknown fault zone beneath the Daytona Beach sand blow cluster near Marianna, Arkansas

    Odum, Jackson K.; Williams, Robert; Stephenson, William J.; Tuttle, Martitia P.; Al-Shukri, Hadar

    2016-01-01

    We collected new high‐resolution P‐wave seismic‐reflection data to explore for possible faults beneath a roughly linear cluster of early to mid‐Holocene earthquake‐induced sand blows to the south of Marianna, Arkansas. The Daytona Beach sand blow deposits are located in east‐central Arkansas about 75 km southwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and about 80 km south of the southwestern end of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Previous studies of these sand blows indicate that they were produced between 10,500 and 5350 yr B.P. (before A.D. 1950). The sand blows are large and similar in size to those in the heart of the NMSZ produced by the 1811–1812 earthquakes. The seismic‐reflection profiles reveal a previously unknown zone of near‐vertical faults imaged in the 100–1100‐m depth range that are approximately coincident with a cluster of earthquake‐induced sand blows and a near‐linear surface lineament composed of air photo tonal anomalies. These interpreted faults are expressed as vertical discontinuities with the largest displacement fault showing about 40 m of west‐side‐up displacement at the top of the Paleozoic section at about 1100 m depth. There are about 20 m of folding on reflections within the Eocene strata at 400 m depth. Increasing fault displacement with depth suggests long‐term recurrent faulting. The imaged faults within the vicinity of the numerous sand blow features could be a causative earthquake source, although it does not rule out the possibility of other seismic sources nearby. These newly located faults add to a growing list of potentially active Pleistocene–Holocene faults discovered over the last two decades that are within the Mississippi embayment region but outside of the historical NMSZ.

  6. Investigation of the Low Velocity Zone Beneath the Southern Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2003-12-01

    Following the work by Helmberger (1973), we use waveform recordings of P arrivals at distances from 6o to 20o to investigate the structure of the low velocity zone (LVZ) or asthenosphere. In contrast to the previous study, broadband data (TriNet and BDSN) is used at a much smaller station spacing providing higher along path and depth resolution. For this study, a well recorded earthquake in the central Gulf of California (Mw 6.3) produces transitions from PnL to P410 across all of California and western Nevada. The nature of these transitions indicates the thickness and gradients of the LVZ and the lithosphere. Initial findings show large variations of lithosphere and LVZ structure from east to west below California. By varying the lithosphere compressional velocity and depth of the LVZ in 1-D models, a database of synthetics waveforms is created to guide the development of realistic 2-D (along path) and 3-D (against azimuth) description of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The character of the P arrivals changes dramatically near 9-11o with the emergence of a higher frequencies over-printing the longer-period PnL arrivals. Coastal California stations show these arrivals at the shortest distances, 9o indicating the lithosphere velocity and gradient below the LVZ are high. This is in opposition to those arrivals on the east which do not record the high frequency arrivals until 11o. As the distances reach 13o, a large amplitude, high frequency phase is present 10-15 seconds behind the initial P arrival. The emergence of the large secondary phase occurs at different distances across California with a pattern similar to before. At this distance, a change in the apparent velocity of the first arrival also occurs. Further in distance, the width of the initial P arrival and the energy following, or lack thereof, points to the shape of the underlying LVZ. Coastal stations and those in the central portion of California show larger amplitude arrivals following the initial P

  7. Crustal-scale shear zones and heterogeneous structure beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey, revealed by a high-density seismometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, Metin; Cornwell, David G.; Thompson, David A.; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory A.; Türkelli, Niyazi; Teoman, Uğur; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Utkucu, Murat; Gülen, Levent

    2015-11-01

    Continental scale deformation is often localised along strike-slip faults constituting considerable seismic hazard in many locations. Nonetheless, the depth extent and precise geometry of such faults, key factors in how strain is accumulated in the earthquake cycle and the assessment of seismic hazard, are poorly constrained in the mid to lower crust. Using a dense broadband network of 71 seismic stations with a nominal station spacing of 7 km in the vicinity of the 1999 Izmit earthquake we map previously unknown small-scale structure in the crust and upper mantle along this part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). We show that lithological and structural variations exist in the upper, mid and lower crust on length scales of less than 10 km and less than 20 km in the upper mantle. The surface expression of the NAFZ in this region comprises two major branches; both are shown to continue at depth with differences in dip, depth extent and (possibly) width. We interpret a <10 km wide northern branch that passes downward into a shear zone that traverses the entire crust and penetrates the upper mantle to a depth of at least 50 km. The dip of this structure appears to decrease west-east from ∼90° to ∼65° to the north over a distance of 30 to 40 km. Deformation along the southern branch may be accommodated over a wider (>10 km) zone in the crust with a similar variation of dip but there is no clear evidence that this shear zone penetrates the Moho. Layers of anomalously low velocity in the mid crust (20-25 km depth) and high velocity in the lower crust (extending from depths of 28-30 km to the Moho) are best developed in the Armutlu-Almacik block between the two shear zones. A mafic lower crust, possibly resulting from ophiolitic obduction or magmatic intrusion, can best explain the coherent lower crustal structure of this block. Our images show that strain has developed in the lower crust beneath both northern and southern strands of the North Anatolian Fault

  8. Receiver function imaging of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Tanzania Craton and the Eastern and Western Branches of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Liu, K. H.; Fu, X.; Gao, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the mechanism of initiation and development of the Eastern African Rifting System (EARS) circumfluent the Tanzania Craton (TC), over 7,100 P-to-S radial receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 87 broadband seismic stations are stacked to map the topography of mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities beneath the TC and the Eastern and Western Branches of the EARS. After time-depth conversion using the 1-D IASP91 Earth model, the resulting 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuity apparent depths are found to be greater than the global averages beneath the whole study area, implying slower than normal upper mantle velocities. The mean thickness of the MTZ beneath the Western Branch and TC is about 252 km, which is comparable to the global average and is inconsistent with the existence of present-day thermal upwelling originating from the lower mantle. In contrast, beneath the Eastern Branch, an 30 km thinning of the MTZ is observed from an up to 50 km and 20 km apparent depression of the d410 and d660, respectively. On the basis of previous seismic tomographic results and empirical relationships between velocity and thermal anomalies, we propose that the most plausible explanation for the observations beneath the volcanic Eastern Branch is the existence of a low-velocity layer extending from the surface to the upper MTZ, probably caused by decompression partial melting associated with continental rifting. The observations are in general agreement with an upper mantle origin for the initiation and development of both the Western and Eastern Branches of the EARS beneath the study area.

  9. A synoptic view of the distribution and connectivity of the mid-crustal low velocity zone beneath Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Xie, Z.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau results from the convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. However, the physical processes that have controlled the deformation history of Tibet, particularly the potential localization of deformation either in the vertical or horizontal directions remain subject to debate. There are a growing list and wide variety of observations that suggest that the Tibetan crust is warm and presumably ductile. Some of observations are often taken as prima facie evidence for the existence of partial melt or aqueous fluids in the middle or deep crust beneath Tibet and in some cases for the decoupling or partitioning of strain between the upper crust and uppermost mantle. However, most of this evidence is highly localized along nearly linear seismic or magneto-telluric profiles. This motivates the two questions addressed by this study. First, how pervasive across Tibet are the phenomena on which inferences of the existence of crustal partial melt rest? In particular, how pervasive are mid-crustal low velocity zones across Tibet? Second, what is the geometry or inter-connectivity of the crustal low velocity zones observed across Tibet? In this study, we address these questions by producing a new 3-D model of crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave speeds inferred from Rayleigh wave dispersion observed on cross-correlations of long time series of ambient seismic noise. Broadband seismic data from about 600 stations (Chinese Provincial networks, FDSN, several PASSCAL experiments including the INDEPTH IV experiment) yield about 50,000 inter-station paths, which are used to generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps from 10 sec to 50 sec period. The time series lengths in the cross-correlations range from 1 to 2 years in duration. The resulting Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps are inverted for a 3D Vsv model of crustal and upper most mantles. The major results from our model are summarized below: (1) A crustal LVZ exists across most of the high Tibetan

  10. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-12-01

    A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence (mb > 4.0) along the convergent margin of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system reveals an anomalously high concentration of events between 27° and 30.5°N, beneath a chain of seamounts between Tori-shima and Nishino-shima volcanoes. This seismicity is dominated by the 1985/1986 earthquake swarm represented in the Engdahl—van der Hilst—Buland database by 146 earthquakes in the body wave magnitude range 4.3-5.8 and focal depth range 1-100 km. The epicentral cluster of the swarm is elongated parallel to the volcanic chain. Available focal mechanisms are consistent with an extensional tectonic regime and reveal nodal planes with azimuths close to that of the epicentral cluster. Earthquakes of the 1985/1986 swarm occurred in seven time phases. Seismic activity migrated in space from one phase to the other. Earthquake foci belonging to individual phases of the swarm aligned in vertically disposed seismically active columns. The epicentral zones of the columns are located in the immediate vicinity of seamounts Suiyo and Mokuyo, recently reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency as volcanically active. The three observations—episodic character of earthquake occurrence, column-like vertically arranged seismicity pattern, and existence of volcanic seamounts at the seafloor above the earthquake foci—led us to interpret the 1985/1986 swarm as a consequence of subduction-related magmatic and/or fluid activity. A modification of the shallow earthquake swarm magmatic model of D. Hill fits earthquake foci distribution, tectonic stress orientation and fault plane solutions. The 1985/1986 deep-rooted earthquake swarm in the Izu-Bonin region represents an uncommon phenomenon of plate tectonics. The portion of the lithospheric wedge that was affected by the swarm should be composed of fractured rigid, brittle material so that the source of magma and/or fluids which might induce the swarm should be

  11. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-12-01

    A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence (mb > 4.0) along the convergent margin of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system reveals an anomalously high concentration of events between 27° and 30.5°N, beneath a chain of seamounts between Tori-shima and Nishino-shima volcanoes. This seismicity is dominated by the 1985/1986 earthquake swarm represented in the Engdahl-van der Hilst-Buland database by 146 earthquakes in the body wave magnitude range 4.3-5.8 and focal depth range 1-100 km. The epicentral cluster of the swarm is elongated parallel to the volcanic chain. Available focal mechanisms are consistent with an extensional tectonic regime and reveal nodal planes with azimuths close to that of the epicentral cluster. Earthquakes of the 1985/1986 swarm occurred in seven time phases. Seismic activity migrated in space from one phase to the other. Earthquake foci belonging to individual phases of the swarm aligned in vertically disposed seismically active columns. The epicentral zones of the columns are located in the immediate vicinity of seamounts Suiyo and Mokuyo, recently reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency as volcanically active. The three observations-episodic character of earthquake occurrence, column-like vertically arranged seismicity pattern, and existence of volcanic seamounts at the seafloor above the earthquake foci-led us to interpret the 1985/1986 swarm as a consequence of subduction-related magmatic and/or fluid activity. A modification of the shallow earthquake swarm magmatic model of D. Hill fits earthquake foci distribution, tectonic stress orientation and fault plane solutions. The 1985/1986 deep-rooted earthquake swarm in the Izu-Bonin region represents an uncommon phenomenon of plate tectonics. The portion of the lithospheric wedge that was affected by the swarm should be composed of fractured rigid, brittle material so that the source of magma and/or fluids which might induce the swarm should be situated at a

  12. Glacially-derived overpressure in the northeastern Alaskan subduction zone: combined tomographic and morphometric analysis of shallow sediments on the Yakutat shelf and slope, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, W. A.; Worthington, L. L.; Scuderi, L. A.; Daigle, H.; Swartz, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Pamplona zone fold and thrust belt is the offshore expression of convergence and shallow subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath North America in the northeastern Alaska subduction zone. The combination of convergent tectonics and glaciomarine sedimentary processes create patterns of deformation and deposition resulting in a shallow sedimentary sequence with varying compaction, fluid pressure, and fault activity. We propose that velocity variations observed in our tomographic analysis represent long-lived fluid overpressure due to loading by ice sheets and sediments. Regions with bathymetric and stratigraphic evidence of recent ice sheets and associated sedimentation should be collocated with evidence of overpressure (seismic low velocity zones) in the shallow sediments. Here, we compare a velocity model with shelf seismic stratigraphic facies and modern seafloor morphology. To document glacially derived morphology we use high resolution bathymetry to identify channel and gully networks on the western Yakutat shelf-slope then analyze cross-channel shape indices across the study area. We use channel shape index measurements as a proxy of recent ice-proximal sedimentation based on previously published results that proposed a close correlation. Profiles taken at many locations were fitted with a power function and assigned a shape - U-shape channels likely formed proximal to recent ice advances. Detailed velocity models were created by a combination of streamer tomography and pre-stack depth migration velocities with seismic data including: a 2008 R/V Langseth dataset from the St. Elias Erosion and Tectonics Project (STEEP); and a 2004 high-resolution R/V Ewing dataset. Velocity-porosity-permeability relationships developed using IODP Expedition 341 drilling data inform interpretation and physical properties analyses of the shallow sediments. Initial results from a 35 km profile extending SE seaward of the Bering glacier and subparallel to the Bering trough

  13. Mantle transition zone structure and upper mantle S velocity variations beneath Ethiopia: Evidence for a broad, deep-seated thermal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Margaret H.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Owens, Thomas J.; Stuart, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Ethiopia has been subjected to widespread Cenozoic volcanism, rifting, and uplift associated with the Afar hot spot. The hot spot tectonism has been attributed to one or more thermal upwellings in the mantle, for example, starting thermal plumes and superplumes. We investigate the origin of the hot spot by imaging the S wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia using travel time tomography and by examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. The tomographic images reveal an elongated low-velocity region that is wide (>500 km) and extends deep into the upper mantle (>400 km). The anomaly is aligned with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but its center shifts westward with depth. The 410 km discontinuity is not well imaged, but the 660 km discontinuity is shallower than normal by ˜20-30 km beneath most of Ethiopia, but it is at a normal depth beneath Djibouti and the northwestern edge of the Ethiopian Plateau. The tomographic results combined with a shallow 660 km discontinuity indicate that upper mantle temperatures are elevated by ˜300 K and that the thermal anomaly is broad (>500 km wide) and extends to depths ≥660 km. The dimensions of the thermal anomaly are not consistent with a starting thermal plume but are consistent with a flux of excess heat coming from the lower mantle. Such a broad thermal upwelling could be part of the African Superplume found in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

  14. Holocene Paleoearthquake History on the Qingchuan Fault in the Northeastern Segment of the Longmenshan Thrust Zone and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; He, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Kano, K.; Shi, F.; Gao, W.; Echigo, T.; Okada, S.

    2017-12-01

    Although much work has been performed for faults with high slip-rates, little attention has been paid to low slip-rate faults, such as the Longmenshan Thrust Zone (LTZ). The LTZ is a long and matured fault that evolved during the Mesozoic as a structural boundary, but its Quaternary activity had been considered insignificant. The Wenchuan earthquake and the following Lushan earthquake on the central and southwestern segments of the LTZ not only demonstrate its capability for strong earthquakes but also illustrate the necessity of assessing the regional seismic potential around its northeastern extension. The sparse seismicity along the northeastern segment of the LTZ relative to the very seismically active Minshan Uplift seems to have suggested that the slip on the central LTZ transfers northeastward to the Minshan Uplift, so that its northeastern segment is inactive. However, the Wenchuan earthquake surface rupture and aftershocks extended beyond the Minshan Uplift, and revealed that the break both at and below the ground surface may have reached the northeastern segment of the LTZ raising a question that whether or not this fault segment is active. Although several studies had been carried out on the northeastern segment of the LTZ, little is known about its activity and seismic potential. To solve these problems, we conducted paleoseismological trench excavations on the Qingchuan fault (QF) in the northeastern LTZ and identified one (and the latest) event occurred in the Holocene. Based on radiocarbon dating, the event is constrained to occur between 4115-3820 B.C., and a long recurrence interval is thus estimated. Judging from the matured fault structure of the QF, the latest event was likely to have ruptured the full length of the QF, and was estimated to be Mw 7.6-7.9 according to empirical scaling laws. Using the slip rate and the elapsed time since the last event, it is estimated an accumulated seismic moment equivalent to Mw 7.5 on the QF. Considering the

  15. Oceanic crust in the mid-mantle beneath Central-West Pacific subduction zones: Evidence from S-to-P converted waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of subducted slabs is enigmatic, yet intriguing. We analyze seismic arrivals at ~20-50 s after the direct P wave in an array in northeast China (NECESSArray) recordings of four deep earthquakes occurring beneath the west-central Pacific subduction zones (from the eastern Indonesia to Tonga region). We employ the array analyzing techniques of 4th root vespagram and beam-form analysis to constrain the slowness and back azimuth of later arrivals. Our analyses reveal that these arrivals have a slightly lower slowness value than the direct P wave and the back azimuth deviates slightly from the great-circle direction. Along with calculation of one-dimensional synthetic seismograms, we conclude that the later arrival is corresponding to an energy of S-to-P converted at a scatterer below the sources. Total five scatterers are detected at depths varying from ~700 to 1110 km in the study region. The past subducted oceanic crust most likely accounts for the seismic scatterers trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the west-central subduction zones. Our observation in turn reflects that oceanic crust at least partly separated from subducted oceanic lithosphere and may be trapped substantially in the mid-mantle surrounding subduction zones, in particular in the western Pacific subduction zones.

  16. Ultra-low velocity zones beneath the Philippine and Tasman Seas revealed by a trans-dimensional Bayesian waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachhai, Surya; Dettmer, Jan; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-11-01

    Ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) are small-scale structures in the Earth's lowermost mantle inferred from the analysis of seismological observations. These structures exhibit a strong decrease in compressional (P)-wave velocity, shear (S)-wave velocity, and an increase in density. Quantifying the elastic properties of ULVZs is crucial for understanding their physical origin, which has been hypothesized either as partial melting, iron enrichment, or a combination of the two. Possible disambiguation of these hypotheses can lead to a better understanding of the dynamic processes of the lowermost mantle, such as, percolation, stirring and thermochemical convection. To date, ULVZs have been predominantly studied by forward waveform modelling of seismic waves that sample the core-mantle boundary region. However, ULVZ parameters (i.e. velocity, density, and vertical and lateral extent) obtained through forward modelling are poorly constrained because inferring Earth structure from seismic observations is a non-linear inverse problem with inherent non-uniqueness. To address these issues, we developed a trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion that enables rigorous estimation of ULVZ parameter values and their uncertainties, including the effects of model selection. The model selection includes treating the number of layers and the vertical extent of the ULVZ as unknowns. The posterior probability density (solution to the inverse problem) of the ULVZ parameters is estimated by reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that employs parallel tempering to improve efficiency/convergence. First, we apply our method to study the resolution of complex ULVZ structure (including gradually varying structure) by probabilistically inverting simulated noisy waveforms. Then, two data sets sampling the CMB beneath the Philippine and Tasman Seas are considered in the inversion. Our results indicate that both ULVZs are more complex than previously suggested. For the

  17. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  18. Deep Ore-controlling Role Beneath the Collision-related Deposit Zone in South Tibetan Plateau, Preliminary Results Revealed by Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, C.; Jin, S.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Dong, H.; Yin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan plateau is the largest and most recent plateau orogenic belt in the world, and the south part is expected as the ongoing India-Eurasia continental collision zone. The collision-related deposit zones which are distributed in south plateau could be roughly divided into three parts: the porphyry deposit in the Gangdese magmatic belt, the chromite deposit along the Yarlung-Zangbo suture (YZS) and the prospective deposit along the gneiss domes in the Tethys Himalayan. The deep ore-controlling role of those deposit zones is still remain controversial. Previous magnetotelluric (MT) data deployed from Himalayan to Gangdese terrane were inverted using a three dimensional (3D) MT inversion algorithm ModEM. The results show that the resistivity cover layers above -10 km are distributed along the whole profiles, whereas small and sporadic conductors could be also imaged. The middle to lower crust beneath -25 km is imaged as large scale but discontinuous conductive zones which have a central resistivity less than 10 ohm·m. We suggest the middle to lower crustal conductors could be interpreted as partial melting. This hypothesis is supported by some previous geological and geochemical studies. The Metallogenesis and partial melting play an important role in promoting each other. For the metallogenesis, the high water content is one of the prominent factors, and could be released on breakdown of amphibole in eclogite and garnet amphibolite during melting. On the other hand, the increasing of the water content would probably advance partial melting. The results indicate that the deep process and magmatism beneath different deposit zones are probably varying. We studied the rheological characteristics from the perspective of subsurface electrical structures. We hope by comparative analysis, the process of `origins - migration -formation' for the system of deep `magma - rheology - deposition' would be better understood.

  19. Evidence for shallow dehydration of the subducting plate beneath the Mariana forearc: New insights into the water cycle at subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water is efficiently recycled at subduction zones. It is fluxed from the surface into the mantle by the subducted plate and back to the surface or crust through explosive arc volcanism and degassing. Fluids released from dehydrating the subducting plate are transfer agents of water. Geophysical modeling [1] and the geochemistry of arc glasses [2] suggest that at cold-slab subduction zones, such as the Mariana convergent margin, the downgoing plate mostly dehydrates beneath the volcanic arc front (≥ ~ 80 -100 km depth to slab) to trigger volcanism. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the water fluxes released beneath forearcs, as examples of forearc magmatism are extremely rare. Here, we investigate the Southernmost Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), where MORB-like spreading occurred unusually close to the trench, sampling slab-derived aqueous fluids released at ~ 30 to 100 km depth from the subducted plate. Examining the trace element and water contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions and glassy rinds from the young (2 - 4 Ma) and fresh SEMFR pillowed basalts provide new insights into the global water cycle. SEMFR lavas contain ~2 wt % H2O, and the olivine-hosted melt inclusions have the highest subduction-related H2O/Ce ratios (H2O/Ce = 6000 - 19000) ever recorded in arc magmas (H2O/Ce < 10600 and global averaged H2O/Ce < 3000). Our findings show that (i) slab-derived fluids released beneath forearcs are water-rich compared to the deeper fluids released beneath the arc system; and (ii) cold downgoing plates lose most of their water at shallow depths (~ 70 - 80 km slab depth), suggesting that water is efficiently recycled beneath the forearc (≥ 90%). 1. Van Keken, P.E., et al., Subduction factory: 4. Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2011. 116(B1): p. B01401, DOI: 10.1029/2010jb007922. 2. Ruscitto, D.M., et al., Global variations in H2O/Ce: 2. Relationships to arc magma

  20. Seismological investigation of earthquakes in the New Madrid seismic zone and the northeastern extent of the New Madrid seismic zone: Final report, September 1981-December 1986

    SciT

    Herrmann, R.B.; Taylor, K.; Nguyen, B.

    1988-07-01

    Earthquake activity in the Central Mississippi Valley has been monitored by an eight station seismograph network in the Wabash River Valley of southeastern Illinois and by a six station seismograph network in the New Madrid seismic zone. This network is a major component of a larger network in the region, jointly sponsored by the NRC, USGS, universities and states. During the time period of the contract, October 1981 through December 1986, 1206 earthquakes were located in the Central Mississippi Valley, of which 808 were in the New Madrid, Missouri area. Significant earthquakes studied in detail occurred in northeastern Ohio onmore » January 31, 1986 and in southeastern Illinois on June 10, 1987. Focal mechanisms have been calculated for the 10 June 1987 southern Illinois earthquake using both P-wave first motions and long-period surface-wave spectral amplitude data. The long-period surface-wave and strong ground motion accelerogram recordings of the January 3, 1986, northeastern Ohio earthquake were used to estimate the focal mechanism and source time function of the source.reverse arrow« less

  1. Monitoring of the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling at northeastern Japan subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    A monitoring method to grasp the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling in a subduction zone based on the spatial gradients of surface displacement rate fields is proposed. I estimated the spatio-temporal change in the interplate coupling along the plate boundary in northeastern (NE) Japan by applying the proposed method to the surface displacement rates based on global positioning system observations. The gradient of the surface velocities is calculated in each swath configured along the direction normal to the Japan Trench for time windows such as 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 yr being shifted by one week during the period of 1997-2016. The gradient of the horizontal velocities is negative and has a large magnitude when the interplate coupling at the shallow part (less than approximately 50 km in depth) beneath the profile is strong, and the sign of the gradient of the vertical velocity is sensitive to the existence of the coupling at the deep part (greater than approximately 50 km in depth). The trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradients of a displacement rate field clearly corresponds to the trench-parallel variation of the amplitude of the interplate coupling on the plate interface, as well as the rupture areas of previous interplate earthquakes. Temporal changes in the trench-parallel variation of the spatial gradient of the displacement rate correspond to the strengthening or weakening of the interplate coupling. We can monitor the temporal change in the interplate coupling state by calculating the spatial gradients of the surface displacement rate field to some extent without performing inversion analyses with applying certain constraint conditions that sometimes cause over- and/or underestimation at areas of limited spatial resolution far from the observation network. The results of the calculation confirm known interplate events in the NE Japan subduction zone, such as the post-seismic slip of the 2003 M8.0 Tokachi-oki and 2005 M7.2 Miyagi

  2. Physical Habitat and Energy Inputs Determine Freshwater Invertebrate Communities in Reference and Cranberry Farm Impacted Northeastern Coastal Zone Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, D. M. P.; McCanty, S. T.; Dimino, T. F.; Christian, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    The River Continuum Concept (RCC) predicts stream biological communities based on dominant physical structures and energy inputs into streams and predicts how these features and corresponding communities change along the stream continuum. Verifying RCC expectations is important for creating valid points of comparison during stream ecosystem evaluation. These reference expectations are critical for restoration projects, such as the restoration of decommissioned cranberry bogs. Our research compares the physical habitat and freshwater invertebrate functional feeding groups (FWIFFG) of reference, active cranberry farming, and cranberry farm passive restoration sites in Northeastern Coastal Zone streams of Massachusetts to the specific RCC FWIFFG predictions. We characterized stream physical habitat using a semi-quantitative habitat characterization protocol and sampled freshwater invertebrates using the U.S. EPA standard 20-jab multi-habitat protocol. We expected that stream habitat would be most homogeneous at active farming stations, intermediate at restoration stations, and most heterogeneous at reference stations. Furthermore, we expected reference stream FWIFFG would be accurately predicted by the RCC and distributions at restoration and active sites would vary significantly. Habitat data was analyzed using a principle component analysis and results confirmed our predictions showing more homogeneous habitat for the active and reference stations, while showing a more heterogeneous habitat at the reference stations. The FWIFFG chi-squared analysis showed significant deviation from our specific RCC FWIFFG predictions. Because published FWIFFG distributions did not match our empirical values for a least disturbed Northeastern Coastal Zone headwater stream, using our data as a community structure template for current and future restoration projects is not recommend without further considerations.

  3. Anisotropic structures of oceanic slab and mantle wedge in a deep low-frequency tremor zone beneath the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiga, Atsushi; Kato, Aitaro; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iidaka, Takashi; Okubo, Makoto; Tsumura, Noriko; Iwasaki, Takaya; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-03-01

    is an important feature of elastic wave propagation in the Earth and can arise from a variety of ordered architectures such as fractures with preferential alignments or preferred crystal orientations. We studied the regional variations in shear wave anisotropy around a deep Low-Frequency Earthquake (LFE) zone beneath the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, using waveforms of local earthquakes observed by a dense linear array along the LFE zone. The fast directions of polarization are subparallel to the strike of the margin for both crustal and intraslab earthquakes. The delay time of the split shear waves in intraslab earthquakes is larger than that in crustal earthquakes and shows a down-dip variation across the LFE zone. This indicates that anisotropy exists in the mantle wedge and in the lower crust and/or oceanic slab. We explain the observed delay time of 0.015-0.045 s by suggesting that the mantle wedge consists of a deformed, 1-15 km thick serpentine layer if the mantle wedge is completely serpentinized. In addition to high-fluid pressures within the oceanic crust, the sheared serpentine layer may be a key factor driving LFEs in subduction zones.

  4. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  5. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  6. Shear Wave Velocity Structure beneath the African-Anatolian Subduction Zone in Southwestern Turkey from Inversions of Rayleigh Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoman, U. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Kahraman, M.; Sahin, S.; Turkelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    The ongoing subduction of the African Plate under western Anatolia results in a highly complex tectonic structure especially beneath Isparta Angle (IA) and the surroundings where the Hellenic and Cyprian slabs with different subduction geometries intersect. The primary objective is to accurately image the lithospheric structure at this convergent plate boundary and further understand the reasons responsible for the active deformation. Data was gathered from a temporary seismic network consisting of 10 broadband stations that was installed in August 2006 with the support from University of Missouri and nine more stations deployed in March 2007 with the support from Bogazici Research Fund (project ID:07T203). In addition, 21 permanent stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and two from Süleyman Demirel University (SDU) together with five stations from IRIS/Geofon Network were also included to extend the station coverage. We used earthquakes in a distance range of 30-120 degrees with body wave magnitudes larger than 5.5. Depending on the signal to noise ratio, azimuthal coverage of events, and coherence from station, 81 events provided high-quality data for our analysis. The distribution of events shows a good azimuthal coverage, which is important for resolving both lateral heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy. We adopted a two-plane-wave inversion technique of Forsyth and Li (2003) to simultaneously solve for the incoming wave field and phase velocity. This relatively simpler representation of a more complex wavefield provided quite stable patterns of amplitude variations in many cases. To begin with, an average phase velocity dispersion curve was obtained and used as an input for tomographic inversions. Two-dimensional tomographic maps of isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic phase velocity variations were generated. Phase velocities can only tell us integrated information about the upper mantle. Furthermore, we inverted phase

  7. Geodetic Evidence of Magma Beneath the Puna Geothermal Ventures Power Plant, Lower East Rift Zone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Precise level surveys of the Puna Geothermal Ventures power plant site have been conducted at 2 to 3 year intervals over the past 16 years following an initial pre-production base-line survey in 1992. Pre-1992 USGS studies near the plant showed slow general subsidence and this pattern has continued since then. The average rate of subsidence for the first 11 years of the present survey series was 0.71 cm per year (1992- 2003). It was against this background of subsidence that small but significant upward movements were detected in 2005 in an area approximately 500 m wide directly under the power plant. This positive anomaly had an amplitude of only 0.5 cm but was clearly discernable because of the part-per-million resolution possible with traditional precise leveling. The 13-year (at that time) data set made it possible to interpret this event with confidence. The cause of the deformation was reported in 2005 to be shallow and localized in comparison to factors contributing to the subsidence of the surrounding area. Subsequent drilling activity penetrated magma beneath the anomaly, providing strong physical evidence that fluid pressure was the probable cause of the anomaly.

  8. Seismic constraints on the nature of lower crustal reflectors beneath the extending Southern Transition Zone of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Howie, John M.; Thompson, George A.

    1992-01-01

    We determine the reflection polarity and exploit variations in P and S wave reflectivity and P wave amplitude versus offset (AVO) to constrain the origin of lower crustal reflectivity observed on new three-component seismic data recorded across the structural transition of the Colorado Plateau. The near vertical incidence reflection data were collected by Stanford University in 1989 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment that traversed the Arizona Transition Zone of the Colorado Plateau. The results of independent waveform modeling methods are consistent with much of the lower crustal reflectivity resulting from thin, high-impedance layers. The reflection polarity of the cleanest lower crustal events is positive, which implies that these reflections result from high-velocity contrasts, and the waveform character indicates that the reflectors are probably layers less than or approximately equal to 200 m thick. The lower crustal events are generally less reflective to incident S waves than to P waves, which agrees with the predicted behavior of high-velocity mafic layering. Analysis of the P wave AVO character of lower crustal reflections demonstrates that the events maintain a constant amplitude with offset, which is most consistent with a mafic-layering model. One exception is a high-amplitude (10 dB above background) event near the base of lower crustal reflectivity which abruptly decreases in amplitude at increasing offsets. The event has a pronounced S wave response, which along with its negative AVO trend is a possible indication of the presence of fluids in the lower crust. The Arizona Transition Zone is an active but weakly extended province, which causes us to discard models of lower crustal layering resulting from shearing because of the high degree of strain required to create such layers. Instead, we favor horizontal basaltic intrusions as the primary origin of high-impedance reflectors based on (1) The fact that

  9. [Inventory of reptiles in 2 semi-arid zones from Northeastern of the Peninsula de Araya, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Pablo Cornejo, E; Antulio Prieto, A

    2001-01-01

    The fauna of reptiles in two localities from Northeastern Peninsula de Araya (Guayacán and El Morahal), Sucre State, Venezuela, was evaluated. Both zones are characterized by a vegetation of thorny tropical mount type, and semiarid climate of scarce precipitations (less than 700 mm). Field trips were made between june 1997 and june 1998. The samples were collected both during day and night, with the aid of conventional accessories. The information was complemented with visual registrations and bibliography revision. A total of 21 species were captured and/or observed, distributed in 10 families belonging to 2 of the 3 orders present in Venezuela. The most important families from the point of view of the diversity of species, were the Gekkonidae (2.00 bits/species) for the lizards and the Colubridae (2.33 bits/species) among the snakes. It was also reported one species of tortoises and three of cinegetic interest, being Cnemidophorus lemniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata y Tropidurus hispidus the only species of constant presence during the study.

  10. Evolution of the upper mantle beneath the southern Baikal rift zone: an Sr-Nd isotope study of xenoliths from the Bartoy volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionov, D. A.; Kramm, U.; Stosch, H.-G.

    1992-06-01

    Anhydrous and amphibole-bearing peridotite xenoliths occur in roughly equal quantitites in the Bartoy volcanic field about 100 km south of the southern tip of Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia). Whole-rock samples and pure mineral separates from nine xenoliths have been analyzed for Sr and Nd isotopes in order to characterize the upper mantle beneath the southern Baikal rift zone. In an Sr-Nd isotope diagram both dry and hydrous xenoliths from Bartoy plot at the junction between the fields of MORB and ocean island basalts. This contrasts with data available on two other localities around Lake Baikal (Tariat and Vitim) where peridotites typically have Sr-Nd isotope compositions indicative of strong long-term depletion in incompatible elements. Our data indicate significant chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle beneath Bartoy that may be attributed to its position close to an ancient suture zone separating the Siberian Platform from the Mongol-Okhotsk mobile belt and occupied now by the Baikal rift. Two peridotites have clinopyroxenes depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) with Sr and Nd model ages of about 2 Ga and seem to retain the trace element and isotopic signatures of old depleted lithospheric mantle, while all other xenoliths show different degrees of LREE-enrichment. Amphiboles and clinopyroxenes in the hydrous peridotites are in Sr-Nd isotopic disequilibrium. If this reflects in situ decay of 147Sm and 87Rb rather than heterogeneities produced by recent metasomatic formation of amphiboles then 300 400 Ma have passed since the minerals were last in equilibrium. This age range then indicates an old enrichment episode or repeated events during the Paleozoic in the lithospheric mantle initially depleted maybe ˜2 Ga ago. The Bartoy hydrous and enriched dry peridotites, therefore, are unlikely to represent fragments of a young asthenospheric bulge which, according to seismic reflection studies, reached the Moho at the axis of the Baikal rift zone

  11. Inversion for Double-Layer Anisotropy in the Mantle Beneath the Middle America and Izu-Bonin Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We measured shear wave splitting for the intraslab events in the Middle America and Izu-Bonin subduction zones recorded at Pacific stations to infer the anisotropic structure in the subslab mantle. The receiver-side anisotropy is accounted for by considering both azimuthal anisotropy determined by SKS splitting and radial anisotropy given in global tomographic model, although the latter does not change the overall pattern of subslab anisotropy. By removing the anisotropy effects from both receiver and source sides, the initial polarization directions (p) of the shear waves used were recovered, most of which are in reasonable agreement with that predicted form the CMT solutions. For both subduction zones, the polarization-splitting plots strongly suggest the presence of two layers of anisotropy. To constrain the two-layer model, we perform inversions which minimize the misfit in both the splitting parameters and p. In the MASZ, the best model contains an upper layer with the fast direction in parallel with the absolute plate motion of the Cocos plate and a lower layer 40-60 degree clockwise from the APM. The delay times are 1.5 and 1.9 s respectively. The interference of the double layer produced dts in excess of 3 s at a certain range of p. The SKS splitting were also inverted for a two-layer model, yielding similar splitting characters and the clockwise rotation. We are investigating why this rotation takes place and how this observation is related to the dynamics of the asthenosphere.

  12. Extension and transtension in the plate boundary zone of the northeastern Caribbean

    SciT

    Speed, R.C.; Larue, D.K.

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose that the Caribbean (Ca)-North American (NA) plate boundary zone (pbz) from the Puerto Rico Trench to the Venezuelan Basin from Mona Canyon east has been in left-transtension over the last 15-20 ma. A boundary-normal component of extension occurs throughout the pbz and is a principal cause of the Puerto Rico Trench. Such extension is due to WNW velocity of NA-Ca and the northward pullaway of NA from its S-dipping slab, which is below Puerto Rico. Strike slip motion may be taken up among terranes in the pbz by rigid CCW rotation and by oblique slip at theirmore » boundaries. Rotation of the largest terrane, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI), has caused such major structures as the Muertos thrust and Anegada Passage. The model implies NA-Ca velocity estimated from Cayman transforms is more accurate than that from slip vectors from seisms in the NA slab.« less

  13. Parallel inversion of a massive ERT data set to characterize deep vadose zone contamination beneath former nuclear waste infiltration galleries at the Hanford Site B-Complex (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.; Rucker, D. F.; Wellman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington, USA, originated in the early 1940's as part of the Manhattan Project and produced plutonium used to build the United States nuclear weapons stockpile. In accordance with accepted industrial practice of that time, a substantial portion of relatively low-activity liquid radioactive waste was disposed of by direct discharge to either surface soil or into near-surface infiltration galleries such as cribs and trenches. This practice was supported by early investigations beginning in the 1940s, including studies by Geological Survey (USGS) experts, whose investigations found vadose zone soils at the site suitable for retaining radionuclides to the extent necessary to protect workers and members of the general public based on the standards of that time. That general disposal practice has long since been discontinued, and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) is now investigating residual contamination at former infiltration galleries as part of its overall environmental management and remediation program. Most of the liquid wastes released into the subsurface were highly ionic and electrically conductive, and therefore present an excellent target for imaging by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) within the low-conductivity sands and gravels comprising Hanford's vadose zone. In 2006, USDOE commissioned a large scale surface ERT survey to characterize vadose zone contamination beneath the Hanford Site B-Complex, which contained 8 infiltration trenches, 12 cribs, and one tile field. The ERT data were collected in a pole-pole configuration with 18 north-south trending lines, and 18 east-west trending lines ranging from 417m to 816m in length. The final data set consisted of 208,411 measurements collected on 4859 electrodes, covering an area of 600m x 600m. Given the computational demands of inverting this massive data set as a whole, the data were initially inverted in parts with a shared memory inversion code, which

  14. Imaging the mantle tranzition zone beneath the South American platform using P- and S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, M.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.; Assumpcao, M.; Kind, R.

    2009-04-01

    results observed are: 1) A clear cratonic signature, consisting of higher wave velocities for the mantle under the cratons and normal (410km and 660km) depths for the discontinuities 2) Strong presence of the Nazca subducted plate near 410 and 660 km discontinuities under the Southern part of the Parana basin 3) Lack of variation in the Transition Zone thickness and in the mantle velocities due to the presence of the possible plume proposed in 1995 by Vandecar at the Northern Parana basin region and 4) A possible transition zone thinning near the Matiqueira complex, at the Ribeira fold beld, near the Atlantic passive margin.

  15. Mantle transition zone beneath central-eastern Greenland: Possible evidence for a deep tectosphere from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Helene Anja; Vinnik, Lev; Thybo, Hans

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the mantle of central-eastern Greenland by using recordings with data from 24 local broad-band seismograph stations. We apply P wave receiver function technique and evaluate the difference in the arrival times of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities. These boundaries mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The difference in the arrival time of the phases from the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and relatively insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km discontinuity. Near the east coast of Greenland in the region of the Skaergaard basalt intrusions we find two regions where the differential time is reduced by more than 2 s. The 410-km discontinuity in these regions is depressed by more than 20 km. The depression may be explained by a temperature elevation of 150 °C. We hypothesize that the basaltic intrusions and the temperature anomalies at a depth of 400 km are, at least partly, effects of the passage of Greenland over the Iceland hotspot at about 55 Ma. This explanation is consistent with the concept of tectosphere and implies that the upper mantle to a depth of 400 km translates coherently with the Greenland plate.

  16. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Negi, Sanjay S.

    2017-02-01

    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E-W for ˜5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ˜30 ∘ towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ˜1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  17. Determining Crustal Structure beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone and Adjacent Areas: Application of a Reverberation-removal Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) and some of the adjacent areas are covered by a low-velocity sedimentary sequence, giving rise to strong reverberations in the P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) and making it difficult to reliably determine crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio using the conventional H-k stacking technique. Here we apply a newly developed technique (Yu et al., 2015; doi: 10.1002/2014JB011610) to effectively remove or reduce the reverberations from the sedimentary layer to obtain more reliable results. Stacking of a total of 38528 radial RFs recorded by 343 stations in the study area shows systematic spatial variations in crustal thickness (H), Vp/Vs ratio and amplitude (R; relative to the direction P) of the converted Moho phases. Our results indicate that the upper Mississippi Embayment (ME), a broad southwest-plunging trough with the thickest sedimentary layer in the study area, is characterized by a thin crustal thickness (~32 km), while adjacent areas have relatively thicker crust (>40 km). This area also possesses relatively large Vp/Vs (>1.85) values, suggesting possible intrusion of mantle-derived mafic rocks. Most part of the Ozark Uplift is characterized by relatively small Vp/Vs (<1.79) values which indicate an overall felsic crust. In contrast to the NMSZ which is part of the Reelfoot rift, the southern Illinois Basin, which is an intracontinental sag basin, is characterized by a crust of about 45 km which is a few km thicker than the surrounding areas, and a normal Vp/Vs, suggesting sharp differences in crustal structure between rift and sag basins.

  18. Fault Scarp Detection Beneath Dense Vegetation Cover: Airborne Lidar Mapping of the Seattle Fault Zone, Bainbridge Island, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Berghoff, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of a commercial airborne laser mapping industry is paying major dividends in an assessment of earthquake hazards in the Puget Lowland of Washington State. Geophysical observations and historical seismicity indicate the presence of active upper-crustal faults in the Puget Lowland, placing the major population centers of Seattle and Tacoma at significant risk. However, until recently the surface trace of these faults had never been identified, neither on the ground nor from remote sensing, due to cover by the dense vegetation of the Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests and extremely thick Pleistocene glacial deposits. A pilot lidar mapping project of Bainbridge Island in the Puget Sound, contracted by the Kitsap Public Utility District (KPUD) and conducted by Airborne Laser Mapping in late 1996, spectacularly revealed geomorphic features associated with fault strands within the Seattle fault zone. The features include a previously unrecognized fault scarp, an uplifted marine wave-cut platform, and tilted sedimentary strata. The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) is now conducting trenching studies across the fault scarp to establish ages, displacements, and recurrence intervals of recent earthquakes on this active fault. The success of this pilot study has inspired the formation of a consortium of federal and local organizations to extend this work to a 2350 square kilometer (580,000 acre) region of the Puget Lowland, covering nearly the entire extent (approx. 85 km) of the Seattle fault. The consortium includes NASA, the USGS, and four local groups consisting of KPUD, Kitsap County, the City of Seattle, and the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). The consortium has selected Terrapoint, a commercial lidar mapping vendor, to acquire the data.

