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Sample records for zone beneath southern

  1. Seismic attenuation structure beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone in southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.; Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate seismic attenuation in terms of quality factors, QP and QS using P and S phases, respectively, beneath Nazca Plate subduction zone between 10°S and 18.5°S latitude in southern Peru. We first relocate 298 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 4.0-6.5 and depth ranges of 20-280 km. We measure t*, which is an integrated attenuation through the seismic raypath between the regional earthquakes and stations. The measured t* are inverted to construct three-dimensional attenuation structures of southern Peru. Checkerboard test results for both QP and QS structures ensure good resolution in the slab-dip transition zone between flat and normal slab subduction down to a depth of 200 km. Both QP and QS results show higher attenuation continued down to a depth of 50 km beneath volcanic arc and also beneath the Quimsachata volcano, the northernmost young volcano, located far east of the main volcanic front. We also observe high attenuation in mantle wedge especially beneath the normal subduction region in both QP and QS (100-130 in QP and 100-125 in QS) and slightly higher QP and QS beneath the flat-subduction and slab-dip transition regions. We plan to relate measured attenuation in the mantle wedge to material properties such as viscosity to understand the subduction zone dynamics.

  2. Evidence for an upper mantle low velocity zone beneath the southern Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone

    Benz, H.M.; McCarthy, J.

    1994-01-01

    A 370-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile recorded during the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) detected an upper mantle P-wave low-velocity zone (LVZ) in the depth range 40 to 55 km beneath the Basin and Range in southern Arizona. Interpretation of seismic data places constraints on the sub-crustal lithosphere of the southern Basin and Range Province, which is important in light of the active tectonics of the region and the unknown role of the sub-crustal lithosphere in the development of the western United States. Forward travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques are used to model this shallow upper mantle LVZ. Modeling results show that the LVZ is defined by a 5% velocity decrease relative to a Pn velocity of 7.95 km s−1, suggesting either a ∼3–5% mafic partial melt or high-temperature, sub-solidus peridotite.

  3. Observations of SKS splitting beneath the Central and Southern External Dinarides in the Adria-Eurasia convergence zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subašić, Senad; Prevolnik, Snježan; Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan

    2017-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the greater region of the Central and Southern External Dinarides is estimated from observations of SKS splitting. The area is located in the broad and complex Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary zone, where the Adriatic microplate interacts with the Dinarides. We analyzed recordings of 12 broadband seismic stations located in the Croatian coastal region. Evidence of seismic anisotropy was found beneath all stations. Fast axis directions are oriented approximately in the NE-SW to NNE-SSW direction, perpendicularly to the strike of the Dinarides. Average delay times range between 0.6 and 1.0 s. A counter-clockwise rotation in average fast axis directions was observed for the stations in the northern part with respect to the stations in the southern part of the studied area. Fast axis directions coincide with the assumed direction of asthenospheric flow through a slab-gap below the Northern and Central External Dinarides, with the maximum tectonic stress orientation in the crust, and with fast directions of Pg and Sg-waves in the crust. These observations suggest that the detected SKS birefringence is primarily caused by the preferred lattice orientation of mantle minerals generated by the asthenospheric flow directed SW-NE to SSW-NNE, with a possible contribution from the crust.

  4. Investigation of the Low Velocity Zone Beneath the Southern Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2003-12-01

    Following the work by Helmberger (1973), we use waveform recordings of P arrivals at distances from 6o to 20o to investigate the structure of the low velocity zone (LVZ) or asthenosphere. In contrast to the previous study, broadband data (TriNet and BDSN) is used at a much smaller station spacing providing higher along path and depth resolution. For this study, a well recorded earthquake in the central Gulf of California (Mw 6.3) produces transitions from PnL to P410 across all of California and western Nevada. The nature of these transitions indicates the thickness and gradients of the LVZ and the lithosphere. Initial findings show large variations of lithosphere and LVZ structure from east to west below California. By varying the lithosphere compressional velocity and depth of the LVZ in 1-D models, a database of synthetics waveforms is created to guide the development of realistic 2-D (along path) and 3-D (against azimuth) description of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The character of the P arrivals changes dramatically near 9-11o with the emergence of a higher frequencies over-printing the longer-period PnL arrivals. Coastal California stations show these arrivals at the shortest distances, 9o indicating the lithosphere velocity and gradient below the LVZ are high. This is in opposition to those arrivals on the east which do not record the high frequency arrivals until 11o. As the distances reach 13o, a large amplitude, high frequency phase is present 10-15 seconds behind the initial P arrival. The emergence of the large secondary phase occurs at different distances across California with a pattern similar to before. At this distance, a change in the apparent velocity of the first arrival also occurs. Further in distance, the width of the initial P arrival and the energy following, or lack thereof, points to the shape of the underlying LVZ. Coastal stations and those in the central portion of California show larger amplitude arrivals following the initial P

  5. Evolution of the upper mantle beneath the southern Baikal rift zone: an Sr-Nd isotope study of xenoliths from the Bartoy volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionov, D. A.; Kramm, U.; Stosch, H.-G.

    1992-06-01

    Anhydrous and amphibole-bearing peridotite xenoliths occur in roughly equal quantitites in the Bartoy volcanic field about 100 km south of the southern tip of Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia). Whole-rock samples and pure mineral separates from nine xenoliths have been analyzed for Sr and Nd isotopes in order to characterize the upper mantle beneath the southern Baikal rift zone. In an Sr-Nd isotope diagram both dry and hydrous xenoliths from Bartoy plot at the junction between the fields of MORB and ocean island basalts. This contrasts with data available on two other localities around Lake Baikal (Tariat and Vitim) where peridotites typically have Sr-Nd isotope compositions indicative of strong long-term depletion in incompatible elements. Our data indicate significant chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle beneath Bartoy that may be attributed to its position close to an ancient suture zone separating the Siberian Platform from the Mongol-Okhotsk mobile belt and occupied now by the Baikal rift. Two peridotites have clinopyroxenes depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) with Sr and Nd model ages of about 2 Ga and seem to retain the trace element and isotopic signatures of old depleted lithospheric mantle, while all other xenoliths show different degrees of LREE-enrichment. Amphiboles and clinopyroxenes in the hydrous peridotites are in Sr-Nd isotopic disequilibrium. If this reflects in situ decay of 147Sm and 87Rb rather than heterogeneities produced by recent metasomatic formation of amphiboles then 300 400 Ma have passed since the minerals were last in equilibrium. This age range then indicates an old enrichment episode or repeated events during the Paleozoic in the lithospheric mantle initially depleted maybe ˜2 Ga ago. The Bartoy hydrous and enriched dry peridotites, therefore, are unlikely to represent fragments of a young asthenospheric bulge which, according to seismic reflection studies, reached the Moho at the axis of the Baikal rift zone

  6. Seismic constraints on the nature of lower crustal reflectors beneath the extending Southern Transition Zone of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Howie, John M.; Thompson, George A.

    1992-01-01

    We determine the reflection polarity and exploit variations in P and S wave reflectivity and P wave amplitude versus offset (AVO) to constrain the origin of lower crustal reflectivity observed on new three-component seismic data recorded across the structural transition of the Colorado Plateau. The near vertical incidence reflection data were collected by Stanford University in 1989 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment that traversed the Arizona Transition Zone of the Colorado Plateau. The results of independent waveform modeling methods are consistent with much of the lower crustal reflectivity resulting from thin, high-impedance layers. The reflection polarity of the cleanest lower crustal events is positive, which implies that these reflections result from high-velocity contrasts, and the waveform character indicates that the reflectors are probably layers less than or approximately equal to 200 m thick. The lower crustal events are generally less reflective to incident S waves than to P waves, which agrees with the predicted behavior of high-velocity mafic layering. Analysis of the P wave AVO character of lower crustal reflections demonstrates that the events maintain a constant amplitude with offset, which is most consistent with a mafic-layering model. One exception is a high-amplitude (10 dB above background) event near the base of lower crustal reflectivity which abruptly decreases in amplitude at increasing offsets. The event has a pronounced S wave response, which along with its negative AVO trend is a possible indication of the presence of fluids in the lower crust. The Arizona Transition Zone is an active but weakly extended province, which causes us to discard models of lower crustal layering resulting from shearing because of the high degree of strain required to create such layers. Instead, we favor horizontal basaltic intrusions as the primary origin of high-impedance reflectors based on (1) The fact that

  7. Seismic structure of southern margin of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake aftershocks area: slab-slab contact zone beneath northeastern Kanto, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Sato, H.; Abe, S.; Mizohata, S.; Hirata, N.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on the Japan Trench off the eastern shore of northern Honshu, Japan. The southward expansion of the afterslip area has reached the Kanto region, central Japan (Ozawa et al., 2011). The Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts beneath the Kanto region. The bottom of the PHS is in contact with the upper surface of the Pacific Plate (PAC) beneath northeastern Kanto. Detailed structure of the PHS-PAC contact zone is important to constrain the southward rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki Earthquake and provide new insight into the process of future earthquake occurrence beneath the Kanto region. Active and passive seismic experiments were conducted to obtain a structural image beneath northeastern Kanto in 2010 (Sato et al., 2010). The geometry of upper surface of the PHS has been revealed by seismic reflection profiling (Sato et al., 2010). Passive seismic data set is useful to obtain a deep structural image. Two passive seismic array observations were conducted to obtain a detailed structure image of the PHS-PAC contact zone beneath northeastern Kanto. One was carried out along a 50-km-long seismic line trending NE-SW (KT-line) and the other was carried out along a 65-km-long seismic line trending NW-SE (TM-line). Sixty-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on KT-line with 500 to 700 m interval and waveforms were continuously recorded during a four-month period from June, 2010. Forty-five 3-component portable seismographs were deployed on TM-line with about 1-2 km spacing and waveforms were continuously recorded during the seven-month period from June, 2010. Arrival times of earthquakes were used in a joint inversion for earthquake locations and velocity structure, using the iterative damped least-squares algorithm, simul2000 (Thurber and Eberhart-Phillips, 1999). The relocated hypocenter distribution shows that the seismicity along the upper surface of the PAC is located at depths of 45-75 km beneath

  8. Lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Vedran; French, Scott W; Fischer, Karen M

    2011-11-11

    The stretching and break-up of tectonic plates by rifting control the evolution of continents and oceans, but the processes by which lithosphere deforms and accommodates strain during rifting remain enigmatic. Using scattering of teleseismic shear waves beneath rifted zones and adjacent areas in Southern California, we resolve the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and lithospheric thickness variations to directly constrain this deformation. Substantial and laterally abrupt lithospheric thinning beneath rifted regions suggests efficient strain localization. In the Salton Trough, either the mantle lithosphere has experienced more thinning than the crust, or large volumes of new lithosphere have been created. Lack of a systematic offset between surface and deep lithospheric deformation rules out simple shear along throughgoing unidirectional shallow-dipping shear zones, but is consistent with symmetric extension of the lithosphere.

  9. Enrichments of the mantle sources beneath the Southern Volcanic Zone (Andes) by fluids and melts derived from abraded upper continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Søager, Nina; Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Nielsen, Mia Rohde

    2014-05-01

    Mafic basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) exhibit a northward increase in crustal components in primitive arc magmas from the Central through the Transitional and Northern SVZ segments. New elemental and Sr-Nd-high-precision Pb isotope data from the Quaternary arc volcanic centres of Maipo (NSVZ) and Infernillo and Laguna del Maule (TSVZ) are argued to reflect mainly their mantle source and its melting. For the C-T-NSVZ, we identify two types of source enrichment: one, represented by Antuco in CSVZ, but also present northward along the arc, was dominated by fluids which enriched a pre-metasomatic South Atlantic depleted MORB mantle type asthenosphere. The second enrichment was by melts having the characteristics of upper continental crust (UCC), distinctly different from Chile trench sediments. We suggest that granitic rocks entered the source mantle by means of subduction erosion in response to the northward increasingly strong coupling of the converging plates. Both types of enrichment had the same Pb isotope composition in the TSVZ with no significant component derived from the subducting oceanic crust. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes indicate a major crustal compositional change at the southern end of the NSVZ. Modelling suggests addition of around 2 % UCC for Infernillo and 5 % for Maipo.

  10. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul G; Shearer, Peter M

    2003-04-18

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (>/=13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  11. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Wolfe, C.J.; Okubo, P.G.; Shearer, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (???13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  12. Mantle transition zone structure beneath Tanzania, east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Thomas J.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Gurrola, Harold; Langston, Charles A.

    2000-03-01

    We apply a three-dimensional stacking method to receiver functions from the Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment to determine relative variations in the thickness of the mantle transition zone beneath Tanzania. The transition zone under the Eastern rift is 30-40 km thinner than under areas of the Tanzania Craton in the interior of the East African Plateau unaffected by rift faulting. The region of transition zone thinning under the Eastern rift is several hundred kilometers wide and coincides with a 2-3% reduction in S wave velocities. The thinning of the transition zone, as well as the reduction in S wave velocities, can be attributed to a 200-300°K increase in temperature. This thermal anomaly at >400 km depth beneath the Eastern rift cannot be easily explained by passive rifting and but is consistent with a plume origin for the Cenozoic rifting, volcanism and plateau uplift in East Africa.

  13. Mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youqiang; Zhao, Dapeng; Lei, Jianshe

    2017-10-01

    To better understand geodynamic processes of intracontinental mountain building, we conduct a systematic investigation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath the Tien Shan and its surrounding areas using a receiver function method under non-plane wave front assumption. The resulting apparent depths of the 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuities and the MTZ thickness display significant lateral variations. Both the central Tien Shan and the Pamir Plateau are characterized by a thick MTZ, which can be well explained by the existence of lithospheric segments resulted from possible break-off of the subducted slab or lithosphere delamination. A thin MTZ and an obviously depressed d410, which may be induced by asthenosphere upwelling associated with the dropping lithospheric segment, are revealed beneath the Kazakh Shield. Seismic evidence is obtained for the potential existence of lower mantle upwelling beneath the Tarim Basin based on the observed thin MTZ and relatively significant uplift of d660. The subduction of the Kazakh Shield and Tarim lithosphere driven by the India-Eurasia collision possibly plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt, and the lower mantle upwelling revealed beneath the Tarim Basin may promote the uplift of the Tien Shan by softening the upper mantle.

  14. Anomalous mantle transition zone beneath the Yellowstone hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying

    2018-06-01

    The origin of the Yellowstone and Snake River Plain volcanism has been strongly debated. The mantle plume model successfully explains the age-progressive volcanic track, but a deep plume structure has been absent in seismic imaging. Here I apply diffractional tomography to receiver functions recorded at USArray stations to map high-resolution topography of mantle transition-zone discontinuities. The images reveal a trail of anomalies that closely follow the surface hotspot track and correlate well with a seismic wave-speed gap in the subducting Farallon slab. This observation contradicts the plume model, which requires anomalies in the mid mantle to be confined in a narrow region directly beneath the present-day Yellowstone caldera. I propose an alternative interpretation of the Yellowstone volcanism. About 16 million years ago, a section of young slab that had broken off from a subducted spreading centre in the mantle first penetrated the 660 km discontinuity beneath Oregon and Idaho, and pulled down older stagnant slab. Slab tearing occurred along pre-existing fracture zones and propagated northeastward. This reversed-polarity subduction generated passive upwellings from the lower mantle, which ascended through a water-rich mantle transition zone to produce melting and age-progressive volcanism.

  15. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D. W.; Snyder, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is underlain by one of the deepest and most laterally extensive continental roots on the planet. Seismological constraints on the mantle structure beneath the region are presently lacking due to the paucity of stations in this remote area. Presented here is a receiver function study on transition zone structure using data from recently deployed seismic networks from the Hudson Bay region. High resolution images based on high signal-to-noise ratio data show clear arrivals from the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, revealing remarkably little variation in transition zone structure. Transition zone thickness is close to the global average (averaging 245 km across the study area), and any deviations in Pds arrival time from reference Earth models can be readily explained by upper-mantle velocity structure. The 520 km discontinuity is not a ubiquitous feature, and is only weakly observed in localised areas. These results imply that the Laurentian root is likely confined to the upper-mantle and if any mantle downwelling exists, possibly explaining the existence of Hudson Bay, it is also confined to the upper 400 km. Any thermal perturbations at transition zone depths associated with the existence of the root, whether they be cold downwellings or elevated temperatures due to the insulating effect of the root, are thus either non-existent or below the resolution of the study.

  16. High-resolution seismic reflection imaging of growth folding and shallow faults beneath the Southern Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Clement, C.R.; Pratt, T.L.; Holmes, M.L.; Sherrod, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Marine seismic reflection data from southern Puget Sound, Washington, were collected to investigate the nature of shallow structures associated with the Tacoma fault zone and the Olympia structure. Growth folding and probable Holocene surface deformation were imaged within the Tacoma fault zone beneath Case and Carr Inlets. Shallow faults near potential field anomalies associated with the Olympia structure were imaged beneath Budd and Eld Inlets. Beneath Case Inlet, the Tacoma fault zone includes an ???350-m wide section of south-dipping strata forming the upper part of a fold (kink band) coincident with the southern edge of an uplifted shoreline terrace. An ???2 m change in the depth of the water bottom, onlapping postglacial sediments, and increasing stratal dips with increasing depth are consistent with late Pleistocene to Holocene postglacial growth folding above a blind fault. Geologic data across a topographic lineament on nearby land indicate recent uplift of late Holocene age. Profiles acquired in Carr Inlet 10 km to the east of Case Inlet showed late Pleistocene or Holocene faulting at one location with ???3 to 4 m of vertical displacement, south side up. North of this fault the data show several other disruptions and reflector terminations that could mark faults within the broad Tacoma fault zone. Seismic reflection profiles across part of the Olympia structure beneath southern Puget Sound show two apparent faults about 160 m apart having 1 to 2 m of displacement of subhorizontal bedding. Directly beneath one of these faults, a dipping reflector that may mark the base of a glacial channel shows the opposite sense of throw, suggesting strike-slip motion. Deeper seismic reflection profiles show disrupted strata beneath these faults but little apparent vertical offset, consistent with strike-slip faulting. These faults and folds indicate that the Tacoma fault and Olympia structure include active structures with probable postglacial motion.

  17. High-resolution seismic reflection imaging of growth folding and shallow faults beneath the Southern Puget Lowland, Washington State

    Odum, Jackson K.; Stephenson, William J.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic reflection data from southern Puget Sound, Washington, were collected to investigate the nature of shallow structures associated with the Tacoma fault zone and the Olympia structure. Growth folding and probable Holocene surface deformation were imaged within the Tacoma fault zone beneath Case and Carr Inlets. Shallow faults near potential field anomalies associated with the Olympia structure were imaged beneath Budd and Eld Inlets. Beneath Case Inlet, the Tacoma fault zone includes an ∼350-m wide section of south-dipping strata forming the upper part of a fold (kink band) coincident with the southern edge of an uplifted shoreline terrace. An ∼2 m change in the depth of the water bottom, onlapping postglacial sediments, and increasing stratal dips with increasing depth are consistent with late Pleistocene to Holocene postglacial growth folding above a blind fault. Geologic data across a topographic lineament on nearby land indicate recent uplift of late Holocene age. Profiles acquired in Carr Inlet 10 km to the east of Case Inlet showed late Pleistocene or Holocene faulting at one location with ∼3 to 4 m of vertical displacement, south side up. North of this fault the data show several other disruptions and reflector terminations that could mark faults within the broad Tacoma fault zone. Seismic reflection profiles across part of the Olympia structure beneath southern Puget Sound show two apparent faults about 160 m apart having 1 to 2 m of displacement of subhorizontal bedding. Directly beneath one of these faults, a dipping reflector that may mark the base of a glacial channel shows the opposite sense of throw, suggesting strike-slip motion. Deeper seismic reflection profiles show disrupted strata beneath these faults but little apparent vertical offset, consistent with strike-slip faulting. These faults and folds indicate that the Tacoma fault and Olympia structure include active structures with probable postglacial motion.

  18. Anisotropy beneath the Southern Pacific - real or apparent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasse, Philipp; Thomas, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Anisotropy of the lowermost mantle beneath the South- to Central Pacific is investigated using US-Array receivers and events located near the Tonga-Fiji subduction zones. Differential splitting in three different distance ranges (65° -85° , 90° -110° and >110°) of S-ScS, SKS-S, SKS-Sdiff phases is used. By utilizing differential splitting technique, it was possible to correct for upper mantle, as well as source- and receiver side anisotropy and effectively quantify shear wave splitting originating in the lowermost mantle. Delay times of horizontal (SH) and vertical polarized (SV) shear waves show that predominantly the SH wave is delayed relative to the SV wave. Motivated by the discrepancy in previous Pacific studies investigating the lowermost mantle beneath the Pacific the possibility of isotropic structure producing the observed splitting is tested. Synthetic seismograms are computed, based on various isotropic models and the resulting synthetics are analysed in the same way as the real data. While simple layered models do not produce splitting and therefore apparent anisotropy, models in which the lowermost mantle is represented as a negative gradient in P- and S-wave velocity, produce clear apparent anisotropy. Thus, this study presents a possible alternative way of explaining the structure of the D" region.

  19. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  20. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean: Ancient Slab Beneath the Indian Ocean

    SciT

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along anmore » extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.« less

  1. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean: Ancient Slab Beneath the Indian Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; ...

    2015-11-14

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along anmore » extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.« less

  2. Seismic Migration Imaging of the Crust and Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure beneath Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.-S.; Kuo, B.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    Taiwan is located in the convergent plate boundary zone where the Philippine Sea plate has obliquely collided on the Asian continental margin, initiating the arc-continent collision and subsequent mountain-building in Taiwan. Receiver function has been a powerful tool to image seismic velocity discontinuity structure in the crust and upper mantle which can help illuminate the deep dynamic process of active Taiwan orogeny. In this study, we adopt backprojection migration processing of teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle discontinuities beneath southern Taiwan, using the data from Southern Taiwan Transect Seismic Array (STTA), broadband stations of Central Weather Bureau (CWB), Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS), and Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER). This composite east-west trending linear array has the aperture of about 150 km with the station spacing of ~5-10 km. Superior to the common midpoint (CMP) stack approach, the migration can properly image the dipping, curved, or laterally-varying topography of discontinuous interfaces which very likely exist under the complicated tectonic setting of Taiwan. We first conduct synthetic experiments to test the depth and lateral resolution of migration images based on the WKBJ synthetic waveforms calculated from available source and receiver distributions. We will next construct the 2-D migration image under the array to reveal the topographic variation of the Moho and lithosphere discontinuities beneath southern Taiwan.

  3. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickael, B.; Nolet, G.; Villasenor, A.; Josep, G.; Thomas, C.

    2013-12-01

    During Cenozoic, geodynamics of the western Mediterranean domain has been characterized by a complex history of subduction of Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. The final stage of these processes is proposed to have led to the development of the Calabria and Gibraltar arcs, whose formation is still under debate. In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks now available in Alborán Sea region, to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone that will bring new constraints on the past dynamics of this zone. The model is based on 13200 teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 at 279 stations for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Our model shows, beneath Alborán Sea, a strong (~ 4%) fast vertically dipping anomaly observed to at least 650 km depth. The arched shape of this anomaly and its extent at depth are coherent with a lithospheric slab, thus favoring the hypothesis of a westward consumption of the Ligurian ocean slab by roll-back during Cenozoic. In addition to this fast anomaly in the deep upper-mantle, several high intensity slow anomalies are widely observed in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath Morocco and southern Spain. These anomalies are correlated at surface with the position of the orogens (Rif and Atlas) and with Cenozoic volcanic fields. We thus confirm the presence, beneath Morocco, of an anomalous (hot) upper mantle, with piece of evidence for a lateral connection with the Canary volcanic islands, likely indicating a lateral spreading of the Canary plume to the east.

  4. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc

    Walowski, Kristina J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Clynne, Michael A.; Rasmussen, D.J.; Weis, D.

    2016-01-01

    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO>7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  5. The Moho discontinuity beneath Taiwan orogenic zone inferred from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Chen, C.; Liang, W.

    2013-12-01

    We determine the depth variations of the Moho discontinuity beneath Taiwan from receiver function analysis. Taiwan is a young (~6.5 Ma) orogenic zone as a consequence of oblique collision between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. In northeastern Taiwan, the Philippine Sea Plate subducts northwestward under the Eurasian Plate along the Ryukyu Trench; in southern Taiwan, the Eurasian Plate subducts eastward beneath the Philippine Sea Plate along the Manila Trench. Recent tomographic models of Taiwan reveal P-wave velocity variations of the lithospheric structure that provide important constraints on the orogenic processes in this region. However, the depth variations of the Moho discontinuity, a key observation for better understanding crustal deformation, remain elusive. In this study, we aim to delineate the Moho depth variations by analyzing seismic converted phases indicative of the presence of discontinuity structure. We analyze waveform data from teleseismic events recorded at the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). Preliminary results of receiver functions beneath BATS stations in eastern Taiwan show that more than one converted phase (P-to-S) are likely present in crustal depths, suggesting possible multiple crustal layering, which may complicate the detection of the Moho. We further carry out synthetic experiments to explore possible crustal structures that reconcile our observations.