  19. Formation of mantle "lone plumes" in the global downwelling zone - A multiscale modelling of subduction-controlled plume generation beneath the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Li, Zheng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    It has been established that almost all known mantle plumes since the Mesozoic formed above the two lower mantle large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The Hainan plume is one of the rare exceptions in that instead of rising above the LLSVPs, it is located within the broad global mantle downwelling zone, therefore classified as a "lone plume". Here, we use the Hainan plume example to investigate the feasibility of such lone plumes being generated by subducting slabs in the mantle downwelling zone using 3D geodynamic modelling. Our geodynamic model has a high-resolution regional domain embedded in a relatively low resolution global domain, which is set up in an adaptive-mesh-refined, 3D mantle convection code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion). We use a recently published plate motion model to define the top mechanical boundary condition. Our modelling results suggest that cold slabs under the present-day Eurasia, formed from the Mesozoic subduction and closure of the Tethys oceans, have prevented deep mantle hot materials from moving to the South China Sea from regions north or west of the South China Sea. From the east side, the Western Pacific subduction systems started to promote the formation of a lower-mantle thermal-chemical pile in the vicinity of the future South China Sea region since 70 Ma ago. As the top of this lower-mantle thermal-chemical pile rises, it first moved to the west, and finally rested beneath the South China Sea. The presence of a thermochemical layer (possible the D″ layer) in the model helps stabilizing the plume root. Our modelling is the first implementation of multi-scale mesh in the regional model. It has been proved to be an effective way of modelling regional dynamics within a global plate motion and mantle dynamics background.

  20. Mantle transition zone-derived EM1 component beneath NE China: Geochemical evidence from Cenozoic potassic basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Li-Hui; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Mao, Fu-Gen; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Zhong, Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2017-05-01

    well-developed correlations between Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb and Mg isotopes, negative correlations of 206Pb/204Pb with K2 O, K/U, Hf/Hf*, positive correlations of δ26 Mg with MgO, and 143Nd/144Nd with Fe2OT3 and U/Pb. We propose that the EM1 reservoir contains recycled ancient carbonate-bearing sediments, subducted into the mantle transition zone, where K, Rb, Ba and Pb are sequestered by K-hollandite as suggested by Murphy et al. (2002) for the Gaussberg lamproites. Loss of small amounts of carbonate melt extracted Th, U and some of the LREE, while retaining K, Rb, Ba, Pb, Zr and Hf in the residue, thereby generating the observed trace element anomalies. In Cenozoic time, this deep EM1 reservoir ascended into the shallow asthenosphere and underwent low-degree partial melting, at pressures below the stability field of K-hollandite, thereby releasing K, Rb and Ba into the melt. The partial melts ascended through subcontinental lithosphere and were progressively modified by interaction with the lithospheric mantle, thus accounting for the linear chemical and isotopic trends noted above. This interaction imposed a progressively more depleted character on the erupted melt, both in terms of isotopic composition and trace element enrichment.

  1. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research. © 2014 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recognition and delineation of Paleokarst zones by the use of wireline logs in the bitumen-saturated upper Devonian Grosmont formation of Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    SciT

    Dembicki, E.A.; Machel, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    The Upper Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada, is a shallow-marine carbonate platform complex that was subaerially exposed for hundreds of millions of years between the Mississippian(?) and Cretaceous. During this lengthy exposure period, an extensive karst system developed that is characterized by an irregular erosional surface, meter-size (several feet) dissolution cavities, collapse breccias, sinkholes, paleosols, and fractures. The karsted Grosmont Formation, which contains giant reserves of bitumen, sub-crops beneath Cretaceous clastic sediments of the giant Athabasca tar sands deposit. The paleokarst in the Grosmont Formation can be recognized on wireline logs in relatively nonargillaceous carbonate intervals (<30 APImore » units on the gamma-ray log) as excursions of the caliper log, off-scale neutron-density porosity readings, and severe cycle skipping of the acoustic log. The paleokarst is more prevalent in the upper units of the Grosmont Formation, and the effects of karstification decrease toward stratigraphically older and deeper units. The paleokarst usually occurs within 35 m (115 ft) of the erosional surface. The reservoir properties of the Grosmont Formation (e.g., thickness, porosity, permeability, and seal effectiveness) are significantly influenced by karstification. Depending upon the location, karstification has either benefited or degraded the reservoir characteristics. Benefits include porosity values greater than 40% (up to 100% in caverns) and permeability values of 30,000 md in severely fractured intervals. Detrimental reservoir characteristics include erosion, porosity and permeability reduction, and seal ineffectiveness.« less

  3. Depth-Dependent Earthquake Properties Beneath Long-Beach, CA: Implications for the Rheology at the Brittle-Ductile Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbal, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Except for a few localities, seismicity along faults in southern California is generally confined to depths shallower than 15 km. Among faults hosting deep seismicity, the Newport-Inglewood Fault (NIF), which traverses the Los-Angeles basin, has an exceptionally mild surface expression and low deformation rates. Moreover, the NIF structure is not as well resolved as other, less well instrumented faults because of poor signal-to-noise ratio. Here we use data from three temporary dense seismic arrays, which were deployed for exploration purposes and contain up to several thousands of vertical geophones, to investigate the properties of deep seismicity beneath Long-Beach (LB), Compton and Santa-Fe Springs (SFS). The latter is located 15 km northeast of the NIF, presumably above a major detachment fault underthrusting the basin.Event detection is carried out using a new approach for microseismic multi-channel picking, in which downward-continued data are back-projected onto the volume beneath the arrays, and locations are derived from statistical analysis of back-projection images. Our technique reveals numerous, previously undetected events along the NIF, and confirms the presence of an active shallow structure gently dipping to the north beneath SFS. Seismicity characteristics vary along the NIF strike and dip. While LB seismicity is uncorrelated with the mapped trace of the NIF, Compton seismicity illuminates a sub-vertical fault that extends down to about 20 km. This result, along with the reported high flux of mantle Helium along the NIF (Boles et al., 2015), suggests that the NIF is deeply rooted and acts as a major conduit for mantle fluids. We find that the LB size distribution obeys the typical power-law at shallow depths, but falls off exponentially for events occurring below 20 km. Because deep seismicity occurs uniformly beneath LB, this transition is attributed to a reduction in seismic asperity density with increasing depth, consistent with a transition

  4. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of cloud-containing coastal zone color scanner images of northeastern North American coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslinger, David L.; O'Brien, James J.; Iverson, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Empirical-orthogonal-function (EOF) analyses were carried out on 36 images of the Mid-Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Maine, obtained by the CZCS aboard Nimbus 7 for the time period from February 28 through July 9, 1979, with the purpose of determining pigment concentrations in coastal waters. The EOF procedure was modified so as to include images with significant portions of data missing due to cloud obstruction, making it possible to estimate pigment values in areas beneath clouds. The results of image analyses explained observed variances in pigment concentrations and showed a south-to-north pattern corresponding to an April Mid-Atlantic Bight bloom and a June bloom over Nantucket Shoals and Platts Bank.

  5. Neoarchean ductile deformation of the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-05-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups, and some Archean granitic gneisses were involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400-550 °C. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone

  6. Färoe-Iceland Ridge Experiment: 1. Crustal structure of northeastern Iceland

    Staples, Robert K.; White, Robert S.; Brandsdottir, Bryndis; Menke, William; Maguire, Peter K.H.; McBride, John H.

    1997-01-01

    Results from the Färoe-Iceland Ridge Experiment (FIRE) constrain the crustal thickness as 19 km under the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland and 35 km under older Tertiary areas of northeastern Iceland. The Moho is defined by strong P wave and S wave reflections. Synthetic seismogram modeling of the Moho reflection indicates mantle velocities of at least 8.0 km/s beneath the Tertiary areas of northeastern Iceland and at least 7.9 km/s beneath the neovolcanic zone. Crustal diving rays resolve the structure of the upper and lower crust. Surface P wave velocities are 1.1–4.0 km/s in Quaternary rocks and are rather higher, 4.4–4.7 km/s, in the Tertiary basalts that outcrop elsewhere. The highest crustal P wave velocities observed directly from diving rays are 7.1 km/s, from rays that turn at 24 km depth. Velocities of 7.35 km/s at the base of the crust are inferred from extrapolation of the lower crustal velocity gradient (0.024 s−1). A Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.27, equivalent to an S wave to P wave travel time ratio of 1.78, is measured throughout the crust east of the neovolcanic zone. The Poisson's ratio and the steep Moho topography (in places up to 30° from the horizontal) indicate that the entire crust outside the neovolcanic zone is cool (<800°C). Gravity data are well matched by a velocity/density conversion of our seismic crustal model and indicate a region of low mantle density beneath the neovolcanic zone, believed to be due to elevated mantle temperatures. The crustal thickness in the neovolcanic zone is consistent with geochemical estimates of the melt generation, placing constraints on the flow within the Iceland mantle plume.

  7. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  8. Stress Drops for Oceanic Crust and Mantle Intraplate Earthquakes in the Subduction Zone of Northeastern Japan Inferred from the Spectral Inversion Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Arai, T.; Ibrahim, R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding stress drop related to intraplate earthquakes in the subducting plate is very important for seismic hazard mitigation. In previous studies, Kita et al. (2015) analyzed stress drops for intraplate earthquakes under Hokkaido, Northern Japan, using S-coda wave spectral ratio analysis methods, and found that the stress drop for events occurring more than 10 km beneath the upper surface of the subducting plate (within the oceanic mantle) was larger than the stress drop for events occurring within 10 km of the upper surface of the subducting plate (in the oceanic crust). In this study, we focus on intraplate earthquakes that occur under Tohoku, Northeastern Japan, to determine whether similar stress drop differences may exist between earthquakes occurring within the upper 10 km of the subducting plate (within the oceanic crust) and those occurring deeper than 10 km (within the oceanic mantle), based on spectral inversion analysis of seismic waveforms recorded during the earthquakes. We selected 64 earthquakes with focal depths between 49-76 km and Mw 3.5-5.0 that occurred in the source area of the 2003 Miyagi-ken-oki earthquake (Mw 7.0) (region 1), and 82 earthquakes with focal depths between 49-67 km and Mw 3.5-5.5 in the source area of the 2011 Miyagi- ken-oki earthquake (Mw 7.1) (region 2). Records from the target earthquakes at 24 stations in region 1 and 21 stations in region 2 were used in the analysis. A 5-sec time window following S-wave onset was used for each station record. Borehole records of KiK-net station (MYGH04) was used as a reference station for both regions 1 and 2. We applied the spectral inversion analysis method of Matsunami et al. (2003) separately to regions 1 and 2. Our results show that stress drop generally increases with focal depth and that the stress drop for events occurring deeper than 10 km in the plate (within the oceanic mantle) were larger than the stress drop for events occurring within 10 km of the upper surface of the

  9. Quaternary faulting of basalt flows on the Melones and Almanor fault zones, North Fork Feather River, northeastern California

    SciT

    Wakabayashi, J.; Page, W.D.

    1993-04-01

    Field relations indicate multiple sequences of late Cenozoic basalt flowed down the canyon of the North Fork Feather River from the Modoc Plateau during the Pliocene and early Quaternary. Remnants of at least three flow sequences are exposed in the canyon, the intermediate one yielding a K/Ar plagioclase date of 1.8 Ma. Topographic profiling of the remnants allows identification of Quaternary tectonic deformation along the northern Plumas trench, which separates the Sierra Nevada from the Diamond Mountains. The authors have identified several vertical displacements of the 1.8-Ma unit in the North Fork canyon and the area NE of Lake Almanor.more » NE of the lake, three NW-striking faults, each having down-to-the-west displacements of up to 35 m, are related to faulting along the east side of the Almanor tectonic depression. Analysis of the displaced basalt flows suggests that uplift of the Sierra Nevada occurred with canyon development prior to 2 Ma, and has continued coincident with several subsequent episodes of basalt deposition. Quaternary faulting of the basalt is associated with the Melones fault zone and the Plumas trench where they extend northward from the northern Sierra Nevada into the Modoc Plateau and southern Cascades. In contrast to the Mohawk Valley area, where the Plumas trench forms a 5-km-wide graben, faulting in the Almanor region is distributed over a 15-km-wide zone. A change in the strike of faulting occurs at Lake Almanor, from N50W along the Plumas trench to N20W north of the lake. The right-slip component on the fault of the Plums trench may result in a releasing bend at the change in strike and explain the origin of the Almanor depression.« less

  10. Magnetotelluric survey to locate the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northeastern Great Basin, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    North-central Nevada contains a large amount of gold in linear belts, the origin of which is not fully understood. During July 2008, September 2009, and August 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project, collected twenty-three magnetotelluric soundings along two profiles in Box Elder County, Utah; Elko County, Nevada; and Cassia, Minidoka, and Blaine Counties, Idaho. The main twenty-sounding north-south magnetotelluric profile begins south of Wendover, Nev., but north of the Deep Creek Range. It continues north of Wendover and crosses into Utah, with the north profile terminus in the Snake River Plain, Idaho. A short, three-sounding east-west segment crosses the main north-south profile near the northern terminus of the profile. The magnetotelluric data collected in this study will be used to better constrain the location and strike of the concealed suture zone between the Archean crust and the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. This report releases the magnetotelluric sounding data that was collected. No interpretation of the data is included.

  11. Paleomagnetic evidence for rapid vertical-axis rotations during thrusting in an active collision zone, northeastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Peter D.; Coe, Robert S.

    1997-06-01

    A paleomagnetic study of three thrust sheets of the fold and thrust belt north of the Ramu-Markham Fault Zone (RMFZ) indicates very rapid vertical-axis rotations, with differential declination anomalies related to tectonic transport of thrust units. Data from this investigation indicate depositional ages straddling the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal (780 ka) for the Leron Formation in Erap Valley. Net counterclockwise, vertical-axis rotations as great as 90° since 1 Ma have occurred locally in the Erap Valley area. These rotations appear to be kinematically related to shear across a tear fault within the foreland fold and thrust belt of the colliding Finisterre Arc, which in turn is aligned with and may be structurally controlled by a major fault in the lower plate. These data indicate that vertical-axis rotations occurred during thrusting; consequently, the actual rotation rate is likely several times higher than the calculated minimum rate. Such very rapid rotations during thrust sheet emplacement may be more common in fold and thrust belts than is presently recognized. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data yields foliated fabrics with subordinate, well-grouped lineations that differ markedly in azimuth in the three thrust sheets. The susceptibility lineations are rendered parallel by the same bedding-perpendicular rotations used to restore the paleomagnetic remanence to N-S thus independently confirming the rapid rotations. The restored lineations are perpendicular to the direction of tectonic transport, and the minimum susceptibility axes are streaked perpendicular to the lineation. We interpret these anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data as primary sedimentary fabrics modified by weak strain accompanying foreland thrusting.

  12. Sediment features at the grounding zone and beneath Ekström Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, imaged using on-ice vibroseis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Emma C.; Eisen, Olaf; Hofstede, Coen; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The grounding zone, where an ice sheet becomes a floating ice shelf, is known to be a key threshold region for ice flow and stability. A better understanding of ice dynamics and sediment transport across such zones will improve knowledge about contemporary and palaeo ice flow, as well as past ice extent. Here we present a set of seismic reflection profiles crossing the grounding zone and continuing to the shelf edge of Ekström Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Using an on-ice vibroseis source combined with a snowstreamer we have imaged a range of sub-glacial and sub-shelf sedimentary and geomorphological features; from layered sediment deposits to elongated flow features. The acoustic properties of the features as well as their morphology allow us to draw conclusions as to their material properties and origin. These results will eventually be integrated with numerical models of ice dynamics to quantify past and present interactions between ice and the solid Earth in East Antarctica; leading to a better understanding of future contributions of this region to sea-level rise.

  13. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Methods Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Results Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. Conclusions These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape. PMID:24112638

  14. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Li, Nana; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Qi; Zhou, Guofa; Ai, Guoping; Duan, Jianhua; Lee, Ming-chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Matthews, Stephen A; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Ying

    2013-10-10

    Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape.

  15. Pore pressure development beneath the décollement at the Nankai subduction zone: Implications for plate boundary fault strength and sediment dewatering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarbek, Robert M.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2009-07-01

    Despite its importance for plate boundary fault processes, quantitative constraints on pore pressure are rare, especially within fault zones. Here, we combine laboratory permeability measurements from core samples with a model of loading and pore pressure diffusion to investigate pore fluid pressure evolution within underthrust sediment at the Nankai subduction zone. Independent estimates of pore pressure to ˜20 km from the trench, combined with permeability measurements conducted over a wide range of effective stresses and porosities, allow us to reliably simulate pore pressure development to greater depths than in previous studies and to directly quantify pore pressure within the plate boundary fault zone itself, which acts as the upper boundary of the underthrusting section. Our results suggest that the time-averaged excess pore pressure (P*) along the décollement ranges from 1.7-2.1 MPa at the trench to 30.2-35.9 MPa by 40 km landward, corresponding to pore pressure ratios of λb = 0.68-0.77. For friction coefficients of 0.30-0.40, the resulting shear strength along the décollement remains <12 MPa over this region. When noncohesive critical taper theory is applied using these values, the required pore pressure ratios within the wedge are near hydrostatic (λw = 0.41-0.59), implying either that pore pressure throughout the wedge is low or that the fault slips only during transient pulses of elevated pore pressure. In addition, simulated downward migration of minima in effective stress during drainage provides a quantitative explanation for down stepping of the décollement that is consistent with observations at Nankai.

  16. Mushy Magma beneath Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, R.; Helmberger, D. V.; Sun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Zhu, L.

    2009-12-01

    A recent prospective on the Yellowstone Caldera discounts its explosive potential based on inferences from tomographic studies on regional earthquake data which suggests a high degree of crystallization of the underlying magma body. In this study, we analyzed P-wave receiver functions recorded by broadband stations above the caldera from 100 teleseismic earthquakes between January and November 2008. After applying a number of waveform modeling tools, we obtained much lower seismic velocities than previous estimates, 2.3 km/sec (Vp) and 1.1 km/sec (Vs), with a thickness of 3.6 km in the upper crust. This shallow low velocity zone is severe enough to cause difficulties with seismic tool applications. In particular, seismologists expect teleseismic P-waves to arrive with motions up and away or down and back. Many of the observations recorded by the Yellowstone Intermountain Seismic Array, however, violate this assumption. We show that many of the first P-wave arrivals observed at seismic stations on the edge of the caldera do not travel through the magma body but have taken longer but faster paths around the edge or wrap-around phases. Three stations near the trailing edge have reversal radial-component motions, while stations near the leading edge do not. Adding our constraints on geometry, we conclude that this relatively shallow magma body has a volume of over 4,300 km3. We estimate the magma body by assuming a fluid-saturated porous material consisting of granite and a mixture of rhyolite melt and supercritical water and CO2 at temperatures of 800 oC and pressure at 5 km (0.1 GPa).Theoretical calculations of seismic wave speed suggests that the magma body beneath the Yellowstone Caldera has a porosity of 32% filled with 92% rhyolite melt and 8% water-CO2 by volume.

  17. Enrichments of the mantle sources beneath the Southern Volcanic Zone (Andes) by fluids and melts derived from abraded upper continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Søager, Nina; Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Nielsen, Mia Rohde

    2014-05-01

    Mafic basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) exhibit a northward increase in crustal components in primitive arc magmas from the Central through the Transitional and Northern SVZ segments. New elemental and Sr-Nd-high-precision Pb isotope data from the Quaternary arc volcanic centres of Maipo (NSVZ) and Infernillo and Laguna del Maule (TSVZ) are argued to reflect mainly their mantle source and its melting. For the C-T-NSVZ, we identify two types of source enrichment: one, represented by Antuco in CSVZ, but also present northward along the arc, was dominated by fluids which enriched a pre-metasomatic South Atlantic depleted MORB mantle type asthenosphere. The second enrichment was by melts having the characteristics of upper continental crust (UCC), distinctly different from Chile trench sediments. We suggest that granitic rocks entered the source mantle by means of subduction erosion in response to the northward increasingly strong coupling of the converging plates. Both types of enrichment had the same Pb isotope composition in the TSVZ with no significant component derived from the subducting oceanic crust. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes indicate a major crustal compositional change at the southern end of the NSVZ. Modelling suggests addition of around 2 % UCC for Infernillo and 5 % for Maipo.

  18. Seismic imaging of deep low-velocity zone beneath the Dead Sea basin and transform fault: Implications for strain localization and crustal rigidity

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.; Flores, C.H.; Rotstein, Y.; Qabbani, I.; Harder, S.H.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    New seismic observations from the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST) plate boundary, show a low velocity zone extending to a depth of 18 km under the basin. The lower crust and Moho are not perturbed. These observations are incompatible with the current view of mid-crustal strength at low temperatures and with support of the basin's negative load by a rigid elastic plate. Strain softening in the middle crust is invoked to explain the isostatic compensation and the rapid subsidence of the basin during the Pleistocene. Whether the deformation is influenced by the presence of fluids and by a long history of seismic activity on the DST, and what the exact softening mechanism is, remain open questions. The uplift surrounding the DST also appears to be an upper crustal phenomenon but its relationship to a mid-crustal strength minimum is less clear. The shear deformation associated with the transform plate boundary motion appears, on the other hand, to cut throughout the entire crust. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Prevalence and seasonal changes in the population of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in the semi-arid zone of north-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, C O; Madu, P P; Richards, W S

    2007-03-15

    A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and seasonal abundance of the egg and adult stages of nematode parasites of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of north-eastern Nigeria between January and December 2002. Faecal samples collected from 102 sheep and 147 goats and examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride as the floating medium revealed that 44 (43.1%) and 82 (55.8%) of the samples, respectively, contained at least one nematode egg type. Three nematode egg types were recovered with strongyle egg type (22.5% in sheep and 35.4% in goats) being the most prevalent followed, respectively, by Trichuris (5.9% in sheep and 4.1% in goats) and Strongyloides (4.9% in sheep and 4.1% in goats) egg types. Mean faecal egg counts were generally moderate in both sheep (1052+/-922 strongyle, 1000+/-590 Strongyloides and 380+/-110 Trichuris eggs, respectively, per g of faeces) and goats (2092+/-3475 strongyle, 958+/-854 Strongyloides and 683+/-512 Trichuris eggs, respectively, per g of faeces) and showed the same trend irrespective of the age or sex of the animals. The prevalence and counts of strongyle nematode eggs showed a definite seasonal sequence that corresponded with the rainfall pattern in the study area during the period. In both sheep and goats, counts of strongyle egg type increased with the rains and reached peak levels at about the peak of the rainy season in September. The other egg types encountered during the study did not show much variation with the season of the year. Out of the 45 sheep and 75 goats examined at necropsy, 27 (60%) and 39 (52%), respectively, contained adult nematode species. Seven genera of adult nematodes including Strongyloides, Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus, Trichuris, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum species were encountered during the study. Bunostomum species were recorded only in sheep. Adult worm burdens were generally low and showed seasonal variation that

  20. Denan Depression controlled by northeast-directed Olongbulak Thrust Zone in northeastern Qaidam basin: Implications for growth of northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangjiang; Guo, Zhaojie; Zhang, Qiquan; Cheng, Xiang; Du, Wei; Wang, Zhendong; Bian, Qing

    2017-10-01

    The Denan Depression is a unique depression in the northeastern Qaidam basin, with a maximum Cenozoic sedimentary thickness of 5 km. Detailed field work, interpretation of seismic profiles and analyzation of well data were conducted to define the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the northeastern Qaidam basin. All geological evidences indicate that the Denan Depression is controlled by the northeast-directed Olongbulak Thrust at its southern boundary. The Denan Depression grew in concert with the development of the northeast-directed Olongbulak Thrust at least since it began to accept the Xiaganchaigou Formation, supporting the early Cenozoic growth of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Surface and subsurface data both point to enhanced tectonic activity since the Quaternary in the northeastern Qaidam basin, leading to a more individual Denan Depression relative to the main Qaidam basin. The northern boundary of the Denan Depression is a passive boundary, and no foreland developed at the northern slope of the Denan Depression.

  1. Core-Mantle Boundary Complexities beneath the Mid-Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Helmberger, D. V.; Jackson, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The detailed core-mantle boundary (CMB) structures beneath the Mid-Pacific are important to map the boundary of Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP) and the location of ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) related to the LLSVP and the D" layer, which are crucial for answering the key questions regarding to the mantle dynamics. Seismic data from deep earthquakes in the Fiji-Tonga region recorded by stations of USArray provide great sampling of the CMB beneath the Mid-Pacific. Here we explore the USArray data with different seismic phases to study the CMB complexities beneath the Mid-Pacific. First, we examined the differential travel time and amplitude between ScS and S for data at western US and confirm the northeastern boundary of the mid-Pacific LLSVP. The delayed ScS-S travel times and smaller amplitude of ScS require the existence of ULVZ locally. Secondly, the Sdiff data recorded by stations at central US shows variation in multi-pathing, that is, the presence of secondary arrivals following the S phase at diffracted distances (Sdiff) which suggests that the waveform complexity is due to structures at the eastern edge of the mid-Pacific LLSVP. This study reinforces previous studies that indicate late arrivals occurring after the primary Sdiff arrivals. A tapered wedge structure with low shear velocity allows for wave energy trapping, producing the observed waveform complexity and delayed arrivals at large distances. The location of the low velocity anomaly agrees with that inferred from the ScS-S measurements. We also observed advanced SV arrivals, which can be explained by the emerging of the D" discontinuity to the east of the boundary of the LLSVP to produce a "pseudo anisotropy". Thirdly, the arrivals of the SPdKS phase support the presence of an ULVZ within a two-humped LLSVP. A sharp 10 secs jump of the differential travel time between S and SKS (TS-SKS) across distance range of 5° is observed. The associated SKS waveform distortions suggest that the

  2. Mountain building at northeastern boundary of Tibetan Plateau and craton reworking at Ordos block from joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhen; Chen, Yongshun John

    2017-04-01

    We have obtained a high resolution 3-D crustal and uppermost mantle velocity model of the Ordos block and its surrounding areas by joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions using seismic recordings from 320 stations. The resulting model shows wide-spread low velocity zone (Vs ≤ 3.4 km/s) in the mid-to-lower crust beneath northeastern Tibet Plateau, which may favor crustal ductile flow within the plateau. However, our model argues against the eastward crustal ductile flow beneath the Qinling belt from the Tibetan Plateau. We find high velocities in the middle part of Qinling belt which separate the low velocities in the mid-to-lower crust of the eastern Qinling belt from the low velocity zone in eastern Tibetan Plateau. More importantly, we observe significant low velocities and thickened lower crust at the Liupanshan thrust belt as the evidence for strong crustal shortening at this boundary between the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and Ordos block. The most important finding of our model is the upper mantle low velocity anomalies surrounding the Ordos block, particularly the one beneath the Trans North China Craton (TNCO) that is penetrating into the southern margin of the Ordos block for ∼100 km horizontally in the depth range of ∼70 km and at least 100 km. We propose an on-going lithospheric mantle reworking at the southernmost boundary of the Ordos block due to complicated mantle flow surrounding the Ordos block, that is, the eastward asthenospheric flow from the Tibet Plateau proposed by recent SKS study and mantle upwelling beneath the TNCO from mantle transition zone induced by the stagnant slabs of the subducted Pacific plate.

  3. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  4. Imaging Magma Plumbing Beneath Askja Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, T. S.; White, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Using a dense seismic network we have imaged the plumbing system beneath Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. We find a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~7 km around the depth of the brittle-ductile transition. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. We use relationships between mineralogy and seismic velocities to estimate that this region contains ~10% partial melt, similar to observations made at other volcanoes such as Kilauea. This low-velocity body is deeper than the depth range suggested by geodetic studies of a deflating source beneath Askja. Beneath the large low-velocity zone a region of reduced velocities extends into the lower crust and is coincident with seismicity in the lower crust. This is suggestive of a high temperature channel into the lower crust which could be the pathway for melt rising from the mantle. This melt either intrudes into the lower crust or stalls at the brittle-ductile boundary in the imaged body. Above this, melt can travel into the fissure swarm through large dikes or erupt within the Askja caldera itself.We generate travel time tables using a finite difference technique and the residuals used to simultaneously solve for both the earthquake locations and velocity structure. The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga dike intrusion has provided a 45 km long, distributed source of large earthquakes which are well located and provide accurate arrival time picks. Together with long-term background seismicity these provide excellent illumination of the Askja volcano from all directions.hhhh

  5. Seismic Imaging of the crust and upper mantle beneath Afar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Ebinger, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    In March 2007 41 seismic stations were deployed in north east Ethiopia. These stations recorded until October 2009, whereupon the array was condensed to 13 stations. Here we show estimates of crustal structure derived from receiver functions and upper mantle velocity structure, derived from tomography and shear-wave splitting using the first 2.5 years of data. Bulk crustal structure has been determined by H-k stacking receiver functions. Crustal Thickness varies from ~45km on the rift margins to ~16km beneath the northeastern Afar stations. Estimates of Vp/Vs show normal continental crust values (1.7-1.8) on the rift margins, and very high values (2.0-2.2) in Afar, similar to results for the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). This supports ideas of high levels of melt in the crust beneath the Ethiopian Rift. Additionally, we use a common conversion point migration technique to obtain high resolution images of crustal structure beneath the region. Both techniques show a linear region of thin crust (~16km) trending north-south, the same trend as the Red Sea rift. SKS-wave splitting results show a general north east-south west fast direction in the MER, systematically rotating to a more north-south fast direction towards the Red Sea. Additionally, stations close to the recent Dabbahu diking episode show sharp lateral changes over small lateral distances (40° over <30km), with fast directions overlying the Dabbahu segment aligning parallel with the recent diking. This supports ideas of melt dominated anisotropy beneath the Ethiopian rift. The magnitude of splitting in this region is smaller than that seen at the MER, suggesting a thinner region of melt, or less focused melt is causing the anisotropy. Seismic tomography inversions show that in the top 150km low velocities highlight plate boundaries. The low velocity anomalies extend from the main Ethiopian rift NE, towards Djibouti, and from Djibouti NW towards the Dabbahu segment The lowest velocities exist on the rift

  6. Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Structure beneath Northwestern South America revealed by the CARMArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, W.; Cornthwaite, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.; Dionicio, V.; Nader-Nieto, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean plate (CAR) is a fragment of the Farallon plate heavily modified by igneous processes that created the Caribbean large igneous province (CLIP) between 110 and 80 Ma.The CAR collided with and initiated subduction beneath northwestern South America plate (SA) at about 60-55 Ma as a narrow flat-slab subduction zone with an accretionary prism offshore, but no volcanic arc. Large scale regional tomography suggests that 1000 km of the CAR has been subducted (Van Benthem et al., 2013, JGR). The flat slab has caused Laramide-style basement uplifts of the Merida Andes, Sierra de la Perija, and Santa Marta ranges with elevations >5 km. The details of subduction geometry of the CAR plate beneath northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela are complicated and remain unclear. The region of slab steepening lies below the triangular Maracaibo block (Bezada et al, 2010, JGR), bounded by major strike slip faults and currently escaping to the north over the CAR. Geodetic data suggests the this region has the potential for a magnitude 8+ earthquake (Bilham and Mencin, 2013, AGU Abstract). To better understand the subduction geometry, we deployed 65 broadband (BB) stations across northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela in April of 2016. The 65 stations interweave with the 32 existing Colombian and Venezuelan BB stations, forming a 2-D array (hereafter referred to as CARMArray) with a station spacing of 35-100 km that covers an area of 600 km by 400 km extending from the Caribbean coast in Colombia to the interior plains of Venezuela. With data from the first year of operation, we have measured the Rayleigh wave phase velocities and Z/H ratios in the period range of 8-40 s using both ambient noise and earthquake data recorded by the CARMArray. We also generated Ps receiver functions from waveform data of teleseismic events recorded by the array. We then jointly inverted the three datasets to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath the array. We will

  7. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Lithospheric Structure Beneath Taiwan From Sp Converted Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, D.; McGlashan, N.; Brown, L.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan is the product of three dimensionally complex interaction between the Eurasian Plate (EP) and the Philippine Sea plate (PSP), with the EP subducting eastward beneath the PSP in southern Taiwan while the PSP subducts northward beneath the EP in northern Taiwan. The structural emplacement of Philippine Arc lithosphere onto Chinese passive margin lithosphere is an exemplar of continental amalgamation, yet there are relatively few contraints on the geometry of lithosphere involved at depth. We have used teleseismic data recorded by the Broadband Array for Taiwan Seismology (BATS) to compute S-to-p wave receiver functions for the Taiwan region to provide new constraints on deep geometries. Moho conversions provide independent new estimates of crustal thickness, which vary from 35 to 55 km across the island in agreement with previous P to S conversion studies and local tomography. More significantly, our results suggest that the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary (LAB) varies in depth from ca 140 km beneath northeastern Taiwan to ca 120 km beneath central Taiwan to perhaps less than 80 km beneath southern Taiwan. We attribute this along strike variation to the depression and decapitation of the Eurasian plate in the transition to northward subduction of the PSP.

  9. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  10. Shallow Moho with aseismic upper crust and deep Moho with seismic lower crust beneath the Japanese Islands obtained by seismic tomography using data from dense seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    P-wave seismic velocity is well known to be up to 7.0 km/s and over 7.5 km/s in the lower crust and in the mantle, respectively. A large velocity gradient is the definition of the Moho discontinuity between the crust and mantle. In this paper, we investigates the configuration of Moho discontinuity defined as an isovelocity plane with large velocity gradient derived from our fine-scale three-dimensional seismic velocity structure beneath Japanese Islands using data obtained by dense seismic network with the tomographic method (Matsubara and Obara, 2011). Japanese Islands are mainly on the Eurasian and North American plates. The Philippine Sea and Pacific plates are subducting beneath these continental plates. We focus on the Moho discontinuity at the continental side. We calculate the P-wave velocity gradients between the vertical grid nodes since the grid inversion as our tomographic method does not produce velocity discontinuity. The largest velocity gradient is 0.078 (km/s)/km at velocities of 7.2 and 7.3 km/s. We define the iso-velocity plane of 7.2 km/s as the Moho discontinuity. We discuss the Moho discontinuity above the upper boundary of the subducting oceanic plates with consideration of configuration of plate boundaries of prior studies (Shiomi et al., 2008; Kita et al., 2010; Hirata et al, 2012) since the Moho depth derived from the iso-velocity plane denotes the oceanic Moho at the contact zones of the overriding continental plates and the subducting oceanic plates. The Moho discontinuity shallower than 30 km depth is distributed within the tension region like northern Kyushu and coastal line of the Pacific Ocean in the northeastern Japan and the tension region at the Cretaceous as the northeastern Kanto district. These regions have low seismicity within the upper crust. Positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the northeastern Kanto district indicates the ductile material with large density in lower crust at the shallower portion and the aseismic upper crust

  11. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Underplating along the northern portion of the Zagros suture zone, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaghi, K.; Shabanian, E.; Kalvandi, F.

    2017-07-01

    A 2-D absolute shear wave velocity model has been resolved beneath a seismic profile across the northeastern margin of the Arabian Plate-Central Iran by simultaneously inverting data from P receiver functions and fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocity. The data were gathered by a linear seismic array crossing the Zagros fold and thrust belt, Urmia-Dokhtar magmatic arc and Central Iran block assemblage as three major structural components of the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Our model shows a low-velocity tongue protruding from upper to lower crust which, north of the Zagros suture, indicates the signature of an intracontinent low-strength shear zone between the underthrusting and overriding continents. The velocity model confirms the presence of a significant crustal root as well as a thick high-velocity lithosphere in footwall of the suture, continuing northwards beneath the overriding continent for at least 200 km. These features are interpreted as underthrusting of Arabia beneath Central Iran. Time to depth migration of P receiver functions reveals an intracrustal flat interface at ∼17 km depth south of the suture; we interpret it as a significant decoupling within the upper crust. All these crustal scale structural features coherently explain different styles and kinematics of deformation in northern Zagros (Lorestan zone) with respect to its southern part (Fars zone).

  13. Stratification of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Eaton, D. W.; Bastow, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Hudson Bay region has a complex tectonic history spanning ~4 Ga of Earth's evolution. During the ~1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny, the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons collided following the subduction of a Pacific-scale ocean. It is thought that a significant amount of juvenile material is preserved in the Trans-Hudson Orogen, in part due to the complex double-indentor geometry of the Superior-Churchill collision. In the region of interest, the orogen lies beneath a large but shallow Paleozoic intra-cratonic basin. Studies of the crust and upper mantle beneath this region have been enabled through the HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) project, through the deployment of broadband seismographs around the Bay and across the islands to the north. A surface-wave tomography study has taken advantage of the data coverage, providing new information on phase velocity heterogeneity and anisotropy for wave periods of 25-200 seconds (equivalent to depths from the lower crust to ~300 km). On a large scale, our results show that the entire region is underlain by a seismically fast lithospheric lid corresponding to the continental keel. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ~180km in the northeast, beneath a zone of Paleozoic rifting, to ~280km beneath central Hudson Bay. Within the lithosphere, seismic velocities vary laterally, including high-velocity material wrapping around the Bay in the uppermost mantle. In the mid-lithosphere, two high-velocity cores are imaged, with a zone of lower velocity between them beneath the Bay. We interpret these high-velocity structures to represent the strongest central cores of the Superior and Churchill cratons, with more-juvenile material preserved between them. The near-vertical geometry of the lower-velocity zone suggests that it is only the effects of terminal collision of the cratonic cores, rather than any preceding subduction, that is preserved today. The lowermost lithosphere has a more uniform velocity, and

  14. MISR Images Northeastern Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Ntwetwe and Sua Pans in northeastern Botswana, acquired on August 18, 2000 (Terra orbit 3553). The left image is a color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. On the right is a composite of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. This combination causes wet areas to appear blue because of the glint-like reflection from water and damp surfaces. Clouds are visible in the upper left corner and right center of each image. The clouds look peculiar in the multi-angle view because geometric parallax resulting from their elevation above the surface causes a misregistration of the individual images making up the composite. This stereoscopic effect provides a way of distinguishing clouds from bright surfaces.

    The images are approximately 250 kilometers across. Ntwetwe and Sua pans are closed interior basins that catch rainwater and surface runoff during the wet season. Seasonal lakes form that may reach several meters in depth. During the dry season the collected waters rapidly evaporate leaving behind dissolved salts that coat the surface and turn it bright ('sua' means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland extending into the pan) attaches to the shore. Sowa represents headquarters for a JPL contingent carrying out MISR field experiments using the evaporite surface and the grasslands as targets and for Botswana scientists studying migration of groundwaters beneath the pans and surrounding areas. These efforts support the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000), which is now underway.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  15. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes

  16. Mineral types of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Dukat ore field and their relationships to leucogranite and epithermal gold-silver ore, northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filimonova, L. G.; Trubkin, N. V.; Chugaev, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The paper considers the localization of potassic and propylitic hydrothermal alteration zones in the domal volcanic-plutonic structure controlling the position of the Dukat ore field with the eponymous unique epithermal Au-Ag deposit. Comprehensive mineralogical and geochemical data on rocks and minerals in hydrothermal alteration zones and associated intrusions have shown that quartz-jarosite-sericite, quartz-pyrite-sericite, and quartz-adularia-chlorite alterations were formed with the participation of fluid flows related to a fingerlike projection of a high-K leucogranite porphyry intrusion with large phenocrysts. These hydrothermal alterations developed in the rifted graben under conditions of divergent plate boundaries, whereas quartz-clinozoisite-calcite, epidote-chlorite, and garnet-calcite-chlorite alterations were linked to K-Na leucogranite intrusive bodies and developed under conditions of convergent plate boundaries reactivated as a result of formation of the marginal Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt. Phase separation and coagulation of specific portions of ascending fluids resulted in the formation and stabilization of small-sized particles of native silver and other ore components, which enabled involvement in flows of secondary geothermal solutions and ore-forming fluids. The Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of rocks and minerals from the hydrothermal alteration zones, associated intrusions, and economic orebodies at the Dukat deposit indicate that their components have been derived from the juvenile continental crust, which was altered in pre-Cretaceous periods of endogenic activity. The components of gangue minerals of potassic and propylitic hydrothertmal alterations and associated intrusions have been taken from deep sources differing in 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd at similar U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios. Chalcophile lead in products of hydrothermal activity and melanocratic inclusions in leucogranite has been taken from regions with elevated U/Pb and

  17. The Proterozoic Mount Isa Fault Zone, northeastern Australia: is it really a ca. 1.9 Ga terrane-bounding suture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Betts, Peter G.

    2004-09-01

    In marked contrast to Palaeoproterozoic Laurentia, the location of sutures and boundaries of discrete crustal fragments amalgamated during Palaeoproterozoic formation of the North Australian Craton remain highly speculative. Interpretations of suture locations have relied heavily on the analysis of regional geophysical datasets because of sparse exposure of rocks of the appropriate age. The Mount Isa Fault Zone has been interpreted as one such Palaeoproterozoic terrane-bounding suture. Furthermore, the coincidence of this fault zone with major shale-hosted massive sulphide Pb-Zn-Ag orebodies has led to speculations that trans-lithospheric faults may be an important ingredient for the development of this deposit type. This study has integrated geophysical and geochemical data to test the statute of the Mount Isa Fault as a terrane-bounding suture. Forward modelling of gravity data shows that basement rocks on either side of the Mount Isa Fault have similar densities. These interpretations are consistent with geochemical observations and Sm-Nd data that suggest that basement lithologies on either side of the Mount Isa Fault are geochemically and isotopically indistinguishable from each other, and that the Mount Isa Fault is unlikely to represent a suture zone that separates different Palaeoproterozoic terranes. Our data indicate that the crustal blocks on both sides of the Mount Isa Fault Zone must have been in within close proximity of each other since the Palaeoproterozoic, and that the Western Fold Belt was part of the (ancestral) North Australian Craton well before the ˜1.89-1.87 Ga Barramundi Orogeny. It appears that deep crustal variations in density may be related to the boundary between a shallowly west-dipping high-density mafic to ultramafic plate and low-density basement rocks. This interpretation in turn impacts on crustal-scale models for the development of shale-hosted massive sulphide Pb-Zn mineralisation, which do not require trans

  18. Application of indexes of underground structure using land gravity data to the Eastern Boundary Fault zone of the Shonai Plain, northeastern Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Honda, R.; Wada, S.; Sawada, A.; Okada, S.