  6. Seismic Structure of Mantle Transition Zone beneath Northwest Pacific Subduction Zone and its Dynamic Implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Guo, G.; WANG, X.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The northwest Pacific subduction region is an ideal location to study the interaction between the subducting slab and upper mantle discontinuities. Various and complex geometry of the Pacific subducting slab can be well traced downward from the Kuril, Japan and Izu-Bonin trench using seismicity and tomography images (Fukao and Obayashi, 2013). Due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the sea, investigation of the deep mantle structure beneath the broad sea regions is very limited. In this study, we applied the well- developed multiple-ScS reverberations method (Wang et al., 2017) to analyze waveforms recorded by the Chinese Regional Seismic Network, the densely distributed temporary seismic array stations installed in east Asia. A map of the topography of the upper mantle discontinuities beneath the broad oceanic regions in northwest Pacific subduction zone is imaged. We also applied the receiver function analysis to waveforms recorded by stations in northeast China and obtain the detailed topography map beneath east Asia continental regions. We then combine the two kinds of topography of upper mantle discontinuities beneath oceanic and continental regions respectively, which are obtained from totally different methods. A careful image matching and spatial correlation is made in the overlapping study regions to calibrate results with different resolution. This is the first time to show systematically a complete view of the topography of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities beneath the east Asia "Big mantle wedge" (Zhao and Ohtani, 2009) covering the broad oceanic and continental regions in the Northwestern Pacific Subduction zone. Topography pattern of the 660 and 410 is obtained and discussed. Especially we discovered a broad depression of the 410-km discontinuity covering more than 1000 km in lateral, which seems abnormal in the cold subducting tectonic environment. Based on plate tectonic reconstruction studies and HTHP mineral experiments, we

  7. Extensive, water-rich magma reservoir beneath southern Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, M.; Kohn, S. C.; Hauri, E. H.; Humphreys, M. C. S.; Cassidy, M.

    2016-05-01

    South Soufrière Hills and Soufrière Hills volcanoes are 2 km apart at the southern end of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Their magmas are distinct geochemically, despite these volcanoes having been active contemporaneously at 131-129 ka. We use the water content of pyroxenes and melt inclusion data to reconstruct the bulk water contents of magmas and their depth of storage prior to eruption. Pyroxenes contain up to 281 ppm H2O, with significant variability between crystals and from core to rim in individual crystals. The Al content of the enstatites from Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV) is used to constrain melt-pyroxene partitioning for H2O. The SHV enstatite cores record melt water contents of 6-9 wt%. Pyroxene and melt inclusion water concentration pairs from South Soufriere Hills basalts independently constrain pyroxene-melt partitioning of water and produces a comparable range in melt water concentrations. Melt inclusions recorded in plagioclase and in pyroxene contain up to 6.3 wt% H2O. When combined with realistic melt CO2 contents, the depth of magma storage for both volcanoes ranges from 5 to 16 km. The data are consistent with a vertically protracted crystal mush in the upper crust beneath the southern part of Montserrat which contains heterogeneous bodies of eruptible magma. The high water contents of the magmas suggest that they contain a high proportion of exsolved fluids, which has implications for the rheology of the mush and timescales for mush reorganisation prior to eruption. A depletion in water in the outer 50-100 μm of a subset of pyroxenes from pumices from a Vulcanian explosion at Soufrière Hills in 2003 is consistent with diffusive loss of hydrogen during magma ascent over 5-13 h. These timescales are similar to the mean time periods between explosions in 1997 and in 2003, raising the possibility that the driving force for this repetitive explosive behaviour lies not in the shallow system, but in the deeper parts of a vertically

  8. Imaging of Fine Shallow Structure Beneath the Longmenshan Fault Zone from Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Campillo, M.; Chen, J.; Liu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Short period seismic ambient noise group velocity dispersion curve, obtained from cross correlation of vertical component of 57 stations around the Longmenshan fault zone deployed after the Wenchuan earthquake and continuously observed for 1 year, is used to inverse the S wave velocity structure of the top 25 km of the central to northern part of Longmenshan fault zone. A iterative correction method based on 3-D simulation is proposed to reduce the influence of elevation. After 7 times of correction, a fine shllow S-wave velocity structure comes out. The results show that (1) Velocity structure above 10 km keeps good consistency with the surface fault system around Longmenshan, and controls the deep extension features of most major faults. Below the depth of 15 km, the velocity structure presents cross tectonic frame work along both Longmenshan and Minshan. The complex structure may have affected the rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake. (2) The depth velocity structure profiles give good constraint for the deep geometry of main faults. The characteristics of the high angle, listric, reverse structure of the Longmenshan faults is further confirmed by our results.(3) At southern part of the study area, low-velocity structure is found at about 20km depth beneath the Pengguan massif, which is related to the low velocity layer in the middle crust of Songpan-Ganzi block. This may be an evidence for the existence of brittle-ductile transition zone in southern part of the rupture zone of the Wenchuan earthquake at the depth around 22km. Our results show the great potential of short period ambient noise tomography with data from densepassive seismic array in the study of fine velocity structure and fault zone imaging.

  9. Deep faulting and structural reactivation beneath the southern Illinois basin

    McBride, J.H.; Leetaru, H.E.; Bauer, R.A.; Tingey, B.E.; Schmidt, S.E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of deep fault structure and seismogenesis within "stable" continental interiors has been hindered by the paucity of detailed subsurface information and by low levels of seismicity. Outstanding seismotectonic questions for these areas include whether pre-existing structures govern the release of seismic energy as earthquakes, can reactivation of such structures be recognized, and to what extent have Precambrian basement structures exerted long-lived controls on the development of overlying Phanerozoic features. The southern portion of the Illinois basin provides a premier area in which to study the relation between contemporary seismicity and pre-existing structures due to the frequency of seismic events, the concentration of available geophysical data, and the wealth of borehole information. We have integrated the study of this information in order to create a 2.5-dimensional picture of the earth for local seismogenic depths (0-15 km) for a study area of moderate 20th century earthquake activity. The area is located along the western flanks of two of the major structures within the Illinois basin, the Wabash Valley fault system (WVFS) and the La Salle anticlinal belt (LSA). The results of reprocessing seismic reflection profiles, combined with earthquake hypocenter parameters, suggest three distinct seismotectonic environments in the upper crust. First, we have delineated a fault pattern that appears to correspond to the steep nodal plane of a strike-slip mechanism event (1974.04.03; mb = 4.7). The fault pattern is interpreted to be a deeply buried rift zone or zone of intense normal faulting underpinning a major Paleozoic depocenter of the Illinois basin (Fairfield basin). Second, a similar event (1987.06.10; mb = 5.2) and its well-located aftershocks define a narrow zone of deformation that occurs along and parallel to the frontal thrust of the LSA. Third, the hypocenter of the largest event in the study area (1968.11.09; mb = 5.5) may be

  10. Tearing of the Indian lithospheric slab beneath southern Tibet revealed by SKS-wave splitting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Li, Wei; Yuan, Xiaohui; Badal, José; Teng, Jiwen

    2015-03-01

    Shear wave birefringence is a direct diagnostic of seismic anisotropy. It is often used to infer the northern limit of the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, based on the seismic anisotropy contrast between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Most studies have been made through several near north-south trending passive-source seismic experiments in southern Tibet. To investigate the geometry and the nature of the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, an east-west trending seismic array consisting of 48 seismographs was operated in the central Lhasa block from September 2009 to November 2010. Splitting of SKS waves was measured and verified with different methods. Along the profile, the direction of fast wave polarization is about 60° in average with small fluctuations. The delay time generally increases from east to west between 0.2 s and 1.0 s, and its variation correlates spatially with north-south oriented rifts in southern Tibet. The SKS wave arrives 1.0-2.0 s later at stations in the eastern part of the profile than in the west. The source of the anisotropy, estimated by non-overlapped parts of the Fresnel zones at stations with different splitting parameters, is concentrated above ca. 195 km depth. All the first-order features suggest that the geometry of the underthrusting Indian lithospheric slab in the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone beneath southern Tibet is characterized by systematic lateral variations. A slab tearing and/or breakoff model of Indian lithosphere with different subduction angles is likely a good candidate to explain the observations.

  11. Investigating Ultra-low Velocity Zones beneath the Southwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, S. E.; Hansen, S. E.; Garnero, E.

    2017-12-01

    The core mantle boundary (CMB), where the solid silicate mantle meets the liquid iron-nickel outer core, represents the largest density contrast on our planet, and it has long been recognized that the CMB is associated with significant structural heterogeneities. One CMB structure of particular interest are ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs), laterally-varying, 5-50 km thick isolated patches seen in some locations just above the CMB that are associated with increased density and reduced seismic wave velocities. These variable characteristics have led to many questions regarding ULVZ origins, but less than 40% of the CMB has been surveyed for the presence of ULVZs given limited seismic coverage of the lowermost mantle. Therefore, investigations that sample the CMB with new geometries are critical to further our understanding of ULVZs and their potential connection to other deep Earth processes. The Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network (TAMNNET), a 15-station seismic array that was recently deployed in Antarctica, provides a unique dataset to further study ULVZ structure with new and unique path geometry. Core-reflected ScP and PcP phases from the TAMNNET dataset particularly well sample the CMB in the vicinity of New Zealand in the southwestern Pacific, providing coverage between an area to the north where ULVZ structure has been previously identified and another region to the south, which shows no ULVZ evidence. By identifying and modeling pre- and post-cursor ScP and PcP energy, we are exploring a new portion of the CMB with a goal of better understanding potential ULVZ origins. Our study area also crosses the southern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP); therefore, our investigations may allow us to examine the possible relationship between LLSVPs and ULVZs.

  12. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  13. Significant seismic anisotropy beneath southern Tibet inferred from splitting of direct S-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arun; Eken, Tuna; Mohanty, Debasis D.; Saikia, Dipankar; Singh, Chandrani; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a total of 12008 shear wave splitting measurements obtained using the reference-station technique applied to direct S-waves from 106 earthquakes recorded at 143 seismic stations of the Hi-CLIMB seismic network. The results reveal significant anisotropy in regions of southern Tibet where null or negligible anisotropy has been hitherto reported from SK(K)S measurements. While the individual fast polarization direction (FPD) at each station are found to be consistent, the splitting time delays (TDs) exhibit deviations particularly at stations located south of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The fast polarization directions (FPDs) are oriented (a) NE-SW to E-W to the south of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone (b) NE-SW to ENE-SSW between Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone and the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and (c) E-W to the extreme north of the profile. The splitting time delays (δt) vary between 0.45 and 1.3 s south of the ITSZ (<30°N latitude), while they range from 0.9 to 1.4 s north of it. The overall trends are similar to SKS/SKKS results. However, the differences may be due to the not so near vertical paths of direct S waves which may sample the anisotropy in a different way in comparison to SKS waves, or insufficient number of SKS observations. The significant anisotropy (∼ 0.8 s) observed beneath Himalaya reveals a complex deformation pattern in the region and can be best explained by the combined effects of deformation related to shear at the base of the lithosphere and subduction related flows with possible contributions from the crust. Additional measurements obtained using direct S-waves provide new constraints in regions with complex anisotropy.

  14. The mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Depression and adjacent regions: implications for mantle plumes and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Afar Depression and its adjacent areas are underlain by an upper mantle marked by some of the world's largest negative velocity anomalies, which are frequently attributed to the thermal influences of a lower-mantle plume. In spite of numerous studies, however, the existence of a plume beneath the area remains enigmatic, partially due to inadequate quantities of broad-band seismic data and the limited vertical resolution at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) depth of the techniques employed by previous investigations. In this study, we use an unprecedented quantity (over 14 500) of P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 139 stations from 12 networks to image the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and map the spatial variation of the thickness of the MTZ. Non-linear stacking of the RFs under a 1-D velocity model shows robust P-to-S conversions from both discontinuities, and their apparent depths indicate the presence of an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the entire study area. The Afar Depression and the northern Main Ethiopian Rift are characterized by an apparent 40-60 km depression of both MTZ discontinuities and a normal MTZ thickness. The simplest and most probable interpretation of these observations is that the apparent depressions are solely caused by velocity perturbations in the upper mantle and not by deeper processes causing temperature or hydration anomalies within the MTZ. Thickening of the MTZ on the order of 15 km beneath the southern Arabian Plate, southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden, which comprise the southward extension of the Afro-Arabian Dome, could reflect long-term hydration of the MTZ. A 20 km thinning of the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau is observed and interpreted as evidence for a possible mantle plume stem originating from the lower mantle.

  15. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  16. Upper mantle velocity structure beneath southern Africa from modeling regional seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Langston, Charles A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Owens, Thomas J.

    1999-03-01

    The upper mantle seismic velocity structure beneath southern Africa is investigated using travel time and waveform data which come from a large mine tremor in South Africa (mb 5.6) recorded by the Tanzania broadband seismic experiment and by several stations in southern Africa. The waveform data show upper mantle triplications for both the 410- and 670-km discontinuities between distances of 2100 and 3000 km. Auxiliary travel time data along similar profiles obtained from other moderate events are also used. P wave travel times are inverted for velocity structure down to ˜800-km depth using the Wiechert-Herglotz technique, and the resulting model is evaluated by perturbing it at three depth intervals and then testing the perturbed model against the travel time and waveform data. The results indicate a typical upper mantle P wave velocity structure for a shield. P wave velocities from the top of the mantle down to 300-km depth are as much as 3% higher than the global average and are slightly slower than the global average between 300- and 420-km depth. Little evidence is found for a pronounced low-velocity zone in the upper mantle. A high-velocity gradient zone is required above the 410-km discontinuity, but both sharp and smooth 410-km discontinuities are permitted by the data. The 670-km discontinuity is characterized by high-velocity gradients over a depth range of ˜80 km around 660-km depth. Limited S wave travel time data suggest fast S wave velocities above ˜150-km depth. These results suggest that the bouyant support for the African superswell does not reside at shallow depths in the upper mantle.

  17. The upper-mantle transition zone beneath the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdo, Paula; Bonatto, Luciana; Badi, Gabriela; Piromallo, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the present work is the study of the upper mantle structure of the western margin of South America (between 26°S and 36°S) within an area known as the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone. For this purpose, we use teleseismic records from temporary broad band seismic stations that resulted from different seismic experiments carried out in South America. This area is characterized by on-going orogenic processes and complex subduction history that have profoundly affected the underlying mantle structure. The detection and characterization of the upper mantle seismic discontinuities are useful to understand subduction processes and the dynamics of mantle convection; this is due to the fact that they mark changes in mantle composition or phase changes in mantle minerals that respond differently to the disturbances caused by mantle convection. The discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km, generally associated to phase changes in olivine, vary in width and depth as a result of compositional and temperature anomalies. As a consequence, these discontinuities are an essential tool to study the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle. Here, we analyze the upper-mantle transition zone discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km as seen from Pds seismic phases beneath the Argentina-Chile flat subduction.

  18. A detailed map of the 660-kilometer discontinuity beneath the izu-bonin subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Wicks, C W; Richards, M A

    1993-09-10

    Dynamical processes in the Earth's mantle, such as cold downwelling at subduction zones, cause deformations of the solid-state phase change that produces a seismic discontinuity near a depth of 660 kilometers. Observations of short-period, shear-to-compressional wave conversions produced at the discontinuity yield a detailed map of deformation beneath the Izu-Bonin subduction zone. The discontinuity is depressed by about 60 kilometers beneath the coldest part of the subducted slab, with a deformation profile consistent with the expected thermal signature of the slab, the experimentally determined Clapeyron slope of the phase transition, and the regional tectonic history.

  19. The mantle transition zone beneath Antarctica: Evidence for thermal upwellings and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew; Emry, Erica; Hansen, Samantha; Julia, Jordi; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard; Wiens, Douglas; Huerta, Audrey; Wilson, Terry

    2015-04-01

    West Antarctica has experienced abundant Cenozoic volcanism, and it is suspected that the region is influenced by upwelling thermal plumes from the lower mantle; however this has not yet been verified, because seismic tomography results are not well resolved at mantle transition zone (MTZ) depths. We use P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) from temporary and permanent arrays throughout Antarctica, including the Antarctic POLENET, TAMNET, TAMSEIS, and GAMSEIS arrays, to explore the characteristics of the MTZ beneath the continent. We obtained PRFs for earthquakes occurring at 30-90° with Mb>5.5 using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method filtered with a Gaussian-width of 0.5 and 1.0, corresponding to frequencies less than ~0.24 Hz and ~0.48 Hz, respectively. We combine P receiver functions as single-station and as common conversion point stacks and migrate them to depth using the ak135 1-d velocity model. Results from West Antarctica suggest that the thickness of the MTZ varies throughout the region with thinning beneath the Ruppert Coast of Marie Byrd Land and beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Whitmore Mountains. Also, prominent negative peaks are detected above the transition zone beneath much of West Antarctica and may be evidence for water-induced partial melt above the MTZ. Preliminary results from single-station stacks for the mantle transition zone beneath East Antarctica suggests that one section of East Antarctica, off of the South Pole may have slightly thinned transition zone. Results are forthcoming from the mantle transition zone beneath Victoria Land and the Northern Transantarctics. We propose that the MTZ beneath parts of West Antarctica and possibly also beneath one region of East Antarctica, is hotter than average, possibly due to material upwelling from the lower mantle. Furthermore, we propose that the transition zone beneath much of West Antarctica is water-rich and that upward migration of hydrated material results in formation of

  20. Zircon Zoning, Trace Elements and U-Pb Dates Reveal Crustal Foundering Beneath the Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, B. R.; Shaffer, M. E. F.; Ratschbacher, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Xenoliths that erupted in the SE Pamir of Tajikistan at 11.2 Ma from 1000-1050°C and 90 km depth illuminate what happens when crust founders into the mantle. The xenoliths are a broad range of crustal rock types and contain abundant xenoliths whose U-Pb isotopic ratios and trace-element contents were examined by laser-ablation split stream inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the grains shows igneous cores with oscillatory zoning overprinted by substantial recrystallization. The bulk of the U-Pb dates are concordant and range from 160 Ma to 11 Ma. The range of dates suggest that the xenoliths were likely derived from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Andean-style magmatic arc and its Proterozoic-Mesozoic host rocks along the southern margin of Asia. The zircons show distinct changes in Eu anomaly, Lu/Gd ratio, and Ti concentrations that are interpreted to indicate garnet growth and minimal heating at 22-20 Ma, and then 200-300°C of heating, 25 km of burial, and alkali-carbonate melt injection at 14-11 Ma. These changes are interpreted to coincide with: i) heat input due to Indian slab breakoff at 22‒20 Ma; ii) rapid thickening and foundering of the Pamir lithosphere at 14‒11 Ma, prior to and synchronous with collision between deep Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath the Pamir.

  1. Waveform Modeling Reveals Important Features of the Subduction Zone Seismic Structure Beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luccio, F.; Persaud, P.; Pino, N. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Li, D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic images of the slab in southern Italy indicate a complex geodynamic system, although these images are strongly affected by limitations due to instrumental coverage, in terms of depth resolution and lateral extent. To help improve our knowledge of the structure of the Calabrian subduction zone, we analyze waveforms of regional events that occurred between 2001 and 2015 beneath the Tyrrhenian sea in the western Mediterranean. The selected events are deeper than 200 km and they were recorded at the Italian seismic network managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Italy. We have also included recordings at ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones, which were installed for a few months in 2000-2001, 2004-2005 and 2007-2008. Accurate selection of the source-to receiver raypaths can reveal significant differences at receivers, which are perpendicular to the trench with respect to other stations. P-wave complexity, converted phases and frequency content are some of the features we have observed for selected events. To investigate the slab structure, we model the waveforms using the 2D staggered grid Finite Difference method on graphics processing units developed by Li et al. (Geophys. J. Int., 2014).

  2. Mapping the mantle transition zone beneath the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge using Ps receiver functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, M. R.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Kendall, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the mechanisms taking place beneath ridges is important in order to understand how tectonic plates form and interact. Of particular interest is establishing the depth at which these processes originate. Anomalies such as higher temperature within the mantle transition zone may be inferred seismically if present. However, most ridges are found in remote locations beneath the oceans restricting seismologists to use far away land-based seismometers, which in turn limits the imaging resolution. In 2016, 39 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, along the Romanche and Chain fracture zones as part of the PI-LAB research project (Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Boundary). The one-year long seismic data is now retrieved and analysed to image the mantle transition zone beneath the ridge. We determine P-to-s (Ps) receiver functions to illuminate the 410- and 660-km depth mantle discontinuities using the extended multitaper deconvolution. The data from ocean-bottom seismometers have tilt and compliance noise corrections and is filtered between 0.05-0.2 Hz to enhance the signal. 51 teleseismic earthquakes generated hundreds of good quality waveforms, which are then migrated to depth in 3-D. The topography at the d410 deepens towards the west of the Romanche and Chain fracture zone by 15 km, whereas the topography of d660 shallows beneath the ridge between the two zones. Transition zone thickness thins from 5 to 20 km. Thermal anomalies determined from temperature relationships with transition zone thickness and depth variations of the d410 and d660 suggests hotter temperatures of about 200 K. Overall, the result suggests mid-ocean ridges may have associated thermal signatures as deep as the transition zone.

  3. Inferences of Complex Anisotropic Layering and Mantle Flow Beneath the Malawi Rift Zone from Shear-Wave Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S. S.; Reed, C. A.; Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mdala, H. S.; Massinque, B.; Mutamina, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Measuring the magnitude and orientation of seismic anisotropy beneath actively extending rift zones provides invaluable estimates of the influence of numerous geodynamic parameters upon their evolution. In order to infer the character and origin of extensional forces acting upon the Malawi Rift Zone (MRZ) and Luangwa Rift Zone (LRZ) of southern Africa, we installed 33 Seismic Arrays For African Rift Initiation (SAFARI) three-component broadband seismic stations in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia between 2012-2014. Shear-wave splitting parameters, including the fast-component polarization orientation and the splitting time, are extracted from 142 events recorded during that time period for a total of 642 well-defined PKS, SKKS, and SKS phase measurements. Polarizations trend NE-SW along the western flank of the LRZ, whereupon they demonstrate an abrupt shift to N-S within the rift valley and the eastern flank. SWS orientations shift increasingly counterclockwise toward the east until, at 33°E, they shift from WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW, suggesting a systematic change in dominant mantle fabric orientation. The resulting fast orientations demonstrate remarkable variability within the MRZ, with E-W measurements in the north rotating counterclockwise toward the south to N-S within the southernmost MRZ. Measurements revert to E-W and NE-SW orientations toward the east in Mozambique, suggesting the presence of complex two-layer anisotropy. Azimuthal variations of SWS parameters recorded by stations within the central MRZ exhibit excellent 90° periodicity, further suggesting complex anisotropic layering. Lateral variation of measurements between the northern and southern MRZ imply the modulation of the mantle flow system beneath the active rift zone.

  4. The South Tibetan Tadpole Zone: Ongoing density sorting at the Moho beneath the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone (and beneath volcanic arcs?)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Peter; Hacker, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Some Himalayan cross-sections show Indian crust thrust beneath Tibetan crust, with no intervening mantle wedge (e.g., Powell & Conaghan 73), others indicate thickening of both crustal sections, juxtaposed along a steep suture (e.g., Dewey & Burke 73), and many combine features of both end-members (e.g., Argand 24). To understand crustal scale structure and related phenomena, we focus on data from an area in southern Tibet at 28-30°N, 84-91°E. 21st century observations in this area show a horizontal Moho at ca 80 km depth, extending from thickened Indian crust, across a region where Tibetan crust is interpreted to overlie Indian crust, into thickened Tibetan crust (Zhao et al 01; Monsalve et al 08; Wittlinger et al 09; Nabelek et al 09; Kind et al 02; Schulte-Pelkum et al 05; Shi et al 15). About half the subducted Indian crustal volume is present, whereas the other half is missing (Replumaz et al 10). Vp/Vs indicates the alpha-beta quartz transition is at ca 50 km depth (Sheehan et al 13). Miocene lavas include primitive andesites probably formed by interaction of crustal material with mantle peridotite at > 1000°C (Turner et al 93; Williams et al 01, 04; Chung et al 05). Thermobarometry of xenoliths in a 12.7 Ma dike records ~ 1100°C at 2.2-2.6 GPa and 920°C at 1.7 GPa (Chan et al 09). Biotite-rich pyroxenites among the xenoliths, similar to those in central Tibet (Hacker et al 00) and the Pamirs (Hacker et al 05), may form via reaction of hot crustal lithologies and mantle peridotite (e.g., Sekine & Wyllie 82, 83). These data, taken together, indicate Miocene to present day temperatures exceeding 800°C from ca 50 km depth to the Moho, unlike thermal models with a hot mid-crust and cold Moho (McKenzie & Priestley 08, Craig et al 12, Wang et al 13; Nabelek & Nabelek 14), and despite the observation of numerous, near-Moho earthquakes (Chen & Molnar 83; Chen & Yang 04; Monsalve et al 06; Priestley et al 08; Craig et al 12) interpreted by many as brittle failure

  5. Origin Of Methane Gas And Migration Through The Gas Hydrate Stability Zone Beneath The Permafrost Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A.; Namikawa, T.