    2016-12-01

    Gravity gradients, which are directly measured and are also derived by differentiating land gravity anomaly data, are sensitive to the density structure of shallow subsurfaces and therefore can be used to formulate ratings for Indexes of Underground Structure (IUS) [e.g., Kusumoto,2015,2016]. Recently, dense land gravity data measurements for almost entire Japan have been available [Honda et al., 2012]. In this study, we use gravity gradient tensors from the data to apply IUS to the Eastern Boundary Fault zone of the Shonai Plain (EBFSP), which spans 40 km in length and caused the historical Mjma 7.0 earthquake in 1894. The IUS we adopt here comprises the dip angle of the structural boundary (Beta) [Beiki, 2013], the dimensionality index (I) [Pedersen and Rasmussen, 1990], the structural boundary (Horizontal First Derivation(HFD) and TDX [Cooper and Cowan, 2006]), and density anomaly cylinder bodies in the depth direction (TD) [Copper, 2011]. The IUS show that the northern part of the EBFSP is characterized by high-Beta, low-I (dyke-like), intense-(HFD and TDX), and many short TD. Contrary to this, the southern part exhibits low-Beta, high-I, mild-(HFD and TDX), and few long TD. Previous geological/geomorphological surveys of the EBFSP [Ikeda et al., 2002] distinguish between the northern part comprising parallel/echelon short faults and the southern part comprising a single long fault. These findings are consistent with the gravimetrical IUS. However, the IUS more emphasizes the Aosawa Fault zone, which is geologically old and runs nearly parallel to the EBFSP at about 5-10 km distance on the eastern side of the EBFSP. Because gravity anomalies are a time-integrated representation of crustal activity, it is difficult to identify the relative timing of faulting events in an analysis range. However, the IUS can objectively contribute to producing comprehensive characterizations of target faults. This study is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26400450.

  19. Precambrian crust and lithosphere beneath the Northern Canadian Cordillera discovered by LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowes, R. M.; Cook, F. A.; Snyder, D. B.; van der Velden, A. J.; Hall, K. W.; Erdmer, P.; Evenchick, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    ) the detachments that carry deformed rocks the northern Canadian Cordillera are largely confined to the crust above the layering, and (3) rocks of most of the accreted terranes overlie the layering. Most of the accreted rocks thus appear to be thin (<10 km thick), far-traveled flakes. However, one major terrane, Stikinia, may thicken westward as the underlying layered zone thins such that the lower crustal layering disappears beneath the northeastern portion of Stikinia; the boundary between Stikinia and adjacent rocks to the east may be a crustal-scale tectonic wedge above the deep layering.

  20. Feedback of balanced cross sections and gravity modeling: numerical estimation of horizon mislocations. A case study from the Linking Zone (Northeastern, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, E. L.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Ayala, C.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; Rubio, F. M.; Rodríguez-Pintó, A.; Casas, A. M.; García Crespo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of subsurface information in the Linking Zone (between the Iberian and the Catalan Coastal Ranges) where no seismic sections and few boreholes are available, together with the need to perform an evaluation of a potential CO2 reservoir, have motivated us to carry out a combined structural and geophysical study. The reservoir is located in the Bunt/Muschelkalk facies (Triassic in age) just underneath the Keuper evaporites (regional detachment). The expected density contrast between cover/basement/detachment rocks represent a suitable setting to apply gravity modeling. Therefore, we designed the location of eight serial and radial cross sections over 1.50000 available geological maps, we also include bedding data (field work) and thickness and depth information from wells and previous stratigraphic profiles. Besides, gravity data were acquired along the sections to build up 2.5D models and thus, to constrain the geometry of the basement and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Density values used in the modelling come from a database with 1470 sites (compiled and acquired). Initially we build the balanced sections using the available geological information and applying standard geometric techniques. Regional knowledge and previous sections were also taken into account. Then, we took these sections into Oasis Montaj to fit the real and expected gravimetric signal. In this work we present the comparison of the location of certain horizons before and after that feedback. In some cases, mislocation of some horizons may reach up to 0.4 km, which represents up to 50% of the expected depth. After fitting the gravity data with balanced cross-sections we carried out a stochastic inversion that allowed reducing the uncertainty to a maximum of 0.15 km, i. e. c. 20% . Further error analysis may be focused on the double-checking with seismic section information from the industry, if and when available. Attached figure displays an example of one of the performed

  1. Geology of quadrangles H-12, H-13, and parts of I-12 and I-13, (zone III) in northeastern Santander Department, Colombia

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Jaime B.; Restrepo, Hernan A.

    1974-01-01

    A program of geologic mapping and mineral investigation in Colombia was undertaken cooperatively by the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Geologico-Mineras (formerly known as the Inventario Minero Nacional), and the U. S. Geological Survey; by the Government of Colombia and the Agency for International Development, U. S. Department of State. The purpose was to study, and evaluate mineral resources (excluding of petroleum, coal, emeralds, and alluvial gold) of four selected areas, designated Zones I to IV, that total about 70,000 km2. The work in Zone III, in the Cordillera Oriental, was done from 1965 to 1968. The northeast trend of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia swings abruptly to north-northwest in the area of this report, and divides around the southern end of the Maracaibo Basin. This section of the Cordillera Oriental is referred to as the Santander Massif. Radiometric age determinations indicate that the oldest rocks of the Santander massif are Precambrian and include high-grade gneiss, schist, and migmatite of the Bucaramanga Formation. These rocks were probably part of the Precambrian Guayana Shield. Low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of late Precambrian to Ordovician age .include phyllite, schist, metasiltstone, metasandstone, and marble of the Silgara Formation, a geosynclinal series of considerable extent in the Cordillera Oriental and possibly the Cordillera de Merida of Venezuela. Orthogneiss ranging from granite to tonalite is widely distributed in the high- and medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the central core of the massif and probably represents rocks of two ages, Precambrian and Ordovician to Early Devonian. Younger orthogneiss and the Silgara are overlain by Middle Devonian beds of the Floresta Formation which show a generally low but varying degree of metamorphism. Phyllite and argillite are common, and infrequent marble and other calcareous beds are fossiliferous. Except for recrystallization in limestones of !the

  2. Local knowledge and exploitation of the avian fauna by a rural community in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro Hudson Rodrigues; Thel, Thiago do Nascimento; Ferreira, Jullio Marques Rocha; de Azevedo, Severino Mendes; Junior, Wallace Rodrigues Telino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2014-12-24

    The present study examined the exploitation of bird species by the residents of a rural community in the Brazilian semi-arid zone, and their preferences for species with different characteristics. The 24 informants were identified using the "snowball" approach, and were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and check-sheets for the collection of data on their relationship with the bird species that occur in the region. The characteristics that most attract the attention of the interviewees were the song and the coloration of the plumage of a bird, as well as its body size, which determines its potential as a game species, given that hunting is an important activity in the region. A total of 98 species representing 32 families (50.7% of the species known to occur in the region) were reported during interviews, being used for meat, pets, and medicinal purposes. Three species were used as zootherapeutics - White-naped Jay was eaten whole as a cure for speech problems, the feathers of Yellow-legged Tinamou were used for snakebite, Smooth-billed Ani was eaten for "chronic cough" and Small-billed Tinamou and Tataupa Tinamou used for locomotion problems. The preference of the informants for characteristics such as birdsong and colorful plumage was a significant determinant of their preference for the species exploited. Birds with cynegetic potential and high use values were also among the most preferred species. Despite the highly significant preferences for certain species, some birds, such as those of the families Trochilidae, Thamnophilidae, and Tyrannidae are hunted randomly, independently of their attributes. The evidence collected on the criteria applied by local specialists for the exploitation of the bird fauna permitted the identification of the species that suffer hunting pressure, providing guidelines for the development of conservation and management strategies that will guarantee the long-term survival of the populations of these bird species in

  3. The Study of Geotechnical Properties of Sediment in C-C Zone in the Northeastern Pacific for Deep-sea Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, S.; Kim, K.; Lee, H.; Ju, S.; Yoo, C.

    2007-12-01

    Recently the market price of valuable metals are rapidly increased due to the high demand and limited resources. Therefore, manganese (Mn)-nodules (Polymetallic nodules) in the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone have stimulated economic interest. Nickel, copper, cobalt and manganese are the economically most interesting metals of Mn-nodules. In order to mine Mn-nodules from sea floor, understanding the geotechnical properties of surface sediment are very important for two major reasons. First, geotechnical data are required to design and build the stable and environmentally acceptable mining vehicles. Second, deep-sea mining activity could significantly effect on the surface layer of deep sea floor. For example, surface sediments will be redistributed through the resuspension and redeposition. Reliable sedimentological and soil mechanical baseline data of the undisturbed benthic environment are essential to assess and evaluate these environmental impacts by mining activity using physical and numerical modeling. The 225 times deployments of the multiple corer guaranteed undisturbed sediment samples in which geotechnical parameters were measured including sediment grain size, density, water content, shear strength. The sea floor sediments in this study area are generally characterized into three different types as follow. The seabed of the middle part (8-12° N) of this study area is mainly covered with biogenic siliceous sediment compared with pelagic red clays in the northern part (16-17° N). However, the southern part (5-6° N) is dominant with calcareous sediments because its water depth is shallower than the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). This result suggests that middle area, covered with siliceous sediment, is more feasible for commercial mining than northern area, covered with pelagic red clay, with the consideration of the nodule miner maneuverability and the environmental impact. Especially, middle part with the highest nodule abundance and valuable

  4. Lower crustal relaxation beneath the Tibetan Plateau and Qaidam Basin following the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake

    Ryder, I.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 November a magnitude 7.8 earthquake ruptured a 400 km long portion of the Kunlun fault, northeastern Tibet. In this study, we analyse over five years of post-seismic geodetic data and interpret the observed surface deformation in terms of stress relaxation in the thick Tibetan lower crust. We model GPS time-series (first year) and InSAR line of sight measurements (years two to five) and infer that the most likely mechanism of post-seismic stress relaxation is time-dependent distributed creep of viscoelastic material in the lower crust. Since a single relaxation time is not sufficient to model the observed deformation, viscous flow is modelled by a lower crustal Burgers rheology, which has two material relaxation times. The optimum model has a transient viscosity 9 ?? 1017 Pa s, steady-state viscosity 1 ?? 1019 Pa s and a ratio of long term to Maxwell shear modulus of 2:3. This model gives a good fit to GPS stations south of the Kunlun Fault, while displacements at stations north of the fault are over-predicted. We attribute this asymmetry in the GPS residual to lateral heterogeneity in rheological structure across the southern margin of the Qaidam Basin, with thinner crust/higher viscosities beneath the basin than beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Deep afterslip localized in a shear zone beneath the fault rupture gives a reasonable match to the observed InSAR data, but the slip model does not fit the earlier GPS data well. We conclude that while some localized afterslip likely occurred during the early post-seismic phase, the bulk of the observed deformation signal is due to viscous flow in the lower crust. To investigate regional variability in rheological structure, we also analyse post-seismic displacements following the 1997 Manyi earthquake that occurred 250 km west of the Kokoxili rupture. We find that viscoelastic properties are the same as for the Kokoxili area except for the transient viscosity, which is 5 ?? 1017 Pa s. The viscosities estimated for the

  5. Seismic belt in the upper plane of the double seismic zone extending in the along-arc direction at depths of 70-100km beneath NE Japan, and its relation with the dehydration embrittlement hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Nakajima, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2006-12-01

    1. Introduction Dehydration embrittlement or CO2¨Cbearing devolatization embrittlement hypothesis has been proposed as a possible cause of intraslab earthquakes in several studies [e.g., Peacock, 2001; Kirby et al., 1996; Meade and Jeanloz, 1991]. Precise location of intraslab seismicity is needed to discuss its cause in these studies. Recently, a very dense nationwide seismic network (Hi-net) has been constructed by NIED in Japan. In this study, we relocate microearthquakes more precisely by using data obtained by this dense seismic network to detect the characteristic distribution of the seismicity within the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido and Tohoku, NE Japan. 2. Data and method In the present study, we relocated events at depths of 20¨C300 km for the period from January 2002 to August 2005 from the JMA earthquake catalog. Hypocenter locations and arrival time data in the JMA catalog were used as the initial hypocenters and data for relocations. We applied the double-difference hypocenter location method (DDLM) by Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) to the arrival time data of the events. We also checked spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms of the events in the seismic belts and the surrounding upper seismic plane. We used focal mechanism solutions determined by Igarashi et al. (2001). 3. Results and discussion 1) There exist earthquakes occurring in the area between the upper and lower seismic planes (interplane earthquakes), and their focal mechanisms tend to be the down-dip compressional (DC-) type like those of upper plane events. 2) We found a seismic "belt" which is parallel to the iso-depth contour of the plate interface beneath the forearc area at depths of 80¨C100 km. The location of the seismic belt seems to correspond to one phase boundary (from jadeite lawsonite blueschist (H2O content: 5.4 wt% ) to lawsonite amphibole eclogite (3.0wt %) (Hacker et al., 2003)) with dehydration reaction. 3) The location of the deeper limit of seismicity of the

  6. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  7. Fire beneath the ice

    SciT

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-02-13

    A volcano discovered six years ago by researchers Blankenship and Bell under Antarctica poses questions about a potential climatic catastrophe. The researchers claim that the volcano is still active, erupting occasionally and growing. A circular depression on the surface of the ice sheet has ice flowing into it and is used to provide a portrait of the heat source. The volcano is on a critical transition zone within West Antarctica with fast flowing ice streams directly downhill. Work by Blankenship shows that a soft layer of water-logged sediments called till provide the lubricating layer on the underside of the icemore » streams. Volcanos may provide the source of this till. The ice streams buffer the thick interior ice from the ocean and no one know what will happen if the ice streams continue to shorten. These researchers believe their results indicate that the stability of West Antarctica ultimately depends less on the current climate than on the location of heat and sediments under the ice and the legacy of past climatic changes.« less

  8. Lithospheric Instability beneath the Southeast Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, G. A.; Lorinczi, P.; Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    The South Carpathian Project, a major seismological experiment carried out during 2009-2011 by the University of Leeds, the National Institute of Earth Physics in Bucharest, the Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute in Budapest, and the Seismological Survey of Serbia in Belgrade, has resulted in the most detailed tomographic images yet obtained of the upper mantle structure beneath the Pannonian - Carpathian region (Ren et al., EPSL, 2012). These images illuminate the upper mantle over a wide region, but they specifically shed new light on the unique geological structure which is responsible for the damaging earthquakes that occur in the upper mantle beneath the Vrancea Zone of the South-east Carpathians. The earthquakes occur at the NE end of an asymmetric high velocity structure that extends upward to the SW, oblique to the southern edge of the South Carpathians. This sub-vertical high-velocity body is bounded by slow anomalies to the NW and SE, which extend down to the top of the Mantle Transition Zone. With increasing depth, the fast region becomes more circular in cross-section until about 400 km where the fast anomaly fades out. The main mass of fast (presumably dense) material is located directly beneath the seismic activity. The earthquakes are all characterised by near-vertical T-axes, which means they are caused by vertical stretching. The seismic moment release rate can be used to estimate vertical strain rates; these strain-rates imply that the mantle at 200 km is moving downward at about 20 mm/yr relative to the surface. The depth distribution of seismic-moment release rate follows a characteristic pattern that is most easily explained if this high velocity structure is produced by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability acting on an unstable stratification of mantle lithosphere above asthenosphere. Three-dimensional numerical experiments assuming viscous flow confirm that the drip-like structure that we image may be a natural consequence of a Rayleigh

  9. New species of the genus Elachisina (Gastropoda: Elachisinidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carlo M; Santos, Franklin N; Lima, Silvio F B

    2016-07-19

    The family Elachisinidae Ponder, 1985 includes minute marine gastropods that live predominantly in the sublittoral zone (Ponder & Keyzer 1998; Rolán & Rubio 2001; Rolán & Gofas 2003). Most elachisinids have been included in the genus Elachisina Dall, 1918 based on their shell morphology (Warén 1996; Rolán & Rubio 2001; Rolán & Gofas 2003), consequently, very little is known about the habitat and ecological niche of the species (Ponder & Keyzer 1998; Rolán & Gofas 2003). Elachisina floridana (Rehder, 1943) is the only Atlantic congener collected alive, and is known to live beneath rocks and in rocky crevices in the intertidal zone to about 1 m depth in the Bahamas and Caribbean Sea (Ponder 1985; Ponder & Keyzer 1998; Rolán & Gofas 2003; Redfern 2013). Eastern Atlantic E. canarica (Nordsieck & García-Talavera, 1979) was also collected alive from the Canary Islands, but with no information on the habitat (Rolán & Gofas 2003). The islands of the northeastern Atlantic and West Africa are the regions with the greatest Elachisina richness known, totaling nine species (Rolán & Rubio 2001; Rolán & Gofas 2003). Only E. floridana has been recognized so far to be widely distributed throughout the Western Atlantic (Rolán & Gofas 2003; Rios 2009; Redfern 2013).

  10. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere.

  11. Improvement of Liquefiable Foundation Conditions Beneath Existing Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    filter zones, and drains. Drilling fluids can cause hydraulic fracturing . These hazards can lead to to piping and hvdraulic fracturing Compression . 7...with results of piping and hydraulic fracturing (Continued) * Site conditions have been classified into three cases; Case 1 is for beneath -d...which could lead to piping and hydraulic fracturing Soil Reinforcement 16. Vibro-replacement See methods 2 and 3 stone and sand columns applicable to

  12. Triggered Slow Slip and Afterslip on the Southern Hikurangi Subduction Zone Following the Kaikōura Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ellis, Susan; Hamling, Ian; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta; Denys, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The 2016 MW7.8 Kaikōura earthquake ruptured a complex sequence of strike-slip and reverse faults in New Zealand's northeastern South Island. In the months following the earthquake, time-dependent inversions of Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data reveal up to 0.5 m of afterslip on the subduction interface beneath the northern South Island underlying the crustal faults that ruptured in the earthquake. This is clear evidence that the far southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone accommodates plate motion. The MW7.8 earthquake also triggered widespread slow slip over much of the subduction zone beneath the North Island. The triggered slow slip included immediate triggering of shallow (<15 km), short (2-3 weeks) slow slip events along much of the east coast, and deep (>30 km), long-term (>1 year) slow slip beneath the southern North Island. The southern Hikurangi slow slip was likely triggered by large (0.5-1.0 MPa) static Coulomb stress increases.

  13. Sub-crustal seismic activity beneath Klyuchevskoy Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. J.; Droznina, S.; Levin, V. L.; Senyukov, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic activity is extremely vigorous beneath the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group (KVG). The unique aspect is the distribution in depth. In addition to upper-crustal seismicity, earthquakes take place at depths in excess of 20 km. Similar observations are known in other volcanic regions, however the KVG is unique in both the number of earthquakes and that they occur continuously. Most other instances of deep seismicity beneath volcanoes appear to be episodic or transient. Digital recording of seismic signals started at the KVG in early 2000s.The dense local network reliably locates earthquakes as small as ML~1. We selected records of 20 earthquakes located at depths over 20 km. Selection was based on the quality of the routine locations and the visual clarity of the records. Arrivals of P and S waves were re-picked, and hypocentral parameters re-established. Newl locations fell within the ranges outlined by historical seismicity, confirming the existence of two distinct seismically active regions. A shallower zone is at ~20 km depth, and all hypocenters are to the northeast of KVG, in a region between KVG and Shiveluch volcano. A deeper zone is at ~30 km, and all hypocenters cluster directly beneath the edifice of the Kyuchevskoy volcano. Examination of individual records shows that earthquakes in both zones are tectonic, with well-defined P and S waves - another distinction of the deep seismicity beneath KVG. While the upper seismic zone is unquestionably within the crust, the provenance of the deeper earthquakes is enigmatic. The crustal structure beneath KVG is highly complex, with no agreed-upon definition of the crust-mantle boundary. Rather, a range of values, from under 30 to over 40 km, exists in the literature. Similarly, a range of velocity structures has been reported. Teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) provide a way to position the earthquakes with respect to the crust-mantle boundary. We compare the differential travel times of S and P waves from deep

  14. Crustal structure and mantle transition zone thickness beneath a hydrothermal vent at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E): a supplementary study based on passive seismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Aiguo; Hu, Hao; Li, Jiabiao; Niu, Xiongwei; Wei, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Aoxing

    2017-06-01

    As a supplementary study, we used passive seismic data recorded by one ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) station (49°41.8'E) close to a hydrothermal vent (49°39'E) at the Southwest Indian Ridge to invert the crustal structure and mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness by P-to-S receiver functions to investigate previous active seismic tomographic crustal models and determine the influence of the deep mantle thermal anomaly on seafloor hydrothermal venting at an ultra-slow spreading ridge. The new passive seismic S-wave model shows that the crust has a low velocity layer (2.6 km/s) from 4.0 to 6.0 km below the sea floor, which is interpreted as partial melting. We suggest that the Moho discontinuity at 9.0 km is the bottom of a layer (2-3 km thick); the Moho (at depth of 6-7 km), defined by active seismic P-wave models, is interpreted as a serpentinized front. The velocity spectrum stacking plot made from passive seismic data shows that the 410 discontinuity is depressed by 15 km, the 660 discontinuity is elevated by 18 km, and a positive thermal anomaly between 182 and 237 K is inferred.

  15. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous convergent margins of Northeastern Asia with Northwestern Pacific and Proto-Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Sergey; Luchitskaya, Marina; Tuchkova, Marianna; Moiseev, Artem; Ledneva, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin of Northeastern Asia includes many island arc terranes that differ in age and tectonic position. Two convergent margins are reconstructed for Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous time: Uda-Murgal and Alazeya - Oloy island arc systems. A long tectonic zone composed of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks is recognized along the Asian continent margin from the Mongol-Okhotsk thrust-fold belt on the south to the Chukotka Peninsula on the north. This belt represents the Uda-Murgal arc, which was developed along the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Northwestern Meso-Pacific. Several segments are identified in this arc based upon the volcanic and sedimentary rock assemblages, their respective compositions and basement structures. The southern and central parts of the Uda-Murgal island arc system were a continental margin belt with heterogeneous basement represented by metamorphic rocks of the Siberian craton, the Verkhoyansk terrigenous complex of Siberian passive margin and the Koni-Taigonos late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic island arc with accreted oceanic terranes. At the present day latitude of the Pekulney and Chukotka segments there was an ensimatic island arc with relicts of the South Anyui oceanic basin in backarc basin. Alazeya-Oloy island arc systems consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic complexes that belong to the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Proto-Artic Ocean. It separated structures of the North American and Siberian continents. The Siberian margin was active whereas the North American margin was passive. The Late Jurassic was characterized by termination of a spreading in the Proto-Arctic Ocean and transformation of the latter into the closing South Anyui turbidite basin. In the beginning the oceanic lithosphere and then the Chukotka microcontinent had been subducted beneath the Alazeya-Oloy volcanic belt

  16. Shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy beneath the Wyoming craton: craton destruction and lithospheric layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Wyoming craton has evolved under an intriguing geological history with suture zones, accreted margins, flat-slab subduction, orogeny and an encroaching hotspot. Whether and how the cratonic root has been widely destroyed by the series of tectonic events remain controversial. Aiming to address these questions using a craton-wide model, we have analyzed Rayleigh and Love wave data from 75 earthquakes recorded by 103 USArray TA stations in the Wyoming craton. 2-D phase velocity maps are constructed for 18 periods from 20 s to 166 s using the two-plane-wave tomography. The Yellowstone hotspot and the Cheyenne belt are characterized by low velocity anomalies at all periods in both Rayleigh and Love wave models. The northern craton in Montana is broadly fast at periods < 70 s and is relatively slow at longer periods, suggesting a shallower lithosphere. The fast anomaly in Wyoming has a NE-SW trend and extends to more than 200 km in the VSV model. However, such a fast anomaly is largely absent in the Love wave images at long periods. The association of VSV>VSH with this deep fast anomaly indicates mantle downwelling beneath south-central Wyoming. Mantle upwelling likely happens in slow regions at the hotspot, the Cheyenne belt, and the northeastern craton. The overall pattern of velocity anomaly and radial anisotropy suggests that small-scale mantle convection is vigorously acting beneath the Wyoming craton and continuously destructing the cratonic lithosphere. In addition, the average VSV and VSH models show a strong positive radial anisotropy of 5% (VSH>VSV) above 100 km and a weak negative anisotropy (VSV>VSH) below 120 km. Such a significant change in radial anisotropy could contribute to the observed mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD) from receiver functions. Both VSV and VSH reveal a fast lid above 100 km and a large velocity reduction at the depths of 115-190 km, corresponding with a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 150 km. These observations

  17. Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeastern Exterior, Northwestern Exterior, & Southwestern Exterior Elevations, Northeastern Interior, Southeastern Interior, & Southwestern Interior Elevations, Floor Plan, and Eastern Corner Detail - Manatoc Reservation, Vale Edge Adirondack, 1075 Truxell Road, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  18. Anisotropic Rayleigh-wave phase velocities beneath northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Cédric P.; Zhao, Li; Huang, Win-Gee; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2015-02-01

    We explore the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure beneath northern Vietnam over a broad period range of 5 to 250 s. We use the two-stations technique to derive the dispersion curves from the waveforms of 798 teleseismic events recoded by a set of 23 broadband seismic stations deployed in northern Vietnam. These dispersion curves are then inverted for both isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps in the frequency range of 10 to 50 s. Main findings include a crustal expression of the Red River Shear Zone and the Song Ma Fault. Northern Vietnam displays a northeast/southwest dichotomy in the lithosphere with fast velocities beneath the South China Block and slow velocities beneath the Simao Block and between the Red River Fault and the Song Da Fault. The anisotropy in the region is relatively simple, with a high amplitude and fast directions parallel to the Red River Shear Zone in the western part. In the eastern part, the amplitudes are generally smaller and the fast axis displays more variations with periods.

  19. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  20. Detailed seismic velocity structure beneath the Hokkaido corner, NE Japan: Collision process of the forearc sliver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Hasegawa, A.; Okada, T.; Nakajima, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Katsumata, K.

    2010-12-01

    1. Introduction In south-eastern Hokkaido, the Kuril forearc sliver is colliding with the northeastern Japan arc due to the oblique subduction of the Pacific plate. This collision causes the formation of the Hidaka mountain range since the late Miocene (Kimura, 1986) and delamination of the lower-crust materials of the Kuril forearc sliver, which would be expected to descend into the mantle wedge below (e.g., Ito 2000; Ito and Iwasaki, 2002). In this study, we precisely investigated the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure beneath the Hokkaido corner to examine the collision of two forearcs in this area by using both of data from a dense temporary seismic network deployed in this area (Katsumata et al. [2006]) and those from the Kiban observation network, which covers the entire Japanese Islands with a station separation of 15-20 km. 2. Data and method The double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003; 2006) was applied to a large number of arrival time data of 201,527 for P-waves and 150,963 for S-waves that were recorded at 125 stations from 10,971 earthquakes that occurred from 1999 to 2010. Grid intervals were set at 10 km in the along-arc direction, 12.5 km perpendicular to it, and 5-10 km in the vertical direction. 3. Results and discussion Inhomogeneous seismic velocity structure was clearly imaged in the Hokkaido corner at depths of 0-120 km. A high-velocity anomaly of P- and S- waves with a volume of 20 km x 90 km x 35km was detected just beneath the main zone of the Hidaka metamorphic belt at depths of 0-35 km. This high-velocity anomaly is continuously distributed from the depths of the mantle wedge to the surface. The western edge of the anomaly exactly corresponds to the Hidaka main thrust (HMT) at the surface. The highest velocity value in the anomaly corresponds to those of the uppermost mantle material (e.g. peridotite). The location of them at depths of 0-35km is also consistent with that of the Horoman-Peridotite belt, which

  1. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciT

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  2. Constraining the crustal root geometry beneath Northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.

    2016-10-01

    Consistent constraints of an over-thickened crust beneath the Rif Cordillera (N. Morocco) are inferred from analyses of recently acquired seismic datasets including controlled source wide-angle reflections and receiver functions from teleseismic events. Offline arrivals of Moho-reflected phases recorded in RIFSIS project provide estimations of the crustal thicknesses in 3D. Additional constraints on the onshore-offshore transition are inferred from shots in a coeval experiment in the Alboran Sea recorded at land stations in northern Morocco. A regional crustal thickness map is computed from all these results. In parallel, we use natural seismicity data collected throughout TopoIberia and PICASSO experiments, and from a new RIFSIS deployment, to obtain receiver functions and explore the crustal thickness variations with a H-κ grid-search approach. This larger dataset provides better resolution constraints and reveals a number of abrupt crustal changes. A gridded surface is built up by interpolating the Moho depths inferred for each seismic station, then compared with the map from controlled source experiments. A remarkably consistent image is observed in both maps, derived from completely independent data and methods. Both approaches document a large crustal root, exceeding 50 km depth in the central part of the Rif, in contrast with the rather small topographic elevations. This large crustal thickness, consistent with the available Bouguer anomaly data, favors models proposing that the high velocity slab imaged by seismic tomography beneath the Alboran Sea is still attached to the lithosphere beneath the Rif, hence pulling down the lithosphere and thickening the crust. The thickened area corresponds to a quiet seismic zone located between the western Morocco arcuate seismic zone, the deep seismicity area beneath western Alboran Sea and the superficial seismicity in Alhoceima area. Therefore, the presence of a crustal root seems to play also a major role in the

  3. Strong seismic wave scattering beneath Kanto region derived from dense K-NET/KiK-net strong motion network and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, S.; Yoshimoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    Observed seismograms, which consist of the high-frequency body waves through the low-velocity (LV) region at depth of 20-40 km beneath northwestern Chiba in Kanto, show strong peak delay and spindle shape of S waves. By analyzing dense seismic records from K-NET/KiK-net, such spindle-shape S waves are clearly observed in the frequency range of 1-8 Hz. In order to investigate a specific heterogeneous structure to generate such observations, we conduct 3-D finite-difference method (FDM) simulation using realistic heterogeneous models and compare the simulation results with dense strong motion array observations. Our 3-D simulation model is covering the zone 150 km by 64 km in horizontal directions and 75 km in vertical direction, which has been discretized with uniform grid size 0.05 km. We assume a layered background velocity structure, which includes basin structure, crust, mantle and subducting oceanic plate, base on the model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2008). In order to introduce the effect of seismic wave scattering, we assume a stochastic random velocity fluctuation in each layer. Random velocity fluctuations are characterized by exponential-type auto-correlation function (ACF) with correlation distance a = 3 km and rms value of fluctuation e = 0.05 in the upper crust, a = 3 km and e = 0.07 in the lower crust, a = 10 km and e = 0.02 in the mantle. In the subducting oceanic plate, we assume an anisotropic random velocity fluctuation characterized by exponential-type ACF with aH = 10 km in horizontal direction, aZ = 0.5 km in vertical direction and e = 0.02 (e.g., Furumura and Kennett, 2005). In addition, we assume a LV zone at northeastern part of Chiba with depth of 20-40 km (e.g., Matsubara et al., 2004). In the LV zone, random velocity fluctuation characterized by Gaussian-type ACF with a = 1 km and e = 0.07 is superposed on exponential-type ACF with a = 3 km and e = 0.07, in order to modulate the S-wave propagation in the dominant frequency range of

  4. Magmatic unrest beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    Hill, D.P.; Prejean, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain, which stands on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California, last erupted ???57,000 years BP. Episodic volcanic unrest detected beneath the mountain since late 1979, however, emphasizes that the underlying volcanic system is still active and capable of producing future volcanic eruptions. The unrest symptoms include swarms of small (M ??? 3) earthquakes, spasmodic bursts (rapid-fire sequences of brittle-failure earthquakes with overlapping coda), long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes, ground deformation, diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, and fumarole gases with elevated 3He/4He ratios. Spatial-temporal relations defined by the multi-parameter monitoring data together with earthquake source mechanisms suggest that this Mammoth Mountain unrest is driven by the episodic release of a volume of CO2-rich hydrous magmatic fluid derived from the upper reaches of a plexus of basaltic dikes and sills at mid-crustal depths (10-20 km). As the mobilized fluid ascends through the brittle-plastic transition zone and into overlying brittle crust, it triggers earthquake swarm activity and, in the case of the prolonged, 11-month-long earthquake swarm of 1989, crustal deformation and the onset of diffuse CO2 emissions. Future volcanic activity from this system would most likely involve steam explosions or small-volume, basaltic, strombolian or Hawaiaan style eruptions. The impact of such an event would depend critically on vent location and season.

  5. Understanding the nature of mantle upwelling beneath East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The concept of hot upwelling material - otherwise known as mantle plumes - has long been accepted as a possible mechanism to explain hotspots occurring at Earth's surface and it is recognized as a way of removing heat from the deep Earth. Nevertheless, this theory remains controversial since no one has definitively imaged a plume and over the last decades several other potential mechanisms that do not require a deep mantle source have been invoked to explain this phenomenon, for example small-scale convection at rifted margins, meteorite impacts or lithospheric delamination. One of the best locations to study the potential connection between hotspot volcanism at the surface and deep mantle plumes on land is the East African Rift (EAR). We image seismic velocity structure of the mantle below EAR with higher resolution than has been available to date by including seismic data recorded by stations from many regional networks ranging from Saudi Arabia to Tanzania. We use relative travel-time tomography to produce P- velocity models from the surface down into the lower mantle incorporating 9250 ray-paths in our model from 495 events and 402 stations. We add smaller earthquakes (4.5 < mb < 5.5) from poorly sampled regions in order to have a more uniform data coverage. The tomographic results allow us to image structures of ~ 100-km length scales to ~ 1000 km depth beneath the northern East-Africa rift (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Yemen) with good resolution also in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Our observations provide evidence that the shallow mantle slow seismic velocities continue trough the transition zone and into the lower mantle. In particular, the relatively slow velocity anomaly beneath the Afar Depression extends up to depths of at least 1000 km depth while another low-velocity anomaly beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift seems to be present in the upper mantle only. These features in the lower mantle are isolated with a diameter of about 400 km

  6. Crustal shear wave velocity structure in the northeastern Tibet based on the Neighbourhood algorithm inversion of receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Liang, Chuntao; Wu, Chenglong; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    The northeastern (NE) Tibet records and represents the far-field deformation response of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates in the Cenozoic time. Over the past two decades, studies have revealed the existence of thickened crust in the NE Tibet, but the thickening mechanism is still in debate. We deployed a passive-source seismic profile with 22 temporary broad-band seismic stations in the NE Tibet to investigate the crustal shear wave velocity structure in this region. We selected 288 teleseismic events located in the west Pacific subduction zone near Japan with similar ray path to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Neighbourhood algorithm method is applied to invert the shear wave velocity beneath stations. The inversion result shows a low-velocity zone (LVZ) is roughly confined to the Songpan-Ganzi block and Kunlun mountains and extends to the southern margin of Gonghe basin. Considering the low P-wave velocity revealed by the wide-angle reflection-refraction seismic experiment and high ratio of Vp/Vs based on H-κ grid searching of the receiver functions in this profile, LVZ may be attributed to partial melting induced by temperature change. This observation appears to be consistent with the crustal ductile deformation in this region derived from other geophysical investigations.

  7. Northeastern plateaus bioregion

    Gregg M. Riegel; Richard F. Miller; Carl N. Skinner; Sydney E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Northeastern California landscape is a mixture of vast arid basins and uplands, and forested mountain ranges interspersed with both fresh water and alkaline wetlands. The entire bioregion is significantly influenced by the rain shadow effect of the Cascade Range to the west. Three ecological unit subsections are treated in this chapter: (1) Modoc Plateau Section (M261G...

  8. Detection of zone of seepage beneath earthfill dam

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-02-01

    MST proposes to acquire resistivity and self-potential data at the Lake Sherwood earth fill dam site. These geophysical data will be processed, analyzed and interpreted with the objective of locating and mapping seepage pathways that might compromise...

  9. Crustal structure beneath western and eastern Iceland from surface waves and receiver functions

    Du, Z.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2002-01-01

    We determine the crustal structures beneath 14 broad-band seismic stations, deployed in western, eastern, central and southern Iceland, using surface wave dispersion curves and receiver functions. We implement a method to invert receiver functions using constraints obtained from genetic algorithm inversion of surface waves. Our final models satisfy both data sets. The thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 3.7 km s-1, is fairly uniform at ???6.5-9 km beneath the Tertiary intraplate areas of western and eastern Iceland, and unusually thick at 11 km beneath station HOT22 in the far south of Iceland. The depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 4.1 km s-1 is ???20-26 km in western Iceland and ???27-33 km in eastern Iceland. These results agree with those of explosion profiles that detect a thinner crust beneath western Iceland than beneath eastern Iceland. An earlier report of a substantial low-velocity zone beneath the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust is confirmed by a similar observation beneath an additional station there. As was found in previous receiver function studies, the most reliable feature of the results is the clear division into an upper sequence that is a few kilometres thick where velocity gradients are high, and a lower, thicker sequence where velocity gradients are low. The transition to typical mantle velocities is variable, and may range from being very gradational to being relatively sharp and clear. A clear Moho, by any definition, is rarely seen, and there is thus uncertainty in estimates of the thickness of the crust in many areas. Although a great deal of seismic data are now available constraining the structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath Iceland, their geological nature is not well understood.

  10. Lithospheric radial anisotropy beneath the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Risheng; Ko, Justin Yen-Ting; Wei, Shengji; Zhan, Zhongwen; Helmberger, Don

    2017-05-01

    The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), where a layer of low viscosity asthenosphere decouples with the upper plate motion, plays an essential role in plate tectonics. Most dynamic modeling assumes that the shear velocity can be used as a surrogate for viscosity which provides key information about mantle flow. Here, we derive a shear velocity model for the LAB structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico allowing a detailed comparison with that beneath the Pacific (PAC) and Atlantic (ATL). Our study takes advantage of the USArray data from the March 25th, 2013 Guatemala earthquake at a depth of 200 km. Such data is unique in that we can observe a direct upward traveling lid arrival which remains the first arrival ahead of the triplications beyond 18°. This extra feature in conjunction with upper-mantle triplication sampling allows good depth control of the LAB and a new upper-mantle seismic model ATM, a modification of ATL, to be developed. ATM has a prominent low velocity zone similar to the structure beneath the western Atlantic. The model contains strong radial anisotropy in the lid where VSH is about 6% faster than VSV. This anisotropic feature ends at the bottom of the lithosphere at about the depth of 175 km in contrast to the Pacific where it extends to over 300 km. Another important feature of ATM is the weaker velocity gradient from the depth of 175 to 350 km compared to Pacific models, which may be related to differences in mantle flow.

  11. Numerical modeling the genetic mechanism of Cenozoic intraplate Volcanoes in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wulin; Chen, Yongshun John; Zhang, Huai; Jin, Yimin; Shi, Yaolin

    2017-04-01

    Changbaishan Volcano located about 1400 km west of Japan Trench is an intra continental volcano which having different origin from island arc volcanoes. A number of different mechanisms have been proposed to interpret the origin of intraplate volcanoes, such as deep mantle plumes, back-arc extension and decompressional partial melting, asthenosphere upwelling and decompressional melting, and deep stagnant slab dehydration and partial melting. The recent geophysical research reveals that the slow seismic velocity anomaly extends continuously just below 660 km depth to surface beneath Changbaishan by seismic images and three-dimensional waveform modelling [Tang et al., 2014]. The subduction-induced upwelling occurs within a gap in the stagnant subducted Pacific Plate and produces decompressional melting. Water in deep Earth can reduce viscosity and lower melting temperature and seismic velocity and has effects on many other physical properties of mantle materials. The water-storage capacity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite, which are the main phase in the mantle transition zone, is much greater than that of upper mantle and lower mantle. Geophysical evidences have shown that water content in the mantle transition zone is exactly greater than that of upper mantle and lower mantle [Karato, 2011]. Subducted slab could make mantle transition zone with high water content upward or downward across main phase change surface to release water, and lead to partial melting. We infer that the partial melting mantle and subducted slab materials propagate upwards and form the Cenozoic intraplate Volcanoes in Northeastern China. We use the open source code ASPECT [Kronbichler et al., 2012] to simulate the formation and migration of magma contributing to Changbaishan Volcano. We find that the water entrained by subducted slab from surface has only small proportion comparing to water content of mantle transition zone. Our model provide insights into dehydration melting induced by water

  12. Nebraska's groundwater legacy: Nitrate contamination beneath irrigated cropland

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Mary E; Hirsh, Aaron J; Spalding, Roy F

    2014-01-01

    A 31 year record of ∼44,000 nitrate analyses in ∼11,500 irrigation wells was utilized to depict the decadal expansion of groundwater nitrate contamination (N ≥ 10 mg/L) in the irrigated corn-growing areas of eastern and central Nebraska and analyze long-term nitrate concentration trends in 17 management areas (MAs) subject to N fertilizer and budgeting requirements. The 1.3 M contaminated hectares were characterized by irrigation method, soil drainage, and vadose zone thickness and lithology. The areal extent and growth of contaminated groundwater in two predominately sprinkler-irrigated areas was only ∼20% smaller beneath well-drained silt loams with thick clayey-silt unsaturated layers and unsaturated thicknesses >15 m (400,000 ha and 15,000 ha/yr) than beneath well and excessively well-drained soils with very sandy vadose zones (511,000 ha and 18,600 ha/yr). Much slower expansion (3700 ha/yr) occurred in the 220,000 contaminated hectares in the central Platte valley characterized by predominately gravity irrigation on thick, well-drained silt loams above a thin (∼5.3 m), sandy unsaturated zone. The only reversals in long-term concentration trends occurred in two MAs (120,500 ha) within this contaminated area. Concentrations declined 0.14 and 0.20 mg N/L/yr (p < 0.02) to ∼18.3 and 18.8 mg N/L, respectively, during >20 years of management. Average annual concentrations in 10 MAs are increasing (p < 0.05) and indicate that average nitrate concentrations in leachates below the root zone and groundwater concentrations have not yet reached steady state. While management practices likely have slowed increases in groundwater nitrate concentrations, irrigation and nutrient applications must be more effectively controlled to retain nitrate in the root zone. PMID:25558112

  13. Seismic Discontinuities beneath the Southwestern United States from S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanbi, O. E.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    S- Receiver functions along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande Rift-Great Plains Transect known as La RISTRA in the southwestern United States have been utilized to map the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath this tectonically active region. The receiver functions were stacked according to ray piercing points with moveout corrections in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of converted S-to-P phases. The Moho appears at 30-40 km beneath the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) and deepens to 35-45 km beneath the Great Plains (GP) and the Colorado Plateau (CP). A sharp discontinuity is observed along the profile with the average depth of 80 km beneath the RGR, 100 km beneath the GP, and 160 km beneath the CP. This discontinuity is consistent with the top of a low velocity zone in a shear wave model beneath the array and is interpreted as the LAB. Strong phases imaged at ~90 km beneath the CP and GP could be a combination of side-lobes of the Moho conversions and primary Sp phases from a mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD). The relatively shallow Moho and LAB beneath the Rio Grande Rift is indicative of lithosphere extension and asthenosphere upwarp. In addition, the LAB shows depth-step depressions at the RGR-CP and RGR-GP boundaries, providing evidence for mantle downwelling. The variation of the lithospheric depth across the RISTRA array supports that edge-driven, small-scale mantle convection is largely responsible for the recent extension and uplift in the Rio Grande Rift and the Colorado Plateau.

  14. Seismic anisotropy of western Mexico and northeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Soto, Gerardo

    In this dissertation, characteristics of upper mantle anisotropy, using shear wave splitting techniques, for two distinct tectonic provinces are presented. In the first part, in western Mexico, the Rivera and Cocos plates subduct beneath the North America plate constituting a young subduction setting where plate fragmentation and capture is occurring today. We characterize the upper mantle anisotropy from SKS and local S phases from the data collected by the MARS experiment (MApping the Rivera Subduction zone) and by two stations of the Mexican Servicio Sismologico National. SKS shear-wave splitting parameters indicate that the fast directions of the split SKS waves for the stations that lie on the central and southern Jalisco block are approximately trench normal. Fast polarizations of these phases also follow the convergence direction between the Rivera Plate and Jalisco block with respect to the North America plate. S-wave splitting from slab events show a small averaged delay time of about 0.2 sec for the upper 60 km of the crust and mantle. Therefore, the main source of anisotropy must reside on the entrained mantle below the young and thin Rivera Plate. Trench-oblique fast SKS split directions are observed in the western edge of the Rivera Plate and western parts of the Cocos slab. The curved pattern of fast SKS split directions in the western Jalisco block and the Rivera-Cocos gap indicate 3-D toroidal mantle flow, around the northwestern edge of the Rivera slab and Rivera- Cocos gap. This behavior profoundly affects finite strain field in the northwestern edge of the Rivera slab and the mantle wedge. The shear wave splitting results support the idea that the Rivera and Cocos plates not only moved in a down-dip direction but also have recently rolled back towards the trench and the Colima rift is intimately related to the tearing between the Rivera and Cocos plates. In the second study, the tectonic enviroment of the northeastern Tibetan plateau is

  15. Receiver function imaging of the mantle discontinuties beneath Fennoscandia and northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, Andrew; Thybo, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Receiver functions from the Mantle Investigations of Norwegian Uplift Structure experiment (MAGNUS) are depth-converted using interval wavespeeds from AK-135 for the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities and combined using common-conversion-point stacking. This preliminary work shows a potentially complex mantle-transition-zone beneath southern Norway, with reduction in the amplitude of the 410-arrival and 20-30 km of shallowing of the 660-arrival beneath the axis of the Oslo Rift. To refine these measurements and place them in a regional context, we incorporate the MAGNUS dataset with permanent stations and previous temporary seismic deployments across Fennoscandia and northern Europe. New constraints on the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and character of the mantle-transition-zone will aid in understanding the causes for potentially recent uplift in the southern Scandes and the region of unusually slow upper mantle resolved beneath the region (Weidle and Maupin, 2008).

  16. Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zoneof Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Lin, Guoqing; Amelung, Falk; Lavallee, Yan; Okubo, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    An anomalous body with low Vp (compressional wave velocity), low Vs (shear wave velocity), and high Vp/Vs anomalies is observed at 8–11 km depth beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii by simultaneous inversion of seismic velocity structure and earthquake locations. We interpret this body to be a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcanic pile, similar to those widely recognized beneath mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. Combined seismic velocity and petrophysical models suggest the presence of 10% melt in a cumulate magma mush. This reservoir could have supplied the magma that intruded into the deep section of the east rift zone and caused its rapid expansion following the 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake.

  17. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  18. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  19. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume.

  20. Thermochronologic constraints on mylonite and detachment fault development, Kettle Highlands, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia

    SciT

    Berger, B.R.; Snee, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Kettle dome, northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia, is one of several large metamorphic core complexes in the region. New Ar-40/Ar-39 cooling dates from the mylonite immediately beneath the Kettle River detachment fault at Barney's Junction, a cross-cutting mafic dike, and the youngest Eocene lavas in the Republic graben set constraints on kinematic models of the tectonic evolution of the dome and related grabens: Amphibolite--hornblende (59.0 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--muscovite (49.3 [+-] 0.2); Pegmatite--K-feldspar (49.2 [+-] 1); Augen gneiss--K-feldspar (48.0 [+-] 1); Mafic dike--hornblende (54.5 [+-] 0.1) and biotite (49.6 [+-] 0.1); Klondike Mt. Formation lava--feeder dike (48.8 [+-] 1).more » The authors interpret the dates to indicate that the tectonized amphibolite, part of a Cretaceous and older metamorphosed terrane, had formed and cooled to [approx] 500 C by Late Paleocene, the mylonite zone was being domed above the ductile zone by Early Eocene at the time of emplacement of the dike--temporally equivalent to the Keller Butte suite, Eocene Colville batholith--which crosscuts the mylonite, and incipient rifting was occurring in the Republic graben as evidenced by dike swarms. The mylonite complex reached 300 C by 49Ma coincident with the termination of Sanpoil volcanism, and then cooled rapidly to near or below 150 C by 48 Ma. At about this time, mafic Klondike Mt. lavas mark the termination of Republic graben rifting and possibly detachment faulting along the Kettle River fault.« less

  1. Slab-plume interaction beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrebski, Mathias; Allen, Richard M.; Xue, Mei; Hung, Shu-Huei

    2010-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest has undergone complex plate reorganization and intense tectono-volcanic activity to the east during the Cenozoic (last 65 Ma). Here we show new high-resolution tomographic images obtained using shear and compressional data from the ongoing USArray deployment that demonstrate first that there is a continuous, whole-mantle plume beneath the Yellowstone Snake River Plain (YSRP) and second, that the subducting Juan de Fuca (JdF) slab is fragmented and even absent beneath Oregon. The analysis of the geometry of our tomographic models suggests that the arrival and emplacement of the large Yellowstone plume had a substantial impact on the nearby Cascadia subduction zone, promoting the tearing and weakening of the JdF slab. This interpretation also explains several intriguing geophysical properties of the Cascadia trench that contrast with most other subduction zones, such as the absence of deep seismicity and the trench-normal fast direction of mantle anisotropy. The DNA velocity models are available for download and slicing at http://dna.berkeley.edu.

  2. The frontier beneath our feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Gordon E.; Dietrich, William E.

    2017-04-01

    Following the simple question as to where water goes when it rains leads to one of the most exciting frontiers in earth science: the critical zone—Earth's dynamic skin. The critical zone extends from the top of the vegetation canopy through the soil and down to fresh bedrock and the bottom of the groundwater. Only recently recognized as a distinct zone, it is challenging to study because it is hard to observe directly, and varies widely across biogeoclimatic regions. Yet new ideas, instruments, and observations are revealing surprising and sometimes paradoxical insights, underscoring the value of field campaigns and long-term observatories. These insights bear directly on some of the most pressing societal problems today: maintaining healthy forests, sustaining streamflow during droughts, and restoring productive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The critical zone is critical because it supports all terrestrial life; it is the nexus where water and carbon is cycled, vegetation (hence food) grows, soil develops, landscapes evolve, and we live. No other frontier is so close to home.

  3. Trench-parallel flow beneath the nazca plate from seismic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Russo, R M; Silver, P G

    1994-02-25

    Shear-wave splitting of S and SKS phases reveals the anisotropy and strain field of the mantle beneath the subducting Nazca plate, Cocos plate, and the Caribbean region. These observations can be used to test models of mantle flow. Two-dimensional entrained mantle flow beneath the subducting Nazca slab is not consistent with the data. Rather, there is evidence for horizontal trench-parallel flow in the mantle beneath the Nazca plate along much of the Andean subduction zone. Trench-parallel flow is attributale utable to retrograde motion of the slab, the decoupling of the slab and underlying mantle, and a partial barrier to flow at depth, resulting in lateral mantle flow beneath the slab. Such flow facilitates the transfer of material from the shrinking mantle reservoir beneath the Pacific basin to the growing mantle reservoir beneath the Atlantic basin. Trenchparallel flow may explain the eastward motions of the Caribbean and Scotia sea plates, the anomalously shallow bathymetry of the eastern Nazca plate, the long-wavelength geoid high over western South America, and it may contribute to the high elevation and intense deformation of the central Andes.

  4. Deep seismic structure of the northeastern South China Sea: Origin of a high-velocity layer in the lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kuiyuan; Xia, Shaohong; Cao, Jinghe; Sun, Jinlong; Xu, Huilong

    2017-04-01

    We present a 2-D seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile, which delineates the Moho morphology and magmatic features of the northeastern South China Sea margin. The image was created by forward modeling (RayInvr) and traveltime tomographic inversion (Tomo2D). Overall, the continental crust thins seaward from 27 km to 21 km within the continental shelf across the Zhu I Depression and Dongsha Rise, with slight local thickening beneath the Dongsha Rise accompanying the increase in the Moho depth. The Dongsha Rise is also characterized by 4-7 km thick high-velocity layer (HVL) ( 7.0-7.6 km/s) in the lower crust and exhibits a relatively high velocity ( 5.5-6.4 km/s) in the upper crust with a velocity gradient lower than those of the Zhu I Depression and Tainan Basin. Across the continental slope and continent-ocean transition (COT), which contain the Tainan Basin, the crust sharply thins from 20 km to 10 km seaward and a 2-3 km thick HVL is imaged in the lower crust. We observed that volcanoes are located only within the COT, but none exist in the continental shelf; the Dongsha Rise exhibits a high magnetic anomaly zone and different geochemical characteristics from the COT. Based on those observations, we conclude that the HVL underlying the COT is probably extension related resulting from the decompression melting in the Cenozoic, whereas the HVL beneath the Dongsha Rise is probably arc related and associated with the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. These findings are inconsistent with those of some previous studies.

  5. Lithospheric structure beneath the Caribbean- South American plate boundary from S receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2010-12-01

    We have analyzed teleseismic S-wave data recorded by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela and the BOLIVAR broadband array (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) deployed from 2003 to 2005. A total of 28 events with Mw > 5.7 occurring at epicentral distances from 55° to 85° were used. We made Sp receiver functions to estimate the rapid variations of lithospheric structure in the southern Caribbean plate boundary region to try to better understand the complicated tectonic history of the region. Estimated Moho depth ranges from ~20 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~50 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela and the Sierra del Interior in northeastern Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009). Beneath the Maracaibo Block we observe a signal at a depth of 100 km dipping ~24° towards the continent, which we interpret as the top of the oceanic Caribbean slab that is subducting beneath South America from the west. The deeper part of the slab was previously imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010), and the upper part inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995). These studies indicate flat slab subduction beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela with the slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Like others we attribute the flat slab subduction to the uplift of the Mérida Andes (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In eastern Venezuela beneath the Sierra del Interior we also observe a deep signal that we interpret as deep South American lithosphere that is detaching from the overriding plate as the Atlantic subducts and tears away from SA (Bezada et al., 2010; Clark et al, 2008). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB

  6. Mantle Structure Beneath East Africa and Zambia from Body Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Nyblade, A.; Tugume, F.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, P and S travel time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are being inverted, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds variations extending to a depth of 1200 km. Preliminary results show that at depths of 200 km of less, low wave speed anomalies are well developed beneath the Eastern and Western Branches of the East African Rift System. At deep depths, the low wave speed anomalies focus under the center and southern part of the East African Plateau and extend into the transition zone. At transition zone depths and within the top part of the lower mantle, the low wave speed anomaly shifts to the southwest beneath Zambia, indicating that the low wave speed anomaly is continuous across the transition zone and that it extends into the lower mantle. This result suggests that the upper mantle low wave speed anomaly beneath East Africa is connected to the African superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

  7. Crustal and Mantle Structure beneath the Okavango and Malawi Rifts and Its Geodynamic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Mickus, K. L.; Moidaki, M.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate crustal and mantle structure beneath the young and incipient sections of the East African Rift System and provide constraints on rifting models, a total of 50 broadband seismic stations were placed along three profiles across the Okavango and Malawi rifts, with a total length of about 2500 km. Results to date suggest minor crustal thinning and nearly normal seismic velocities in the upper mantle beneath both rifts. The thickness of the mantle transition zone is comparable to the global average, suggesting the lack of thermal upwelling from the lower mantle beneath the rifts. In addition, shear-wave splitting analysis found no anomalies in either the fast polarization orientation or the splitting time associated with the rifts, and thus has ruled out the existence of small-scale mantle convection or plume-related mantle flow beneath the rifts. While the Okavango rift has long been recognized to be located in a Precambrian orogenic zone between the Kalahari and Congo cratons, our results suggest that the Malawi Rift is also developing along the western edge of a lithospheric block with relatively greater thickness relative to the surrounding area. Those seismological and gravity modeling results are consistent with a passive rifting model, in which rifts develop along pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness, where rapid variations of lithospheric thickness is observed. Lateral variations of dragging stress applied to the bottom of the lithosphere are the most likely cause for the initiation and development of both rifts.

  8. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  9. Stress regime in the Philippine Sea slab beneath Kanto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi; Hasegawa, Akira; Hirose, Fuyuki

    2011-08-01

    We determine the focal mechanisms of earthquakes within the Philippine Sea slab beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, and perform stress tensor inversions to investigate the detailed stress field within the slab. The results show a characteristic spatial variation in earthquake-generating stress. Slab stress in northeastern part of the PHS slab is characterized by down-dip tension (DDT), except for the uppermost tip of the seismic portion of the slab where down-dip compression (DDC) stress is dominant. We interpret that DDT is caused by the net slab pull and DDC is attributable to local resistance to subduction at the tip of the slab. In southwestern part of the PHS slab, σ1 and σ3 are generally rotated oblique to the dip of the slab, suggesting that earthquakes occur under stress conditions of neither DDC nor DDT. The rotations in σ1 and σ3 may be related to stress accumulation by the slip deficit along the asperity of the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9).

  10. Tomography reveals buoyant asthenosphere accumulating beneath the Juan de Fuca plate.

    PubMed

    Hawley, William B; Allen, Richard M; Richards, Mark A

    2016-09-23

    The boundary between Earth's strong lithospheric plates and the underlying mantle asthenosphere corresponds to an abrupt seismic velocity decrease and electrical conductivity increase with depth, perhaps indicating a thin, weak layer that may strongly influence plate motion dynamics. The behavior of such a layer at subduction zones remains unexplored. We present a tomographic model, derived from on- and offshore seismic experiments, that reveals a strong low-velocity feature beneath the subducting Juan de Fuca slab along the entire Cascadia subduction zone. Through simple geodynamic arguments, we propose that this low-velocity feature is the accumulation of material from a thin, weak, buoyant layer present beneath the entire oceanic lithosphere. The presence of this feature could have major implications for our understanding of the asthenosphere and subduction zone dynamics. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Tomography reveals buoyant asthenosphere accumulating beneath the Juan de Fuca plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, William B.; Allen, Richard M.; Richards, Mark A.

    2016-09-01

    The boundary between Earth’s strong lithospheric plates and the underlying mantle asthenosphere corresponds to an abrupt seismic velocity decrease and electrical conductivity increase with depth, perhaps indicating a thin, weak layer that may strongly influence plate motion dynamics. The behavior of such a layer at subduction zones remains unexplored. We present a tomographic model, derived from on- and offshore seismic experiments, that reveals a strong low-velocity feature beneath the subducting Juan de Fuca slab along the entire Cascadia subduction zone. Through simple geodynamic arguments, we propose that this low-velocity feature is the accumulation of material from a thin, weak, buoyant layer present beneath the entire oceanic lithosphere. The presence of this feature could have major implications for our understanding of the asthenosphere and subduction zone dynamics.

  12. Hydrothermal reservoir beneath Taal Volcano (Philippines): Implications to volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, T.; Alanis, P. B.; Yamaya, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Bornas, M. V.; Cordon, J. M.; Puertollano, J.; Clarito, C. J.; Hashimoto, T.; Mogi, T.; Sasai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Taal Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines. The first recorded eruption was in 1573. Since then it has erupted 33 times resulting in thousands of casualties and large damages to property. In 1995, it was declared as one of the 15 Decade Volcanoes. Beginning in the early 1990s it has experienced several phases of abnormal activity, including seismic swarms, episodes of ground deformation, ground fissuring and hydrothermal activities, which continues up to the present. However, it has been noted that past historical eruptions of Taal Volcano may be divided into 2 distinct cycles, depending on the location of the eruption center, either at Main Crater or at the flanks. Between 1572-1645, eruptions occurred at the Main Crater, in 1707 to 1731, they occurred at the flanks. In 1749, eruptions moved back to the Main Crater until 1911. During the 1965 and until the end of the 1977 eruptions, eruptive activity once again shifted to the flanks. As part of the PHIVOLCS-JICA-SATREPS Project magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric surveys were conducted on Volcano Island in March 2011 and March 2012. Two-dimensional (2-D) inversion and 3-D forward modeling reveals a prominent and large zone of relatively high resistivity between 1 to 4 kilometers beneath the volcano almost directly beneath the Main Crater, surrounded by zones of relatively low resistivity. This anomalous zone of high resistivity is hypothesized to be a large hydrothermal reservoir filled with volcanic fluids. The presence of this large hydrothermal reservoir could be related to past activities of Taal Volcano. In particular we believe that the catastrophic explosion described during the 1911 eruption was the result of the hydrothermal reservoir collapsing. During the cycle of Main Crater eruptions, this hydrothermal reservoir is depleted, while during a cycle of flank eruptions this reservoir is replenished with hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Seismic structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area (southwest China) from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi; Li, Xuelei; Wang, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Tengchong is a young volcanic area on the collision boundary between the Indian and Euro-Asian plates of the southeastern Tibetan margin. Holocene volcanoes are concentrated in the Tengchong basin, where they align an N-S trending string-like cluster. To study the magma activity and its relation with the volcanoes, we deployed a passive seismic observation across the volcanic area in northern Tengchong. Using tele-seismic data and receiver function technique, we determined the S-wave velocity structure beneath nine temporary stations. Results show that the Tengchong basin is underlain by prominent low-velocity zones that are associated with the magma chambers of the volcanoes. In the north, a small and less pronounced magma chamber lies beneath two crater lakes, with a depth range of 9-16 km and a lateral width of <8 km. To the south, an interconnected magma chamber is found between the Dayingshan (DYS) volcano and the Dakongshan (DKS) volcanic cluster, with a depth range of 6-15 km and a lateral width of <12 km. In the south, the Laoguipo (LGP) volcano is characterized by anomalous low velocities throughout the upper-mid crust. Combined with other studies, we infer that the DYS volcano shares the same magma chamber with the DKS volcanic cluster, whereas the heat flow beneath the LGP volcano belongs to another thermal system, probably relating to the magma activity beneath the Rehai geothermal field in the south or affected by the intersection between the Tengchong volcanic fault zone and the Dayingjiang fault zone. In addition, mantle intrusion has resulted in the Moho elevation beneath the DKS volcanic cluster, and the thick transition zones on the crust-mantle boundary imply a possible penetration of the heat flow from the uppermost mantle into the lower crust.

  14. Direct-current resistivity data from 94 sites in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida

    Peterson, Cathleen J.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-current resistivity data were collected from 94 vertical electric sounding profiles in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida. Direct-current resistivity data, which may be used to determine the location and thicknesses of shallow, semipermeable marls or locate zones of high chloride concentration, are presented in this report. The resistivity data consist of field data, smoothed data, layer resistivity from smoothed data, and Cartesian graphs of resistivity in relation to depth for 94 sites located in northeastern Palm Beach County. (USGS)

  15. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  16. Upper crust beneath the central Illinois basin, United States

    McBride, J.H.; Kolata, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Newly available industry seismic reflection data provide critical information for understanding the structure and origin of the upper crust (0-12 km depth) beneath the central Illinois basin and the seismic-tectonic framework north of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. Mapping of reflector sequences furnishes the first broad three-dimensional perspective of the structure of Precambrian basement beneath the central United States Midcontinent. The highly coherent basement reflectivity is expressed as a synformal wedge of dipping and subhorizontal reflections situated beneath the center of the Illinois basin that thickens and deepens to the northeast (e.g., 0 to ???5.3 km thickness along a 123 km south to north line). The thickening trend of the wedge qualitatively mimics the northward thickening of the Late Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone; however, other Paleozoic units in the Illinois basin generally thicken southward into the basin center. The seismic data also reveal an anomalous subsequence defined by a spoon-shaped distribution of disrupted reflections located along the southern margin of the wedge. The boundaries of this subsequence are marked by distinct steeply dipping reflections (possible thrust faults?) that continue or project up to antiformal disruptions of lower Paleozoic marker reflectors, suggesting Paleozoic or possibly later tectonic reactivation of Precambrian structure. The areal extent of the subsequence appears to roughly correspond to an anomalous concentration of larger magnitude upper to middle crustal earthquakes. There are multiple hypotheses for the origin of the Precambrian reflectivity, including basaltic flows or sills interlayered with clastic sediments and/or emplaced within felsic igneous rocks. Such explanations are analogous to nearby Keweenawan rift-related volcanism and sedimentation, which initiated during Proterozoic rifting, and were followed eventually by reverse faulting along the rift margins caused

  17. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere.

  18. Vertical variation in the amplitude of the seasonal isotopic content of rainfall as a tool to jointly estimate the groundwater recharge zone and transit times in the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park aquifer system, north-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Jódar, Jorge; Custodio, Emilio; Lambán, Luis Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Herrera-Lameli, Christian; Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo

    2016-12-15

    The time series of stable water isotope composition relative to meteorological stations and springs located in the high mountainous zone of the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park are analyzed in order to study how the seasonal isotopic content of precipitation propagates through the hydrogeological system in terms of the aquifer recharge zone elevation and transit time. The amplitude of the seasonal isotopic composition of precipitation and the mean isotopic content in rainfall vary along a vertical transect, with altitudinal slopes for δ 18 O of 0.9‰/km for seasonal amplitude and -2.2‰/km for isotopic content. The main recharge zone elevation for the sampled springs is between 1950 and 2600m·a.s.l. The water transit time for the sampled springs ranges from 1.1 to 4.5yr, with an average value of 1.85yr and a standard deviation of 0.8yr. The hydrological system tends to behave as a mixing reservoir. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimates of deep percolation beneath native vegetation, irrigated fields, and the Amargosa-River Channel, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Akstin, Katherine C.; Boyd, Robert A.; Henkelman, Katherine K.

    2003-01-01

    The presence and approximate rates of deep percolation beneath areas of native vegetation, irrigated fields, and the Amargosa-River channel in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada were evaluated using the chloride mass-balance method and inferred downward velocities of chloride and nitrate peaks. Estimates of deep-percolation rates in the Amargosa Desert are needed for the analysis of regional ground-water flow and transport. An understanding of regional flow patterns is important because ground water originating on the Nevada Test Site may pass through the area before discharging from springs at lower elevations in the Amargosa Desert and in Death Valley. Nine boreholes 10 to 16 meters deep were cored nearly continuously using a hollow-stem auger designed for gravelly sediments. Two boreholes were drilled in each of three irrigated fields in the Amargosa-Farms area, two in the Amargosa-River channel, and one in an undisturbed area of native vegetation. Data from previously cored boreholes beneath undisturbed, native vegetation were compared with the new data to further assess deep percolation under current climatic conditions and provide information on spatial variability.The profiles beneath native vegetation were characterized by large amounts of accumulated chloride just below the root zone with almost no further accumulation at greater depths. This pattern is typical of profiles beneath interfluvial areas in arid alluvial basins of the southwestern United States, where salts have been accumulating since the end of the Pleistocene. The profiles beneath irrigated fields and the Amargosa-River channel contained more than twice the volume of water compared to profiles beneath native vegetation, consistent with active deep percolation beneath these sites. Chloride profiles beneath two older fields (cultivated since the 1960’s) as well as the upstream Amargosa-River site were indicative of long-term, quasi-steady deep percolation. Chloride profiles beneath the

  20. Insights Into Layering in the Cratonic Lithosphere Beneath Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weijia; Fu, Li-Yun; Saygin, Erdinc; Zhao, Liang

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of internal lithospheric discontinuities carry crucial information regarding the origin and evolution of the lithosphere. However, the formation and mechanisms of the midlithosphere discontinuity (MLD) are still enigmatic and controversial. We investigate the midlithospheric discontinuities beneath the Archean Western Australian Craton, which represents one of the oldest continents on the globe, using a novel receiver-based reflectivity approach combined with other geophysical information comprising tomographic P and S wave velocity, radial anisotropy, electrical resistivity, and heat flow data. The MLD is rather shallow with a depth of 68-82 km. Multiple prominent discontinuities are observed in the lithospheric mantle using constructed high-frequency (0.5-4 Hz) P wave reflectivities. These multiple discontinuities coincide well with the broad-scale reduction of relative P and SV wave velocities at the top of the graded transition zone from the lithosphere to the asthenosphere. Strong radial anisotropy in the upper lithosphere mantle tends to be weak across the MLD, which might reflect quasi-laminar lithospheric heterogeneity behavior with a horizontal correlation length that is greater than its vertical correlation length. Broad-scale electrical resistivity variations show little coherence with the MLD. Given these various geophysical observations, the upper lithosphere exhibits rigid and elastic properties above the MLD, while the lower lithosphere tends to be ductile and rheological or viscous. A model comprising quasi-laminar lithospheric heterogeneity could effectively represent the MLD characteristics beneath the Archean continent.

  1. Anisotropy beneath the Southern Pacific - real or apparent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasse, Philipp; Thomas, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Anisotropy of the lowermost mantle beneath the South- to Central Pacific is investigated using US-Array receivers and events located near the Tonga-Fiji subduction zones. Differential splitting in three different distance ranges (65° -85° , 90° -110° and >110°) of S-ScS, SKS-S, SKS-Sdiff phases is used. By utilizing differential splitting technique, it was possible to correct for upper mantle, as well as source- and receiver side anisotropy and effectively quantify shear wave splitting originating in the lowermost mantle. Delay times of horizontal (SH) and vertical polarized (SV) shear waves show that predominantly the SH wave is delayed relative to the SV wave. Motivated by the discrepancy in previous Pacific studies investigating the lowermost mantle beneath the Pacific the possibility of isotropic structure producing the observed splitting is tested. Synthetic seismograms are computed, based on various isotropic models and the resulting synthetics are analysed in the same way as the real data. While simple layered models do not produce splitting and therefore apparent anisotropy, models in which the lowermost mantle is represented as a negative gradient in P- and S-wave velocity, produce clear apparent anisotropy. Thus, this study presents a possible alternative way of explaining the structure of the D" region.

  2. Systematic variation in the depths of slabs beneath arc volcanoes

    England, P.; Engdahl, R.; Thatcher, W.

    2004-01-01

    The depths to the tops of the zones of intermediate-depth seismicity beneath arc volcanoes are determined using the hypocentral locations of Engdahl et al. These depths are constant, to within a few kilometres, within individual arc segments, but differ by tens of kilometres from one arc segment to another. The range in depths is from 65 km to 130 km, inconsistent with the common belief that the volcanoes directly overlie the places where the slabs reach a critical depth that is roughly constant for all arcs. The depth to the top of the intermediate-depth seismicity beneath volcanoes correlates neither with age of the descending ocean floor nor with the thermal parameter of the slab. This depth does, however, exhibit an inverse correlation with the descent speed of the subducting plate, which is the controlling factor both for the thermal structure of the wedge of mantle above the slab and for the temperature at the top of the slab. We interpret this result as indicating that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a process that depends critically upon the temperature at the top of the slab, or in the wedge of mantle, immediately below the volcanic arc.

  3. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy beneath the eastern United States and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin B.; Liu, Yunhua; Dahm, Haider; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.

    2017-03-01

    Systematic spatial variations of anisotropic characteristics are revealed beneath the eastern U.S. using seismic data recorded between 1988 and 2016 by 785 stations. The resulting fast polarization orientations of the 5613 measurements are generally subparallel to the absolute plate motion (APM) and are inconsistent with the strike of major tectonic features. This inconsistency, together with the results of depth estimation using the spatial coherency of the splitting parameters, suggests a mostly asthenospheric origin of the observed azimuthal anisotropy. The observations can be explained by a combined effect of APM-induced mantle fabric and a flow system deflected horizontally around the edges of the keel of the North American continent. Beneath the southern and northeastern portions of the study area, the E-W keel-deflected flow enhances APM-induced fabric and produces mostly E-W fast orientations with large splitting times, while beneath the southeastern U.S., anisotropy from the N-S oriented flow is weakened by the APM.

  4. Imaging the crustal magma sources beneath Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Hawaii

    Okubo, Paul G.; Benz, Harley M.; Chouet, Bernard A.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional seismic P-wave traveltime tomography is used to image the magma sources beneath Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Hawaii. High-velocity bodies (>6.4 km/s) in the upper 9 km of the crust beneath the summits and rift zones of the volcanoes correlate with zones of high magnetic intensities and are interpreted as solidified gabbro-ultramafic cumulates from which the surface volcanism is derived. The proximity of these high-velocity features to the rift zones is consistent with a ridge-spreading model of the volcanic flank. Southeast of the Hilina fault zone, along the south flank of Kilauea, low-velocity material (<6.0 km/s) is observed extending to depths of 9–11 km, indicating that the Hilina fault may extend possibly as deep as the basal decollement. Along the southeast flank of Mauna Loa, a similar low-velocity zone associated with the Kaoiki fault zone is observed extending to depths of 6–8 km. These two upper crustal low-velocity zones suggest common stages in the evolution of the Hawaiian shield volcanoes in which these fault systems are formed as a result of upper crustal deformation in response to magma injection within the volcanic edifice.

  5. Rayleigh Wave and Shear Wave Tomography of Northeastern China: Results Coconstrained by Multiple Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Chen, J.; Han, J.; Tian, Y.; Wu, M.; Yang, Y.; Ning, J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate crustal and upper mantle phase velocity structures beneath NorthEastern China (NEC, 40°-54°N, 112°-135°E), a tectonically active region with continental volcanicity divided by active faults. Rayleigh wave phase velocity is obtained respectively by Ambient Noise Method (ANM, Lin et al., GJI, 2009), Two Station Method (TSM, Meier et al., GJI, 2004) and Two Plane Wave Method (TPWM, Yang and Forsyth, JGR, 2005), assuring good frequency coverage. Two-year' events with magnitude Ms>5.5 and epicentral distance Δ>30°recorded by NECESSArray and some permanent stations of CEA are together used in TPWM and TSM, while 1 s continuous seismic observations in the same period are employed in ANM. The period of Rayleigh wave phase velocity spans from 6 s to 150 s, i.e., from 6 s to 30 s (ANM); 30 s to 100 s (TPWM) and 30 s to 150 s (TSM). Shear wave velocity structure of the research region is obtained by Weighted Least Squares Inversion, in which the weight is adopted as function of data quality. Our results not only display close relation with tectonics of this region, such as mountains, sedimentary basins, faults, but also reveal variation feature of crustal thickness. Moreover, our results clearly show that all volcanos in this region have their roots — low velocity zones, among them the roots of Changbai, Jingbohu, Wudalianchi are obviously connected, while the biggest one of Daxinganling is separated. This feature might be result of an early intense eruption in western NEC and a late weak one in eastern NEC.

  6. Recharge Rates and Chemistry Beneath Playas of the High Plains Aquifer - A Literature Review and Synthesis

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2009-01-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are important zones of recharge to the High Plains (or Ogallala) aquifer and critical habitat for birds and other wildlife in the otherwise semiarid, shortgrass prairie and agricultural landscape. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on ground water from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution of recharge from playas to the regional aquifer. To address these questions and concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Playa Lakes Joint Venture, present a review and synthesis of the more than 175 publications about recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas and interplaya settings. Although a number of questions remain regarding the controls on recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas, the results from most published studies indicate that recharge rates beneath playas are substantially (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. The synthesis presented here supports the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this synthesis yield science-based implications for the protection and management of playas and ground-water resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  7. Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle

    Foulger, G.R.; Pritchard, M.J.; Julian, B.R.; Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of the highest-resolution teleseismic tomography study yet performed of the upper mantle beneath Iceland. The experiment used data gathered by the Iceland Hotspot Project, which operated a 35-station network of continuously recording, digital, broad-band seismometers over all of Iceland 1996-1998. The structure of the upper mantle was determined using the ACH damped least-squares method and involved 42 stations, 3159 P-wave, and 1338 S-wave arrival times, including the phases P, pP, sP, PP, SP, PcP, PKIKP, pPKIKP, S, sS, SS, SKS and Sdiff. Artefacts, both perceptual and parametric, were minimized by well-tested smoothing techniques involving layer thinning and offset-and-averaging. Resolution is good beneath most of Iceland from ??? 60 km depth to a maximum of ??? 450 km depth and beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone and near-shore parts of the Reykjanes ridge. The results reveal a coherent, negative wave-speed anomaly with a diameter of 200-250 km and anomalies in P-wave speed, Vp, as strong as -2.7 per cent and in S-wave speed, Vs, as strong as -4.9 per cent. The anomaly extends from the surface to the limit of good resolution at ??? 450 km depth. In the upper ??? 250 km it is centred beneath the eastern part of the Middle Volcanic Zone, coincident with the centre of the ??? 100 mGal Bouguer gravity low over Iceland, and a lower crustal low-velocity zone identified by receiver functions. This is probably the true centre of the Iceland hotspot. In the upper ??? 200 km, the low-wave-speed body extends along the Reykjanes ridge but is sharply truncated beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone. This suggests that material may flow unimpeded along the Reykjanes ridge from beneath Iceland but is blocked beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone. The magnitudes of the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs anomalies cannot be explained by elevated temperature alone, but favour a model of maximum temperature anomalies <200 K, along with up to ??? 2 per cent of partial melt in the depth

  8. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  9. Bacteria beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Lanoil, Brian; Skidmore, Mark; Priscu, John C; Han, Sukkyun; Foo, Wilson; Vogel, Stefan W; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Engelhardt, Hermann

    2009-03-01

    Subglacial environments, particularly those that lie beneath polar ice sheets, are beginning to be recognized as an important part of Earth's biosphere. However, except for indirect indications of microbial assemblages in subglacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica, no sub-ice sheet environments have been shown to support microbial ecosystems. Here we report 16S rRNA gene and isolate diversity in sediments collected from beneath the Kamb Ice Stream, West Antarctic Ice Sheet and stored for 15 months at 4 degrees C. This is the first report of microbes in samples from the sediment environment beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The cells were abundant ( approximately 10(7) cells g(-1)) but displayed low diversity (only five phylotypes), likely as a result of enrichment during storage. Isolates were cold tolerant and the 16S rRNA gene diversity was a simplified version of that found in subglacial alpine and Arctic sediments and water. Although in situ cell abundance and the extent of wet sediments beneath the Antarctic ice sheet can only be roughly extrapolated on the basis of this sample, it is clear that the subglacial ecosystem contains a significant and previously unrecognized pool of microbial cells and associated organic carbon that could potentially have significant implications for global geochemical processes.

  10. Detection of a ULVZ at the base of the mantle beneath the northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.

    2009-09-01

    We used the Yellowknife seismic array (YKA) to measure the slowness of 1,371 P and P diff waves from earthquakes occurring in the circum-Pacific region. The corresponding anomalies in P-velocity show a sharp reduction of up to 6% across a patch of the lowermost mantle beneath the Northwest Pacific with lateral dimensions of several hundred kilometers. The location of this ultra low velocity zone (ULVZ) correlates with a long-wavelength compositional boundary revealed by probabilistic mantle tomography. We interpret the ULVZ as partial melt created by paleo-slab material that is being swept laterally from northwestern Pacific subduction zones towards the large, chemically distinct province beneath the south-central Pacific.

  11. Big mantle wedge, anisotropy, slabs and earthquakes beneath the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2017-09-01

    The Japan Sea is a part of the western Pacific trench-arc-backarc system and has a complex bathymetry and intense seismic activities in the crust and upper mantle. Local seismic tomography revealed strong lateral heterogeneities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which was determined using P and S wave arrival times of suboceanic earthquakes relocated precisely with sP depth phases. Ambient-noise tomography revealed a thin crust and a thin lithosphere beneath the Japan Sea and significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies in the shallow mantle beneath the western and eastern margins of the Japan Sea. Observations with ocean-bottom seismometers and electromagnetometers revealed low-V and high-conductivity anomalies at depths of 200-300 km in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the subducting Pacific slab, and the anomalies are connected with the low-V zone in the normal mantle wedge beneath NE Japan, suggesting that both shallow and deep slab dehydrations occur and contribute to the arc and back-arc magmatism. The Pacific slab has a simple geometry beneath the Japan Sea, and earthquakes occur actively in the slab down to a depth of ∼600 km beneath the NE Asian margin. Teleseismic P and S wave tomography has revealed that the Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to the mantle transition zone (MTZ, 410-660 km) depths beneath the southern Japan Sea and the Tsushima Strait, and a slab window is revealed within the aseismic Philippine Sea slab. Seismic anisotropy tomography revealed a NW-SE fast-velocity direction in the BMW, which reflects corner flows induced by the fast deep subduction of the Pacific slab. Large deep earthquakes (M > 7.0; depth > 500 km) occur frequently beneath the Japan Sea western margin, which may be related to the formation of the Changbai and Ulleung intraplate volcanoes. A metastable olivine wedge is revealed within the cold core of the Pacific slab at the MTZ depth, which may be related

  12. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean: Ancient Slab Beneath the Indian Ocean

    SciT

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along anmore » extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.« less

  13. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean: Ancient Slab Beneath the Indian Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; ...

    2015-11-14

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along anmore » extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.« less

  14. Seismological evidence for monsoon induced micro to moderate earthquake sequence beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.

    2015-10-01

    In order to understand the processes involved in the genesis of monsoon induced micro to moderate earthquakes after heavy rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon period beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake (Mw 5.1) source zone, we assimilated 3-D microstructures of the sub-surface rock materials using a data set recorded by the Seismic Network of Gujarat (SeisNetG), India. Crack attributes in terms of crack density (ε), the saturation rate (ξ) and porosity parameter (ψ) were determined from the estimated 3-D sub-surface velocities (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio (σ) structures of the area at varying depths. We distinctly imaged high-ε, high-ξ and low-ψ anomalies at shallow depths, extending up to 9-15 km. We infer that the existence of sub-surface fractured rock matrix connected to the surface from the source zone may have contributed to the changes in differential strain deep down to the crust due to the infiltration of rainwater, which in turn induced micro to moderate earthquake sequence beneath Talala source zone. Infiltration of rainwater during the Indian summer monsoon might have hastened the failure of the rock by perturbing the crustal volume strain of the causative source rock matrix associated with the changes in the seismic moment release beneath the surface. Analyses of crack attributes suggest that the fractured volume of the rock matrix with high porosity and lowered seismic strength beneath the source zone might have considerable influence on the style of fault displacements due to seismo-hydraulic fluid flows. Localized zone of micro-cracks diagnosed within the causative rock matrix connected to the water table and their association with shallow crustal faults might have acted as a conduit for infiltrating the precipitation down to the shallow crustal layers following the fault suction mechanism of pore pressure diffusion, triggering the monsoon induced earthquake sequence beneath the source zone.

  15. High-resolution seismic reflection imaging of growth folding and shallow faults beneath the Southern Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Clement, C.R.; Pratt, T.L.; Holmes, M.L.; Sherrod, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Marine seismic reflection data from southern Puget Sound, Washington, were collected to investigate the nature of shallow structures associated with the Tacoma fault zone and the Olympia structure. Growth folding and probable Holocene surface deformation were imaged within the Tacoma fault zone beneath Case and Carr Inlets. Shallow faults near potential field anomalies associated with the Olympia structure were imaged beneath Budd and Eld Inlets. Beneath Case Inlet, the Tacoma fault zone includes an ???350-m wide section of south-dipping strata forming the upper part of a fold (kink band) coincident with the southern edge of an uplifted shoreline terrace. An ???2 m change in the depth of the water bottom, onlapping postglacial sediments, and increasing stratal dips with increasing depth are consistent with late Pleistocene to Holocene postglacial growth folding above a blind fault. Geologic data across a topographic lineament on nearby land indicate recent uplift of late Holocene age. Profiles acquired in Carr Inlet 10 km to the east of Case Inlet showed late Pleistocene or Holocene faulting at one location with ???3 to 4 m of vertical displacement, south side up. North of this fault the data show several other disruptions and reflector terminations that could mark faults within the broad Tacoma fault zone. Seismic reflection profiles across part of the Olympia structure beneath southern Puget Sound show two apparent faults about 160 m apart having 1 to 2 m of displacement of subhorizontal bedding. Directly beneath one of these faults, a dipping reflector that may mark the base of a glacial channel shows the opposite sense of throw, suggesting strike-slip motion. Deeper seismic reflection profiles show disrupted strata beneath these faults but little apparent vertical offset, consistent with strike-slip faulting. These faults and folds indicate that the Tacoma fault and Olympia structure include active structures with probable postglacial motion.

  16. High-resolution seismic reflection imaging of growth folding and shallow faults beneath the Southern Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Odum, Jackson K.; Stephenson, William J.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic reflection data from southern Puget Sound, Washington, were collected to investigate the nature of shallow structures associated with the Tacoma fault zone and the Olympia structure. Growth folding and probable Holocene surface deformation were imaged within the Tacoma fault zone beneath Case and Carr Inlets. Shallow faults near potential field anomalies associated with the Olympia structure were imaged beneath Budd and Eld Inlets. Beneath Case Inlet, the Tacoma fault zone includes an ∼350-m wide section of south-dipping strata forming the upper part of a fold (kink band) coincident with the southern edge of an uplifted shoreline terrace. An ∼2 m change in the depth of the water bottom, onlapping postglacial sediments, and increasing stratal dips with increasing depth are consistent with late Pleistocene to Holocene postglacial growth folding above a blind fault. Geologic data across a topographic lineament on nearby land indicate recent uplift of late Holocene age. Profiles acquired in Carr Inlet 10 km to the east of Case Inlet showed late Pleistocene or Holocene faulting at one location with ∼3 to 4 m of vertical displacement, south side up. North of this fault the data show several other disruptions and reflector terminations that could mark faults within the broad Tacoma fault zone. Seismic reflection profiles across part of the Olympia structure beneath southern Puget Sound show two apparent faults about 160 m apart having 1 to 2 m of displacement of subhorizontal bedding. Directly beneath one of these faults, a dipping reflector that may mark the base of a glacial channel shows the opposite sense of throw, suggesting strike-slip motion. Deeper seismic reflection profiles show disrupted strata beneath these faults but little apparent vertical offset, consistent with strike-slip faulting. These faults and folds indicate that the Tacoma fault and Olympia structure include active structures with probable postglacial motion.

  17. Mechanisms controlling Cu, Fe, Mn, and Co profiles in peat of the Filson Creek Fen, northeastern Minnesota

    Walton-Day, K.; Filipek, L.H.; Papp, C.S.E.