    2005-12-01

    In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. Continuous downhole well log data as well as visible gas hydrates have confirmed pore-space hydrate as intergranular pore filling within sandy layers whose saturations are up to 80% in pore volume, but muddy sediments scarcely contain. Plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand core samples have been obtained from the Mallik wells. According to grain size distributions pore-space hydrate is dominant in medium- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Methane gas accumulation and original pore space large enough to occur within host sediments may be required for forming highly saturated gas hydrate in pore system. The distribution of a porous and coarser-grained host rock should be one of the important factors to control the occurrence of gas hydrate, as well as physicochemical conditions. Subsequent analyses in sedimentology and geochemistry performed on gas hydrate-bearing sandy core samples also revealed important geologic and sedimentological controls on the formation and concentration of natural gas hydrate. This appears to be a similar mode for conventional oil and gas accumulations. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicate that highly saturated sands may have permeability of a few millidarcies. The isotopic data of methane show that hydrocarbon gas contained in gas hydrate is generated by thermogenic decomposition of kerogen in deep mature sediments. Based on geochemical and geological data, methane is inferred to migrate upward closely associated with pore water hundreds of meters into and through the hydrate stability zone partly up to the permafrost zone and the surface along faults and

  6. New Insights on Seismicity and the Velocity Structure beneath the Western Segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Kahraman, M.; Mutlu, A. K.; Cambaz, D.; Turkelli, N.; Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Utkucu, M.

    2014-12-01

    To extensively investigate the upper crustal structure beneath the western segment of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in Sakarya and the surroundings, a temporary seismic network consisting of 70 stations (with nearly 7km station spacing) was deployed in early May 2012 and operated for 18 months during the Faultlab experiment encompassing both the northern and southern strands of the fault in between the area of 1999 İzmit and Düzce mainshock ruptures. With the help of this new and extensive data set, our main objective is to provide new insights on the most recent micro-seismic activity and the velocity structure beneath the region. Out of 2437 events contaminated by the explosions, we extracted 1344 well located earthquakes with a total of 31595 P and 18512 S phase readings which lead to an avarage Vp/Vs ratio of ~1.82 extracted from the wadati diagram. The enhanced station coverage decreased the magnitude threshold to 0.1 where the horizontal and vertical location errors did not exceed 0.5 km and 2.0 km, respectively. Average RMS values were calculated within the range of 0.05-0.4 seconds. We observed significant seismic activity along both branches of the fault where the depth of the seismogenic zone was confined to 15 km. Focal parameters of 41 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 1.8 were also determined using both Regional Moment Tensor Inversion and P first arrival time methods. Focal mechanism solutions confirm that Sakarya and its vicinity could be defined by a compressional regime showing a primarily oblique-slip motion character. Furthermore, we selected the earthquakes recorded by at least 8 stations with azimuthal gaps less than 200° for the ongoing tomographic inversion that would enable us to accurately map the complex upper crustal velocity structure with high resolution beneath this segment of the NAFZ.

  7. Marine magnetotellurics imaged no distinct plume beneath the Tristan da Cunha hotspot in the southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kiyoshi; Chen, Jin; Sommer, Malte; Utada, Hisashi; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion

    2017-10-01

    The Tristan da Cunha (TDC) is a volcanic island located above a prominent hotspot in the Atlantic Ocean. Many geological and geochemical evidences support a deep origin of the mantle material feeding the hotspot. However, the existence of a plume has not been confirmed as an anomalous structure in the mantle resolved by geophysical data because of lack of the observations in the area. Marine magnetotelluric and seismological observations were conducted in 2012-2013 to examine the upper mantle structure adjacent to TDC. The electrical conductivity structure of the upper mantle beneath the area was investigated in this study. Three-dimensional inversion analysis depicted a high conductive layer at 120 km depth but no distinct plume-like vertical structure. The conductive layer is mostly flat independently on seafloor age and bulges upward beneath the lithospheric segment where the TDC islands are located compared to younger segment south of the TDC Fracture Zone, while the bathymetry is rather deeper than prediction for the northern segment. The apparent inconsistency between the absence of vertical structure in this study and geochemical evidences on deep origin materials suggests that either the upwelling is too small and/or weak to be resolved by the current data set or that the upwelling takes place elsewhere outside of the study area. Other observations suggest that 1) the conductivity of the upper mantle can be explained by the fact that the mantle above the high conductivity layer is depleted in volatiles as the result of partial melting beneath the spreading ridge, 2) the potential temperature of the segments north of the TDC Fracture Zone is lower than that of the southern segment at least during the past 30 Myr.

  8. Layered Crustal and Mantle Structure and Anisotropy beneath the Afar Depression and Malawi Rift Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cory Alexander

    Although a wealth of geophysical data sets have been acquired within the vicinity of continental rift zones, the mechanisms responsible for the breakup of stable continental lithosphere are ambiguous. Eastern Africa is host to the largest contemporary rift zone on Earth, and is thus the most prominent site with which to investigate the processes which govern the rupture of continental lithosphere. The studies herein represent teleseismic analyses of the velocity and thermomechanical structure of the crust and mantle beneath the Afar Depression and Malawi Rift Zone (MRZ) of the East African Rift System. Within the Afar Depression, the first densely-spaced receiver function investigation of crustal thickness and inferred velocity attenuation across the Tendaho Graben is conducted, and the largest to-date study of the topography of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath NE Africa is provided, which reveals low upper-mantle velocities beneath the Afar concordant with a probable mantle plume traversing the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau. In the vicinity of the MRZ, a data set comprised of 35 seismic stations is employed that was deployed over a two year period from mid-2012 to mid-2014, belonging to the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays For African Rift Initiation) experiment. Accordingly, the first MTZ topography and shear wave splitting analyses were conducted in the region. The latter reveals largely plate motion-parallel anisotropy that is locally modulated by lithospheric thickness abnormalities adjacent to the MRZ, while the former reveals normal MTZ thicknesses and shallow discontinuities that support the presence of a thick lithospheric keel within the MRZ region. These evidences strongly argue for the evolution of the MRZ via passive rifting mechanisms absent lower-mantle influences.

  9. Three-dimensional structure and seismicity beneath the Central Vanuatu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foix, Oceane; Crawford, Wayne; Pelletier, Bernard; Regnier, Marc; Garaebiti, Esline; Koulakov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The 1400-km long Vanuatu subduction zone results from subduction of the oceanic Australian plate (OAP) beneath the North-Fijian microplate (NFM). Seismic and volcanic activity are both high, and several morphologic features enter into subduction, affecting seismicity and probably plate coupling. The Entrecasteaux Ridge, West-Torres plateau, and Bougainville seamount currently enter into subduction below the large forearc islands of Santo and Malekula. This collision coincides with a strongly decreased local convergence velocity rate - 35 mm/yr compared to 120-160 mm/yr to the north and south - and significant uplift on the overriding plate, indicating a high degree of deformation. The close proximity of large uplifted forearc islands to the trench provides excellent coverage of the megathrust seismogenic zone for a seismological study. We used 10 months of seismological data collected using the 30-instrument land and sea ARC-VANUATU seismology network to construct a 3D velocity model — using the LOTOS joint location/model inversion software — and locate 11655 earthquakes using the NonLinLoc software suite. The 3-D model reveals low P and S velocities in the first tens of kilometers beneath both islands, probably due to water infiltration in the heavily faulted upper plate. The model also suggests the presence of a subducted seamount beneath south Santo. The earthquake locations reveal a complex interaction of faults and stress zones related to high and highly variable deformation. Both brittle deformation and the seismogenic zone depth limits vary along-slab and earthquake clusters are identified beneath central and south Santo, at about 10-30 km of depth, and southwest of Malekula island between 10-20 km depth.

  10. [Characteristics of Waves Generated Beneath the Solar Convection Zone by Penetrative Overshoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julien, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to theoretically and numerically characterize the waves generated beneath the solar convection zone by penetrative overshoot. Three dimensional model simulations were designed to isolate the effects of rotation and shear. In order to overcome the numerically imposed limitations of finite Reynolds numbers (Re) below solar values, series of simulations were designed to elucidate the Reynolds-number dependence (hoped to exhibit mathematically simple scaling on Re) so that one could cautiously extrapolate to solar values.

  11. High resolution image of uppermost mantle beneath NE Iran continental collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaghi, K.; Tatar, M.; Shomali, Z. H.; Kaviani, A.; Priestley, K.

    2012-10-01

    We invert 3775 relative P wave arrival times using the ACH damped least square method of Aki et al. (1977) to study upper mantle structure beneath the NE Iran continental collision zone. The data for this study were recorded by 17 three component broad-band stations operated from August 2006 to February 2008 along a profile from the center of Iranian Plateau, near Yazd, to the northeastern part of Iran on the Turan Platform just north of the Kopeh Dagh Mountains. The results confirm the previously known low velocity upper mantle beneath Central Iran. Our tomographic model reveals a deep high velocity anomaly. The surficial expressions of this anomaly are between the Ashkabad and Doruneh Faults, where the resolution and ray coverage are good. A transition zone in uppermost mantle is recognized under the Binalud foreland that we interpreted as suture zone between Iran and Turan platform. Our results indicate that Atrak Valley which is the boundary between the Binalud and Kopeh Dagh Mountains can be considered as the northeastern suture of the Iranian Plateau where Eurasia and Turan Platform under-thrust beneath the Binalud range and Central Iran.

  12. Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the

  13. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the mantle transition zone beneath United States inferred from seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's deep mantle is critical for the evolution of the solid Earth and the atmosphere. Mineral physics studies have revealed that Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in the mantle transition zone could store several times the volume of water in the ocean. However, the water content and its distribution in the transition zone remain enigmatic due to lack of direct observations. Here we use seismic data from the full deployment of the Earthscope Transportable Array to produce 3D image of P to S scattering of the mantle transition zone beneath the United States. We compute the image volume from 141,080 pairs of high quality receiver functions defined by the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey, reprocessed by the generalized iterative deconvolution method and imaged by the plane wave migration method. We find that the transition zone is filled with previously unrecognized small-scale heterogeneities that produce pervasive, negative polarity P to S conversions. Seismic synthetic modeling using a point source simulation method suggests two possible structures for these objects: 1) a set of randomly distributed blobs of slight difference in size, and 2) near vertical diapir structures from small scale convections. Combining with geodynamic simulations, we interpret the observation as compositional heterogeneity from small-scale, low-velocity bodies that are water enriched. Our results indicate there is a heterogeneous distribution of water through the entire mantle transition zone beneath the contiguous United States.

  14. P wave velocity of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, Andrew A.; Vogfjord, Kristin S.; Langston, Charles A.