    1990-01-01

    Filson Creek Fen, located in northeastern Minnesota, overlies a Cu-Ni sulfide deposit. A site in the fen was studied to evaluate the hydrogeochemical mechanisms governing the development of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu profiles in the peat. At the study site, surface peat approximately 1 m thick is separated from the underlying mineralized bedrock by a 6-12 m thickness of lake and glaciofluvial sediments and till. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu in peat and major elements in pore water delineate a shallow, relatively oxidized, Cu-rich zone overlying a deeper, reduced, Fe-, Mn-, and Co-rich zone within the peat. Sequential metal extractions from peat samples reveal that 40-55% of the Cu in the shallow zone is associated with organic material, whereas the remaining Cu is distributed between iron-oxide, sulfide, and residual fractions. Sixty to seventy percent of the Fe, Mn, and Co concentrated in the deeper zone occur in the residual phase. The metal profiles and associations probably result from non-steady-state input of metals and detritus into the fen during formation of the peat column. The enrichment of organic-associated Cu in the upper, oxidized zone represents a combination of Cu transported into the fen with detrital plant fragments and soluble Cu, derived from weathering of outcrop and subcrop of the mineral deposit, transported into the fen, and fixed onto organic matter in the peat. The variable stratigraphy of the peat indicates that weathering processes and surface vegetation have changed through time in the fen. The Fe, Mn, and Co maxima at the base of the peat are associated with a maximum in detrital matter content of the peat resulting from a transition between the underlying inorganic sedimentary environment to an organic sedimentary environment. The chemistry of sediments and ground water collected beneath the peat indicate that mobilization of metals from sulfide minerals in the buried mineral deposit or glacial deposits is minimal. Therefore, the

  18. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    PubMed

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Imaging the midcontinent rift beneath Lake Superior using large aperture seismic data

    Tréhu, Anne M.; Morel-a-l'Huissier, Patrick; Meyer, R.; Hajnal, Z.; Karl, J.; Mereu, R.F.; Sexton, John L.; Shay, J.; Chan, W. K.; Epili, D.; Jefferson, T.; Shih, X. R.; Wendling, S.; Milkereit, B.; Green, A.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1991-01-01

    We present a detailed velocity model across the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in central Lake Superior. The model was derived primarily from onshore-offshore large-aperture seismic and gravity data. High velocities obtained within a highly reflective half-graben that was imaged on coincident seismic reflection data demonstrate the dominantly mafic composition of the graben fill and constrain its total thickness to be at least 30km. Strong wide-angle reflections are observed from the lower crust and Moho, indicating that the crust is thickest (55–60km) beneath the axis of the graben. The total crustal thickness decreases rapidly to about 40 km beneath the south shore of the lake and decreases more gradually to the north. Above the Moho is a high-velocity lower crust interpreted to result from syn-rift basaltic intrusion into and/or underplating beneath the Archean lower crust. The lower crust is thickest beneath the axis of the main rift half-graben. A second region of thick lower crust is found approximately 100km north of the axis of the rift beneath a smaller half graben that is interpreted to reflect an earlier stage of rifting. The crustal model presented here resembles recent models of some passive continental margins and is in marked contrast to many models of both active and extinct Phanerozoic continental rift zones. It demonstrates that the Moho is a dynamic feature, since the pre-rift Moho is probably within or above the high-velocity lower crust, whereas the post-rift Moho is defined as the base of this layer. In the absence of major tectonic activity, however, the Moho is very stable, since the large, abrupt variations in crustal thickness beneath the MRS have been preserved for at least a billion years.

  20. CCP Receiver-Function Imaging of the Moho beneath Volcanic Fields in Western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, A. R.; Mooney, W. D.; Klemperer, S. L.; Zahran, H. M.; El-Hadidy, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We are searching for structural complexity in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Neogene volcanic fields ('harrats') of western Saudi Arabia. We determined P-wave seismic receiver functions for 50 broadband seismographic stations located within or adjacent to three volcanic fields: Harrats Lunayyir, Rahat, and Khaybar. There are 18 seismographic stations within Lunayyir, 11 in Khaybar, and 15 in Rahat with average interstation spacing of 10 km, 30km, and 50 km. For each station we calculated 300 to 600 receiver functions with an iterative time-domain deconvolution; noisy receiver functions (outliers) were rejected by cross correlating each receiver function with a station stack; we only accepted those with a cross correlation coefficient ≥ 0.6. We used these receiver functions to create a common-conversion point (CCP) image of the crust and upper mantle. The Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are clearly imaged, particularly beneath Lunayyir, and have average depths of about 38 km and 60 km. We do not find any evidence for structural disruption of the Moho within our ~70 km x 70 km image of the Moho beneath Lunayyir. We image a clear crust-mantle boundary beneath Rahat and Khaybar also at ~38 km, 2-3 km deeper than anticipated from prior receiver function results outside of the harrats. Mid-crustal low velocity zones seen locally beneath all three harrats, most commonly at 10-15 km or 15-20 km in depth, may more likely represent silicic Precambrian basement than accumulations of magma. Estimates of up to ~0.5 km3 of magma erupted during each eruptive episode are consistent with the lack of a disrupted Moho. However, the total erupted volume of magma, e.g. > 1000 km3 at Rahat, together with associated intrusions from the mantle, is consistent with crustal thickening of ~2 km beneath the harrats.

  1. Forearc structure beneath southwestern British Columbia: A three-dimensional tomographic velocity model

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Capturing the flow beneath water waves.

    PubMed

    Nachbin, A; Ribeiro-Junior, R

    2018-01-28

    Recently, the authors presented two numerical studies for capturing the flow structure beneath water waves (Nachbin and Ribeiro-Junior 2014 Disc. Cont. Dyn. Syst. A 34 , 3135-3153 (doi:10.3934/dcds.2014.34.3135); Ribeiro-Junior et al. 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 812 , 792-814 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.820)). Closed orbits for irrotational waves with an opposing current and stagnation points for rotational waves were some of the issues addressed. This paper summarizes the numerical strategies adopted for capturing the flow beneath irrotational and rotational water waves. It also presents new preliminary results for particle trajectories, due to irrotational waves, in the presence of a bottom topography.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. The northern Lesser Antilles oblique subduction zone: new insight about the upper plate deformation, 3D slab geometry and interplate coupling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaillou, B.; Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2017-12-01

    In subduction zones, the 3D geometry of the plate interface is thought to be a key parameter for the control of margin tectonic deformation, interplate coupling and seismogenic behavior. In the northern Caribbean subduction, precisely between the Virgin Islands and northern Lesser Antilles, these subjects remain controversial or unresolved. During the ANTITHESIS cruises (2013-2016), we recorded wide-angle seismic, multichannel reflection seismic and bathymetric data along this zone in order to constrain the nature and the geometry of the subducting and upper plate. This experiment results in the following conclusions: 1) The Anegada Passage is a 450-km long structure accross the forearc related to the extension due to the collision with the Bahamas platform. 2) More recently, the tectonic partitioning due to the plate convergence obliquity re-activated the Anegada Passage in the left-lateral strike-slip system. The partitioning also generated the left-lateral strike-slip Bunce Fault, separating the accretionary prism from the forearc. 3) Offshore of the Virgin Islands margin, the subducting plate shows normal faults parallel to the ancient spreading center that correspond to the primary fabric of the oceanic crust. In contrast, offshore of Barbuda Island, the oceanic crust fabric is unresolved (fracture zone?, exhumed mantle? ). 4) In the direction of the plate convergence vector, the slab deepening angle decreases northward. It results in a shallower slab beneath the Virgin Islands Platform compared to the St Martin-Barbuda forearc. In the past, the collision of the Bahamas platform likely changed the geodynamic settings of the northeastern corner of the Caribbean subduction zone and we present a revised geodynamic history of the region. Currently, various features are likely to control the 3D geometry of the slab: the margin convexity, the convergence obliquity, the heterogeneity of the primary fabric of the oceanic crust and the Bahamas docking. We suggest that

  4. Teleseismic P-wave Attenuation beneath the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Peng, Y.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous laboratory, theoretical, and observational studies have demonstrated that the teleseismic body-wave attenuation factor (or t*), which is quantified by the travel time over the quality factor Q, can provide robust constraints on the thermal and physical state of the crust and upper mantle, and thus is ideal for investigating crustal and mantle dynamics in tectonically active areas such as the Eastern Tibetan Plateau, where pervasively distributed lower crustal flow has been regarded as a mechanism for its shortening and uplift. For this study, broadband seismic data recorded by 256 stations are used to compute the t* relative to a station in the Sichuan Basin. We have developed a set of procedures to reliably measure the P-wave t* values using the spectral ratio method through manually adjusting the time window and visually determining the quality of the measurements. Anomalously high t* values are found beneath active orogenic zones such as Qinling and Longmenshan, with magnitude of about 0.4 s. The Longmenshan block shows the most significant and spatially-consistent high t* measurements, probably caused by the accumulation of a thick and partially melted lower crustal layer. This high attenuation zone continues toward the south to the Songpan-Ganzi terrane to the south, but with a greatly reduced magnitude, suggesting a thinner low-viscosity lower crustal layer. The observations provided independent constraints on the spatial distribution and thickness of the proposed system of lower crustal flow.

  5. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  6. A Snapshot of the Northeastern Forests

    USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area

    2005-01-01

    This publication offers an overview of the northeastern forests and some of the major challenges and opportunities for sustaining them, as identified by the Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry and the Northeastern Area Association of State Foresters. Our goal is to raise awareness of the condition of the forests as a starting point for landowner discussions...

  7. Upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath the Kenya Rift and the Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongcheol

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Kenya Rift and Arabian Shield has been investigated to advance our understanding of the origin of the Cenozoic hotspot tectonism found there. A new seismic tomographic model of the upper mantle beneath the Kenya Rift has been obtained by inverting teleseismic P-wave travel time residuals. The model shows a 0.5--1.5% low velocity anomaly below the Kenya Rift extending to about 150 km depth. Below ˜150 km depth, the anomaly broadens to the west toward the Tanzania Craton, suggesting a westward dip to the structure. The P- and S-wave velocity structure beneath the Arabian Shield has been investigated using travel-time tomography. Models for the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle between 150 and 400 depths reveal a low velocity region (˜1.5% in the P model and ˜3% in the S model) trending NW-SE along the western side of the Arabian Shield and broadening to the northeast beneath the MMN volcanic line. The models have limited resolution above 150 km depth everywhere under the Shield, and in the middle part of the Shield the resolution is limited at all depths. Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements have been inverted to image regions of the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield not well resolved by the body wave tomography. The shear wave velocity model obtained shows upper mantle structure above 200 km depth. A broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle (depths of ≤ ˜100 km) across the Shield is observed, and below ˜150 km depth a region of low shear velocity is imaged along the Red Sea coast and MMN volcanic line. A westward dipping low velocity zone beneath the Kenya Rift is consistent with an interpretation by Nyblade et al. [2000] suggesting that a plume head is located under the eastern margin of the Tanzania Craton, or alternatively a superplume rising from the lower mantle from the west and reaching the surface under Kenya [e.g., Debayle et al., 2001; Grand et al., 1997; Ritsema et al., 1999]. For

  8. Haze in northeastern China

    2013-11-01

    Chinese authorities shut down much of Harbin – a city of more than 10 million people – as unusually high levels of pollution shrouded the city and the surrounding region in mid-October, 2013. Measurements taken on October 20, 2013 scored the air quality index in the city at 500, the highest possible reading. Levels above 300 are considered hazardous to human health. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this true-color image of northeastern China on October 21. The brightest areas are fog, which is tinged with gray or yellow due to the air pollution. Other cloud-free areas have a pall of gray and brown smog that blots out the city and surrounding towns. Harbin lies under the Y-shaped patch of fog and smog in the south-central section of the image, completely obscured from view. Some neighborhoods experienced concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as high as 1,000 micrograms per cubic meter. For comparison the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s air quality standards state that PM 2.5 should remain below 35 micrograms per cubic meter. It is extremely rare for particulate levels to reach such high levels in the absence of a dust storm or forest fire. Chinese authorities grounded airplanes, shuttered thousands of schools and closed major roads in response to the surge in pollution. A few days after pollution levels started to rise, Harbin hospitals reported a 30 percent increase in admissions related to respiratory problems, and several Harbin pharmacies were sold out of pollution facemasks, according to media reports. Cold weather and lack of wind helped fuel the pollution outbreak, but human factors also played an important role. Wheat and corn farmers in the region light fires in the fall to burn off debris following the harvest. Also, city officials turned on Harbin’s city-wide, coal-powered heating system just prior to the pollution outbreak, according to China’s state-run Xinhua

  9. Constraining the crustal root geometry beneath the Rif Cordillera (North Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2016-04-01

    The analyses of wide-angle reflections of controlled source experiments and receiver functions calculated from teleseismic events provide consistent constraints of an over-thickened crust beneath the Rif Cordillera (North Morocco). Regarding active source data, we investigate now offline arrivals of Moho-reflected phases recorded in RIFSIS project to get new estimations of 3D crustal thickness variations beneath North Morocco. Additional constrains on the onshore-offshore transition are derived from onland recording of marine airgun shots from the coeval Gassis-Topomed profiles. A regional crustal thickness map is computed from all these results. In parallel, we use natural seismicity data collected throughout TopoIberia and PICASSO experiments, and from a new RIFSIS deployment, to obtain teleseismic receiver functions and explore the crustal thickness variations with a H-κ grid-search approach. The use of a larger dataset including new stations covering the complex areas beneath the Rif Cordillera allow us to improve the resolution of previous contributions, revealing abrupt crustal changes beneath the region. A gridded surface is built up by interpolating the Moho depths inferred for each seismic station, then compared with the map from controlled source experiments. A remarkably consistent image is observed in both maps, derived from completely independent data and methods. Both approaches document a large modest root, exceeding 50 km depth in the central part of the Rif, in contrast with the rather small topographic elevations. This large crustal thickness, consistent with the available Bouguer anomaly data, favor models proposing that the high velocity slab imaged by seismic tomography beneath the Alboran Sea is still attached to the lithosphere beneath the Rif, hence pulling down the lithosphere and thickening the crust. The thickened area corresponds to a quiet seismic zone located between the western Morocco arcuate seismic zone, the deep seismicity area

  10. Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.

  11. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc

    Walowski, Kristina J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Clynne, Michael A.; Rasmussen, D.J.; Weis, D.

    2016-01-01

    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO>7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  12. Structure of the lower crust beneath the Carolina Trough, U.S. Atlantic continental margin

    Tréhu, Anne M.; Ballard, A.; Dorman, L.M.; Gettrust, J.F.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Schreiner, A.

    1989-01-01

    Data from three large-offset seismic profiles provide information on the crustal structure beneath the Carolina trough. The profiles, obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Naval Oceanographic Research Development Agency, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1985, were oriented parallel to the trough and were located (1) seaward of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA), which is generally thought to represent the boundary between oceanic and continental crust; (2) along the axis of the trough between the ECMA and the hinge zone, which is thought to reflect the landward limit of highly stretched and altered transitional crust; and (3) along the Carolina platform landward of the basement hinge zone on crust thought to have been thinned only slightly during rifting. These data constrain the velocity structure of the lower crust and provide evidence for a thick lens of high-velocity (>7.1 km/s) lower crustal material that extends beneath the Carolina trough and the adjacent ocean basin. This lens reaches a maximum thickness of about 13 km beneath the deepest part of the trough, thins to about 5 km seaward of the ECMA, and is either very thin or absent landward of the hinge zone. It is interpreted to represent material that was underplated beneath and/or intruded into the crust during the late stage of continental rifting and that led to an anomalously thick plutonic layer during the early seafloor spreading phase. These data thus support the recent conclusions of White et al. (1987b) and Mutter et al. (1988) that the initiation of seafloor spreading is attended in many, if not most, cases by the generation of an anomalously large volume of melt.

  13. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  14. S-wave attenuation structure beneath the northern Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    To understand temperature structure or magma distribution in the crust and uppermost mantle, it is essential to know their attenuation structure. This study estimated the 3-D S-wave attenuation structure in the crust and uppermost mantle at the northern Izu-Bonin arc, taking into account the apparent attenuation due to multiple forward scattering. In the uppermost mantle, two areas of high seismic attenuation (high Q -1) imaged beneath the volcanic front were mostly colocated with low-velocity anomalies. This coincidence suggests that these high- Q -1 areas in low-velocity zones are the most likely candidates for high-temperature regions beneath volcanoes. The distribution of random inhomogeneities indicated the presence of three anomalies beneath the volcanic front: Two were in high- Q -1 areas but the third was in a moderate- Q -1 area, indicating a low correlation between random inhomogeneities and Q -1. All three anomalies of random inhomogeneities were rich in short-wavelength spectra. The most probable interpretation of such spectra is the presence of volcanic rock, which would be related to accumulated magma intrusion during episodes of volcanic activity. Therefore, the different distributions of Q -1 and random inhomogeneities imply that the positions of hot regions in the uppermost mantle beneath this arc have changed temporally; therefore, they may provide important constraints on the evolutionary processes of arc crust and volcanoes.

  15. Seismic imaging of a mid-lithospheric discontinuity beneath Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharimena, Saikiran; Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is a huge, completely submerged volcanic edifice that is hypothesized to have formed during large plume melting events ∼90 and 120 My ago. It is currently resisting subduction into the North Solomon trench. The size and buoyancy of the plateau along with its history of plume melting and current interaction with a subduction zone are all similar to the characteristics and hypothesized mechanisms of continent formation. However, the plateau is remote, and enigmatic, and its proto-continent potential is debated. We use SS precursors to image seismic discontinuity structure beneath Ontong Java Plateau. We image a velocity increase with depth at 28 ± 4 km consistent with the Moho. In addition, we image velocity decreases at 80 ± 5 km and 282 ± 7 km depth. Discontinuities at 60-100 km depth are frequently observed both beneath the oceans and the continents. However, the discontinuity at 282 km is anomalous in comparison to surrounding oceanic regions; in the context of previous results it may suggest a thick viscous root beneath OJP. If such a root exists, then the discontinuity at 80 km bears some similarity to the mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) observed beneath continents. One possibility is that plume melting events, similar to that which formed OJP, may cause discontinuities in the MLD depth range. Plume-plate interaction could be a mechanism for MLD formation in some continents in the Archean prior to the onset of subduction.

  16. Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

  17. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    .... 100804323-0569-02] RIN 0648-XA523 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the directed fishery for butterfish in the Exclusive Economic Zone...

  18. Dipping San Andreas and Hayward faults revealed beneath San Francisco Bay, California

    Parsons, T.; Hart, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is crossed by several right-lateral strike-slip faults of the San Andreas fault zone. Fault-plane reflections reveal that two of these faults, the San Andreas and Hayward, dip toward each other below seismogenic depths at 60?? and 70??, respectively, and persist to the base of the crust. Previously, a horizontal detachment linking the two faults in the lower crust beneath San Francisco Bay was proposed. The only near-vertical-incidence reflection data available prior to the most recent experiment in 1997 were recorded parallel to the major fault structures. When the new reflection data recorded orthogonal to the faults are compared with the older data, the highest, amplitude reflections show clear variations in moveout with recording azimuth. In addition, reflection times consistently increase with distance from the faults. If the reflectors were horizontal, reflection moveout would be independent of azimuth, and reflection times would be independent of distance from the faults. The best-fit solution from three-dimensional traveltime modeling is a pair of high-angle dipping surfaces. The close correspondence of these dipping structures with the San Andreas and Hayward faults leads us to conclude that they are the faults beneath seismogenic depths. If the faults retain their observed dips, they would converge into a single zone in the upper mantle -45 km beneath the surface, although we can only observe them in the crust.

  19. Review: Recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas of the High Plains aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2010-12-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are hypothesized as an important source of recharge to the High Plains aquifer in central USA. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on groundwater from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution and quality of recharge from playas to the High Plains aquifer. As a result, there has been considerable scientific debate about the potential for water to infiltrate the relatively impermeable playa floors, travel through the unsaturated zone sediments that are tens of meters thick, and subsequently recharge the High Plains aquifer. This critical review examines previously published studies on the processes that control recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas. Reported recharge rates beneath playas range from less than 1.0 to more than 500 mm/yr and are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. Most studies support the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this review provide science-based implications for management of playas and groundwater resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  20. Imaging fluid-related subduction processes beneath Central Java (Indonesia) using seismic attenuation tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, Mirjam; Haberland, Christian; Asch, Günter

    2013-04-01

    We use local earthquake data observed by the amphibious, temporary seismic MERAMEX array to derive spatial variations of seismic attenuation (Qp) in the crust and upper mantle beneath Central Java. The path-averaged attenuation values (t∗) of a high quality subset of 84 local earthquakes were calculated by a spectral inversion technique. These 1929 t∗-values inverted by a least-squares tomographic inversion yield the 3D distribution of the specific attenuation (Qp). Analysis of the model resolution matrix and synthetic recovery tests were used to investigate the confidence of the Qp-model. We notice a prominent zone of increased attenuation beneath and north of the modern volcanic arc at depths down to 15 km. Most of this anomaly seems to be related to the Eocene-Miocene Kendeng Basin (mainly in the eastern part of the study area). Enhanced attenuation is also found in the upper crust in the direct vicinity of recent volcanoes pointing towards zones of partial melts, presence of fluids and increased temperatures in the middle to upper crust. The middle and lower crust seems not to be associated with strong heating and the presence of melts throughout the arc. Enhanced attenuation above the subducting slab beneath the marine forearc seems to be due to the presence of fluids.

  1. P-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath Hawaii from traveltime tomography

    Tilmann, F.J.; Benz, H.M.; Priestley, K.F.; Okubo, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the P-wave velocity structure beneath the island of Hawaii using P-wave residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network. The station geometry and distribution of events makes it possible to image the velocity structure between ~ 40 and 100 km depth with a lateral resolution of ~ 15 km and a vertical resolution of ~ 30 km. For depths between 40 and 80 km, P-wave velocities are up to 5 per cent slower in a broad elongated region trending SE-NW that underlies the island between the two lines defined by the volcanic loci. No direct correlation between the magnitude of the lithospheric anomaly and the current level of volcanic activity is apparent, but the slow region is broadened at ~ 19.8??N and narrow beneath Kilauea. In the case of the occanic lithosphere beneath Hawaii, slow seismic velocities are likely to be related to magma transport from the top of the melting zone at the base of the lithosphere to the surface. Thermal modelling shows that the broad elongated low-velocity zone cannot be explained in terms of conductive heating by one primary conduit per volcano but that more complicated melt pathways must exist.

  2. Resolving mantle structure beneath the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darold, A. P.; Humphreys, E.; Schmandt, B.; Gao, H.

    2011-12-01

    Cenozoic tectonics of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and the associated mantle structures are remarkable, the latter revealed only recently by EarthScope seismic data. Over the last ~66 Ma this region experienced a wide range of tectonic and magmatic conditions: Laramide compression, ~75-53 Ma, involving Farallon flat-slab subduction, regional uplift, and magmatic quiescence. With the ~53 Ma accretion of Siletzia ocean lithosphere within the Columbia Embayment, westward migration of subduction beginning Cascadia, along with initiation of the Cascade volcanic arc. Within the continental interior the Laramide orogeny was quickly followed by a period of extension involving metamorphic core complexes and the associated initial ignimbrite flare-up (both in northern Washington, Idaho, and western Montana); interior magmo-tectonic activity is attributed to flat-slab removal and (to the south) slab rollback. Rotation of Siletzia created new crust on SE Oregon and, at ~16 Ma, the Columbia River Flood Basalt (CRB) eruptions renewed vigorous magmatism. We have united several EarthScope studies in the Pacific Northwest and have focused on better resolving the major mantle structures that have been discovered. We have tomographically modeled the body waves with teleseismic, finite-frequency code under the constraints of ambient noise tomography and teleseismic receiver function models of Gao et al. (2011), and teleseismic anisotropy models of Long et al. (2009) in order to resolve structures continuously from the surface to the base of the upper mantle. We now have clear imaging of two episodes of subduction: Juan De Fuca slab deeper than ~250 km is absent across much of the PNW, and it has an E-W tear located beneath northern Oregon; Farallon slab (the "Siletzia curtain") is still present, hanging vertically just inboard of the core complexes, and with a basal tear causing the structure to extend deeper (~600 km) beneath north-central Idaho than beneath south-central Idaho and

  3. Microbial Life beneath a High Arctic Glacier†

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Mark L.; Foght, Julia M.; Sharp, Martin J.

    2000-01-01

    The debris-rich basal ice layers of a high Arctic glacier were shown to contain metabolically diverse microbes that could be cultured oligotrophically at low temperatures (0.3 to 4°C). These organisms included aerobic chemoheterotrophs and anaerobic nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, and methanogens. Colonies purified from subglacial samples at 4°C appeared to be predominantly psychrophilic. Aerobic chemoheterotrophs were metabolically active in unfrozen basal sediments when they were cultured at 0.3°C in the dark (to simulate nearly in situ conditions), producing 14CO2 from radiolabeled sodium acetate with minimal organic amendment (≥38 μM C). In contrast, no activity was observed when samples were cultured at subfreezing temperatures (≤−1.8°C) for 66 days. Electron microscopy of thawed basal ice samples revealed various cell morphologies, including dividing cells. This suggests that the subglacial environment beneath a polythermal glacier provides a viable habitat for life and that microbes may be widespread where the basal ice is temperate and water is present at the base of the glacier and where organic carbon from glacially overridden soils is present. Our observations raise the possibility that in situ microbial production of CO2 and CH4 beneath ice masses (e.g., the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets) is an important factor in carbon cycling during glacial periods. Moreover, this terrestrial environment may provide a model for viable habitats for life on Mars, since similar conditions may exist or may have existed in the basal sediments beneath the Martian north polar ice cap. PMID:10919772

  4. Late Pleistocene drainage systems beneath Delaware Bay

    Knebel, H.J.; Circe, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of an extensive grid of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously published sedimentary data and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the ancestral drainage systems of the Delaware River beneath lower Delaware Bay. Major paleovalleys within these systems have southeast trends, relief of 10-35 m, widths of 1-8 km, and axial depths of 31-57 m below present sea level. The oldest drainage system was carved into Miocene sands, probably during the late Illinoian lowstand of sea level. It followed a course under the northern half of the bay, continued beneath the Cape May peninsula, and extended onto the present continental shelf. This system was buried by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and shallow-marine sediments during Sangamonian time. At the height of the Sangamonian sea-level transgression, littoral and nearshore processes built the Cape May peninsula southward over the northern drainage system and formed a contiguous submarine sedimentary ridge that extended partway across the present entrance to the bay. When sea level fell during late Wisconsinan time, a second drainage system was eroded beneath the southern half of the bay in response to the southerly shift of the bay mouth. This system, which continued across the shelf, was cut into Coastal Plain deposits of Miocene and younger age and included not only the trunk valley of the Delaware River but a large tributary valley formed by the convergence of secondary streams that drained the Delaware coastal area. During the Holocene rise of sea level, the southern drainage system was covered by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and paralic deposits that accumulated due to the passage of the estuarine circulation cell and to the landward and upward migration of coastal sedimentary environments. Some Holocene deposits have been scoured subsequently by strong tidal currents. The southward migration of the ancestral drainage systems beneath Delaware

  5. Imaging Lithospheric Structure beneath the Indian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S.; Montagner, J. P.; Mangalampally, R. K.; Stutzmann, E.; Burgos, G.; Kumar, P.; Davuluri, S.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric structure and thickness to the LAB are the most debated issues, especially beneath continents. In this context, the structure and thickness of the Indian lithosphere has been controversial. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the Indian continent moved northwards at exceptionally high speeds (18-20 cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5 cm/year after its collision with Asia ≈40 Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (≈100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from 65 Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, recent results of P and S wave travel time tomography of India suggest that the lithospheric roots are not uniformly thick on a regional scale. Although high velocity roots typical of Precambrian shields are preserved beneath a few cratons of the Indian shield, they seem to have suffered attrition, in the plume ravaged regions like the NDVP and the Southern SGT (Singh et al., 2014). We assembled a new massive surface wave database towards obtaining 3D isotropic and anisotropic models for the Indian sub-continent, using surface waves. This necessitated processing of data from more than 500 seismic broadband stations across India and surrounding regions. Surface waves group and phase dispersion measurements are performed in a broad frequency range (16-250s). Our phase velocity anomaly maps recover most of the known geological structures. The cratons are associated with high velocity (4-6%) anomalies till 200 sec, with the WDC being faster than the EDC. Slow velocities in NW India and very high velocity anomalies (6-8%) beneath the central part of the Indo-Gangetic plains are possibly associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. The LAB depths inferred from

  6. Multi Plumes and Their Flows beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; van der Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa is estimated down to the lower mantle to investigate vertical and horizontal extension of low-velocity anomalies that bear out the presence of mantle plumes and their flows beneath lithosphere. We estimated this model through joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. With the unprecedented resolution in our S-velocity model, we found different flow patterns of hot materials upwelling beneath Afar beneath the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. While the low-velocity anomaly from Afar is well confined beneath the Gulf of Aden, inferring mantle flow along the gulf, N-S channel of low velocity is found beneath Arabia, not along the Red Sea. The Afar plume is distinctively separate from the Kenya plume, showing its origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identified another low-velocity extension to the lower mantle beneath Jordan and northern Arabia, which is thought to have caused volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirmed horizontal plume flow from Afar in NS direction beneath Arabia and in NE-SW direction beneath Ethiopia as a likely cause of the observed seismic anisotropy.

  7. Overturned Alboran slab beneath westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Miller, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The geological evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean holds an important piece of the puzzle of how whole western Mediterranean evolved due to the convergence of Africa with Eurasia. The idea of continuous slab roll back acting a prominent force in this region is strongly supported by tomographic images with near vertical high velocity structure connecting the surface beneath the Alboran domain [Spakman and Wortel, 2004; Bezada et al., 2013]. However, the slab shape, width, and sharpness of its edges are not well resolved. Here, we use the waveforms recorded from the PICASSO (XB) array and IberArray (IA) for the deep 2010 earthquake beneath Granada to study the detailed Alboran slab structure. We found: (1) A low velocity structure (7 km thickness, δVs = -20%) surrounding the earthquake to explain the second arrivals observed in many stations at Spain. (2) A thin low velocity layer sits on the bottom of the high velocity slab-like structure to explain the high frequency second arrivals and long coda after the P and S arrivals on stations in the Rif Mountains of Morocco. The most feasible explanation of the low velocity structure is the dehydrated surface of the slab lithosphere extending from the 600 km to the shallow mantle. However, such geometry is contradictory with our observation, which the low velocity layer is at the bottom of the slab. We proposed that the Albora slab had undergone significant "roll-over" movement, which overturned the slab surface.

  8. Life Beneath Glacial Ice - Earth(!) Mars(?) Europa(?)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Longazo, Teresa G.; Lisle, John T.; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2002-01-01

    We are investigating a set of cold springs that deposit sulfur and carbonate minerals on the surface of a Canadian arctic glacier. The spring waters and mineral deposits contain microorganisms, as well as clear evidence that biological processes mediate subglacial chemistry, mineralogy, and isotope fractionation . The formation of native sulphur and associated deposits are related to bacterially mediated reduction and oxidation of sulphur below the glacier. A non-volcanic, topography driven geothermal system, harboring a microbiological community, operates in an extremely cold environment and discharges through solid ice. Microbial life can thus exist in isolated geothermal refuges despite long-term subfreezing surface conditions. Earth history includes several periods of essentially total glaciation. lee in the near subsurface of Mars may have discharged liquid water in the recent past Cracks in the ice crust of Europa have apparently allowed the release of water to the surface. Chemolithotrophic bacteria, such as those in the Canadian springs, could have survived beneath the ice of "Snowball Earth", and life forms with similar characteristics might exist beneath the ice of Mars or Europa. Discharges of water from such refuges may have brought to the surface living microbes, as well as longlasting chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic indications of subsurface life.

  9. Lithospheric Layering beneath Southern Africa Constrained by S-to-P Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the existence of intra-lithospheric interfaces in an area of active rifting of ancient lithosphere, we stack S-to-P receiver functions (SRFs) recorded by broadband seismic stations in the vicinity of the non-volcanic sections of the East African Rift System and the stable Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. The data set was recorded by about 200 permanent and portable seismic stations installed over the past 30 years. The SRFs are computed using frequency-domain deconvolution, and are stacked in consecutive circles with a radius of 2 degrees. They are converted to depth series after moveout corrections using the IASP91 Earth model. In the upper mantle , a robust negative arrival is found in virtually all the stacked traces in the depth range of 50-100 km. Comparison with results from seismic tomography and mantle xenolith studies suggests that this discontinuity represents a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), similar to what was observed beneath the North American continent. The absence of observable negative arrivals in the anticipated depth of 250 km or greater beneath the study area suggests a gradual instead of sharp transition from the lithosphere to the asthenosphere. No significant shallowing of the MLD is observed beneath the young rift segments, suggesting that rifting is limited in the crust, an observation that is consistent with recent results from the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) project. The shallowest MLD of about 65 km in the study area is found in a NW-SE trending zone across central Zimbabwe and western Zambia. The MLD may reflect a low velocity zone caused by metasomatism, a process commonly found beneath ancient cratons.

  10. Crustal Structure Beneath India and Tibet: New Constraints From Inversion of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arun; Ravi Kumar, M.; Mohanty, Debasis D.; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Srinagesh, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent comprises geological terranes of varied age and structural character. In this study, we provide new constraints to existing crustal models by inverting the P-to-s receiver functions (RFs) at 317 broadband seismic stations. Inversion results fill crucial gaps in existing velocity models (CRUST1.0 and SEAPS) by capturing regions which are less represented. The final model produced is much more heterogeneous and is able to capture the structural variations between closely spaced seismic stations. In comparison to the global models, major differences are seen for seismic stations located over various rift zones (e.g., Godavari, Narmada, and Cambay) and those close to the coastal regions where transition from oceanic to continental crust is expected to create drastic changes in the crustal configuration. Seismic images are produced along various profiles using 49,682 individual RFs recorded at 442 seismic stations. Lateral variations captured using migrated images across the Himalayan collisional front revealed the hitherto elusive southern extent of the Moho and intracrustal features south of the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Poisson's ratio and crustal thickness estimates obtained using H-k stacking technique and inversion of RFs are grossly similar lending credence to the robustness of inversions. An updated crustal thickness map produced using 1,525 individual data points from controlled source seismics and RFs reveals a (a) thickened crust (>55 km) at the boundary of Dharwar Craton and Southern Granulite Terrain, (b) clear difference in crustal thickness estimates between Eastern Dharwar Craton and Western Dharwar Craton, (c) thinner crust beneath Cambay Basin between southwest Deccan Volcanic Province and Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, (d) thinner crust (<35 km) beneath Bengal Basin, (e) thicker crust (>40 km) beneath paleorift zones like Narmada Son Lineament and Godavari Graben, and (f) very thick crust beneath central Tibet (>65 km) with maximum

  11. Crust and Upper Mantle Structure Beneath Tibet and SW China From Seismic Tomography and Array Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Li, C.; Yao, H.; Sun, R.; Meltzer, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    We will present a summary of the results of our seismological studies of crust and upper mantle heterogeneity and anisotropy beneath Tibet and SW China with data from temporary (PASSCAL) arrays as well as other regional, national, and global networks. In 2003 and 2004 MIT and CIGMR (Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources) operated a 25 station array (3-component, broad band seismometers) in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, SW China; during the same period Lehigh University (also in collaboration with CIGMR) operated a 75 station array in east Tibet. Data from these arrays allow delineation of mantle structure in unprecedented detail. We focus our presentation on results of two lines of seismological study. Travel time tomography (Li et al., PEPI, 2006; EPSL, 2007) with hand-picked phase arrivals from recordings at regional arrays, and combined with data from over 1,000 stations in China and with the global data base due to Engdahl et al. (BSSA, 1998), reveals substantial the structural complexity of the upper mantle beneath SE Asia. In particular, structures associated with subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Himalayas vary significantly from west Tibet (where the plate seems to have underthrusted the entire plateau) to east Tibet (where P-wave tomography provides no evidence for the presence of fast lithosphere beneath the Plateau proper). Further east, fast structures appear in the upper mantle transition zone, presumably related to stagnation of slab fragments associated with subduction of the Pacific plate. (2) Surface wave array tomography (Yao et al., GJI, 2006, 2007), using ambient noise interferometry and traditional (inter station) dispersion analysis, is used to delineate the 3-D structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle at length scales as small as 100 km beneath the MIT and Lehigh arrays. This analysis reveals a complex spatial distribution of intra-crustal low velocity zones (which may imply that crustal-scale faults influence the

  12. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  13. Tomography-based mantle flow beneath Mongolia-Baikal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in seismic tomography of Asia allows us to explore and understand more clearly the mantle flow below the Mongolia-Baikal area. We present a tomography-based model of mantle convection that provides a good match to the residual topography. The model provides predictions on the present-day mantle flow and flow-induced asthenospheric deformation which give us new insights on the mantle dynamics in the Mongolia-Baikal area. The predicted mantle flow takes on a very similar pattern at the depths shallower or deeper than 400 km and almost opposite flow directions between the upper (shallower than 400 km) and lower (deeper than 400 km) parts. The flow pattern could be divided into the 'simple' eastern region and the 'complex' western region in the Mongolia. The upwelling originating from about 350 km depth beneath Baikal rift zone is an important possible drive force to the rifting. The seismic anisotropy cannot be simply related with asthenospheric flow and flow-induced deformation in the entire Mongolia-Baikal area, but they could be considered as an important contributor to the seismic anisotropy in the eastern region of Mongolia and around and in Sayan-Baikal orogenic belt.

  14. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  15. 4. BASEMENT WALL BENEATH SOUTH PASSAGE SHOWING STEAM TUNNEL OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BASEMENT WALL BENEATH SOUTH PASSAGE SHOWING STEAM TUNNEL OPENING IN SOUTH WALL. - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, South Baggage Passage & Canopy, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Saltwater movement in the upper Floridan aquifer beneath Port Royal Sound, South Carolina

    Smith, Barry S.

    1994-01-01

    Freshwater for Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, is supplied by withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Freshwater for the nearby city of Savannah, Georgia, and for the industry that has grown adjacent to the city, has also been supplied, in part, by withdrawal from the Upper Floridan aquifer since 1885. The withdrawal of ground water has caused water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer to decline over a broad area, forming a cone of depression in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer centered near Savannah. In 1984, the cone of depression extended beneath Hilton Head Island as far as Port Royal Sound. Flow in the aquifer, which had previously been toward Port Royal Sound, has been reversed, and, as a result, saltwater in the aquifer beneath Port Royal Sound has begun to move toward Hilton Head Island. The Saturated-Unsaturated Transport (SUTRA) model of the U.S. Geological Survey was used for the simulation of density-dependent ground-water flow and solute transport for a vertical section of the Upper Floridan aquifer and upper confining unit beneath Hilton Head Island and Port Royal Sound. The model simulated a dynamic equilibrium between the flow of seawater and freshwater in the aquifer near the Gyben-Herzberg position estimated for the period before withdrawals began in 1885; it simulated reasonable movements of brackish water and saltwater from that position to the position determined by chemical analyses of samples withdrawn from the aquifer in 1984, and it approximated hydraulic heads measured in the aquifer in 1976 and 1984. The solute-transport simulations indicate that the transition zone would continue to move toward Hilton Head Island even if pumping ceased on the island. Increases in existing withdrawals or additional withdrawals on or near Hilton Head Island would accelerate movement of the transition zone toward the island, but reduction in withdrawals or the injection of freshwater would slow movement toward the island, according to the

  17. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  18. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  19. CATS landline installed beneath the river Tees

    SciT

    Not Available

    Press Construction Ltd. has completed installation of the land portion of a new gas pipeline from the North Sea, including a tunnel beneath the River Tees in the north of England. The work was carried out under a multi-million dollar contract from Amoco (UK) Exploration Co. The pipeline is the land portion of the Central Area Transmission System. The 4.6-mile, 36-in. onshore pipeline connects a valve station at the CATS landfall at Coatham Sands, just south of Tees Bay, to a gas terminal north of the River Tees. This paper reports on the entire CATS system which runs for nearlymore » 250 miles from a riser platform in the Central Graben area of the North Sea to the Coatham Sands landfall and then overland to the gas terminal. The gas will fuel a new combined heat-and-power generating plant on Teesside, currently under construction by Teesside Power.« less

  20. Crustal structure beneath the Blue Mountains terranes and cratonic North America, eastern Oregon, and Idaho, from teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian Stanciu, A.; Russo, Raymond M.; Mocanu, Victor I.; Bremner, Paul M.; Hongsresawat, Sutatcha; Torpey, Megan E.; VanDecar, John C.; Foster, David A.; Hole, John A.

    2016-07-01

    We present new images of lithospheric structure obtained from P-to-S conversions defined by receiver functions at the 85 broadband seismic stations of the EarthScope IDaho-ORegon experiment. We resolve the crustal thickness beneath the Blue Mountains province and the former western margin of cratonic North America, the geometry of the western Idaho shear zone (WISZ), and the boundary between the Grouse Creek and Farmington provinces. We calculated P-to-S receiver functions using the iterative time domain deconvolution method, and we used the H-k grid search method and common conversion point stacking to image the lithospheric structure. Moho depths beneath the Blue Mountains terranes range from 24 to 34 km, whereas the crust is 32-40 km thick beneath the Idaho batholith and the regions of extended crust of east-central Idaho. The Blue Mountains group Olds Ferry terrane is characterized by the thinnest crust in the study area, 24 km thick. There is a clear break in the continuity of the Moho across the WISZ, with depths increasing from 28 km west of the shear zone to 36 km just east of its surface expression. The presence of a strong midcrustal converting interface at 18 km depth beneath the Idaho batholith extending 20 km east of the WISZ indicates tectonic wedging in this region. A north striking 7 km offset in Moho depth, thinning to the east, is present beneath the Lost River Range and Pahsimeroi Valley; we identify this sharp offset as the boundary that juxtaposes the Archean Grouse Creek block with the Paleoproterozoic Farmington zone.

  1. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Baluchistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, Chris T.; Nazirullah, Russel; de Jong, Kees A.; Ahmed, Habib

    1981-01-01

    A total of 560 samples from three areas in northeastern Baluchistan (the southern Sulaiman Range, the central Loralai Range, and the northern Kirthar Range) were analyzed using thermal demagnetization techniques. Thirteen formations of late Palaeozoic to early Tertiary age were studied palaeomagnetically. Inclinations of the obtained results show a general affinity with the Indian apparent polar wander path. Deviating declinations from the Loralai Range indicate a clockwise rotation over 50° with respect to the Indian shield. Secondary magnetization components probably of late Palaeocene to early Eocene age were consistently present in the samples from the Kirthar Range and the Sulaiman Range but were not observed in samples from the Loralai Range. Acquisition of these components is attributed to crustal upwarping during the Palaeocene, which is tentatively related to initial collision of continental Indo-Pakistan with an island arc off south central Asia. The Baluchistan data support recent palaeomagnetic results from the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone in Ladakh (NW Himalaya), which indicate that such an initial collision took place at very low northern palaeolatitudes.

  2. On the Complicated 410 km Discontinuity beneath Eastern China with the Seismic Triplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Li, G.; Sui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic triplications from the seismograms of mid-deep earthquakes at the Ryuku subduction zone recorded by the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) between the epicentral distance between 10°-23° are used to study the upper mantle structure beneath Eastern China. Comparing the observed seismograms with the synthetic ones from different models based on IASP91 earth model and using the ray-tracing method, we found that the 410 km discontinuity is a gradient zone with the thickness of 20 km and there is low velocity layer atop the discontinuity which becomes thin from north to south beneath Eastern China. The complicated 410 km discontinuity with an atop low velocity layer may be caused by the dehydration of the Philippine sea subducting materials which are observed by the seismic tomopgraphy (Qu, et al., 2007; Li and van der Hilst, 2010). The low velocity gradient zone between the depths of 80-200 km is also been observed and may be related to the lithospheric-asthenosphere boundary.