    1996-05-01

    P wave velocity structure of Proterozoic upper mantle beneath central and southern Africa was investigated by forward modeling of Pnl waveforms from four moderate size earthquakes. The source-receiver path of one event crosses central Africa and lies outside the African superswell while the source-receiver paths for the other events cross Proterozoic lithosphere within southern Africa, inside the African superswell. Three observables (Pn waveshape, PL-Pn time, and Pn/PL amplitude ratio) from the Pnl waveform were used to constrain upper mantle velocity models in a grid search procedure. For central Africa, synthetic seismograms were computed for 5880 upper mantle models using the generalized ray method and wavenumber integration; synthetic seismograms for 216 models were computed for southern Africa. Successful models were taken as those whose synthetic seismograms had similar waveshapes to the observed waveforms, as well as PL-Pn times within 3 s of the observed times and Pn/PL amplitude ratios within 30% of the observed ratio. Successful models for central Africa yield a range of uppermost mantle velocity between 7.9 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 8.3 and 8.5 km s-1 at a depth of 200 km, and velocity gradients that are constant or slightly positive. For southern Africa, successful models yield uppermost mantle velocities between 8.1 and 8.3 km s-1, velocities between 7.9 and 8.4 km s-1 at a depth of 130 km, and velocity gradients between -0.001 and 0.001 s-1. Because velocity gradients are controlled strongly by structure at the bottoming depths for Pn waves, it is not easy to compare the velocity gradients obtained for central and southern Africa. For central Africa, Pn waves turn at depths of about 150-200 km, whereas for southern Africa they bottom at ˜100-150 km depth. With regard to the origin of the African superswell, our results do not have sufficient resolution to test hypotheses that invoke simple lithospheric reheating. However, our models are not

  15. Lateral Variations of the Mantle Transition Zone Structure beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau Revealed by P-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Ai, Y.; Jiang, M.; He, Y.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The deep structure of the southeastern Tibetan plateau is of great scientific importance to a better understanding of the India-Eurasia collision as well as the evolution of the magnificent Tibetan plateau. In this study, we collected 566 permanent and temporary seismic stations deployed in SE Tibet, with a total of 77853 high quality P-wave receiver functions been extracted by maximum entropy deconvolution method. On the basis of the Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking technique, we mapped the topography of the 410km and 660km discontinuities (hereinafter called the `410' and the `660'), and further investigated the lateral variation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness beneath this region. The background velocity model deduced from H-κ stacking results and a previous body-wave tomographic research was applied for the correction of the crustal and upper mantle heterogeneities beneath SE Tibet for CCP stacking. Our results reveal two significantly thickened MTZ anomalies aligned nearly in the south-north direction. The magnitude of both anomalies are 30km above the global average of 250km. The southern anomaly located beneath the Dianzhong sub-block and the Indo-China block is characterized by a slightly deeper `410' and a greater-than-normal `660', while the northern anomaly beneath western Sichuan has an uplifted `410' and a depressed `660'. Combining with previous studies in the adjacent region, we suggest that slab break-off may occurred during the eastward subduction of the Burma plate, with the lower part of the cold slab penetrated into the MTZ and stagnated at the bottom of the `660' which may cause the southern anomaly in our receiver function images. The origin of the Tengchong volcano is probably connected to the upwelling of the asthenospheric material caused by the slab break-off or to the ascending of the hot and wet material triggered by the dehydration of stagnant slab in the MTZ. The anomaly in the north, on the other hand, might be

  16. Mantle structure and composition to 800-km depth beneath southern Africa and surrounding oceans from broadband body waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R. E.; Wright, C.; Kwadiba, M. T. O.; Kgaswane, E. M.

    2003-12-01

    Average one-dimensional P and S wavespeed models from the surface to depths of 800 km were derived for the southern African region using travel times and waveforms from earthquakes recorded at stations of the Kaapvaal and South African seismic networks. The Herglotz-Wiechert method combined with ray tracing was used to derive a preliminary P wavespeed model, followed by refinements using phase-weighted stacking and synthetic seismograms to yield the final model. Travel times combined with ray tracing were used to derive the S wavespeed model, which was also refined using phase-weighted stacking and synthetic seismograms. The presence of a high wavespeed upper mantle lid in the S model overlying a low wavespeed zone (LWZ) around 210- to ˜345-km depth that is not observed in the P wavespeed model was inferred. The 410-km discontinuity shows similar characteristics to that in other continental regions, but occurs slightly deeper at 420 km. Depletion of iron and/or enrichment in aluminium relative to other regions are the preferred explanation, since the P wavespeeds throughout the transition zone are slightly higher than average. The average S wavespeed structure beneath southern Africa within and below the transition zone is similar to that of the IASP91 model. There is no evidence for discontinuity at 520-km depth. The 660-km discontinuity also appears to be slightly deeper than average (668 km), although the estimated thickness of the transition zone is 248 km, similar to the global average of 241 km. The small size of the 660-km discontinuity for P waves, compared with many other regions, suggests that interpretation of the discontinuity as the transformation of spinel to perovskite and magnesiowüstite may require modification. Alternative explanations include the presence of garnetite-rich material or ilmenite-forming phase transformations above the 660-km discontinuity, and the garnet-perovskite transformation as the discontinuity.

  17. 3-D crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, J. H.; Park, Y.; Hao, T.; Kang, S. Y.; Kim, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Located at the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, the geology and tectonic evolution of the Korean Peninsula are closely related to the rest of the Asian continent. Although the widespread deformation of eastern Asia and its relation to the geology and tectonics of the Korean Peninsula have been extensively studied, the answers to many fundamental questions about the peninsula's history remain inconclusive. The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks maintained by Korea Meteorological Administration and Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  18. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  19. Lithospheric Layering beneath Southern Africa Constrained by S-to-P Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the existence of intra-lithospheric interfaces in an area of active rifting of ancient lithosphere, we stack S-to-P receiver functions (SRFs) recorded by broadband seismic stations in the vicinity of the non-volcanic sections of the East African Rift System and the stable Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. The data set was recorded by about 200 permanent and portable seismic stations installed over the past 30 years. The SRFs are computed using frequency-domain deconvolution, and are stacked in consecutive circles with a radius of 2 degrees. They are converted to depth series after moveout corrections using the IASP91 Earth model. In the upper mantle , a robust negative arrival is found in virtually all the stacked traces in the depth range of 50-100 km. Comparison with results from seismic tomography and mantle xenolith studies suggests that this discontinuity represents a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), similar to what was observed beneath the North American continent. The absence of observable negative arrivals in the anticipated depth of 250 km or greater beneath the study area suggests a gradual instead of sharp transition from the lithosphere to the asthenosphere. No significant shallowing of the MLD is observed beneath the young rift segments, suggesting that rifting is limited in the crust, an observation that is consistent with recent results from the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) project. The shallowest MLD of about 65 km in the study area is found in a NW-SE trending zone across central Zimbabwe and western Zambia. The MLD may reflect a low velocity zone caused by metasomatism, a process commonly found beneath ancient cratons.

  20. A receiver function investigation of the Lithosphere beneath Southern California using Wavefield Iterative Deconvolution(WID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainiwaer, A.; Gurrola, H.

    2017-12-01

    In traditional Ps receiver functions (RFs) imaging, PPs and PSs phases from the shallow layers (near surface and crust) can be miss stacked as Ps phases or interfere with deeper Ps phases. To overcome interference between phases, we developed a method to produce phase specific Ps, PPs and PSs receiver functions (wavefield iterative deconvolution or WID). Rather than preforming a separate deconvolution of each seismogram recorded at a station, WID processes all the seismograms from a seismic station in a single run. Each iteration of WID identifies the most prominent phase remaining in the data set, based on the shape of its wavefield (or moveout curve), and then places this phase on the appropriate phase specific RF. As a result, we produce PsRFs that are free of PPs and PSs phase; and reverberations thereof. We also produce phase specific PPsRFs and PSsRFs but moveout curves for these phases and their higher order reverberations are not as distinct from one another. So the PPsRFs and the PSsRFs are not as clean as the PsRFs. These phase specific RFs can be stacked to image 2-D or 3-D Earth structure using common conversion point (CCP) stacking or migration. We applied WID to 524 Southern California seismic stations to construct 3-D PsRF image of lithosphere beneath southern California. These CCP images exhibit a Ps phases from the Moho and the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) that are free of interference from the crustal reverberations. The Moho and LAB were found to be deepest beneath the Sierra Nevada, Tansverse Range and Peninsular Range. Shallow Moho and Lab is apparent beneath the Inner Borderland and Salton Trough. The LAB depth that we estimate is in close agreement to recent published results that used Sp imaging (Lekic et al., 2011). We also found complicated structure beneath Mojave Block where mid crustal features are apparent and anomalous Ps phases at 60 km depth are observed beneath Western Mojave dessert.

  1. Geohydrology, water quality, and nitrogen geochemistry in the saturated and unsaturated zones beneath various land uses, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California, 1991-93

    Rees, Terry F.; Bright, Daniel J.; Fay, Ronald G.; Christensen, Allen H.; Anders, Robert; Baharie, Brian S.; Land, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Eastern Municipal Water District, the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, and the Orange County Water District, has completed a detailed study of the Hemet groundwater basin. The quantity of ground water stored in the basin in August 1992 is estimated to be 327,000 acre-feet. Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 380 to 700 mg/L (milligrams per liter), except in small areas where the concentration exceeded 1,000 mg/L. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L nitrate (as nitrogen) in the southeastern part of the basin, in the Domenigoni Valley area, and beneath a dairy in the Diamond Valley area. Seven sites representing selected land uses-- residential, turf grass irrigated with reclaimed water, citrus grove, irrigated farm, poultry farm, and dairy (two sites)--were selected for detailed study of nitrogen geochemistry in the unsaturated zone. For all land uses, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the unsaturated zone.Although nitrate was seasonally present in the shallow unsaturated zone beneath the residential site, it was absent at moderate depths, suggesting negligible migration of nitrate from the surface at this time. Microbial denitrification probably is occurring in the shallow unsaturated zone. High nitrate concentrations in the deep unsaturated zone (greater than 100 ft) suggest either significantly higher nitrate loading at some time in the past, or lateral movement of nitrate at depth. Nitrate also is seasonally present in the shallow unsaturated zone beneath the reclaimed-water site, and (in contrast with the residential site), nitrate is perennially present in the deeper unsaturated zone. Microbial denitrification in the unsaturated zone and in the capillary fringe above the water table decreases the concentrations of nitrate in pore water to below the MCL before reaching the water table

  2. Seismic evidence for a possible deep crustal hot zone beneath Southwest Washington.

    PubMed

    Flinders, Ashton F; Shen, Yang

    2017-08-07

    Crustal pathways connecting deep sources of melt and the active volcanoes they supply are poorly understood. Beneath Mounts St. Helens, Adams, and Rainier these pathways connect subduction-induced ascending melts to shallow magma reservoirs. Petrogenetic modeling predicts that when these melts are emplaced as a succession of sills into the lower crust they generate deep crustal hot zones. While these zones are increasingly recognized as a primary site for silicic differentiation at a range of volcanic settings globally, imaging them remains challenging. Near Mount Rainier, ascending melt has previously been imaged ~28 km northwest of the volcano, while to the south, the volcano lies on the margin of a broad conductive region in the deep crust. Using 3D full-waveform tomography, we reveal an expansive low-velocity zone, which we interpret as a possible hot zone, linking ascending melts and shallow reservoirs. This hot zone may supply evolved magmas to Mounts St. Helens and Adams, and possibly Rainier, and could contain approximately twice the melt volume as the total eruptive products of all three volcanoes combined. Hot zones like this may be the primary reservoirs for arc volcanism, influencing compositional variations and spatial-segmentation along the entire 1100 km-long Cascades Arc.

  3. Seismic evidence for a possible deep crustal hot zone beneath Southwest Washington

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Crustal pathways connecting deep sources of melt and the active volcanoes they supply are poorly understood. Beneath Mounts St. Helens, Adams, and Rainier these pathways connect subduction-induced ascending melts to shallow magma reservoirs. Petrogenetic modeling predicts that when these melts are emplaced as a succession of sills into the lower crust they generate deep crustal hot zones. While these zones are increasingly recognized as a primary site for silicic differentiation at a range of volcanic settings globally, imaging them remains challenging. Near Mount Rainier, ascending melt has previously been imaged ~28 km northwest of the volcano, while to the south, the volcano lies on the margin of a broad conductive region in the deep crust. Using 3D full-waveform tomography, we reveal an expansive low-velocity zone, which we interpret as a possible hot zone, linking ascending melts and shallow reservoirs. This hot zone may supply evolved magmas to Mounts St. Helens and Adams, and possibly Rainier, and could contain approximately twice the melt volume as the total eruptive products of all three volcanoes combined. Hot zones like this may be the primary reservoirs for arc volcanism, influencing compositional variations and spatial-segmentation along the entire 1100 km-long Cascades Arc.

  4. Tomography of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Mickael; Nolet, Guust; Thomas, Christine; Villaseñor, Antonio; Gallart, Josep; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    In this study we take advantage of the dense broadband-station networks available in western Mediterranean region (IberArray, PICASSO and MOROCCO-MUENSTER networks) to develop a high-resolution 3D tomographic P velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the African/Iberian collision zone. This model is based on teleseismic arrival times recorded between 2008 and 2012 for which cross-correlation delays are measured with a new technique in different frequency bands centered between 0.03 and 1.0 Hz, and interpreted using multiple frequency tomography. Such a tomography is required to scrutinize the nature and extent of the thermal anomalies inferred beneath Northern Africa, especially in the Atlas ranges region and associated to sparse volcanic activities. Tomography is notably needed to help in determining the hypothetical connection between those hot anomalies and the Canary Island hotspot as proposed by geochemistry studies. It also provides new insights on the geometry of the subducting slab previously inferred from tomography, GPS measurements or shear-wave splitting patterns beneath the Alboran Sea and the Betic ranges and is indispensable for deciphering the complex geodynamic history of the Western Mediterranean region. We shall present the overall statistics of the delays, their geographical distribution, as well as the first inversion results.