  3. Mapping the subducted Nazca plate in the lower mantle beneath South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contenti, S. M.; Gu, Y. J.; Okeler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent improvements in data coverage have enabled high-resolution imaging of the morphology of subduction zones and mantle plumes. In this study, we migrate the SS precursors from over 5000 seismograms to obtain a detailed map of mid- and upper-mantle reflectors beneath the northern portion of the South American subduction zone, where the oceanic Nazca plate is descending below the South American plate. In addition to an elevated 410 and depressed 660 (as expected for a subduction zone), strong mid-mantle reflectors at 800-1100 km depth are also apparent. The amplitudes of these steeply dipping reflectors are comparable to that of the 660-kilometer discontinuity. This anomaly outlines a high-velocity (therefore presumably cold) region present in recent finite-frequency based mantle velocity models, suggesting the extension of slab material into the lower mantle. The strength of the reflection is interpreted to be caused by a relatively sharp velocity change, likely due to a strong temperature gradient in combination with mineral phase transitions, the presence of water, or other chemical heterogeneities. Significant mass and heat exchange is therefore expected between the upper- and lower-mantle beneath the study region.

  4. The spatial distribution of major and trace elements in the surface sediments from the northeastern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Q.; Xue, Z. G.

    2017-12-01

    Major and trace elements contents and grain size were analyzed for surface sediments retrieved from the northeastern Beibu (Tonkin) Gulf. The study area was divided into four zones: Zone I locates in the northeastern coastal area of the gulf, which received large amount of the fluvial materials from local rivers; Zone II locates in the center of the study area, where surface sediments is from multiple sources; Zone III locates in the Qiongzhou Strait, which is dominated by material from the Pearl River and Hainan Island; Zone IV locates in the southwest of the study area, and the sediments mainly originated from the Red River. Statistical analyses of sediment geochemical characteristics reveal that grain size is the leading factor for elementary distribution, which is also influenced by hydrodynamics, mineral composition of terrigenous sediments, anthropogenic activity, and authigenic components.

  5. Subduction zone locking, strain partitioning, intraplate deformation and their implications to Seismic Hazards in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Mahdyiar, M.; Shen-Tu, B.; Pontbriand, C. W.; Klein, E.; Wang, F.; Shabestari, K.; Yang, W.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze active crustal deformation in South America (SA) using published GPS observations and historic seismicity along the Nazca Trench and the active Ecuador-Colombia-Venezuela Plate boundary Zone. GPS-constrained kinematisc models that incorporate block and continuum techniques are used to assess patterns of regional tectonic deformation and its implications to seismic potential. We determine interplate coupling distributions, fault slip-rates, and intraplate crustal strain rates in combination with historic earthquakes within 40 seismic zones crust to provide moment rate constraints. Along the Nazca subduction zone, we resolve a series of highly coupled patches, interpreted as high-friction producing "asperities" beneath the coasts of Ecuador, Peru and Chile. These include areas responsible for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. Predicted tectonic block motions and fault slip rates reveal that the northern part of South America deforms rapidly, with crustal fault slip rates as much as ~20 mm/a. Fault slip and locking patterns reveal that the Oca Ancón-Pilar-Boconó fault system plays a key role in absorbing most of the complex eastward and southward convergence patterns in northeastern Colombia and Venezuela, while the near-parallel system of faults in eastern Colombia and Ecuador absorb part of the transpressional motion due to the ~55 mm/a Nazca-SA plate convergence. These kinematic models, in combination with historic seismicity rates, provide moment deficit rates that reveal regions with high seismic potential, such as coastal Ecuador, Bucaramanga, Arica and Antofagasta. We eventually use the combined information from moment rates and fault coupling patterns to further constrain stochastic seismic hazard models of the region by implementing realistic trench rupture scenarios (see Mahdyiar et al., this volume).

  6. Continental Assembly and Anisotropy Beneath the CANOE Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Gaherty, J. B.; Revenaugh, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Canadian Northwest Experiment (CANOE) is an array of nearly sixty broadband seismometers reaching from the Slave Craton in the Northwest Territories (NWT), across a series of Proterozoic orogens and the Canadian Rockies in the NWT, northern British Columbia, and southern Yukon, and across the Churchill Province south to Edmonton, Alberta. The array traverses a wide variety of continental settings, allowing the study of mantle variability associated with the formation of continental cratons and continental assembly over a time span of nearly 4 Ga. The close spacing of instruments in the CANOE array provides a detailed view of the mantle and lithosphere across these transitions. We examine splitting of the shear phases SKS, SKKS, and sSKS to study anisotropy beneath the region. The dataset consists of ~~70 teleseismic events of either magnitude > 5.6 and depth > 500 km or magnitude > 6.4 with depth < 500 km. All earthquakes were recorded at CANOE or nearby Canadian National Seismic Network stations between May 2003 and September 2005. Splitting times derived from multi-event station averages average ~1.4 s, and fast directions are coherent yet suggestive of strong variability of mantle anisotropy across the region. Stations on the craton show a dominant NE-SW fast direction that is roughly consistent with mantle flow dominated by plate motion. At the Cordillera boundary, fast directions flip abruptly to NW-SE, and continuing west across the Cordillera the fast directions rotate from NW-SE to roughly E-W before returning to NW-SE near the edge of the continent. These patterns are suggestive of dominant transpressional deformation through the lithosphere during continental accretion. Within the craton, there is an anomalous cluster of stations with N-S fast directions; these stations sit astride an apparent ancient suture zone (subducted slab?) detected through previous scattered-wave and seismic reflection studies. We will explore the possible

  7. Magmas and reservoirs beneath the Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Huber, C.

    2013-12-01

    trace element geochemistry, volatile contents, and the comparison of successive eruptions since 1400 y BP to address the question of whether another potentially caldera-forming magma is presently brewing beneath Rabaul. In addition, we apply kinetic modeling of olivine and plagioclase zoning to the recently erupted products to address the prolonged period of seismic and deformational precursory activity. We estimate that at least 20-35 wt% basalt has mixed with the resident silicic magma at time scales that coincide with the main period of unrest (1971 to 1985).

  8. Otolith patterns of rockfishes from the northeastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tuset, Victor M; Imondi, Ralph; Aguado, Guillermo; Otero-Ferrer, José L; Santschi, Linda; Lombarte, Antoni; Love, Milton

    2015-04-01

    Sagitta otolith shape was analysed in twenty sympatric rockfishes off the southern California coast (Northeastern Pacific). The variation in shape was quantified using canonical variate analysis based on fifth wavelet function decomposition of otolith contour. We selected wavelets because this representation allow the identifications of zones or single morphological points along the contour. The entire otoliths along with four subsections (anterior, ventral, posterodorsal, and anterodorsal) with morphological meaning were examined. Multivariate analyses (MANOVA) showed significant differences in the contours of whole otolith morphology and corresponding subsection among rockfishes. Four patterns were found: fusiform, oblong, and two types of elliptic. A redundancy analysis indicated that anterior and anterodorsal subsections contribute most to define the entire otolith shape. Complementarily, the eco-morphological study indicated that the depth distribution and strategies for capture prey were correlated to otolith shape, especially with the anterodorsal zone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting over Aggregate, Southwestern Pennsylvania

    SciT

    None

    2014-07-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS worked with a builder of single- and multifamily homes in southwestern Pennsylvania (climate zone 5) to understand its methods of successfully using polyethylene sheeting over aggregate as a capillary break beneath the slab in new construction. This builder’s homes vary in terms of whether they have crawlspaces or basements. However, in both cases, the strategy protects the home from water intrusion via capillary action (e.g., water wicking into cracks and spaces in the slab), thereby helping to preserve the durability of the home.

  10. Seismic evidence for a tilted mantle plume and north-south mantle flow beneath Iceland

    Shen, Y.; Solomon, S.C.; Bjarnason, I. Th; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Allen, R.M.; Vogfjord, K.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Stefansson, R.; Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Shear waves converted from compressional waves at mantle discontinuities near 410- and 660-km depth recorded by two broadband seismic experiments in Iceland reveal that the center of an area of anomalously thin mantle transition zone lies at least 100 km south of the upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly imaged tomographically beneath the hotspot. This offset is evidence for a tilted plume conduit in the upper mantle, the result of either northward flow of the Icelandic asthenosphere or southward flow of the upper part of the lower mantle in a no-net-rotation reference frame. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Small subsidence of the 660-km discontinuity beneath Japan probed by ScS reverberations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Mamoru; Misawa, Mika; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    We investigate layering structure in the mantle beneath Japan using ScS reverberation waveforms of two recent large deep events in the northwest Pacific. We estimate regional variation of the elastic and anelastic structure of the mantle as well as properties of the major velocity discontinuities by modeling broadband seismograms recorded at two dense networks, J-Array and FREESIA. The 660-km discontinuity is the deepest in the region where the stagnant subducting slab in the transition zone is tomographically imaged, but the subsidence is of ∼10 km, much smaller than previous estimates with SS precursors. No significant elevation is detected for the 410-km discontinuity.

  12. Structure Of The Elevated Precambrian Terranes Rising Above The Brahmaputra Plains In Northeastern India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V. K.; Hazarika, N. K.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K.

    2007-12-01

    We present new evidence for a thinner crust beneath most of the Shillong plateau as well as its northeast extension in Mikir Hills of northeastern India.Both these Precambrian terranes rise above the Brahmaputra plains whose crust is thicker in comparison by atleast 4~km. Although Bouger gravity over the Mikir Hills still remains to be determined, its near zero value over the ~1 km high plateau and the near normal upper mantle beneath the region, require that these elevated terranes must have been uplifted between reversed faults and continue to be supported by them under compression. The southern edge of the Shillong plateau is indeed marked by the prominent Dauki fault which swerves northeastward at the south eastern margin of the plateau to merge with the Naga thrusts that bound the Mikir Hills on the east. A similar fault bounding the plateau on the north as hypothesized by Bilham et al (2000) -the Oldham fault- is therfore required to swerve northeastward near the northeastern margin of the plateau to demarcate the Mikir Hills from the thicker crust Brahmaputra plains to its north and west. This could be explained by a strike slip offset of the Oldham fault caused by the as yet obsure but active tectonics of the NNW trending Kopili lineament that ensues from the inflexion in the Dauki-Naga thrust fault system.

  13. Mantle plumes and associated flow beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Van der Lee, Suzan

    2011-02-01

    We investigate mantle plumes and associated flow beneath the lithosphere by imaging the three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa. This image shows elongated vertical and horizontal low-velocity anomalies down to at least mid mantle depths. This three-dimensional S-velocity model is obtained through the joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. In the resolved parts of our S-velocity model we find that the Afar plume is distinctly separate from the Kenya plume, showing the Afar plume's origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identify another quasi-vertical low-velocity anomaly beneath Jordan and northern Arabia which extends into the lower mantle and may be related to volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirm horizontal mantle flow radially away from Afar. Low-velocity channels in our model support southwestward flow beneath Ethiopia, eastward flow beneath the Gulf of Aden, but not northwestwards beneath the entire Red Sea. Instead, northward mantle flow from Afar appears to be channeled beneath Arabia.

  14. Electrical structure beneath the Hangai Dome, Mongolia, from magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeau, Matthew; Käufl, Johannes; Becken, Michael; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu; Sukhbaatar, Usnikh; Batmagnai, Erdenechimeg; Tserendug, Shoovdor; Nasan, Ochir

    2017-04-01

    The Hangai Dome in west-central Mongolia is an unusual high-elevation intra-continental plateau located far from tectonic plate boundaries and characterized by dispersed, low-volume, basaltic volcanism. This region is an ideal natural laboratory for studying intra-continental orogenic and magmatic processes resulting from crust-mantle interactions. The processes responsible for developing the Hangai Dome remain unexplained, due in part to a lack of high resolution geophysical data over the area. Here we present newly acquired broadband (0.008 - 3,000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data from a large-scale ( 200 x 450 km) and high resolution (site spacing > 5 km) survey across the Hangai Dome. A total of 125 sites were collected and include full MT sites and telluric-only sites where inter-station transfer functions were computed. The MT data are used to generate an electrical resistivity model of the crust and upper mantle below the Hangai Dome. The model shows that the lower crust ( 30 - 50 km; below the brittle-ductile transition zone) beneath the Hangai Dome contains anomalous discrete pockets of low-resistivity ( 30 ohm-m) material that indicate the presence of local accumulations of fluids and/or low-percent partial melts. These anomalous regions appear to be spatially associated with the surface expressions of past volcanism, hydrothermal activity, and an increase in heat flow. They also correlate with observed crustal low-density and low-velocity anomalies. However they are in contrast to some geochemical and petrological studies which show long-lived crustal melt storage is impossible below the Hangai due to limited crustal assimilation and crustal contamination, arguing for a single parent-source at mantle depths. The upper mantle (< 70 km) contains an anomalous low-resistivity zone directly below the Hangai Dome that represents a shallow asthenosphere, and possibly a zone of melt generation. The MT data require the presence of a small amount of partial melts (> 6

  15. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    SciT

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Graduate Research on Earthquakes and Active Tectonics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung; Widiyantoro, Sri

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed formore » 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images.« less

  16. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-01

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  17. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    SciT

    Jatnika, Jajat; Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was setmore » up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.« less

  18. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  19. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  20. Shield volcanism and lithospheric structure beneath the Tharsis plateau, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.; Cutts, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The heights of four great shield volcanoes, when interpreted as reflecting the local hydrostatic head on a common source of upwelling magma, provide significant constraints on models of lithospheric structure beneath the Tharsis plateau. If Bouguer gravity anomalies are modeled in terms of a variable thickness crust, and a two-component (crust/mantle) earth-like structure is assumed for the Martian lithosphere, the derived model lithosphere beneath the Tharsis plateau has the following properties: (1) the upper low-density 'crustal' component is thickened beneath the Tharsis plateau; (2) the lower high-density 'mantle' component is thinned beneath the Tharsis plateau; and (3) there is a net gradient on the base of the Martian lithosphere directed downward away from beneath the summit of the Tharsis plateau. A long history of magmatic intrusion is hypothesized to have been the cause of the updoming of the Tharsis plateau and the maintenance of the plateau in a state of only partial compensation.

  1. Lithospheric strucutre and relationship to seismicity beneath the Southeastern US using reciever functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, E.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Despite being on a passive margin for millions of years, the Southeastern United States (SEUS) contains numerous seismogenic zones with the ability to produce damaging earthquakes. However, mechanisms controlling these intraplate earthquakes are poorly understood. Recently, Biryol et al. 2016 use P-wave tomography suggest that upper mantle structures beneath the SEUS correlate with areas of seismicity and seismic quiescence. Specifically, thick and fast velocity lithosphere beneath North Carolina is stable and indicative of areas of low seismicity. In contrast, thin and slow velocity lithosphere is weak, and the transition between the strong and weak lithosphere may be correlated with seismogenic zones found in the SEUS. (eg. Eastern Tennessee seismic zone and the Central Virginia seismic zone) Therefore, I systematically map the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere using converted seismic waves and quantify the spatial correlation between seismicity and lithospheric structure. The extensive network of seismometers that makes up the Earthscope USArray combined with the numerous seismic deployments in the Southeastern United States allows for unprecedented opportunity to map changes in lithospheric structure across seismogenic zones and seismic quiescent regions. To do so, I will use both P-to-s and S-to-p receiver functions (RFS). Since RFs are sensitive to seismic wavespeeds and density discontinuities with depth, they particularly useful for studying lithospheric structure. Ps receiver functions contain high frequency information allowing for high resolution, but can become contaminated by large sediment signals; therefore, I removed sediment multiples and correct for time delays of later phases using the method of Yu et. al 2015 which will allow us to see later arriving phases associated with lithospheric discontinuities. S-to-p receiver functions are not contaminated by shallow layers, making them ideal to study deep lithospheric structures but they can

  2. A Detailed 3D Seismic Velocity Structure of the Subducting Pacific Slab Beneath Hokkaido, Tohoku and Kanto, Japan, by Double-Difference Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Nakajima, J.; Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2007-12-01

    Three-dimensional heterogeneous structure beneath northeastern (NE) Japan has been investigated by previous studies and an inclined seismic low-velocity zone is imaged in the mantle wedge sub-parallel to the down-dip direction of the subducting slab (Zhao et al., 1992, Nakajima et al., 2001). However, the heterogeneous structure within the slab has not been well studied even though it is very important to understand the whole process of water transportation from the slab to the surface. Here we show a detailed 3D seismic velocity structure within the subducted Pacific slab around Japan and propose a water-transportation path from the slab to the mantle wedge. In this study, we estimated 3D velocity structure within the Pacific slab by the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We divided the study area, from Hokkaido to Kanto, into 6 areas due to the limitation of memory and computation time. In each area, arrival-time data of 7,500-17,000 events recorded at 70-170 stations were used in the analysis. The total number of absolute travel-time data was about 140,000-312,000 for P wave and 123,000-268,000 for S wave, and differential data were about 736,000-1,920,000 for P wave and 644,000-1,488,000 for S wave. Horizontal and vertical grid separations are 10-25 km and 6.5 km, respectively. RMS residuals of travel times for P wave decreased from 0.23s to 0.09s and for S wave from 0.35s to 0.13s. The obtained results are as follows: (1) a remarkable low-Vs zone exists in the uppermost part of the subducting slab, (2) it extends down to a depth of about 80 km, (3) the termination of this low-Vs zone almost corresponds to the "seismic belt" recently detected in the upper plane of the double seismic zone (Kita et al.,2006; Hasegawa et al., 2007), (4) at depths deeper than 80 km, a low-Vs and high-Vp/Vs zone is apparently distributed in the mantle wedge, immediately above the slab crust. We consider that these features reflect water-transportation processes

  3. A reservoir of nitrate beneath desert soils.

    PubMed

    Walvoord, Michelle A; Phillips, Fred M; Stonestrom, David A; Evans, R Dave; Hartsough, Peter C; Newman, Brent D; Striegl, Robert G

    2003-11-07

    A large reservoir of bioavailable nitrogen (up to approximately 10(4) kilograms of nitrogen per hectare, as nitrate) has been previously overlooked in studies of global nitrogen distribution. The reservoir has been accumulating in subsoil zones of arid regions throughout the Holocene. Consideration of the subsoil reservoir raises estimates of vadose-zone nitrogen inventories by 14 to 71% for warm deserts and arid shrublands worldwide and by 3 to 16% globally. Subsoil nitrate accumulation indicates long-term leaching from desert soils, impelling further evaluation of nutrient dynamics in xeric ecosystems. Evidence that subsoil accumulations are readily mobilized raises concern about groundwater contamination after land-use or climate change.

  4. A reservoir of nitrate beneath desert soils

    Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Phillips, Fred M.; Stonestrom, David A.; Evans, R. Dave; Hartsough, Peter C.; Newman, Brent D.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    A large reservoir of bioavailable nitrogen (up to ∼104 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare, as nitrate) has been previously overlooked in studies of global nitrogen distribution. The reservoir has been accumulating in subsoil zones of arid regions throughout the Holocene. Consideration of the subsoil reservoir raises estimates of vadose-zone nitrogen inventories by 14 to 71% for warm deserts and arid shrublands worldwide and by 3 to 16% globally. Subsoil nitrate accumulation indicates long-term leaching from desert soils, impelling further evaluation of nutrient dynamics in xeric ecosystems. Evidence that subsoil accumulations are readily mobilized raises concern about groundwater contamination after land-use or climate change.

  5. Pasture plants of the Northeastern United States

    Temperate humid grazing lands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern Unites States, as well as of the economy of this region, yet unlike their European counterparts, little is known about their basic ecology. During an eight-year survey of 44 farms across the northeastern Un...

  6. Structure of Lithospheric and Upper Mantle Discontinuities beneath Central Mongolia from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Meltzer, A.; Fischer, K. M.; Stachnik, J. C.; Munkhuu, U.; Tsagaan, B.; Russo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and preservation of high-elevation low-relief surfaces in continental interiors remains an open questions. Central Mongolia constitutes a major portion of the Mongolian Plateau and is an excellent place to link deep earth and surface processes. The lithosphere of Mongolia was constructed through accretionary orogenesis associated with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) from the late Paleozoic to the early Triassic. Alkaline volcanic basalt derived from sublithospheric sources has erupted sporadically in Mongolia since 30 Ma. Constraining the depth variation of lithospheric and upper mantle discontinuities is crucial for understanding the interaction between upper mantle structure and surface topography. We conducted receiver functions (RF) analyses suitable data recorded at112 seismic broadband stations in central Mongolia to image the LAB and mantle transition zone beneath Central Mongolia. A modified H-κ stacking was performed to determine crustal average thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Central Mongolia is characterized by thick crust (43-57 km) enabling use of both P wave RF and to S wave RF to image the LAB. The PRF traces in the depth domain are stacked based on piercing point locations for the 410 and 660 discontinuities using 0.6 ° × 0.6 ° bins in a grid. From south to north, the average lithospheric thickness is 85km in Gobi Altai gradually thinning northeastward to 78km in the southern Hangay Dome, 72 km in the northern Hangay Dome then increases to 75km in Hovsgol area. While there is overall thinning of the lithosphere from SW to NE, beneath the Hangay, there is a slight increase beneath the highest topography. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath central Mongolia is similar to global averages. This evidence argues against the hypothesis that a mantle plume exists beneath Central Mongolia causing low velocity anomalies in the upper mantle. To the east of the Hovsgol area in northern Mongolia, the MTZ thickens

  7. Detailed Configuration of the Underthrusting Indian Lithosphere Beneath Western Tibet Revealed by Receiver Function Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Pei, Shunping

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the teleseismic waveform data recorded by 42 temporary stations from the Y2 and ANTILOPE-1 arrays using the P and S receiver function techniques to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath western Tibet. The Moho is reliably identified as a prominent feature at depths of 55-82 km in the stacked traces and in depth migrated images. It has a concave shape and reaches the deepest location at about 80 km north of the Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS). An intracrustal discontinuity is observed at 55 km depth below the southern Lhasa terrane, which could represent the upper border of the eclogitized underthrusting Indian lower crust. Underthrusting of the Indian crust has been widely observed beneath the Lhasa terrane and correlates well with the Bouguer gravity low, suggesting that the gravity anomalies in the Lhasa terrane are induced by topography of the Moho. At 20 km depth, a midcrustal low-velocity zone (LVZ) is observed beneath the Tethyan Himalaya and southern Lhasa terrane, suggesting a layer of partial melts that decouples the thrust/fold deformation of the upper crust from the shortening and underthrusting in the lower crust. The Sp conversions at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) can be recognized at depths of 130-200 km, showing that the Indian lithospheric mantle is underthrusting with a ramp-flat shape beneath southern Tibet and probably is detached from the lower crust immediately under the IYS. Our observations reconstruct the configuration of the underthrusting Indian lithosphere and indicate significant along strike variations.

  8. Near-shore talik development beneath shallow water in expanding thermokarst lakes, Old Crow Flats, Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Leveillee, Pascale; Burn, Christopher R.

    2017-05-01

    It is generally assumed that permafrost is preserved beneath shallow lakes and ponds in the Western North American Arctic where water depth is less than about two thirds of the late-winter lake ice thickness. Here we present field observations of talik development beneath water as shallow as 0.2 m despite a lake ice thickness of 1.5 m, in Old Crow Flats (OCF), YT. Conditions leading to the initiation and development of taliks beneath shallow water were investigated with field measurements of shore erosion rates, bathymetry, ice thickness, snow accumulation, and lake bottom temperature near the shores of two expanding lakes in OCF. The sensitivity of talik development to variations in lake bottom thermal regime was then investigated numerically. Where ice reached the lake bottom, talik development was controlled by the ratio of freezing degree days to thawing degree days at the lake bottom (FDDlb/TDDlb). In some cases, spatial variations in on-ice snow depth had a minimal effect on annual mean lake bottom temperature (Tlb) but caused sufficient variations in FDDlb/TDDlb to influence talik development. Where Tlb was close to but greater than 0°C simulations indicated that the thermal offset allowed permafrost aggradation to occur under certain conditions, resulting in irregular near-shore talik geometries. The results highlight the sensitivity of permafrost to small changes in lake bottom thermal conditions where the water column freezes through in early winter and indicate the occurrence of permafrost degradation beneath very shallow water in the near-shore zone of Arctic ponds and lakes.

  9. Thermal classification of lithospheric discontinuities beneath USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Steven M.; Dueker, Ken; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    Broadband seismic data from the United States were processed into Ps and Sp receiver function image volumes for the purpose of constraining negative velocity gradients (NVG) at depths between the Moho and 200 km. Moho depth picks from the two independent datasets are in good agreement, however, large discrepancies in NVG picks occur and are attributed to free-surface multiples which obscure deep NVG arrivals in the Ps data. From the Sp data, shallow NVG are found west of the Rockies and in the central US while deep and sporadic NVG are observed beneath the Great Plains and northern Rockies. To aid the interpretation of the observed NVG arrivals, the mantle thermal field is estimated by mapping surface wave tomography velocities to temperature assuming an anelastic olivine model. The distribution of temperature versus NVG depth is bi-modal and displays two distinct thermal populations that are interpreted to represent both the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and mid-lithosphere discontinuities (MLD). LAB arrivals occur in the western US at 60-85 km and 1200-1400 °C depth suggesting that they manifest partial melt near the base of the thermal plate. MLD arrivals primarily occur at 70-110 km depth and 700-900 °C and we hypothesize that these arrivals are caused by a low-velocity metasomatic layer containing phlogopite resulting from magma crystallization products that accumulate within long-lived thick lithosphere.

  10. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  11. Finite Frequency Traveltime Tomography of Lithospheric and Upper Mantle Structures beneath the Cordillera-Craton Transition in Southwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Hung, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Based on finite-frequency theory and cross-correlation teleseismic relative traveltime data from the USArray, Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) and Canadian Rockies and Alberta Network (CRANE), we present a new tomographic model of P-wave velocity perturbations for the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the Cordillera-cration transition region in southwestern Canada. The inversion procedure properly accounts for the finite-volume sensitivities of measured travel time residuals, and the resulting model shows a greater resolution of upper mantle velocity heterogeneity beneath the study area than earlier approaches based on the classical ray-theoretical approach. Our model reveals a lateral change of P velocities from -0.5% to 0.5% down to ~200-km depth in a 50-km wide zone between the Alberta Basin and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, which suggests a sharp structural gradient along the Cordillera deformation front. The stable cratonic lithosphere, delineated by positive P-velocity perturbations of 0.5% and greater, extends down to a maximum depth of ~180 km beneath the Archean Loverna Block (LB). In comparison, the mantle beneath the controversial Medicine Hat Block (MHB) exhibits significantly higher velocities in the uppermost mantle and a shallower (130-150 km depth) root, generally consistent with the average depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Southwest Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The complex shape of the lithospheric velocities under the MHB may be evidence of extensive erosion or a partial detachment of the Precambrian lithospheric root. Furthermore, distinct high velocity anomalies in LB and MHB, which are separated by 'normal' mantle block beneath the Vulcan structure (VS), suggest different Archean assembly and collision histories between these two tectonic blocks.

  12. Topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic: The Azores, Canary and Cape Verde plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Lessing, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analysed over 1700 seismograms from MW > 5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of known hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 50-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: (i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from known hotspots, (ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and (iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be ponding beneath the endothermic 660 km phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone as a whole, except for those branches which appear as the thinner upwellings of Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  13. Baby-Plumes beneath Central Europe - Indications from seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achauer, U.; Granet, M.

    2011-12-01

    The most important result of the seismic investigations in the French Massif Central at the beginning of the 1990' (French-German co-operative project Limagne 91/92) was the proof of an ascending material stream from larger depth (250km), which due to its geochemical, petrological and temperature characteristics and its appearance was classified as a plume and which confirmed an already 20 years earlier expressed hypothesis. The really new of the results were that for the first time the exact size and shape of this plume at upper mantle depths was determined, as well as the fact that no plume head ("mushroom") could be found. This led to the expression of "baby plume" for this kind of material up-streaming in order to differentiate this feature to the classical idea of a plume (such as the model by Shilling). The results from the Massif Central triggered similar seismic experiments in other regions of Central Europe with variscan basement and recent volcanism, such as the Eifel plume project and BOHEMA and led to the proof of another such structure beneath the Eifel volcanic region. In contrast to that does the Bohemian massif anomaly more look like a classic asthenospheric upwarp. Recent investigations, in particularily based on additional data from a project across the southern Massif Central, let assume that the origin of these plume like structures lies in the mantle transition zone and that they might be connected to a fossil slab. In this lecture an overview will be given of the current state of affairs concerning the seismic research on baby plumes, as well as possible causes for their presence will be discussed.

  14. Determination of the Basin Structure Beneath European Side of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Cengiz Cinku, Mulla; Thomas, Michael; Lamontagne, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Istanbul (near North Anatolian Fault Zone:NAFZ, Turkey) is located in northern part of Sea of Marmara, an area that has been influenced by possible Marmara Earthquakes. The general geology of Istanbul divided into two stratigraphic unit such as sedimentary (from Oligocene to Quaternary Deposits) and bedrock (Paleozoic and Eocene). The bedrock units consists of sand stone, clay stone to Paleozoic age and limestone to Eocene age and sedimentary unit consist of sand, clay, mil and gravel from Oligocene to Quaternary age. Earthquake disaster mitigation studies divided into two important phases, too. Firstly, earthquake, soil and engineering structure problems identify for investigation area, later on strategic emergency plan can prepare for these problems. Soil amplification play important role the disaster mitigation and the site effect analysis and basin structure is also a key parameter for determining of site effect. Some geophysical, geological and geotechnical measurements are requeired to defined this relationship. Istanbul Megacity has been waiting possible Marmara Earthquake and their related results. In order to defined to possible damage potential related to site effect, gravity measurements carried out for determining to geological structure, basin geometry and faults in Istanbul. Gravity data were collected at 640 sites by using a Scientrex CG-5 Autogravity meter Standard corrections applied to the gravity data include those for instrumental drift, Earth tides and latitude, and the free-air and Bouguer corrections. The corrected gravity data were imported into a Geosoft database to create a grid and map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (grid cell size of 200 m). As a previously results, we determined some lineminants, faults and basins beneath Istanbul City. Especially, orientation of faults were NW-SE direction and some basin structures determined on between Buyukcekmece and Kucukcekmece Lake.

  15. Evidence for chemically heterogeneous Arctic mantle beneath the Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Errico, Megan E.; Warren, Jessica M.; Godard, Marguerite

    2016-02-01

    Ultraslow spreading at mid-ocean ridges limits melting due to on-axis conductive cooling, leading to the prediction that peridotites from these ridges are relatively fertile. To test this, we examined abyssal peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge, the slowest spreading ridge in the global ocean ridge system. Major and trace element concentrations in pyroxene and olivine minerals are reported for 14 dredged abyssal peridotite samples from the Sparsely Magmatic (SMZ) and Eastern Volcanic (EVZ) Zones. We observe large compositional variations among peridotites from the same dredge and among dredges in close proximity to each other. Modeling of lherzolite trace element compositions indicates varying degrees of non-modal fractional mantle melting, whereas most harzburgite samples require open-system melting involving interaction with a percolating melt. All peridotite chemistry suggests significant melting that would generate a thick crust, which is inconsistent with geophysical observations at Gakkel Ridge. The refractory harzburgites and thin overlying oceanic crust are best explained by low present-day melting of a previously melted heterogeneous mantle. Observed peridotite compositional variations and evidence for melt infiltration demonstrates that fertile mantle components are present and co-existing with infertile mantle components. Melt generated in the Gakkel mantle becomes trapped on short length-scales, which produces selective enrichments in very incompatible rare earth elements. Melt migration and extraction may be significantly controlled by the thick lithosphere induced by cooling at such slow spreading rates. We propose the heterogeneous mantle that exists beneath Gakkel Ridge is the consequence of ancient melting, combined with subsequent melt percolation and entrapment.

  16. New insight into the Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Pacific Ocean Using PP and SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrola, H.; Rogers, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The passing of the EarthScope Transportable array has provided a dense data set that enabled beam forming of SS and PP data that resultes in improved frequency content to as much a 1 Hz in the imaging of upper mantle structure. This combined with the application of simultaneous iterative deconvolution has resulted in images to as much as 4 Hz. The processing however results in structure being averaged over regions of 60 to 100 km in radius. This is becomes a powerful new tool to image the upper mantle beneath Oceanic regions where locating stations is expensive and difficult. This presentation will summarize work from a number of regions as to new observations of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Images from a region of the Pacific Ocean furthest from hot spots or subduction zones (we will refer to this as the 'reference region'). show considerable layering in the upper mantle. The 410 km discontinuity is always imaged using these tools and appears to be a very sharp boundary. It does usually appear as an isolated positive phase. There appears to be a LAB at ~100 km as expected but there is a strong negative phase at ~ 200 km with a positive phase 15 km deeper. This is best explained as a lens of partial melt as expected for this depth based on the geothermal gradient. If so this should be a low friction point and so we would expect it to accommodate plate motion. Imaging of the Aleutian subduction zone does show the 100 km deep LAB as it descends but this 200 km deep horizon appears as a week descending positive anomaly without the shallower negative pulse. In addition to the 410, 100 and 200 km discontinuities there are a number of paired anomalies, between the 200 and 400 km depths, with a negative pulse 15 to 20 km shallower then the positive pulse. We do not believe these are side lobes or we would see side lobes on the 100 km and 410 km discontinuities. We believe these to be the result of friction induced partial melt along zones of

  17. Mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere beneath the Adamawa uplift (Cameroon, West Africa) based on gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudjom Djomani, Y. H.; Diament, M.; Albouy, Y.

    1992-07-01

    The Adamawa massif in Central Cameroon is one of the African domal uplifts of volcanic origin. It is an elongated feature, 200 km wide. The gravity anomalies over the Adamawa uplift were studied to determine the mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere. Two approaches were used to analyse six gravity profiles that are 600 km long and that run perpendicular to the Adamawa trend. Firstly, the coherence function between topography and gravity was interpreted; secondly, source depth estimations by spectral analysis of the gravity data was performed. To get significant information for the interpretation of the experimental coherence function, the length of the profiles was varied from 320 km to 600 km. This treatment allows one to obtain numerical estimates of the coherence function. The coherence function analysis points out that the lithosphere is deflected and thin beneath the Adamawa uplift, and the Effective Elastic Thickness is of about 20 km. To fit the coherence, a load from below needs to be taken into account. This result on the Adamawa massif is of the same order of magnitude as those obtained on other African uplifts such as Hoggar, Darfur and Kenya domes. For the depth estimation, three major density contrasts were found: the shallowest depth (4-15 km) can be correlated to shear zone structures and the associated sedimentary basins beneath the uplift; the second density contrast (18-38 km) corresponds to the Moho; and finally, the last depth (70-90 km) would be the top of the upper mantle and demotes the low density zone beneath the Adamawa uplift.

  18. Fate of effluent-borne contaminants beneath septic tank drainfields overlying a Karst aquifer.

    PubMed

    Katz, Brian G; Griffin, Dale W; McMahon, Peter B; Harden, Harmon S; Wade, Edgar; Hicks, Richard W; Chanton, Jeffrey P

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality effects from septic tanks were investigated in the Woodville Karst Plain, an area that contains numerous sinkholes and a thin veneer of sands and clays overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Concerns have emerged about elevated nitrate concentrations in the UFA, which is the source of water supply in this area of northern Florida. At three sites during dry and wet periods in 2007-2008, water samples were collected from the septic tank, shallow and deep lysimeters, and drainfield and background wells in the UFA and analyzed for multiple chemical indicators including nutrients, nitrate isotopes, organic wastewater compounds (OWCs), pharmaceutical compounds, and microbiological indicators (bacteria and viruses). Median NO3-N concentration in groundwater beneath the septic tank drainfields was 20 mg L(-1) (8.0-26 mg L(-1)). After adjusting for dilution, about 25 to 40% N loss (from denitrification, ammonium sorption, and ammonia volatilization) occurs as septic tank effluent moves through the unsaturated zone to the water table. Nitrogen loading rates to groundwater were highly variable at each site (3.9-12 kg N yr(-1)), as were N and chloride depth profiles in the unsaturated zone. Most OWCs and pharmaceutical compounds were highly attenuated beneath the drainfields; however, five Cs (caffeine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, phenol, galaxolide, and tris(dichloroisotopropyl)phosphate) and two pharmaceutical compounds (acetaminophen and sulfamethoxazole) were detected in groundwater samples. Indicator bacteria and human enteric viruses were detected in septic tank effluent samples but only intermittently in soil water and groundwater. Contaminant movement to groundwater beneath each septic tank system also was related to water use and differences in lithology at each site.

  19. Cascadia Initiative Reveals Accumulation of Buoyant Material Beneath the Subducting Juan de Fuca Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, W. B.; Allen, R. M.; Richards, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cascadia Initiative is a four-year (2011-2015) amphibious seismic deployment that covers the Juan de Fuca plate and the Cascadia Subduction Zone. It is comprised of 70 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers that occupy 120 sites in total, as well as 27 land-based stations. This array offers a unique opportunity to study the 3D structure of a subduction zone in unprecedented detail. We present the results of an inversion using teleseismic body waves recorded by the Cascadia Initiative, EarthScope, and other regional and temporary networks in the Pacific Northwest. A low-velocity feature is visible beneath the subducting slab at shallow depths. Previous studies report ponding of low-viscosity, buoyant material at the top of the asthenosphere, unable to rise through the impermeable lithospheric lid. We show that as the lithospheric lid descends into the mantle, this material is not advected with it; rather, due to its own weakness and buoyancy, it accumulates at the subduction zone. Such material could be partly responsible for the rapid uplift and volcanism in the Coast Range of California, in the wake of the northward migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction. This newly observed feature may play an important role in the structure of subduction zones, but understanding the extent of that role on a global scale will require amphibious seismic deployments in other subduction zones.

  20. Imaging of magma intrusions beneath Harrat Al-Madinah in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.; El-Masry, Nabil; Moufti, Mohamed Rashad; Kenedi, Catherine Lewis; Zhao, Dapeng; Zahran, Hani; Shawali, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle beneath Harrat Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia, are obtained by inverting high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded by newly installed borehole seismic stations to investigate the AD 1256 volcanic eruption and the 1999 seismic swarm in the study region. Our tomographic images show the existence of strong heterogeneities marked with low-velocity zones extending beneath the AD 1256 volcanic center and the 1999 seismic swarm area. The low-velocity zone coinciding with the hypocenters of the 1999 seismic swarm suggests the presence of a shallow magma reservoir that is apparently originated from a deeper source (60-100 km depths) and is possibly connected with another reservoir located further north underneath the NNW-aligned scoria cones of the AD 1256 eruption. We suggest that the 1999 seismic swarm may represent an aborted volcanic eruption and that the magmatism along the western margin of Arabia is largely attributed to the uplifting and thinning of its lithosphere by the Red Sea rifting.

  1. Slab melting beneath the Cascade Arc driven by dehydration of altered oceanic peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walowski, K. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Hauri, E. H.; Wada, I.; Clynne, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Water is returned to Earth’s interior at subduction zones. However, the processes and pathways by which water leaves the subducting plate and causes melting beneath volcanic arcs are complex; the source of the water--subducting sediment, altered oceanic crust, or hydrated mantle in the downgoing plate--is debated; and the role of slab temperature is unclear. Here we analyse the hydrogen-isotope and trace-element signature of melt inclusions in ash samples from the Cascade Arc, where young, hot lithosphere subducts. Comparing these data with published analyses, we find that fluids in the Cascade magmas are sourced from deeper parts of the subducting slab--hydrated mantle peridotite in the slab interior--compared with fluids in magmas from the Marianas Arc, where older, colder lithosphere subducts. We use geodynamic modelling to show that, in the hotter subduction zone, the upper crust of the subducting slab rapidly dehydrates at shallow depths. With continued subduction, fluids released from the deeper plate interior migrate into the dehydrated parts, causing those to melt. These melts in turn migrate into the overlying mantle wedge, where they trigger further melting. Our results provide a physical model to explain melting of the subducted plate and mass transfer from the slab to the mantle beneath arcs where relatively young oceanic lithosphere is subducted.

  2. Slab melting beneath the Cascades Arc driven by dehydration of altered oceanic peridotite

    Walowski, Kristina J; Wallace, Paul J.; Hauri, E.H.; Wada, I.; Clynne, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Water is returned to Earth’s interior at subduction zones. However, the processes and pathways by which water leaves the subducting plate and causes melting beneath volcanic arcs are complex; the source of the water—subducting sediment, altered oceanic crust, or hydrated mantle in the downgoing plate—is debated; and the role of slab temperature is unclear. Here we analyse the hydrogen-isotope and trace-element signature of melt inclusions in ash samples from the Cascade Arc, where young, hot lithosphere subducts. Comparing these data with published analyses, we find that fluids in the Cascade magmas are sourced from deeper parts of the subducting slab—hydrated mantle peridotite in the slab interior—compared with fluids in magmas from the Marianas Arc, where older, colder lithosphere subducts. We use geodynamic modelling to show that, in the hotter subduction zone, the upper crust of the subducting slab rapidly dehydrates at shallow depths. With continued subduction, fluids released from the deeper plate interior migrate into the dehydrated parts, causing those to melt. These melts in turn migrate into the overlying mantle wedge, where they trigger further melting. Our results provide a physical model to explain melting of the subducted plate and mass transfer from the slab to the mantle beneath arcs where relatively young oceanic lithosphere is subducted.

  3. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. 3D modeling of magnetotelluric data unraveling the tectonic setting and sources of magmatism in the northeastern corner of Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, A. L.; Vitorello, I.; Padua, M. B.; Batista, J. C.; Fuck, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex orogenic system formed by crustal blocks of different ages, origin and evolution amalgamated during the West Gondwana convergence in late Neoproterozoic-early Phanerozoic Brasiliano Orogeny. We discuss here new magnetotelluric (MT) data collected along four linear profiles crisscrossing the northeastern corner of the province to assess its deep electrical resistivity structure. Dimensionality analysis showed that a 3D electrical structure predominates in the subsurface and thus the data were modeled by a 3D MT data inversion scheme. The modeling revealed several subvertical discontinuities, with significant lateral contrast in the overall geoelectric structure, down to upper mantle depths. A major conductivity anomaly is registered in the crust beneath Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Serido Group) and this anomaly deepens to upper mantle depths in the northwest direction below a zone of Paleoproterozoic plutons (Caico Complex). It has been suggested that the Serido Group was originally initiated as a sedimentary basin developed upon a Paleoproterozoic basement during a Neoproterozoic extension event related to a collisional foredeep of a south-dipping subduction slab, contrary to our northwest-dipping conductivity vergence. In case of the Caico Complex, because of the petrogenesis of its orthogneisses that indicates partial melting of a metasomatically enriched spinel-to garnet-bearing lherzolite with adakitic features, we also propose a subduction zone environment for its original magmatism. Considering the tenuous evidence indicating that this conductive anomaly could extend down into the upper mantle in the same region where teleseismic tomography register an attenuation of P waves, it can be concluded that this zone could also be the source of the metasomatic fluids and minerals observed along north-south Mesozoic volcanic plugs and flows of alkaline rocks and alkali basalts (Macau-Queimadas belt). In

  5. Particle motions beneath irrotational water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhoday-Paskyabi, Mostafa

    2015-08-01

    Neutral and buoyant particle motions in an irrotational flow are investigated under the passage of linear, nonlinear gravity, and weakly nonlinear solitary waves at a constant water depth. The developed numerical models for the particle trajectories in a non-turbulent flow incorporate particle momentum, size, and mass (i.e., inertial particles) under the influence of various surface waves such as Korteweg-de Vries waves which admit a three parameter family of periodic cnoidal wave solutions. We then formulate expressions of mass-transport velocities for the neutral and buoyant particles. A series of test cases suggests that the inertial particles possess a combined horizontal and vertical drifts from the locations of their release, with a fall velocity as a function of particle material properties, ambient flow, and wave parameters. The estimated solutions exhibit good agreement with previously explained particle behavior beneath progressive surface gravity waves. We further investigate the response of a neutrally buoyant water parcel trajectories in a rotating fluid when subjected to a series of wind and wave events. The results confirm the importance of the wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes force effect in both amplifying (destroying) the pre-existing inertial oscillations and in modulating the direction of the flow particles. Although this work has mainly focused on wave-current-particle interaction in the absence of turbulence stochastic forcing effects, the exercise of the suggested numerical models provides additional insights into the mechanisms of wave effects on the passive trajectories for both living and nonliving particles such as swimming trajectories of plankton in non-turbulent flows.

  6. Zone lines

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  7. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  8. 2. Substructure of the main dock, looking south beneath the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Substructure of the main dock, looking south beneath the Hay and Grain Warehouse. Original log pilings have been encased in concrete. - Curtis Wharf, Main Dock, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  9. 36. Basement, cellar beneath main stairway, with skylight in stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Basement, cellar beneath main stairway, with skylight in stair riser, and adjacent storage room, view to east - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  10. 104. VIEW OF CABLE RACEWAY BENEATH REMOVABLE FLOOR PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF CABLE RACEWAY BENEATH REMOVABLE FLOOR PANEL IN LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. View from beneath causeway extension looking back to causeway and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from beneath causeway extension looking back to causeway and pavilions (northwest generally); note Dog Bridge in background - National Park Seminary, Chateau Causeways, Between Linden Lane & Beach Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. Mantle flow beneath Arabia offset from the opening Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Merino, Miguel; Van der Lee, Suzan; Stein, Seth; Stein, Carol A.

    2011-02-01

    Continental rifting involves a poorly understood sequence of lithospheric stretching, volcanism, and mantle flow that evolves to seafloor spreading. We present new insight from inversion of seismic traveltimes and waveforms beneath Arabia and surroundings. Low velocities occur beneath the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, consistent with active spreading. However, hot material extends not below the northern Red Sea, but is offset eastward beneath Arabia, showing mantle flow from the Afar hotspot. The location of this channel beneath volcanic rocks erupted since rifting began 30 million years ago indicates that flow moves with Arabia. We propose that the absence of seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea reflects the offset flow. This geometry may evolve to spreading in the Northern Red Sea, rifting of Arabia, or both. This situation has aspects of both active and passive rifting, showing that both can occur before coalescing to seafloor spreading.

  13. 14. Oblique detail; understructure beneath short span used for docking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Oblique detail; understructure beneath short span used for docking fishing boats, north of northen pillar, from northwest. - Puente Ferroviario San Antonio, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-1, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  14. Remote Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring Beneath Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Adam; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang; Hwang, Byongjun (Phil); Hagan, Bernard; Stothard, David J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The spillage of oil in Polar Regions is particularly serious due to the threat to the environment and the difficulties in detecting and tracking the full extent of the oil seepage beneath the sea ice. Development of fast and reliable sensing techniques is highly desirable. In this paper hyperspectral imaging combined with signal processing and classification techniques are proposed as a potential tool to detect the presence of oil beneath the sea ice. A small sample, lab based experiment, serving as a proof of concept, resulted in the successful identification of oil presence beneath the thin ice layer as opposed to the other sample with ice only. The paper demonstrates the results of this experiment that granted a financial support to execute full feasibility study of this technology for oil spill detection beneath the sea ice.

  15. Imaging voids beneath bridge bent using electrical resistivity tomography.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-02-01

    Five electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles and borehole control were acquired beneath two bridges on the bank of the : Gasconade River in order to determine extension of the underground water-filled openings in rock encountered during a dr...

  16. 20. Detail, looking west, beneath Trestle 4, showing the metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail, looking west, beneath Trestle 4, showing the metal flume channel, and the sediment clean-out valve. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  17. 23. View of room lined with posters beneath balcony seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of room lined with posters beneath balcony seating - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Ward Memorial Hall, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  18. 12. DETAIL OF NORTH ABUTMENT, FROM BENEATH, SHOWING ARCH RIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF NORTH ABUTMENT, FROM BENEATH, SHOWING ARCH RIB AND FLOOR BEAM. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  19. 21. Generator Room (basement beneath Blacksmith Shop): view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Generator Room (basement beneath Blacksmith Shop): view looking north showing remains of 1923 six-cylinder Studebaker engine and a dynamo - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  20. Snow in northeastern United States

    2014-03-11

    Snow covered the northeastern United States on last day of meteorological winter, 2014. Climatologists and meteorologists break seasons down into three-month groups, based on annual temperature and our calendar. This method is helpful for weather observing and forecasting, and for planning consistent agricultural dates, such as expected first frosts or best planting date. Meteorological winter – the season where temperatures are, on average, coldest and when snow is most likely to fall – runs from December 1 to February 28 in the United States and Canada. Winter can also be defined by the astronomical calendar, which is based on the rotation of the Earth around the sun. In this method, the seasons are defined by two solstices (times when the sun’s path is furthest from the Earth’s equator) and two equinoxes (the times when the sun passes directly above the equator). In the Northern Hemisphere, winter begins on the winter solstice, which falls on or around December 22 and ends on or around March 21, at the vernal (spring) equinox. On February 28, 2014, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image of a sunny winter day in the northeastern United States. Snow stretches from Maine west to Indiana and south along the ridges of the Appalachian Mountains well into West Virginia. In Canada, the landscape appears greener, primarily because snow lies on conifers (evergreen) trees in the boreal forest regions. The Great Lakes, with the exception of Lake Ontario, are almost completely covered with ice. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on

  1. Mapping Tectonic features beneath the Gulf of California using Rayleigh and Love Waves Group Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, P.; Di Luccio, F.; Clayton, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    are faster than the rest of the peninsula. At deeper crustal levels, group velocities become faster in the northern Gulf, whereas in the central Gulf a slow velocity patch becomes more localized. At periods of 30 s and longer, tomographic maps become more complex, reflecting the variation in lithospheric structure beneath the study area. Above 40 s, two areas of high velocity are clearly incoming from the Pacific. Going even deeper into the mantle (60-100 s), the velocity pattern becomes less heterogeneous and relatively slow. The separation between low velocities beneath the East Pacific Rise and the Rivera Transform fault zone and high velocities beneath the northern tip of the Rivera plate is clear at these periods. At even longer periods, tomographic maps are relatively homogeneous beneath Baja and the Gulf, as well as onshore and offshore.

  2. Tomographic evidence for recent extension in the Bentley Subglacial Trench and a hotspot beneath Marie Byrd Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, A. J.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.; Shore, P.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present the first regional P and S wave relative velocity models of the upper mantle beneath much of West Antarctica using P and S wave relative travel time residuals from teleseismic events recorded by seismographs from the POLENET/ANET project. 21 of the seismographs form a sparse backbone network co-located with continuously recording GPS stations at rock sites throughout West Antarctica, and 17 stations formed a seismic transect extending from the Whitmore Mountains across the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and into Marie Byrd Land (MBL) with a station spacing of 90-100 km. Corrections for heterogeneities above the Moho, including the ice sheet, are applied to the relative travel time residuals using the receiver function models of Chaput et al., [submitted, 2013]. Both P and S wave velocity models indicate velocities faster than the mean of the model beneath the Whitmore Mountains that may be interpreted as thicker, colder lithosphere relative to the rest of West Antarctica. Slow velocity anomalies are observed beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench (BST) and MBL. Slow velocities extending from the Moho to the transition zone beneath MBL are centered beneath the Mt Sidley volcano and coincide with high topography that is not isostatically supported by the crust [Chaput et al., submitted, 2013]. The slowest velocities occur at 200-300 km depth and are consistent with warm, low viscosity mantle that provides topographic support for the elevated MBL volcanic dome. Poor vertical resolution, typical of body wave tomography, hampers the models ability to resolve whether the anomaly beneath MBL is strictly an upper mantle hotspot or a classic mantle plume that extends into the lower mantle. The shallow (≤ 100 km depth) slow anomaly beneath the BST coincides with a region of thin crust and likely reflects a localized region of Cenozoic extension in the WARS that may have undergone a last phase of extension in the Neogene [Garnot et al., 2013]. Anomalously

  3. 3-D S-velocity structure in the lowermost mantle beneath the Northern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kawai, K.; Geller, R. J.; Borgeaud, A. F. E.; Konishi, K.

    2017-12-01

    We previously (Suzuki et al., EPS, 2016) reported the results of waveform inversion to infer the three-dimensional (3-D) S-velocity structure in the lowermost 400 km of the mantle (the Dʺ region) beneath the Northern Pacific region. Our dataset consists of about 20,000 transverse component broadband body-wave seismograms observed at North American stations (mainly USArray) for 131 intermediate and deep earthquakes which occurred beneath the western Pacific subduction region. Synthetic resolution tests indicate that our methods and dataset can resolve the velocity structure in the target region with a horizontal scale of about 150 km and a vertical scale of about 50 km. The 3-D S-velocity model obtained in that study shows three prominent features: (i) horizontal high-velocity anomalies up to about 3 per cent faster than the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) with a thickness of a few hundred km and a lower boundary which is at most about 150 km above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), (ii) low-velocity anomalies about 2.5 per cent slower than PREM beneath the high-velocity anomalies at the base of the lower mantle, (iii) a thin (about 150 km) low-velocity structure continuous from the base of the low-velocity zone to at least 400 km above the CMB. We interpret these features respectively as: (i) remnants of slab material where the Mg-perovskite to Mg-post-perovskite phase transition could have occurred within the slab, (ii, iii) large amounts of hot and less dense materials beneath the cold Kula or Pacific slab remnants immediately above the CMB which ascend and form a passive plume upwelling at the edge of the slab remnants. Since our initial work we subsequently conducted waveform inversion using both the transverse- and radial-component horizontal waveform data to infer the isotropic shear velocity structure in the lowermost mantle beneath the Northern Pacific in more detail. We also compute partial derivatives with respect to the 5 independent elastic

  4. Pacific slab beneath northeast China revealed by regional and teleseismic waveform modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, X.; Chen, Q. F.; Wei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate velocity and geometry of the slab is essential for better understanding of the thermal, chemical structure of the mantle earth, as well as geodynamics. Recent tomography studies show similar morphology of the subducting Pacific slab beneath northeast China, which was stagnant in the mantle transition zone with thickness of more than 200km and an average velocity perturbation of ~1.5% [Fukao and Obayashi, 2013]. Meanwhile, waveform-modeling studies reveal that the Pacific slab beneath Japan and Kuril Island has velocity perturbation up to 5% and thickness up to 90km [Chen et al., 2007; Zhan et al., 2014]. These discrepancies are probably caused by the smoothing and limited data coverage in the tomographic inversions. Here we adopted 1D and 2D waveform modeling methods to study the fine structure of Pacific slab beneath northeast China using dense regional permanent and temporary broadband seismic records. The residual S- and P-wave travel time, difference between data and 1D synthetics, shows significant difference between the eastern and western stations. S-wave travel time residuals indicate 5-10s earlier arrivals for stations whose ray path lies within the slab, compared with those out of the slab. Teleseimic waveforms were used to rule out the major contribution of the possible low velocity structure above 200km. Furthermore, we use 2D finite-difference waveform modeling to confirm the velocity perturbation and geometry of the slab. Our result shows that the velocity perturbation in the slab is significantly higher than those reported in travel-time tomography studies. ReferencesChen, M., J. Tromp, D. Helmberger, and H. Kanamori (2007), Waveform modeling of the slab beneath Japan, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 112(B2), 19, doi:10.1029/2006jb004394.Fukao, Y., and M. Obayashi (2013), Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 118(11), 5920-5938, doi:10.1002/2013jb010466

  5. Biomass in conifer plantations of northeastern Minnesota.

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1984-01-01

    Provides biomass (pounds/acre) estimates for vegetative strata and herb-low shrub species for 53 conifer plantations in Northeastern Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  6. A net volume equation for Northeastern Minnesota.

    Gerhard K. Raile

    1980-01-01

    Describes a net volume equation for northeastern Minnesota developed as part of the 1977 Minnesota Forest Inventory. Equation coefficients are presented by species groupings for both cubic foot and board foot volumes for five tree classes.

  7. Northeastern Illinois RTA Decentralized Paratransit Brokerage Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-09-01

    This document presents a review and assessment of the Northeastern Illinois Regional Transportation Authority's (RTA) Paratransit Brokerage Demonstration Program which involved six projects implemented by local governments under RTA's decentralized b...

  8. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  9. Rift Zone Abandonment and Reconfiguration in Hawaii: Evidence from Mauna Loa’s Ninole Rift Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. K.; Park, J.; Zelt, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Large oceanic volcanoes commonly develop elongate rift zones that disperse viscous magmas to the distal reaches of the edifice. Intrusion and dike propagation occur under tension perpendicular to the rift zone, controlled by topography, magmatic pressures, and deformation of the edifice. However, as volcanoes grow and interact, the controlling stress fields can change, potentially altering the orientations and activities of rift zones. This phenomenon is probably common, and can produce complex internal structures that influence the evolution of a volcano and its neighbors. However, little direct evidence for such rift zone reconfiguration exists, primarily due to poor preservation or recognition of earlier volcanic configurations. A new onshore-offshore 3-D seismic velocity model for the Island of Hawaii, derived from a joint tomographic inversion of an offshore airgun shot - onshore receiver geometry and earthquake sources beneath the island, demonstrates a complicated history of rift zone reconfiguration on Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, including wholesale rift zone abandonment. Mauna Loa’s southeast flank contains a massive high velocity intrusive complex, now buried beneath flows derived from Mauna Loa’s active southwest rift zone (SWRZ). Introduced here as the Ninole Rift Zone, this feature extends more than 60 km south of Mauna Loa’s summit, spans a depth range of ~2-14 km below sea level, and is the probable source of the 100-200 ka Ninole volcanics in several prominent erosional hills. A lack of high velocities beneath the upper SWRZ and its separate zone of high velocities on the submarine flank, indicate that the younger rift zone was built upon a pre-existing edifice that emanated from the Ninole rift zone. The ancient Ninole rift zone may stabilize Mauna Loa’s southeast flank, focusing recent volcanic activity and deformation onto the unbuttressed west flank. The upper portion of the Ninole rift zone appears to have migrated westward over time

  10. Rotations in the actively colliding Finisterre Arc Terrane: paleomagnetic constraints on Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the South Bismarck microplate, northeastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, P. D.; Coe, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    We report paleomagnetic results from 12 Plio-Pleistocene localities in the actively colliding Finisterre Arc Terrane of northeastern Papua New Guinea (PNG). Calcareous, hemipelagic cover rocks possess a stable, syn-collisional remagnetization indicating a clockwise rotation of the colliding terrane through about 40° in post-Miocene time. A decrease in paleomagnetic declination anomalies as a function of along-strike distance in the Finisterre Arc Terrane, analyzed by our preferred model of a linear remagnetization and a migrating Euler pole, suggests an average rotation rate of 8° Ma -1, in good agreement with the instantaneous rate from global positioning system geodesy. Thus, we propose that this rotation results from a coherent, rigid-body rotation of the Finisterre Terrane rather than from sequential docking of independently colliding blocks of the terrane. Moreover, we conclude that these paleomagnetic declinations result mainly from South Bismarck Plate motion, and not decoupled rotation of the crustal terrane independent of the underlying lithosphere. We examine models of a syn-collisional remagnetization with both fixed and migrating Euler poles of South Bismarck/Australia plate relative motion, and suggest that the Euler pole describing South Bismarck Plate motion has migrated southwestward to its present location on the collision suture in response to the propagating collision. This plate kinematic model agrees with the variability in depth of the seismogenic slab beneath the collision zone. Our best-fit model of pole migration describes South Bismarck/Australia relative motion producing a highly oblique collision in its early stages, with the Finisterre Arc Terrane converging along a left-lateral Ramu-Markham suture, gradually changing to the nearly orthogonal convergence observed today.

  11. Imaging the seismic structure beneath oceanic spreading centers using ocean bottom geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Yang

    This dissertation focuses on imaging the crustal and upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath oceanic spreading centers. The goals are to provide a better understanding of the crustal magmatic system and the relationship between mantle melting processes, crustal architecture and ridge characteristics. To address these questions I have analyzed ocean bottom geophysical data collected from the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise and the back-arc Eastern Lau Spreading Center using a combination of ambient noise tomography and seafloor compliance analysis. To characterize the crustal melt distribution at fast spreading ridges, I analyze seafloor compliance - the deformation under long period ocean wave forcing - measured during multiple expeditions between 1994 and 2007 at the East Pacific Rise 9º - 10ºN segment. A 3D numerical modeling technique is developed and used to estimate the effects of low shear velocity zones on compliance measurements. The forward modeling suggests strong variations of lower crustal shear velocity along the ridge axis, with zones of possible high melt fractions beneath certain segments. Analysis of repeated compliance measurements at 9º48'N indicates a decrease of crustal melt fraction following the 2005 - 2006 eruption. This temporal variability provides direct evidence for short-term variations of the magmatic system at a fast spreading ridge. To understand the relationship between mantle melting processes and crustal properties, I apply ambient noise tomography of ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) data to image the upper mantle seismic structure beneath the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC). The seismic images reveal an asymmetric upper mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the ELSC, representing a zone of partial melt. As the ridge migrates away from the volcanic arc, the LVZ becomes increasingly offset and separated from the sub-arc low velocity zone. The separation of the ridge and arc low velocity zones is spatially coincident

  12. Crustal seismic structure beneath the Deccan Traps area (Gujarat, India), from local travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Srichand; Kukarina, Ekaterina; Mishra, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    The Gujarat region in western India is known for its intra-plate seismic activity, including the Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake, a reverse-faulting event that reactivated normal faults of the Mesozoic Kachchh rift zone. The Late Cretaceous Deccan Traps, one of the largest igneous provinces on the Earth, cover the southern part of Gujarat. This study is aimed at bringing light to the crustal rift zone structure and likely origin of the Traps based on the velocity structure of the crust beneath Gujarat. Tomographic inversion of the Gujarat region was done using the non-linear, passive-source tomographic algorithm, LOTOS. We use high-quality arrival times of 22,280 P and 22,040 S waves from 3555 events recorded from August 2006 to May 2011 at 83 permanent and temporary stations installed in Gujarat state by the Institute of Seismological Research (ISR). We conclude that the resulting high-velocity anomalies, which reach down to the Moho, are most likely related to intrusives associated with the Deccan Traps. Low velocity anomalies are found in sediment-filled Mesozoic rift basins and are related to weakened zones of faults and fracturing. A low-velocity anomaly in the north of the region coincides with the seismogenic zone of the reactivated Kachchh rift system, which is apparently associated with the channel of the outpouring of Deccan basalt.

  13. Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea

    Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the main fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea—a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and ruptures on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that rupture of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault.

  14. Trans-Tethyan correlation of the Lower-Middle Cenomanian boundary interval; southern England (Southerham, near Lewes, Sussex) and Douar el Khiana, northeastern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William J.; Gale, Andrew S.

    2017-03-01

    A 480 m section of marls with widely separated levels of nodular limestone in the Fahdene Formation north of Bou Khadra in Tebessa Province, northeastern Algeria, spans the Lower/Middle Cenomanian boundary. A total of 30 ammonite species are present, of which two: Forbesiceras reversum and Calycoceras (Newboldiceras) algeriense are new. The fauna allows recognition of the Northwest European upper Lower Cenomanian Mantelliceras dixoni Zone, the succeeding lower Middle Cenomanian Cunningtoniceras inerme Zone, the Acanthoceras rhotomagense Zone and its subzones of Turrilites costatus and Turrilites acutus. The sequence of index species occurs in the same order in both north-eastern Tunisia and the Southerham Grey Pit in Sussex (and indeed elsewhere in Northwest Europe), indicating these to be robust assemblage zones and subzones that can be recognised on both the north and south sides of the Tethys. Other occurrences of taxa that are common in both sections and regions are markedly different, and include the co-occurrence of Cunningtoniceras inerme (Pervinquière, 1907) with Acanthoceras rhotomagense (Brongniart, 1822) in the costatus Subzone in north-eastern Algeria and central Tunisia, the extension of Acompsoceras renevieri (Sharpe, 1857) into the lower Middle Cenomanian in north-eastern Tunisia, whilst the acme of Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bosc, 1801, is in the dixoni Zone in Northwest Europe, and in the inerme Zone in northeasten Algeria and adjacent parts of Central Tunisia. These differences are not a result of collection failure or non-preservation, but must rather reflect environmental controls on occurrence and abundance.

  15. Shallow crustal radial anisotropy beneath the Tehran basin of Iran from seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzad, Taghi; Shomali, Z. Hossein

    2014-06-01

    We studied the shear wave velocity structure and radial anisotropy beneath the Tehran basin by analyzing the Rayleigh wave and Love wave empirical Green's functions obtained from cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise. Approximately 199 inter-station Rayleigh and Love wave empirical Green's functions with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios extracted from 30 stations with various sensor types were used for phase velocity dispersion analysis of periods ranging from 1 to 7 s using an image transformation analysis technique. Dispersion curves extracted from the phase velocity maps were inverted based on non-linear damped least squares inversion method to obtain a quasi-3D model of crustal shear wave velocities. The data used in this study provide an unprecedented opportunity to resolve the spatial distribution of radial anisotropy within the uppermost crust beneath the Tehran basin. The quasi-3D shear wave velocity model obtained in this analysis delineates several distinct low- and high-velocity zones that are generally separated by geological boundaries. High-shear-velocity zones are located primarily around the mountain ranges and extend to depths of 2.0 km, while the low-shear-velocity zone is located near regions with sedimentary layers. In the shallow subsurface, our results indicate strong radial anisotropy with negative magnitude (VSV > VSH) primarily associated with thick sedimentary deposits, reflecting vertical alignment of cracks. With increasing depth, the magnitude of the radial anisotropy shifts from predominantly negative (less than -10%) to predominantly positive (greater than 5%). Our results show a distinct change in radial anisotropy between the uppermost sedimentary layer and the bedrock.

  16. Geometry and segmentation of the North Anatolian Fault beneath the Marmara Sea, Turkey, deduced from long-term ocean bottom seismographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Pinar, Ali; Kalafat, Dogan; Citak, Seckin; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    Both the geometry and the depth of the seismogenic zone of the North Anatolian Fault under the Marmara Sea (the Main Marmara Fault; MMF) are poorly understood, in part because of the fault's undersea location. We have started a series of long-term ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) observation since 2014, as a part of the SATREPS collaborative project between Japan and Turkey namely "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". We recorded 10 months of microseismic data with a dense array of OBSs from Sep. 2014 to Jul. 2015 and then applied double-difference relocation and 3-D tomographic modeling to obtain precise hypocenters on the MMF beneath the central and western Marmara Sea. The hypocenters show distinct lateral changes along the MMF: (1) Both the upper and lower crust beneath the Western High are seismically active and the maximum focal depth reaches 26 km, (2) seismic events are confined to the upper crust beneath the region extending from the eastern part of the Central Basin to the Kumburgaz Basin, and (3) the magnitude and direction of dip of the main fault changes under the Central Basin, where there is also an abrupt change in the depth of the lower limit of the seismogenic zone. We attribute this change to a segment boundary of the MMF. Our data show that the upper limit of the seismogenic zone corresponds to sedimentary basement. We also identified several inactive seismicity regions within the upper crust along the MMF; their spatial extent beneath the Kumburgaz Basin is greater than beneath the Western High. From the comparison with seafloor extensometer data, we consider that these inactive seismicity regions might indicate zones of strong coupling that are accumulating stress for release during future large earthquakes. In this presentation, we will also show the preliminary result of our second phase observation from Jul. 2015 to Jun. 2016.

  17. A deep structural ridge beneath central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Thakur, N. K.; Negi, J. G.

    A joint-inversion of magnetic satellite (MAGSAT) and free air gravity data has been conducted to quantitatively investigate the cause for Bouguer gravity anomaly over Central Indian plateaus and possible fold consequences beside Himalayan zone in the Indian sub-continent due to collision between Indian and Eurasian plates. The appropriate inversion with 40 km crustal depth model has delineated after discriminating high density and magnetisation models, for the first time, about 1500 km long hidden ridge structure trending NW-SE. The structure is parallel to Himalayan fold axis and the Indian Ocean ridge in the Arabian Sea. A quantitative relief model across a representative anomaly profile confirms the ridge structure with its highest point nearly 6 km higher than the surrounding crustal level in peninsular India. The ridge structure finds visible support from the astro-geoidal contours.

  18. Deep earthquakes beneath the Fiji Basin, SW Pacific: Earth's most intense deep seismicity in stagnant slabs

    Okal, E.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that many of the deep earthquakes beneath the Fiji Basin occur in slab material that has been detached and foundered to the bottom of the transition zone or has been laid down by trench migration in a similar recumbent position. Since nowhere else in the Earth do so many earthquakes occur in slabs stagnated in the transition zone, these earthquakes merit closer study. Accordingly, we have assembled from historical and modern data a comprehensive catalogue of the relocated hypocenters and focal mechanisms of well-located deep events in the geographic area between the bottoms of the main Vanuatu and Tonga Wadati-Benioff zones. Two regions of deep seismogenesis are recognized there: (i) 163 deep shocks have occurred north of 15??S in the Vityaz Group from 1949 to 1996. These seismological observations and the absence of other features characteristic of active subduction suggest that the Vityaz group represents deep failure in a detached slab that has foundered to a horizontal orientation near the bottom of the transition zone. (ii) Another group of nearly 50 'outboard' deep shocks occur between about 450 and 660 km depth, west of the complexly buckled and offset western edge of the Tonga Wadati-Benioff zone. Their geometry is in the form of two or possibly three small-circle arcs that roughly parallel the inferred motion of Tonga trench migration. Earthquakes in the southernmost of these arcs occur in a recumbent high-seismic-wavespeed slab anomaly that connects both to the main inclined Tonga anomaly to the east and a lower mantle anomaly to the west [Van der Hilst, R., 1995. Complex morphology of subducted lithosphere in the mantle beneath the Tonga trench. Nature, Vol. 374, pp. 154-157.]. Both groups show complexity in their focal mechanisms. The major question raised by these observations is the cause of this apparent temporary arrest in the descent of the Tonga slab into the lower mantle. We approach these questions by considering the

  19. Migration Imaging of the Java Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokht, Ramin M. H.; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging of tectonically complex regions can greatly benefit from dense network data and resolution enhancement techniques. Conventional methods in the analysis of SS precursors stack the waveforms to obtain an average discontinuity depth, but smearing due to large Fresnel zones can degrade the fine-scale topography on the discontinuity. To provide a partial solution, we introduce a depth migration algorithm based on the common scattering point method while considering nonspecular diffractions from mantle transition zone discontinuities. Our analysis indicates that, beneath the Sunda arc, the depth of the 410 km discontinuity (the 410) is elevated by 30 km and the 660 km discontinuity (the 660) is depressed by 20-40 km; the region of the strongest anticorrelation is correlated with the morphology of the subducting Indo-Australian slab. In eastern Java, a "flat" 410 coincides with a documented slab gap, showing length scales greater than 400 km laterally and 200 km vertically. This observation could be explained by the arrival of a buoyant oceanic plateau at the Java trench at approximately 8 Ma ago, which may have caused a temporary cessation of subduction and formed a tear in the subducting slab. Our results highlight contrasting depths of the 410 and 660 along the shallow-dipping slab below the Banda trench. The 660, however, becomes significantly uplifted beneath the Banda Sea, which is accompanied by enhanced reflection amplitudes. We interpret these observations as evidence for a subslab low-velocity zone, possibly related to the lower mantle upwelling beneath the subducting slab.

  20. New families of low frequency earthquakes beneath the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestler, S.; Creager, K. C.; Sweet, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the Array of Arrays (AofA) and Cascadia Arrays for Earthscope (CAFÉ) experiments we search for new families of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) beneath the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. LFE families are clusters of repeating LFEs that occur in approximately the same location. Following methodology similar to Bostock et al. [2012, G3], we cross correlate 6-second long windows within an hour of data during the 2010 and 2011 ETS events. We apply this to 99 hours of tremor data. For each hour, we stack the autocorrelation functions from a set of 7 3-component base stations chosen for their high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). We extract a maximum of 10 windows per hour with correlation coefficients higher than 9 times the median absolute deviation (MAD). These time windows contain our preliminary LFE detections. We then cross correlate these data and group them using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. We produce template waveforms by stacking the waveforms corresponding to a given cluster. To strengthen the templates we scan them through on day of tremor and stack all waveforms that correlate with the original template. Our efforts have yielded dozens of new families scattered beneath the AofA stations. These additional LFE families add to the 9 known families beneath the Olympic Peninsula [Sweet et al., AGU fall meeting, 2012]. The detection of more LFE families will allow us to (1) interpolate the pattern of stress transfer through the transition zone [Wech et al., Nature Geoscie., 2011], (2) gain insight into the distribution of asperities, or sticky spots, on the plate interface [Ghosh et al., JGR, 2012], and (3) track slow slip rupture propagation with unprecedented spatial and temporal accuracy.

  1. Imaging the Lowermost Mantle (D'') Beneath the Pacific Ocean with SKKS coda waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Shang, X.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicate considerable complexity in the lowermost mantle beneath the Pacific Ocean on a variety of spatial scales, such as large low-shear-velocity province (LLSVP), intermittent D'' discontinuities and isolated ultra-low-velocity zones (ULVZs). However, the resolution of travel time tomography is typically greater than 1000 km in deep mantle, and only a few regions can satisfy contingent sampling requirement for waveform modeling. On the other hand, generalized Radon transform (GRT) has a higher resolution (~400 km horizontally and ~30 km vertically) and can relax the restriction of source-receiver configuration. It has been successfully applied to central America and east Asia, which are speculated as the graveyard of subducted slabs. In this study we apply GRT to obtain a large-scale high-resolution image beneath (almost the whole) Pacific Ocean near the core-mantle boundary (CMB). More than 400,000 traces from ~8,000 events (5.8beneath the Pacific. Meanwhile, a cross section through Hawaii is imaged to detect the influence on D' of the possibly existed plume root.

  2. Crustal structure beneath Namche Barwa, eastern Himalayan syntaxis: New insights from three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Changhong; Peng, Miao; Tan, Handong; Xu, Zhiqin; Li, Zhong-Hai; Kong, Wenxin; Tong, Tuo; Wang, Mao; Zeng, Weihua

    2017-07-01

    The eastern terminations of the Himalayan orogeny, named Namche Barwa, are considered a vital natural laboratory in the Tibetan plateau for geodynamics due to its distinctive geological and geomorphological characteristics. Magnetotelluric (MT) data measured at 83 sites around the Namche Barwa are imaged by three-dimensional (3-D) inversion to better reveal the crustal structure of the eastern Himalaya. The results show a complex and heterogeneous electrical structure beneath the Namche Barwa. The electrical conductors distributed in the middle and lower crust around the Namche Barwa provide additional evidence for the "crustal flow" model if they are considered as some parts of the flow in a relatively large-scale region. The near-surface resistivity model beneath the inner part of Namche Barwa conforms with the locations of hot spring and fluid inclusions, the brittle-ductile transition, and the 300°C-400°C isotherm from previous hydrothermal studies. Relatively resistive upper crust (>800 Ωm) is underlain by a more conductive middle to lower crust (<80 Ωm). The electrical characteristics of the thermal structure at shallow depth indicate an accumulation of hydrous melting, a localized conductive steep dipping zone for decompression melting consistent with the "tectonic aneurysm" model for explaining the exhumation mechanism of metamorphic rocks at Namche Barwa. The results also imply that both surface processes and local tectonic responses play a vital role in the evolution of Namche Barwa. An alternative hypothesis that the primary sustained heat source accounts for the local thermal-rheological structure beneath Namche Barwa is also discussed.

  3. Magnetotelluric investigations of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton, mainland Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Jessica E.; Skulski, Thomas; Craven, James A.; Jones, Alan G.; Snyder, David B.; Kiyan, Duygu

    2014-03-01

    New magnetotelluric soundings at 64 locations throughout the central Rae craton on mainland Nunavut constrain 2-D resistivity models of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath three regional transects. Responses determined from colocated broadband and long-period magnetotelluric recording instruments enabled resistivity imaging to depths of > 300 km. Strike analysis and distortion decomposition on all data reveal a regional trend of 45-53°, but locally the geoelectric strike angle varies laterally and with depth. The 2-D models reveal a resistive upper crust to depths of 15-35 km that is underlain by a conductive layer that appears to be discontinuous at or near major mapped geological boundaries. Surface projections of the conductive layer coincide with areas of high grade, Archean metasedimentary rocks. Tectonic burial of these rocks and thickening of the crust occurred during the Paleoproterozoic Arrowsmith (2.3 Ga) and Trans-Hudson orogenies (1.85 Ga). Overall, the uppermost mantle of the Rae craton shows resistivity values that range from 3000 Ω m in the northeast (beneath Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula) to 10,000 Ω m beneath the central Rae craton, to >50,000 Ω m in the south near the Hearne Domain. Near-vertical zones of reduced resistivity are identified within the uppermost mantle lithosphere that may be related to areas affected by mantle melt or metasomatism associated with emplacement of Hudsonian granites. A regional decrease in resistivities to values of 500 Ω m at depths of 180-220 km, increasing to 300 km near the southern margin of the Rae craton, is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  4. 3D velocity imaging of Hikurangi subduction beneath the Wellington region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wech, A.; Henrys, S. A.; Sutherland, R.; Seward, A. M.; Stern, T. A.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.; Bassett, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present first results from the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE). This joint project involving institutions from New Zealand, Japan and the USA aims to investigate the subduction zone fault characteristics beneath the southernmost part of New Zealand's North Island. Situated above where the Pacific Plate is subducting beneath the Australian plate at a rate of ~42 mm/yr, the Wellington region provides a unique opportunity to investigate the frictional properties, geometry, and seismic potential of a shallow, locked megathrust fault. Here the coupled plate interface is 20-30 km deep beneath land and can be sampled with onshore-offshore data from 3 sides. An added interest to this project is that the elevated, oceanic, Hikurangi plateau has entered the subduction zone, east of Wellington, but it is still unclear how far the plateau has advanced westward into the subduction zone. SAHKE combines active and passive source data comprising 4 distinct data sets. 1) A dense temporary array of 50 seismometers with ~7 km spacing augmented 25 regional network instruments to record 49 local and 45 teleseismic earthquakes over a four month period. 2) These stations also recorded 69,000 offshore airgun shots from 17 lines crisscrossing two sides of the array. 3) An additional coast-to-coast transect of 50 stations cutting through the temporary array recorded ~2000 offshore shots on either side. 4) 1000 stations with 100m spacing along that same transect separately recorded 12 in-line, 500 kg onshore dynamite explosions. First inspection of the recent onshore shot gathers show excellent signal to noise and a band of three strong reflectors between 20 and 38 km at the western end of the profile. We combine shot and earthquake recordings to simultaneously invert ~750,000 first arrivals for velocity structure and hypocenters in the densely sampled volume. First results from 3D, Vp tomography and relocated hypocenters agree with previous studies and suggest the later weak

  5. Mapping the megathrust beneath the northern Gulf of Alaska using wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles

    SciT

    Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Fisher, M.A.

    1993-04-01

    In the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound, wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiling, earthquake studies, and laboratory measurements of physical properties are used to determine the geometry of the Prince William and Yakutat terranes, and the subducting Pacific plate. In this complex region, the Yakutat terrane is underthrust beneath the Prince William terrane, and both terranes are interpreted to be underlain by the Pacific plate. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles recorded along 5 seismic lines are used to unravel this terrane geometry. Modeled velocities in the upper crust of the Prince William terrane (to 18-km depth) agree closely with laboratorymore » velocity measurements of Orca Group phyllites and quartzofeldspathic graywackes (the chief components of the Prince William terrane) to hydrostatic pressures as high as 600 MPa (6 KBAR). An interpretation consistent with these data extends the Prince William terrane to at least 18-km depth. A landward dipping reflection at depths of 16--24 km is interpreted as the base of the Prince William terrane. This reflector corresponds to the top of the Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and is interpreted as the megathrust. Beneath this reflector is a 6.9-km/s refractor, that is strongly reflective and magnetic, and is interpreted to be gabbro in Eocene age oceanic crust of the underthrust Yakutat terrane. Both wide-angle seismic and magnetic anomaly data indicate that the Yakutat terrane has been underthrust beneath the Prince William terrane for at least a few hundred kilometers. Wide-angle seismic data are consistent with a 9 to 10[degree] landward dip of the subducting Pacific plate, distinctly different from the inferred average 3 to 4[degree] dip of the overlying 6.9-km/s refractor and Wadati-Benioff seismic zone. The preferred interpretation of the geophysical data is that one composite plate, composed of the Pacific and Yakutat plates, is subducting beneath southern Alaska.« less

  6. Topography of Upper Mantle Seismic Discontinuities Beneath the North Atlantic: The Azores, Canary and Cape Verde Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Saki, M.; Nippress, S. E. J.; Lessing, S.

    2014-12-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analysed over 1700 seismograms from MW>5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of known hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 50-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from known hotspots, ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be blocked by endothermic phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone except for those branches which appear as the Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  7. Topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic: the Azores, Canary and Cape Verde plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Lessing, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Many source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigating area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from MW>5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 200-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from the hotspots and ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be blocked by endothermic phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone as whole except for those branches which appear as the Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  8. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  9. Water levels and artesian pressures in the Chad Basin of northeastern Nigeria, 1963-68

    Carmalt, S.W.; Tibbitts, G.C.

    1969-01-01

    This report presents records of water levels and artesian pressures collected during 1963-68 on an observational network of 116 dug wells and boreholes (drilled wells) in the Chad Basin of northeastern Nigeria. The Chad Basin is underlain by the Chad Formation, a series of fluvio-lacustrine sediments which attain a thickness of 1,500 feet or more in Nigeria. Three water-bearing zones, designated Upper, Middle and Lower, have been identified in the Chad Formation of Nigeria. The Upper Zone aquifer, which contains water under both unconfined and confined conditions, provides the principal source of water to dug wells for domestic and village water supply. The Middle Zone aquifer is tapped by numerous deep boreholes (drilled wells) which provide water by artesian flow in more than 13,000 square miles of Nigeria north and east of Maiduguri. The Lower Zone, which is also confined has only been identified thus far (1969) in the vicinity of Maiduguri.

  10. Seismic structures beneath Popocatepetl (Mexico) and Gorely (Kamchatka) volcanoes derived from passive tomography studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    A number of active volcanoes are observed in different parts of the world, and they attract great interest of scientists. Comparing their characteristics helps in understanding the origin and mechanisms of their activity. One of the most effective methods for studying the deep structure beneath volcanoes is passive source seismic tomography. In this study we present results of tomographic inversions for two active volcanoes located in different parts of the world: Popocatepetl (Mexico) and Gorely (Kamchatka, Russia). In the past century both volcanoes were actively erupted that explains great interest to their detailed investigations. In both cases we made the full data analysis starting from picking the arrival times from local events. In the case of the Popocatepetl study, a temporary seismological network was deployed by GFZ for the period from December 1999 to July 2000. Note that during this period there were a very few events recorded inside the volcano. Most of recorded earthquakes occurred in surrounding areas and they probably have the tectonic nature. We performed a special analysis to ground the efficiency of using these data for studying seismic structure beneath the network installed on the volcano. The tomographic inversion was performed using the LOTOS code by Koulakov (2009). Beneath the Popocatepetl volcano we have found a zone of strong anti-correlation between P- and S-velocities that leaded to high values of Vp/Vs ratio. Similar features were found for some other volcanoes in previous studies. We interpret these anomalies as zones of high content of fluids and melts that are related to active magma sources. For the case of Gorely volcano we used the data of a temporary network just deployed in summer 2013 by our team from IPGG, Novosibirsk. Luckily, during the field works, the volcano started to manifest strong seismic activity. In this period, 100 - 200 volcanic events occurred daily. We collected the continuous seismic records from 20 stations

  11. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  12. Very-long-period volcanic earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    Hill, D.P.; Dawson, P.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Pitt, A.M.; Biasi, G.; Smith, K.

    2002-01-01

    Detection of three very-long-period (VLP) volcanic earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain emphasizes that magmatic processes continue to be active beneath this young, eastern California volcano. These VLP earthquakes, which occured in October 1996 and July and August 2000, appear as bell-shaped pulses with durations of one to two minutes on a nearby borehole dilatometer and on the displacement seismogram from a nearby broadband seismometer. They are accompanied by rapid-fire sequences of high-frequency (HF) earthquakes and several long- period (LP) volcanic earthquakes. The limited VLP data are consistent with a CLVD source at a depth of ???3 km beneath the summit, which we interpret as resulting from a slug of fluid (CO2- saturated magmatic brine or perhaps basaltic magma) moving into a crack.

  13. Morphological Indicators of a Mascon Beneath Ceres's Largest Crater, Kerwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, M. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Raymond, C. A.; Williams, D. A.; Bowling, T. J.; Preusker, F.; Park, R. S.; Marchi, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Fu, R. R.; Russell, C. T.

    2018-02-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long-term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact-induced uplift of the high-density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest-degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin-associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

  14. The nature of subslab slow velocity anomalies beneath South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Daniel Evan; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Scire, Alissa

    2017-05-01

    Slow seismic velocity anomalies are commonly imaged beneath subducting slabs in tomographic studies, yet a unifying explanation for their distribution has not been agreed upon. In South America two such anomalies have been imaged associated with subduction of the Nazca Ridge in Peru and the Juan Fernández Ridge in Chile. Here we present new seismic images of the subslab slow velocity anomaly beneath Chile, which give a unique view of the nature of such anomalies. Slow seismic velocities within a large hole in the subducted Nazca slab connect with a subslab slow anomaly that appears correlated with the extent of the subducted Juan Fernández Ridge. The hole in the slab may allow the subslab material to rise into the mantle wedge, revealing the positive buoyancy of the slow material. We propose a new model for subslab slow velocity anomalies beneath the Nazca slab related to the entrainment of hot spot material.

  15. The feasibility of imaging subglacial hydrology beneath ice streams with ground-based electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, M. R.; Key, K.

    2017-12-01

    Subglacial hydrologic systems in Antarctica and Greenland play a fundamental role in ice-sheet dynamics, yet critical aspects of these systems remain poorly understood due to a lack of observations. Ground-based electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods are established for mapping groundwater in many environments, but have never been applied to imaging lakes beneath ice sheets. Here we study the feasibility of passive and active source EM imaging for quantifying the nature of subglacial water systems beneath ice streams, with an emphasis on the interfaces between ice and basal meltwater, as well as deeper groundwater in the underlying sediments. Specifically, we look at the passive magnetotelluric method and active-source EM methods that use a large loop transmitter and receivers that measure either frequency-domain or transient soundings. We describe a suite of model studies that exam the data sensitivity as a function of ice thickness, water conductivity and hydrologic system geometry for models representative of a subglacial lake and a grounding zone estuary. We show that EM data are directly sensitive to groundwater and can image its lateral and depth extent. By combining the conductivity obtained from EM data with ice thickness and geological structure from conventional geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar and active seismic techniques, EM data have the potential to provide new insights on the interaction between ice, rock, and water at critical ice-sheet boundaries.