  5. Interaction of the Cyprus/Tethys Slab With the Mantle Transition Zone Beneath Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Taylor, G.; Cornwell, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean are dominated by northward motion of the Arabian/African continents and subduction of the oldest oceanic crust on the planet along the Aegean and Cyprean trenches. These slabs have previously been imaged using seismic tomography on a continental scale, but detailed information regarding their descent from upper to lower mantle and how they interact with the mantle transition zone have been severely lacking. The Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was a 73 station passive seismic deployment active between 2012-2013 with the primary aim of imaging shallow structure beneath the North Anatolian Fault. However, we exploit the exceptional dataset recorded by DANA to characterise a region where the Cyprus Slab impinges upon the mantle transition zone beneath northern Turkey, providing arguably the most detailed view of a slab as it transits from the upper to lower mantle. We map varying depths and amplitudes of the transition zone seismic discontinuities (`410', `520' and `660') in 3D using over 1500 high quality receiver functions over an area of approximately 200km x 300km. The `410' is observed close to its predicted depth, but the `660' is depressed to >670 km across the entirety of the study region. This is consistent with an accumulation of cold subducted material at the base of the upper mantle, and the presence of a `520' discontinuity in the vicinity of the slab surface also suggests that the slab is present deep within the transition zone. Anomalous low velocity layers above and within the transition zone are constrained and may indicate hydration and ongoing mass/fluid flux between upper and lower mantle in the presence of subduction. The results of the study have implications not only for the regional geodynamics of Anatolia, but also for slab dynamics globally.

  6. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  7. The depth range of azimuthal anisotropy beneath Southern California via analyses of long-period Rayleigh-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Stephanie Doris

    The motion of the mantle beneath the tectonic plates is still unknown. Mantle shears associated with flow generate anisotropy. In order to investigate the anisotropic properties within the Earth to a range of depths within the crust and upper mantle (and perhaps beyond), long-period Rayleigh waves (periods of 51:282 ≤ T ≤ 333:33 seconds) are used in this study. One model suggests that the fast axis orientation, arising from the preferential alignment of olivine crystal grains in the upper mantle, coincides with the direction of absolute plate motion of the North-American plate. Other models suggest it is aligned with the direction of relative plate motion of the Pacific and North-American plates. A third suggests that an eastward mantle flow occurs beneath the North-American plate. There is also controversy as to the depth to which anisotropy is generated. In this thesis, the Rayleigh-wave phase velocities' dependence on a seismic event's back-azimuth angle is explored within the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN). Because surface wave velocities vary depending on the range of depth into the Earth sampled by each period, an observed deviation of the resulting phase velocity calculations for a wide range of back-azimuth angles, (6° to 349°) with respect to a reference dispersion curve of the area, provides information on the anisotropy of the subsurface structure. Further work on the fast-axis orientation and its tectonic implications is carried out here. I find that the 2 directions 270° = 90° and 290° = 110° are possible fast-axes orientations. I also find that the amplitude of azimuthal anisotropy is insufficient to explain birefringence of S-body waves, also known as SKS splitting, suggesting that it occurs much deeper than previously thought, perhaps all the way to the transition zone. Future work might involve array analysis of Love-wave components using the beamforming approach. This approach should prove effective in

  8. Mantle transition zone thinning beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a whole-mantle superplume structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, Gabriel D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-07-01

    to S conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities observed in receiver function stacks reveal a mantle transition zone that is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average in a region ~200-400 km wide extending in a SW-NE direction from central Zambia, across Tanzania and into Kenya. The thinning of the transition zone indicates a ~190-300 K thermal anomaly in the same location where seismic tomography models suggest that the lower mantle African superplume structure connects to thermally perturbed upper mantle beneath eastern Africa. This finding provides compelling evidence for the existence of a continuous thermal structure extending from the core-mantle boundary to the surface associated with the African superplume.

  9. Os and HSE of the hot upper mantle beneath southern Tibet: Indian mantle affinity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Dale, C. W.; Pearson, D. G.; Niu, Y.; Zhu, D.; Mo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The subduction of the Indian plate (including cratonic continental crust and/or upper mantle) beneath southern Tibet is widely accepted from both geological and geophysical studies. Mantle-derived xenoliths from this region provide a means of directly investigating the mantle underlying the southern part of the plateau. Studies of xenoliths hosted in the Sailipu ultrapotassic volcanic rocks, erupted at ~17 Ma, have indicated that the subcontinental mantle of southern Tibetan Plateau is hot and strongly influenced by metasomatism (Zhao et al., 2008a, b; Liu et al., 2011). Here we report comprehensive EPMA and LA-ICP-MS major and trace element data for the Sailipu xenoliths and also whole rock Os isotope and HSE data in order to constrain the depletion history of the mantle and to identify the presence of any potential Indian cratonic mantle. The xenoliths, ranging in size from 0.5cm to 1.5cm in diameter, are mostly peridotites. The calculated temperatures are 1010-1230°C at the given pressures of ~1.6-2.0 GPa (n=47). These P-T conditions are similar to rift-related upper mantle regimes (e.g. Kenya), indicating the influence of regional extension beneath southern Tibet in the Miocene. A series of compositional discriminations for minerals (Cpx, Opx, Ol, and Phl), e.g. Fo<90, suggest that the xenoliths are non-cratonic spinel-peridotite (cratonic peridotite olivine Fo> ~91), with a clear metasomatic signature We obtained Os isotope data and abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE, including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re) on a set of six olivine-dominated peridotite samples from Sailipu volcanics, less than 1 cm in dimension. They allow us to further constrain the nature and state of the upper mantle beneath the southern Tibet. Sailipu samples display low total HSE abundances (Os+Ir+Ru+Pt+Pd+Re) ranging from 8.7 to 25 ppb, with nearly constant Os, Ir , and Ru, but rather varied Pt (2-13), Pd (0.4-5.2), and Re (0.01-0.5). Chondrite-normalised Pd/Ir ratios range from

  10. Seismic imaging of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the northern Red Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broad-band seismic data on the African Plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here, we report the first comprehensive image of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660-km discontinuities with those observed on the Arabian side. Our results show that when a standard earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically towards the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. The observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD. Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  11. Three-dimensional structure and seismicity beneath the Central Vanuatu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foix, O.; Crawford, W. C.; Koulakov, I.; Regnier, M. M.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The 1 400 km long Vanuatu subduction zone marks the subduction of the oceanic Australia plate beneath the North-Fijian microplate. Seismic and volcanic activity is high, and several morphologic features enter into subduction, affecting seismicity and probably plate coupling. The Northern d'Entrecasteaux Ridge, West-Torres plateau, and Bougainville seamount currently enter into subduction below the forearc islands of Santo and Malekula. This subduction/collision coincides with a strongly decreased local convergence velocity rate at the trench (35 mm/yr compared to 120-160 mm/yr to the north and south) and significant uplift on the overriding plate. Two large forearc islands located 20-30 km from the subduction front Santo and Malekula to the trench allow excellent coverage of the megathrust seismogenic zone for a seismological study. We use data from the 10 months, 30-station amphibious ARC-VANUATU seismology network to construct a 3D velocity model and locate 11 617 earthquakes. The 3D model reveals low P and S velocities in the uppermost tens of kilometers in front of the Northern d'Entrecasteaux Ridge and the Bougainville Guyot. These anomalies may be due to heavy faulting of related subducted features, possibly including important water infiltration. We also identify a possible seamount entered into subduction beneath a smaller uplifted island between the two main islands. The spatial distribution of earthquakes is highly variable, as is the depth limit of the seismogenic zone, suggests a complex interaction of faults and stress zones related to high and highly variable stress that may be associated with the subducted features.

  12. Weak ductile shear zone beneath the western North Anatolian Fault Zone: inferences from earthquake cycle model constrained by geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Wright, T. J.; Houseman, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    After large earthquakes, rapid postseismic transient motions are commonly observed. Later in the loading cycle, strain is typically focused in narrow regions around the fault. In simple two-layer models of the loading cycle for strike-slip faults, rapid post-seismic transients require low viscosities beneath the elastic layer, but localized strain later in the cycle implies high viscosities in the crust. To explain this apparent paradox, complex transient rheologies have been invoked. Here we test an alternative hypothesis in which spatial variations in material properties of the crust can explain the geodetic observations. We use a 3D viscoelastic finite element code to examine two simple models of periodic fault slip: a stratified model in which crustal viscosity decreases exponentially with depth below an upper elastic layer, and a block model in which a low viscosity domain centered beneath the fault is embedded in a higher viscosity background representing normal crust. We test these models using GPS data acquired before and after the 1999 Izmit/Duzce earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey). The model with depth-dependent viscosity can show both high postseismic velocities, and preseismic localization of the deformation, if the viscosity contrast from top to bottom of layer exceeds a factor of about 104. However, with no lateral variations in viscosity, this model cannot explain the proximity to the fault of maximum postseismic velocities. In contrast, the model which includes a localized weak zone beneath the faulted elastic lid can explain all the observations, if the weak zone extends down to mid-crustal levels and outward to 10 or 20 km from the fault. The non-dimensional ratio of relaxation time to earthquake repeat time, τ/Δt, is the critical parameter in controlling the observed deformation. In the weak-zone model, τ/Δt should be in the range 0.005 to 0.01 in the weak domain, and larger than ~ 1.0 elsewhere. This implies a viscosity

  13. Seismic Migration Imaging of the Mantle Transition Zone Beneath Continental US with Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Schmandt, B.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle transition zone has been widely studied by multiple sub-fields in geosciences including seismology, mineral physics and geodynamics. Due to the relatively high water storage capacity of olivine polymorphs (wadsleyite and ringwoodite) inside the transition zone, it is proposed to be a potential geochemical water reservoir that may contain one or more ocean masses of water. However, there is an ongoing debate about the hydration level of those minerals and how it varies from place to place. Considering that dehydration melting, which may happen during mantle flow across phase transitions between hydrated olivine polymorphs, may be seismically detectable, large-scale seismic imaging of heterogeneous scattering in the transition zone can contribute to the debate. To improve our understanding of the properties of the mantle transition zone and how they relate to mantle flow across its boundaries, it is important to gain an accurate image with large spatial coverage. The accuracy is primarily limited by the density of broadband seismic data and the imaging algorithms applied to the data, while the spatial coverage is limited by the availability of wide-aperture (>500 km) seismic arrays. Thus, the emergence of the USArray seismic data set (www.usarray.org) provides a nearly ideal data source for receiver side imaging of the mantle transition zone due to its large aperture ( 4000 km) with relatively small station spacing ( 70 km), which ensures that the transition zone beneath it is well sampled by teleseismic waves. In total, more than 200,000 P to S receiver functions will be used for imaging structures in depth range of 300 km to 800 km beneath the continental US with an improved 3D Kirchhoff pre-stacking migration method. The method uses 3-D wave fronts calculated for P and S tomography models to more accurately calculate point scattering coefficients and map receiver function lag times to 3-D position. The new images will help resolve any laterally sporadic

  14. Mantle transition zone structure and upper mantle S velocity variations beneath Ethiopia: Evidence for a broad, deep-seated thermal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Margaret H.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Owens, Thomas J.; Stuart, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Ethiopia has been subjected to widespread Cenozoic volcanism, rifting, and uplift associated with the Afar hot spot. The hot spot tectonism has been attributed to one or more thermal upwellings in the mantle, for example, starting thermal plumes and superplumes. We investigate the origin of the hot spot by imaging the S wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia using travel time tomography and by examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. The tomographic images reveal an elongated low-velocity region that is wide (>500 km) and extends deep into the upper mantle (>400 km). The anomaly is aligned with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but its center shifts westward with depth. The 410 km discontinuity is not well imaged, but the 660 km discontinuity is shallower than normal by ˜20-30 km beneath most of Ethiopia, but it is at a normal depth beneath Djibouti and the northwestern edge of the Ethiopian Plateau. The tomographic results combined with a shallow 660 km discontinuity indicate that upper mantle temperatures are elevated by ˜300 K and that the thermal anomaly is broad (>500 km wide) and extends to depths ≥660 km. The dimensions of the thermal anomaly are not consistent with a starting thermal plume but are consistent with a flux of excess heat coming from the lower mantle. Such a broad thermal upwelling could be part of the African Superplume found in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