  16. Seismic Migration Imaging of the Crust and Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure beneath Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.-S.; Kuo, B.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    Taiwan is located in the convergent plate boundary zone where the Philippine Sea plate has obliquely collided on the Asian continental margin, initiating the arc-continent collision and subsequent mountain-building in Taiwan. Receiver function has been a powerful tool to image seismic velocity discontinuity structure in the crust and upper mantle which can help illuminate the deep dynamic process of active Taiwan orogeny. In this study, we adopt backprojection migration processing of teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle discontinuities beneath southern Taiwan, using the data from Southern Taiwan Transect Seismic Array (STTA), broadband stations of Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS), and Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER). This composite east-west trending linear array has the aperture of about 150 km with the station spacing of ~5-10 km. Superior to the common midpoint (CMP) stack approach, the migration can properly image the dipping, curved, or laterally-varying topography of discontinuous interfaces which very likely exist under the complicated tectonic setting of Taiwan. We first conduct synthetic experiments to test the depth and lateral resolution of migration images based on the WKBJ synthetic waveforms calculated from available source and receiver distributions. We will next construct the 2-D migration image under the array to reveal the topographic variation of the Moho and lithosphere discontinuities beneath southern Taiwan.

  17. Evidence for magmatic underplating and partial melt beneath the Canary Islands derived using teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, A.; Nippress, S. E. J.; Rietbrock, A.; García-Yeguas, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have focussed on resolving the internal structure of ocean island volcanoes. Traditionally, active source seismic experiments have been used to image the volcano edifice. Here we present results using the analysis of compressional to shear (P to S) converted seismic phases from teleseismic events, recorded by stations involved in an active source experiment "TOM-TEIDEVS" (Ibáñez et al., 2008), on the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. We supplement this data with receiver function (RF) analysis of seismograms from the Canary Islands of Lanzarote and La Palma, applying the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation estimation method (Helffrich, 2006). We use the neighbourhood inversion approach of Sambridge (1999a,b) to model the RFs and our results indicate magmatic underplating exists beneath all three islands, ranging from 2 to 8 km, but showing no clear correlation with the age of the island. Beneath both La Palma and Tenerife, we find localized low velocity zones (LVZs), which we interpret as due to partial melt, supported by their correlation with the location of historical earthquakes (La Palma) and recent earthquakes (Tenerife). For Lanzarote, we do not sample the most recently volcanically active region and find no evidence for a LVZ. Instead, we find a simple gradational velocity structure, with discontinuities at ˜4, 10 and 18 km depth, in line with previous studies.

  18. Seismic evidence for a cold serpentinized mantle wedge beneath Mount St Helens

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, S. M.; Schmandt, B.; Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Vidale, J. E.; Abers, G. A.; Creager, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mount St Helens is the most active volcano within the Cascade arc; however, its location is unusual because it lies 50 km west of the main axis of arc volcanism. Subduction zone thermal models indicate that the down-going slab is decoupled from the overriding mantle wedge beneath the forearc, resulting in a cold mantle wedge that is unlikely to generate melt. Consequently, the forearc location of Mount St Helens raises questions regarding the extent of the cold mantle wedge and the source region of melts that are responsible for volcanism. Here using, high-resolution active-source seismic data, we show that Mount St Helens sits atop a sharp lateral boundary in Moho reflectivity. Weak-to-absent PmP reflections to the west are attributed to serpentinite in the mantle-wedge, which requires a cold hydrated mantle wedge beneath Mount St Helens (<∼700 °C). These results suggest that the melt source region lies east towards Mount Adams. PMID:27802263

  19. Detailed spatial distribution of microearthquakes beneath the Marmara Sea, Turkey, deduced from long-term ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Pinar, Ali; Kalafat, Doǧan; Citak, Seckin; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Çok, Özkan; Ogutcu, Zafer; Suvariklı, Murat; Tunc, Suleyman; Gürbüz, Cemil; Turhan, Fatih; Ozel, Nurcan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) crosses the Marmara Sea in E-W direction, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. There are many large earthquakes along the 1500 km long NAF repeatedly occurred and interacted each other. The recent large northern Aegean earthquake with Mw=6.9 filled one of the last two seismic gaps on NAF that experienced extraordinary seismic moment release cycle during the last century and confirmed a remained blank zone in the Marmara Sea. However, this segment keeps its mystery due to its underwater location. Earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation studies in Marmara region are sensitive to detailed information on fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea. We have started ocean bottom seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the SATREPS collaborative project between Japan and Turkey namely "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The target area spans from western Marmara Sea to offshore Istanbul along the NAF. In the beginning of the project, we deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin (CB) in September 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them in the western end of the Marmara Sea and in the eastern CB to extend the observed area in March 2015. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July 2015 and deployed them again in the same locations after data retrieve and battery maintenance. From continuous OBS records, we could detect more than 700 events near the seafloor trace of NAF during 10 months observation period whereas land-seismic network could detect less than 200 events. We estimated the micro-earthquake location using manual-picking arrival times incorporating station corrections. The tentative results show

  20. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  1. Widespread Refreezing of Both Surface and Basal Melt Water Beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Wolovick, M.; Chu, W.; Creyts, T. T.; Frearson, N.

    2013-12-01

    Northeast Ice Stream. The contrasting rheology of glacial and interglacial ice may also enhance the deformation associated with freeze-on beneath large ice sheets. The occurrence of basal units both in the ice sheet interior and in the thermally very different ablation zone indicates refreezing is widespread and can occur in many environments beneath an ice sheet. This process appears to influence the morphology and behavior of the ice sheet from top to bottom.

  2. Crustal structure beneath the Kenya Rift from axial profile data

    Mechie, J.; Keller, Gordon R.; Prodehl, C.; Gaciri, S.; Braile, L.W.; Mooney, W.D.; Gajewski, D.; Sandmeier, K.-J.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of the KRISP 90 axial line data shows that major crustal thinning occurs along the axis of the Kenya Rift from Moho depths of 35 km in the south beneath the Kenya Dome in the vicinity of Lake Naivasha to 20 km in the north beneath Lake Turkana. Low Pn velocities of 7.5-7.7 km/s are found beneath the whole of the axial line. The results indicate that crustal extension increases to the north and that the low Pn velocities are probably caused by magma (partial melt) rising from below and being trapped in the uppermost kilometres of the mantle. Along the axial line, the rift infill consisting of volcanics and a minor amount of sediments varies in thickness from zero where Precambrian crystalline basement highs occur to 5-6 km beneath the lakes Turkana and Naivasha. Analysis of the Pg phase shows that the upper crystalline crust has velocities of 6.1-6.3 km/s. Bearing in mind the Cainozoic volcanism associated with the rift, these velocities most probably represent Precambrian basement intruded by small amounts of igneous material. The boundary between the upper and lower crusts occurs at about 10 km depth beneath the northern part of the rift and 15 km depth beneath the southern part of the rift. The upper part of the lower crust has velocities of 6.4-6.5 km/s. The basal crustal layer which varies in thickness from a maximum of 2 km in the north to around 9 km in the south has a velocity of about 6.8 km/s. ?? 1994.

  3. Mantle structure beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a through going-mantle anomaly and its implications for the origin of Cenozoic tectonism in eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.; Julia, J.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are used to invert P and S travel time residuals, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds and for examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. Tomographic images reveal a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) that dips to the SW beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The anomaly appears to be continuous across the transition zone, extending into the lower mantle. Receiver function stacks reveal an average transition zone thickness (TZT) across a wide region extending from central Zambia to the NE through Tanzania and into Kenya, which is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average. These results are not easily explained by models for the origin of the Cenozoic tectonism in eastern Africa that invoke a plume head or small scale convection either by edge flow or passive stretching of the lithosphere. However, the depth extent of the LWA coincident with a thin transition zone is consistent with a model invoking a through-going mantle anomaly beneath eastern Africa that links anomalous upper mantle to the African Superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa. This finding indicates that geodynamic processes deep in the lower mantle are influencing surface dynamics across the Afro-Arabian rift system.

  4. Crypto-magma chambers beneath Mt. Fuji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Yasuda, Atsushi; Fujii, Toshitsugu; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Mt. Fuji consists dominantly of basalt. A study of olivine-hosted melt-inclusions from layers of air-fall scoria, however, shows clear evidence of andesitic liquids. Whole rock compositions show a narrow range of SiO 2, but a wide range of FeO*/MgO and incompatible elements. Phenocrystic plagioclase generally shows bi-modal distributions in compositional frequency, while most olivine phenocrysts show uni-modal distribution with reverse zoning and often contain andesitic melt-inclusions. These suggest that magmas erupted from Fuji are generated through mixing between basaltic and more SiO 2-rich (often andesitic) end-members. We propose that Fuji's magmatic plumbing system consists of at least two magma chambers: a relatively deep (˜20 km) basaltic one and a relatively shallow (˜ 8-9 km) and more SiO 2-rich one. Evolved basalts with wide compositional ranges of incompatible elements are generated in the deep basaltic magma chamber by prevalent fractional crystallization of pyroxenes with olivine and calcic plagioclase at high pressure. Meanwhile basaltic magma left behind by the previous eruption in the conduit accumulates in a shallow magma chamber, and is differentiated to more SiO 2-rich composition by fractional crystallization of olivine, less-calcic plagioclase, and clinopyroxene. Shortly before a new eruption, a large amount of evolved basaltic magma containing calcic plagioclase rises from the deeper magma chamber and is mixed with the more SiO 2-rich magma in the shallow chamber, to generate the hybrid basaltic magma.

  5. Three Dimensional Seismic Tomography of the Shallow Subsurface Structure Under the Meihua Lake in Ilan, Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, R.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is located at an ongoing collision boundary between two plates. The Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate collided at the Longitudinal Valley of eastern Taiwan, and the Philippine Sea plate subducted northward beneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu trench in eastern Taiwan at the Hualien area. Further northward in the island, the opening Okinawa trough ended at the Ilan area in northeastern Taiwan. The Ilan area is over populated and potentially able to produce large earthquake; however, since that are is densely covered with forests, due to lack of geologic and geomorphologic evidences, known active faults are still unclear. Recently, a series of topographic offsets of several meters distributed in a zone were found by using the LiDAR DTM data, indicating active normal faulting was activated in the past. Besides, several small sag ponds were mapped to support the active normal faulting activities. Later on, core borings in one of the small ponds (the Meihua Lake, diameter of about 700m) were conducted and the records showed obvious difference of depths in the adjacent boreholes at a very short distance. In order to realize the variation of the distribution of sediments under the Meihua Lake, we conducted a 3d seismic tomography survey at the lake, hopefully to help to verify the faults. In this paper, we will show results of using a 120-channel shallow seismic recording system for mapping the shallow subsurface structure of sediments under the Meihua Lake. During the experiment, we deployed the geophone groups of three geophones at every 6m along the bank of the lake and fired the shots at every 80m around the lake. An impactor of energy 2200 joule per shot was used as a seismic source. We stacked the energy at each shot point around 60 times for receiving clear signals. Since the total extension of recording system is 720m, about one third of the perimeter around the lake, 2,200m, we moved the geophone deployments 3 times to

  6. The Northeastern Research Station Strategic Framework: Regional Focus, Global Perspective

    Northeastern Research Station

    2000-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station Strategic Framework sets forth the strategic goals to provide information and technology required to ensure the sustainability of Northeastern forests and the goods and services they provide.

  7. Deep groundwater and potential subsurface habitats beneath an Antarctic dry valley

    PubMed Central

    Mikucki, J. A.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S.; Virginia, R. A.; Schamper, C.; Sørensen, K. I.; Doran, P. T.; Dugan, H.; Foley, N.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of groundwater in Antarctica, particularly in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins is poorly understood. Here we use an airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) sensor to produce extensive imagery of resistivity beneath Taylor Valley. Regional-scale zones of low subsurface resistivity were detected that are inconsistent with the high resistivity of glacier ice or dry permafrost in this region. We interpret these results as an indication that liquid, with sufficiently high solute content, exists at temperatures well below freezing and considered within the range suitable for microbial life. These inferred brines are widespread within permafrost and extend below glaciers and lakes. One system emanates from below Taylor Glacier into Lake Bonney and a second system connects the ocean with the eastern 18 km of the valley. A connection between these two basins was not detected to the depth limitation of the AEM survey (∼350 m). PMID:25919365

  8. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Graham J.; Caldwell, T. Grant; Heise, Wiebke; Chertkoff, Darren G.; Bibby, Hugh M.; Burgess, Matt K.; Cull, James P.; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2009-11-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)-Mounts St Helens, Adams and Rainier-are located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath this volcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs 9, 10).

  9. Distribution of melt beneath Mount St Helens and Mount Adams inferred from magnetotelluric data

    Hill, G.J.; Caldwell, T.G.; Heise, W.; Chertkoff, D.G.; Bibby, H.M.; Burgess, M.K.; Cull, J.P.; Cas, Ray A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Three prominent volcanoes that form part of the Cascade mountain range in Washington State (USA)Mounts StHelens, Adams and Rainierare located on the margins of a mid-crustal zone of high electrical conductivity1,5. Interconnected melt can increase the bulk conductivity of the region containing the melt6,7, which leads us to propose that the anomalous conductivity in this region is due to partial melt associated with the volcanism. Here we test this hypothesis by using magnetotelluric data recorded at a network of 85 locations in the area of the high-conductivity anomaly. Our data reveal that a localized zone of high conductivity beneath thisvolcano extends downwards to join the mid-crustal conductor. As our measurements were made during the recent period of lava extrusion at Mount St Helens, we infer that the conductivity anomaly associated with the localized zone, and by extension with the mid-crustal conductor, is caused by the presence of partial melt. Our interpretation is consistent with the crustal origin of silicic magmas erupting from Mount St Helens8, and explains the distribution of seismicity observed at the time of the catastrophic eruption in 1980 (refs9, 10). ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismological evidence for a sub-volcanic arc mantle wedge beneath the Denali volcanic gap, Alaska

    McNamara, D.E.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Arc volcanism in Alaska is strongly correlated with the 100 km depth contour of the western Aluetian Wadati-Benioff zone. Above the eastern portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone however, there is a distinct lack of volcanism (the Denali volcanic gap). We observe high Poisson's ratio values (0.29-0.33) over the entire length of the Alaskan subduction zone mantle wedge based on regional variations of Pn and Sn velocities. High Poisson's ratios at this depth (40-70 km), adjacent to the subducting slab, are attributed to melting of mantle-wedge peridotites, caused by fluids liberated from the subducting oceanic crust and sediments. Observations of high values of Poisson's ratio, beneath the Denali volcanic gap suggest that the mantle wedge contains melted material that is unable to reach the surface. We suggest that its inability to migrate through the overlying crust is due to increased compression in the crust at the northern apex of the curved Denali fault.

  11. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  12. Paradise Lost: Uncertainties in melting and melt extraction processes beneath oceanic spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    In many ways, decompression melting and focused melt transport beneath oceanic spreading ridges is the best understood igneous process on Earth. However, there are remaining - increasing - uncertainties in interpreting residual mantle peridotites. Indicators of degree of melting in residual peridotite are questionable. Yb concentration and spinel Cr# are affected by (a) small scale variations in reactive melt transport, (b) variable extents of melt extraction, and (c) "impregnation", i.e. partial crystallization of cooling melt in pore space. Roughly 75% of abyssal peridotites have undergone major element refertilization. Many may have undergone several melting events. The following three statements are inconsistent: (1) Peridotite melt productivity beyond cpx exhaustion is > 0.1%/GPa. (2) Crustal thickness is independent of spreading rate at rates > 2 cm/yr full rate (excluding ultra-slow spreading ridges). (3) Thermal models predict, and observations confirm, thick thermal boundary layers beneath slow spreading ridges. If (a) melt productivity is << 0.1%/GPa beyond cpx-out, and (b) cpx-out occurs > 15 km below the seafloor beneath most ridges, then the independence of crustal thickness with spreading rate can be understood. Most sampled peridotites from ridges melted beyond cpx-out. Cpx in these rocks formed via impregnation and/or exsolution during cooling. Most peridotites beneath ridges may undergo cpx exhaustion during decompression melting. This would entail an upward modification of potential temperature estimates. Alternatively, perhaps oceanic crustal thickness does vary with spreading rate but this is masked by complicated tectonics and serpentinization at slow-spreading ridges. Dissolution channels (dunites) are predicted to coalesce downstream, but numerical models of these have not shown why > 95% of oceanic crust forms in a zone < 5 km wide. There may be permeability barriers guiding deeper melt toward the ridge, but field studies have not identified

  13. Mantle wedge anisotropy beneath the Western Alps: insights from Receiver Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Salimbeni, Simone; Pondrelli, Silvia; Malusa', Marco; Zhao, Liang; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Paul, Anne; Guillot, Stéphane; Schwartz, Stéphane; Dumont, Thierry; Aubert, Coralie; Wang, Qingchen; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-04-01

    Orogens and subductions zones are the locus where crustal materials are recycled into the upper mantle. Such rocks undergo to several metamorphic reactions during which their seismic properties vary due to the changes in P-T conditions. Metamorphic reactions can imply: (a) the formation of schist-like materials, and (b) a pronounced water flux from the subducted crust. Both these processes should generate highly anisotropic volumes at upper mantle depths. Thus, unveiling the presence of seismic anisotropy at such depth level can put constraints on the metamorphic reactions and the P-T conditions of the subducted materials. The Alpine orogen is composed of three main regions where different geodynamic processes shaped a highly heterogeneous mountain chain. Beneath the Alps, a high velocity body has been imaged sinking in the upper mantle, indicating the presence of a relict of subduction. Such subduction process has been probably terminated with the closure of the Piemont-Liguria Ocean, but evidence of continental subduction has been found beneath the Western Alps. Seismic anisotropy is likely to develop both in the subducted materials and in the mantle wedge, where serpentinized materials could be found due to the low T conditions. We analysed P receiver function (RF) from 46 seismic stations deployed along a linear array crossing the Western Alps, where previous studies revealed the presence of the subducted European lower crust to 80 km depth. RF is a widely used tool for reconstructing subsurface seismic structures, based on the recognition of P-to-S converted phases in teleseismic P-wave coda. The RF data-set is migrated at depth and decomposed into azimuthal harmonics. Computing the first, k=0, and the second, k=1, harmonics allows to separate the "isotropic" contribution, due to the change of the isotropic properties of the sampled materials (recorded on the k=0 harmonics), from the "anisotropic" contribution, where the energy is related to the propagation of

  14. Large-scale trench-normal mantle flow beneath central South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rümpker, G.; Wölbern, I.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropic properties of the fore-arc region of the central Andean margin between 17-25°S by analyzing shear-wave splitting from teleseismic and local earthquakes from the Nazca slab. With partly over ten years of recording time, the data set is uniquely suited to address the long-standing debate about the mantle flow field at the South American margin and in particular whether the flow field beneath the slab is parallel or perpendicular to the trench. Our measurements suggest two anisotropic layers located within the crust and mantle beneath the stations, respectively. The teleseismic measurements show a moderate change of fast polarizations from North to South along the trench ranging from parallel to subparallel to the absolute plate motion and, are oriented mostly perpendicular to the trench. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local earthquakes show fast polarizations roughly aligned trench-parallel but exhibit short-scale variations which are indicative of a relatively shallow origin. Comparisons between fast polarization directions from local earthquakes and the strike of the local fault systems yield a good agreement. To infer the parameters of the lower anisotropic layer we employ an inversion of the teleseismic waveforms based on two-layer models, where the anisotropy of the upper (crustal) layer is constrained by the results from the local splitting. The waveform inversion yields a mantle layer that is best characterized by a fast axis parallel to the absolute plate motion which is more-or-less perpendicular to the trench. This orientation is likely caused by a combination of the fossil crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine within the slab and entrained mantle flow beneath the slab. The anisotropy within the crust of the overriding continental plate is explained by the shape-preferred orientation of micro-cracks in relation to local fault zones which are oriented parallel to the overall strike of the Andean range. Our

  15. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  16. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    SciT

    Firmansyah, Rizky, E-mail: rizkyfirmansyah@hotmail.com; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id; Kristianto, E-mail: kris@vsi.esdm.go.id

    2015-04-24

    Historical records that before the 17{sup th} century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Centermore » for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4{sup th}, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28{sup th}, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.« less

  17. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Junlin; Fischer, Karen M.; Savage, Martha K.

    2018-02-01

    Lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) properties beneath the South Island of New Zealand have been imaged by Sp receiver function common-conversion point stacking. In this transpressional boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, dextral offset on the Alpine fault and convergence have occurred for the past 20 My, with the Alpine fault now bounded by Australian plate subduction to the south and Pacific plate subduction to the north. Using data from onland seismometers, especially the 29 broadband stations of the New Zealand permanent seismic network (GeoNet), we obtained 24,971 individual receiver functions by extended-time multi-taper deconvolution, and mapped them to three-dimensional space using a Fresnel zone approximation. Pervasive strong positive Sp phases are observed in the LAB depth range indicated by surface wave tomography. These phases are interpreted as conversions from a velocity decrease across the LAB. In the central South Island, the LAB is observed to be deeper and broader to the northwest of the Alpine fault. The deeper LAB to the northwest of the Alpine fault is consistent with models in which oceanic lithosphere attached to the Australian plate was partially subducted, or models in which the Pacific lithosphere has been underthrust northwest past the Alpine fault. Further north, a zone of thin lithosphere with a strong and vertically localized LAB velocity gradient occurs to the northwest of the fault, juxtaposed against a region of anomalously weak LAB conversions to the southeast of the fault. This structure could be explained by lithospheric blocks with contrasting LAB properties that meet beneath the Alpine fault, or by the effects of Pacific plate subduction. The observed variations in LAB properties indicate strong modification of the LAB by the interplay of convergence and strike-slip deformation along and across this transpressional plate boundary.

  18. Upper mantle electrical resistivity structure beneath back-arc spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seama, N.; Shibata, Y.; Kimura, M.; Shindo, H.; Matsuno, T.; Nogi, Y.; Okino, K.

    2011-12-01

    We compare four electrical resistivity structure images of the upper mantle across back-arc spreading centers (Mariana Trough at 18 N and 13 N, and the Eastern Lau at 19.7 S and 21.3 S) to provide geophysical constraints on issues of mantle dynamics beneath the back-arc spreading system related to the subducting slab. The central Mariana Trough at 18 N has the full spreading rate of 25 km/Myr, and shows characteristic slow-spreading features; existence of median valley neovolcanic zone and "Bull's eyes" mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) along the axes. On the other hand, the southern Mariana Trough at 13 N shows an EPR type axial relief in morphology and lower MBA than that in the central Mariana Trough (Kitada et al., 2006), suggesting abundance of magma supply, even though the full spreading rate is 35 km/Myr that is categorized as a slow spreading ridge. At the Eastern Lau spreading center, crustal thickness and morphology vary systematically with arc proximity and shows the opposed trends against spreading rate: The full spreading rate increases from 65 km/Myr at 21.3 S to 85 km/Myr at 19.7 S, while the crustal thicknesses decrease together with morphology transitions from shallow peaked volcanic highs to a deeper flat axis (Martinez et al., 2006). Matsuno et al. (2010) provides a resistivity structure image of the upper mantle across the central Mariana subduction system, which contains several key features: There is an uppermost resistive layer with a thickness of 80-100 km beneath the central Mariana Trough, suggesting dry residual from the plate accretion process. But there is no evidence for a conductive feature beneath the back-arc spreading center at 18 N, and this feature is clearly independent from the conductive region beneath the volcanic arc below 60 km depth that reflects melting and hydration driven by water release from the subducting slab. The resultant upper mantle resistivity structure well support that the melt supply is not abundant, resulting in

  19. Soil microbial activities beneath Stipa tenacissima L. and in surrounding bare soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosadová, I.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Záhora, J.; Fišerová, H.

    2010-05-01

    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa). These steppes show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure. Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). On the other hand in "resource islands" and in surrounding bare soil exists the belowground zone of influence. The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). Secondary compounds and allelopathy restrict other species growth and contribute to patchy plant distribution. Active root segregation affects not only neighbourś growth but also soil microbial activities. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration; net nitrogen mineralization). The experimental plots were located in the province Almería in Sierra de los Filabres Mountains near the village Gérgal (southeast Spain) in the small catchment which is situated between 1090 - 1165 m a.s.l. The area with extent of 82 000 m2 is affected by soil degradation. The climate is semiarid Mediterranean. The mean annual rainfall is of about 240 mm mostly concentrated in autumn and spring. The mean annual temperature is 13.9° C. The studied soil has a loam to sandy clay texture and is classified as Lithosol (FAO-ISRIC and ISSS, 1998). The vegetation of these areas is an

  20. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  1. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2011-03-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust.

  2. Pumping-Induced Unsaturated Regions Beneath a Perennial River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, G. W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Delaney, C.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-12-01

    The development of an unsaturated region beneath a streambed during groundwater pumping near streams reduces the capacity of the pumping system, changes flow paths, and alters the types of biological transformations in the streambed sediments. To investigate the formation of an unsaturated region beneath the streambed during near-stream groundwater pumping, a three-dimensional, multi-phase flow model was developed using TOUGH2 of the region near two horizontal collector wells operated by the Sonoma County Water Agency along the Russian River near Forestville, California. The simulations focus on the impact of streambed permeability on the development of an unsaturated region since streambed permeability controls the flux of river water entering and recharging the aquifer. The results indicate that as the streambed permeability decreases relative to the aquifer permeability, the size of the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increases. The simulations also demonstrate that the streambed permeabilities over which the aquifer beneath the streambed is unsaturated and able to extract water at the specified rate of 3200 m3/hr occurs over a relatively narrow range of values. Field measurements of streambed flow velocities, volumetric water content, and temperatures near the collector wells are also presented and compared with the simulation results. This work was supported by the Sonoma County Water Agency, through U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  4. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  5. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  6. West Harlem Walk (Hudson River Valley Greenway) beneath Henry Hudson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Harlem Walk (Hudson River Valley Greenway) beneath Henry Hudson Parkway (HHP) Viaduct at West 155th Street vicinity, with Palisades, George Washington Bridge, and Little Red Lighthouse (visible to left of bridge tower) in background, looking northeast. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  7. Seismic evidence of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath Izu-Bonin area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Gao, Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), separating the rigid lithosphere and the ductile asthenosphere layers, is the seismic discontinuity with the negative velocity contrast of the Earth's interior [Fischer et al., 2010]. The LAB has been also termed the Gutenberg (G) discontinuity that defines the top of the low velocity zone in the upper mantle [Gutenberg, 1959; Revenaugh and Jordan, 1991]. The seismic velocity, viscosity, resistivity and other physical parameters change rapidly with the depths across the boundary [Eaton et al., 2009]. Seismic detections on the LAB in subduction zone regions are of great help to understand the interactions between the lithosphere and asthenosphere layers and the geodynamic processes related with the slab subductions. In this study, the vertical broadband waveforms are collected from three deep earthquake events occurring from 2000 to 2014 with the focal depths of 400 600 km beneath the Izu-Bonin area. The waveform data is processed with the linear slant stack method [Zang and Zhou, 2002] to obtain the vespagrams in the relative travel-time to slowness domain and the stacked waveforms. The sP precursors reflected on the LAB (sLABP), which have the negative polarities with the amplitude ratios of 0.17 0.21 relative to the sP phases, are successfully extracted. Based on the one-dimensional modified velocity model (IASP91-IB), we obtain the distributions for six reflected points of the sLABP phases near the source region. Our results reveal that the LAB depths range between 58 and 65 km beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc, with the average depth of 62 km and the small topography of 7 km. Compared with the results of the tectonic stable areas in Philippine Sea [Kawakatsu et al., 2009; Kumar and Kawakatsu, 2011], the oceanic lithosphere beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc shows the obvious thinning phenomena. We infer that the lithospheric thinning is closely related with the partial melting, which is caused by the volatiles continuously released

  8. The Lithosphere-asthenosphere Boundary beneath the South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, J.; Fischer, K. M.; Savage, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) properties beneath the South Island of New Zealand have been imaged by Sp receiver function common-conversion point stacking. In this transpressional boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, dextral offset on the Alpine fault and convergence have occurred for the past 20 My, with the Alpine fault now bounded by Australian plate subduction to the south and Pacific plate subduction to the north. This study takes advantage of the long-duration and high-density seismometer networks deployed on or near the South Island, especially 29 broadband stations of the New Zealand permanent seismic network (GeoNet). We obtained 24,980 individual receiver functions by extended-time multi-taper deconvolution, mapping to three-dimensional space using a Fresnel zone approximation. Pervasive strong positive Sp phases are observed in the LAB depth range indicated by surface wave tomography (Ball et al., 2015) and geochemical studies. These phases are interpreted as conversions from a velocity decrease across the LAB. In the central South Island, the LAB is observed to be deeper and broader to the west of the Alpine fault. The deeper LAB to the west of the Alpine fault is consistent with oceanic lithosphere attached to the Australian plate that was partially subducted while also translating parallel to the Alpine fault (e.g. Sutherland, 2000). However, models in which the Pacific lithosphere has been underthrust to the west past the Alpine fault cannot be ruled out. Further north, a zone of thin lithosphere with a strong and vertically localized LAB velocity gradient occurs to the west of the fault, juxtaposed against a region of anomalously weak LAB conversions to the east of the fault. This structure, similar to results of Sp imaging beneath the central segment of the San Andreas fault (Ford et al., 2014), also suggests that lithospheric blocks with contrasting LAB properties meet beneath the Alpine fault. The observed variations in

  9. Lithospheric discontinuities beneath the U.S. Midcontinent - signatures of Proterozoic terrane accretion and failed rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Gilbert, Hersh; Fischer, Karen M.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Larson, Timothy; Yang, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Seismic discontinuities between the Moho and the inferred lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are known as mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) and have been ascribed to a variety of phenomena that are critical to understanding lithospheric growth and evolution. In this study, we used S-to-P converted waves recorded by the USArray Transportable Array and the OIINK (Ozarks-Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky) Flexible Array to investigate lithospheric structure beneath the central U.S. This region, a portion of North America's cratonic platform, provides an opportunity to explore how terrane accretion, cratonization, and subsequent rifting may have influenced lithospheric structure. The 3D common conversion point (CCP) volume produced by stacking back-projected Sp receiver functions reveals a general absence of negative converted phases at the depths of the LAB across much of the central U.S. This observation suggests a gradual velocity decrease between the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, the CCP stacks display negative arrivals at depths between 65 km and 125 km. We interpret these as MLDs resulting from the top of a layer of crystallized melts (sill-like igneous intrusions) or otherwise chemically modified lithosphere that is enriched in water and/or hydrous minerals. Chemical modification in this manner would cause a weak layer in the lithosphere that marks the MLDs. The depth and amplitude of negative MLD phases vary significantly both within and between the physiographic provinces of the midcontinent. Double, or overlapping, MLDs can be seen along Precambrian terrane boundaries and appear to result from stacked or imbricated lithospheric blocks. A prominent negative Sp phase can be clearly identified at 80 km depth within the Reelfoot Rift. This arrival aligns with the top of a zone of low shear-wave velocities, which suggests that it marks an unusually shallow seismic LAB for the midcontinent. This boundary would correspond to the top of a

  10. Subduction of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet and deformation of the Tibetan crust and mantle, imaged with broad-band surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew R.; Lebedev, Sergei

    2013-04-01

    then determined by extensive series of non-linear inversions, designed to constrain the depth-dependent ranges of isotropic-average shear speeds and radial anisotropy consistent with the data. Temperature anomalies in the upper mantle were estimated from shear-velocity using pre-computed petro-physical relationships. Azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle was determined by surface-wave tomography and, also, by sub-array analysis targeting the anisotropy amplitude. Our results show that the prominent high-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle are most consistent with the presence of subducted Indian lithosphere beneath much of Tibet. The large estimated thermal anomalies within the high-velocity features match those to be expected within subducted India. The morphology of India's subduction beneath Tibet is complex and shows pronounced west-east variations. Beneath eastern and northeastern Tibet, in particular, the subducted Indian lithosphere appears to have subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of km NNE-wards. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet is distributed in multiple layers with different fast-propagations directions, which accounts for the complexity of published shear-wave splitting observations. The fast directions within the mid-lower crust are parallel to the extensional components of the current strain rate field at the surface, consistent with similar deformation through the entire ­crust, rather than channel flow. Anisotropy within the asthenosphere beneath northeastern Tibet (sandwiched between the Tibetan lithosphere above and the subducted Indian lithosphere below) indicates SSW-NNE flow, parallel to the direction of motion of the Indian Plate, including its subducted leading edge.

  11. Local Upper Mantle Upwelling beneath New England: Evidence from Seismic Anisotropy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. L.; Long, M. D.; Lopez, I.; Li, Y.; Skryzalin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The upper mantle beneath eastern North America contains regions where seismic wave speed is significantly reduced. As they cut across the trend of the Appalachian terranes, these anomalies likely post-date the Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. Most prominent of them, the North Appalachian Anomaly (NAA), has been alternatively explained by the localized disruption of lithospheric fabric, the passage of the Great Meteor Hot Spot, and the current local upwelling of the asthenosphere. Comprehensive mapping of shear wave splitting identified a local perturbation of an otherwise uniform regional pattern, with no apparent splitting occurring at a site within the NAA. To evaluate the reality of this apparent localized disruption in the anisotropic fabric of the upper mantle beneath northeastern North America we used observations of shear wave splitting from a set of long-running observatories not included in previous studies. Three methods of evaluating shear wave splitting (rotation-correlation, minimization of the transverse component, and the splitting intensity) yield complementary results. We show that splitting of core-refracted shear waves within the outline of the NAA is significantly weaker than towards its edges and beyond them (Figure 1). Average fast orientations are close to the absolute plate motion in the hot-spot reference frame, thus we can attribute a large fraction of this signal to the coherently sheared sub-lithospheric upper mantle. A decrease in average delay we observe, from 1 s outside the NAA to under 0.2 s within it, translates into a reduction of the vertical extent of the sheared layer from 130 km to 16 km (assuming 4% anisotropy), or alternatively into a weakening of the azimuthal anisotropy from 5% to 0.6% (assuming a 100 km thick layer). The splitting reduction within the NAA is consistent with a localized change in anisotropic fabric that would be expected in case of geologically recent sub-vertical flow overprinting the broadly uniform upper

  12. Preliminary report on geology along Atlantic Continental Margin of northeastern United States

    Minard, J.P.; Perry, W.J.; Weed, E.G.A.; Rhodehamel, E.C.; Robbins, E.I.; Mixon, R.B.

    1974-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a geologic and geophysical study of the northeastern United States outer continental shelf and the adjacent slope from Georges Bank to Cape Hatteras. The study also includes the adjacent coastal plain because it is a more accessible extension of the shelf. The total study area is about 324,000 sq km, of which the shelf and slope constitute about 181,000 sq km and the coastal plain constitutes 143,000 sq km. The shelf width ranges from about 30 km at Cape Hatteras to about 195 km off Raritan Bay and on Georges Bank. Analyses of bottom samples make it possible to construct a preliminary geologic map of the shelf and slope to a water depth of 2,000 m. The oldest beds cropping out in the submarine canyons and on the slope are of early ate Cretaceous age. Beds of Early Cretaceous and Jurassic age are present in deep wells onshore and probably are present beneath the shelf in the area of this study. Such beds are reported beneath the Scotian shelf on the northeast where they include limestone, salt, and anhydrite. Preliminary conclusions suggest a considerably thicker Mesozoic sedimentary sequence than has been described previously. The region is large; the sedimentary wedge is thick; structures seem favorable; and the hydrocarbon potential may be considerable.

  13. Spatial Variation of Slip Behavior Beneath the Alaska Peninsula Along Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shanshan; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2018-04-01

    We resurveyed preexisting campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) sites and estimated a highly precise GPS velocity field for the Alaska Peninsula. We use the TDEFNODE software to model the slip deficit distribution using the new GPS velocities. We find systematic misfits to the vertical velocities from the optimal model that fits the horizontal velocities well, which cannot be explained by altering the slip distribution, so we use only the horizontal velocities in the study. Locations of three boundaries that mark significant along-strike change in the locking distribution are identified. The Kodiak segment is strongly locked, the Semidi segment is intermediate, the Shumagin segment is weakly locked, and the Sanak segment is dominantly creeping. We suggest that a change in preexisting plate fabric orientation on the downgoing plate has an important control on the along-strike variation in the megathrust locking distribution and subduction seismicity.

  14. Crustal Structure and Mantle Transition Zone Thickness beneath the Central Mongolia from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Wu, Q.; Gao, M.; Munkhuu, U.; Demberel, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Mongolian Plateau (northern Asia) is situated between the Gobi-Altai range and the Siberian craton. In order to understand the crustal and mantle structure environmental characteristics, we use the teleseismic data recorded by 69 broadband stations located in the Central Mongolia(103.5°-111.5°E, 42°-50°N). The teleseismic events are selected from the global earthquakes between Aug. 2011 and Dec. 2013 with magnitude >5.5and the epicentral distance range from 30° to 95° to the center of the network. Lateral variations of the crustal thicknesses H and Vp/Vs ratios are obtained by using receiver function method. The crust thins gradually from northwest to southeast in the studying field. We found that the thinnest crust is ~37.5km in the southeast which is Gobi. The distribution of Vp/Vs ratios are between 1.68 and 1.84, which shows the heterogeneity. There are three high-anomaly areas: the Gobi range which is the Later Paleozoic Orogeny; the Khentei Mountains which is in the Jurassic-Cretaceous Reactive Continental Margin; the northwest area which is granite. Our research not only reveals the powerful evident of the crustal formation and evolution mechanism, but also provides some constraints on the mechanism of uplift of the Mongolian Plateau.This study was supported by the international cooperation project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2011DFB20120).

  15. Earthquake Clusters and Spatio-temporal Migration of earthquakes in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau: a Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Luo, G.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in a region is usually characterized by earthquake clusters and earthquake migration along its major fault zones. However, we do not fully understand why and how earthquake clusters and spatio-temporal migration of earthquakes occur. The northeastern Tibetan Plateau is a good example for us to investigate these problems. In this study, we construct and use a three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite-element model to simulate earthquake cycles and spatio-temporal migration of earthquakes along major fault zones in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We calculate stress evolution and fault interactions, and explore effects of topographic loading and viscosity of middle-lower crust and upper mantle on model results. Model results show that earthquakes and fault interactions increase Coulomb stress on the neighboring faults or segments, accelerating the future earthquakes in this region. Thus, earthquakes occur sequentially in a short time, leading to regional earthquake clusters. Through long-term evolution, stresses on some seismogenic faults, which are far apart, may almost simultaneously reach the critical state of fault failure, probably also leading to regional earthquake clusters and earthquake migration. Based on our model synthetic seismic catalog and paleoseismic data, we analyze probability of earthquake migration between major faults in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We find that following the 1920 M 8.5 Haiyuan earthquake and the 1927 M 8.0 Gulang earthquake, the next big event (M≥7) in northeastern Tibetan Plateau would be most likely to occur on the Haiyuan fault.

  16. Heterogeneous subduction structure within the Pacific plate beneath the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Xing, Junhui; Jiang, Xiaodian

    2018-05-01

    The Izu-Bonin subduction zone is a subduction system formed in early Eocene. The structure of the subduction zone becomes complicated with the evolution of the surrounding plate motion, and many aspects are still unkown or ambiguous. The geodynamic implications are further investigated in related to published seismic observations and geochemical characters of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone. As indicated by seismic tomography and epicentral distributions, the dip angle of the plate beneath the segment to the south of 29°-30°N (the southern Izu-Bonin) is much steeper than the northern one (the northern Izu-Bonin). Deep focus events in the southern segment extend to the depth of ∼600 km, whereas in the northern section deep events just terminate at 420-450 km. Particularly, tomographic images show an obvious boundary between the northern and southern Izu-Bonin at depths of 150-600 km neglected in the previous studies. The northern and southern segments are even separated by a wide range of low-velocity anomaly in P and S wave tomography at 380 km and 450 km depths. In this depth range, three events near 30°N are characterized by strike-slip mechanisms with slab parallel σ1 and horizontally north-south trending σ3, which differ with the typical down-dip compression mechanisms for neighboring events. These events could be attributed to an abrupt change of the morphology and movement of the slab in the transition segment between the northern and southern Izu-Bonin. Indicated by the focal mechanisms, the northern and southern Izu-Bonin exhibits an inhomogeneous stress field, which is closely related to age differences of the downgoing slab. Because of the reheating process, the thermal age of the Pacific plate entering the Izu-Bonin trench in the past 10 Ma, is only 60-90 ± 20 Ma, along with the younger plate subducting in the northern segment. The seismic anisotropy implies that mantle wedge flow orientation is between the motion direction of the Pacific plate and

  17. Seismic Constraints on the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Beneath the Izu-Bonin Area: Implications for the Oceanic Lithospheric Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Qinghui; Wei, Rongqiang; Zhou, Yuanze; Gao, Yajian; Li, Wenlan

    2018-01-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is the seismic discontinuity with negative velocity contrasts in the upper mantle. Seismic detections on the LAB are of great significance in understanding the plate tectonics, mantle convection and lithospheric evolution. In this paper, we study the LAB in the Izu-Bonin subduction zone using four deep earthquakes recorded by the permanent and temporary seismic networks of the USArray. The LAB is clearly revealed with sP precursors (sdP) through the linear slant stacking. As illustrated by reflected points of the identified sdP phases, the depth of LAB beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc (IBA) is about 65 km with a range of 60-68 km. The identified sdP phases with opposite polarities relative to sP phases have the average relative amplitude of 0.21, which means a 3.7% velocity drop and implies partial melting in the asthenosphere. On the basis of the crustal age data, the lithosphere beneath the IBA is located at the 1100 °C isotherm calculated with the GDH1 model. Compared to tectonically stable areas, such as the West Philippine Basin (WPB) and Parece Vela Basin (PVB) in the Philippine Sea, the lithosphere beneath the Izu-Bonin area shows the obvious lithospheric thinning. According to the geodynamic and petrological studies, the oceanic lithospheric thinning phenomenon can be attributed to the strong erosion of the small-scale convection in the mantle wedge enriched in volatiles and melts.

  18. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Whitmore Mountains, West Antarctic Rift System, and Marie Byrd Land from Body-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Lloyd, A. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.; Shore, P.; Zhao, D.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the International Polar Year in Antarctica, 37 seismic stations have been installed across West Antarctica as part of the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET). 23 stations form a sparse backbone network of which 21 are co-located on rock sites with a network of continuously recording GPS stations. The remaining 14 stations, in conjunction with 2 backbone stations, form a seismic transect extending from the Ellsworth Mountains across the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and into Marie Byrd Land. Here we present preliminary P and S wave velocity models of the upper mantle from regional body wave tomography using P and S travel times from teleseismic events recorded by the seismic transect during the first year (2009-2010) of deployment. Preliminary P wave velocity models consisting of ~3,000 ray paths from 266 events indicate that the upper mantle beneath the Whitmore Mountains is seismically faster than the upper man