  15. Multiple mantle upwellings through the transition zone beneath the Afar Depression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Stuart, G. W.; Thompson, D. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Goitom, B.; Ogubazghi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 7 other regional experiments and global network stations across Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S-wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. Estimates of transition zone thickness suggest that this is unlikely to be an artefact of mantle discontinuity topography as a transition zone of normal thickness underlies the majority of Afar and surrounding regions. However, a low velocity layer is evident directly above the 410 discontinuity, co-incident with some of the lowest seismic velocities suggesting that smearing of a strong low velocity layer of limited depth extent may contribute to the tomographic models in north-east Afar. The combination of seismic constraints suggests that small low temperature (<50K) upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. These, combined with possible evidence of melt above the 410 discontinuity can explain the seismic velocity models. Our images of secondary upwellings suggest that

  16. Assessing controls on perched saturated zones beneath the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Waste byproducts associated with operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have the potential to contaminate the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Recharge to the ESRP aquifer is controlled largely by the alternating stratigraphy of fractured volcanic rocks and sedimentary interbeds within the overlying vadose zone and by the availability of water at the surface. Beneath the INTEC facilities, localized zones of saturation perched on the sedimentary interbeds are of particular concern because they may facilitate accelerated transport of contaminants. The sources and timing of natural and anthropogenic recharge to the perched zones are poorly understood. Simple approaches for quantitative characterization of this complex, variably saturated flow system are needed to assess potential scenarios for contaminant transport under alternative remediation strategies. During 2009-2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, employed data analysis and numerical simulations with a recently developed model of preferential flow to evaluate the sources and quantity of recharge to the perched zones. Piezometer, tensiometer, temperature, precipitation, and stream-discharge data were analyzed, with particular focus on the possibility of contributions to the perched zones from snowmelt and flow in the neighboring Big Lost River (BLR). Analysis of the timing and magnitude of subsurface dynamics indicate that streamflow provides local recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and deep perched saturated zones within 150 m of the BLR; at greater distances from the BLR the influence of streamflow on recharge is unclear. Perched water-level dynamics in most wells analyzed are consistent with findings from previous geochemical analyses, which suggest that a combination of annual snowmelt and anthropogenic sources (for example, leaky pipes and drainage ditches) contribute to recharge of shallow and

  17. Crustal-scale shear zones and heterogeneous structure beneath the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey, revealed by a high-density seismometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, Metin; Cornwell, David G.; Thompson, David A.; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory A.; Türkelli, Niyazi; Teoman, Uğur; Altuncu Poyraz, Selda; Utkucu, Murat; Gülen, Levent

    2015-11-01

    Continental scale deformation is often localised along strike-slip faults constituting considerable seismic hazard in many locations. Nonetheless, the depth extent and precise geometry of such faults, key factors in how strain is accumulated in the earthquake cycle and the assessment of seismic hazard, are poorly constrained in the mid to lower crust. Using a dense broadband network of 71 seismic stations with a nominal station spacing of 7 km in the vicinity of the 1999 Izmit earthquake we map previously unknown small-scale structure in the crust and upper mantle along this part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). We show that lithological and structural variations exist in the upper, mid and lower crust on length scales of less than 10 km and less than 20 km in the upper mantle. The surface expression of the NAFZ in this region comprises two major branches; both are shown to continue at depth with differences in dip, depth extent and (possibly) width. We interpret a <10 km wide northern branch that passes downward into a shear zone that traverses the entire crust and penetrates the upper mantle to a depth of at least 50 km. The dip of this structure appears to decrease west-east from ∼90° to ∼65° to the north over a distance of 30 to 40 km. Deformation along the southern branch may be accommodated over a wider (>10 km) zone in the crust with a similar variation of dip but there is no clear evidence that this shear zone penetrates the Moho. Layers of anomalously low velocity in the mid crust (20-25 km depth) and high velocity in the lower crust (extending from depths of 28-30 km to the Moho) are best developed in the Armutlu-Almacik block between the two shear zones. A mafic lower crust, possibly resulting from ophiolitic obduction or magmatic intrusion, can best explain the coherent lower crustal structure of this block. Our images show that strain has developed in the lower crust beneath both northern and southern strands of the North Anatolian Fault

  18. Preliminary results of characteristic seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone

    SciT

    Wiyono, Samsul H., E-mail: samsul.wiyono@bmkg.go.id; Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Jakarta 10610; Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    Determining of seismic anisotropy allowed us for understanding the deformation processes that occured in the past and present. In this study, we performed shear wave splitting to characterize seismic anisotropy beneath Sunda-Banda subduction-collision zone. For about 1,610 XKS waveforms from INATEWS-BMKG networks have been analyzed. From its measurements showed that fast polarization direction is consistent with trench-perpendicular orientation but several stations presented different orientation. We also compared between fast polarization direction with absolute plate motion in the no net rotation and hotspot frame. Its result showed that both absolute plate motion frame had strong correlation with fast polarization direction. Strongmore » correlation between the fast polarization direction and the absolute plate motion can be interpreted as the possibility of dominant anisotropy is in the asthenosphere.« less

  19. Bioremediation of RDX in the vadose zone beneath the Pantex Plant

    SciT

    Shull, T.L.; Speitel, G.E. Jr.; McKinney, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved high explosives (HE), in particular RDX and HMX, is well documented in the perched aquifer beneath the Pantex Plant, but the distribution of HE in the vadose zone has not yet been well defined. Although current remediation activities focus on the contamination in the perched aquifer, eventually regulatory concern is likely to turn to the residual contamination in the vadose zone. Sources of HE include the infiltration of past wastewater discharges from several HE-processing facilities through the ditch drainage system and leachate from former Landfill 3. With limited existing data on the HE distribution in themore » vadose zone and without preventive action, it must be assumed that residual HE could be leached into infiltrating water, providing a continuing supply of contamination to the perched aquifer. The purpose of this project was to more closely examine the fate and transport of HE in the vadose zone through mathematical modeling and laboratory experimentation. In particular, this report focuses on biodegradation as one possible fate of HE. Biodegradation of RDX in the vadose zone was studied because it is both present in highest concentration and is likely to be of the greatest regulatory concern. This study had several objectives: determine if indigenous soil organisms are capable of RDX biodegradation; determine the impact of electron acceptor availability and nutrient addition on RDX biodegradation; determine the extent of RDX mineralization (i.e., conversion to inorganic carbon) during biodegradation; and estimate the kinetics of RDX biodegradation to provide information for mathematical modeling of fate and transport.« less

  20. A Receiver Function Study of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. H.; Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms, and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broadband seismic data on the African plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here we report the first results from a receiver function study of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660) with those observed on the Arabian side. Results using more than 6000 P-to-S receiver functions recorded at 49 broadband seismic stations in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and adjacent areas show that when the IASP91 Earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically toward the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. Highly correlated d410 and d660 depths suggest that the observed apparent depth variations are mostly caused by lateral velocity anomalies in the upper mantle, while the 15 km additional depression of the d660 relative to the d410 requires either a colder-than-normal MTZ or the presence of water in the MTZ. We tested several models involving upper mantle and MTZ velocity anomalies and undulations of the MTZ discontinuities due to temperature anomalies and water content, and found that the observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD (Mohamed et al., 2014, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu284). Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  1. Concentration of Natural Gas Hydrate Beneath the Permafrost Zone: Implications for Geochemical and Hydrologic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Waseda, A.; Namikawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    Gas hydrates are ice-like solids made of water molecules containing various gas molecules. The geological evaluations have suggested worldwide methane contents of gas hydrate beneath deep sea floors as well as permafrost-related zones to about twice the total reserves of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon. Scientific and economic interests are increasing in gas hydrate as a new energy resource and a potential greenhouse gas. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled in the Canadian Arctic that clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. Continuous downhole well log data, anomalies of chloride contents in pore waters, core temperature depression as well as visible gas hydrates have confirmed the highly saturated pore-space hydrate as intergranular pore filling within sandy layers, whose saturations are higher than 70% in pore volume. Muddy sediments scarcely contain gas hydrate. The Nankai Trough runs along the Japanese Island, where forearc basins and accretionary prisms developed extensively and BSRs (bottom simulating reflectors) have been recognized widely. The METI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 also revealed the presence of pore-space hydrate filling intergranular pore of sandy layers. It is remarked that there are many similar features in appearance and characteristics between the Mallik and Nankai Trough areas with observations of well-interconnected and highly saturated pore-space hydrate. It is necessary for evaluating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to know both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and measurements of water permeability for them indicate that highly saturated sands may have permeability of a few millidarcies. Subsequent analyses in sedimentology and geochemistry performed on gas hydrate-bearing sands revealed important geologic and sedimentologic controls on the formation and concentration of gas hydrate. It is suggested that the

  2. Velocity structure of the mantle transition zone beneath the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guohui; Bai, Ling; Zhou, Yuanze; Wang, Xiaoran; Cui, Qinghui

    2017-11-01

    P-wave triplications related to the 410 km discontinuity (the 410) were clearly observed from the vertical component seismograms of three intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred in the Indo-Burma Subduction Zone (IBSZ) and were recorded by the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). By matching the observed P-wave triplications with synthetics through a grid search, we obtained the best-fit models for four azimuthal profiles (I-IV from north to south) to constrain the P-wave velocity structure near the 410 beneath the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A ubiquitous low-velocity layer (LVL) resides atop the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The LVL is 25 to 40 km thick, with a P-wave velocity decrement ranging from approximately - 5.3% to - 3.6% related to the standard Earth model IASP91. An abrupt transition in the velocity decrement of the LVL was observed between profiles II and III. We postulate that the mantle structure beneath the southeastern margin of the TP is primarily controlled by the southeastern extrusion of the TP to the north combined with the eastward subduction of the Indian plate to the south, but not affected by the Emeishan mantle plume. We attribute the LVL to the partial melting induced by water and/or other volatiles released from the subducted Indian plate and the stagnant Pacific plate, but not from the upwelling or the remnants of the Emeishan mantle plume. A high-velocity anomaly ranging from approximately 1.0% to 1.5% was also detected at a depth of 542 to 600 km, providing additional evidence for the remnants of the subducted Pacific plate within the MTZ.

  3. Behaviour of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Indian Ocean from PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Anne-Sophie; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    As part of the RHUM-RUM project we investigate the upwelling plume beneath the island La Réunion, located in the Indian Ocean 200 km east of Madagascar. This plume belongs to one of the most active hotspot regions in the world and is still active today. Understanding the depth origin and dimensions of such a plume helps to better understand mantle processes and the heat flux of the Earth. If the plume originates at the core-mantle boundary the Earth is cooled down differently compared with an indirect cooling of plumes originating in the upper mantle. Here we use underside reflections of PP and SS waves off the seismic discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth that arrive as precursors to the main phase in order to investigate the topography of these discontinuities that mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone. If hotter or colder material intersects the mantle transition zone, the discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth are deflected, hence the topography of the mantle transition zone can be an indicator for an upwelling plume. The 410 km discontinuity, which exists due to the phase change of olivine to spinel, should be depressed significantly in the presence of hot upwelling material. Because of the opposite Clapeyron slope of the phase change of spinel to magnesiowuestite and perovskite at 660 km depth, the topography of this discontinuity should be elevated. For this study we analyse over 200 events with Mw ≥ 5.8 and bounce points distributed over the entire Indian Ocean. Array seismology methods, such as vespagrams and slowness-backazimuth analysis, are used to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio and detect and identify precursors. Using different source-receiver combinations enables us to get a dense coverage of bounce points of PP and SS waves in the Indian Ocean and especially around La Réunion, also with crossing ray paths. The differential travel times of PP and SS arrivals and their precursors of robust stacks are converted into

  4. Mapping lithosphere thickness beneath the Southern Caribbean and Venezuela using body wave reflectivity and surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean (CAR) and South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of diffuse deformation and faulting. GPS measurements indicate that the CAR is moving approximately 2 cm/yr respect to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, but with an oblique convergence component in the west (Weber et al., 2001). Along the central and eastern Venezuela coast, most of the motion is accommodated by both transpression and transtension along the right lateral strike-slip San Sebastian- El Pilar fault system. The main tectonic features of the area include accretionary wedges and coastal thrust belts with their associated foreland basins (e.g. Sierra del Interior and Espino Graben). Southern of the plate boundary is located the Guayana Shield, which is part of the Amazonian Craton, and is an elevated plain consisting of Precambrian rocks. BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-Offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles Arc Region) was a multidisciplinary, international investigation to determine the evolution of the CAR-SA plate boundary (Levander et al., 2006) that included a 47 station broadband seismic array to complement the 40 station Venezuelan national array operated by FUNVISIS. The goal of this study is to map out lithosphere thickness across the region in order to understand its role for the various types of deformations observed at surface. We combined surface wave tomography and body wave reflectivity to locate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). To generate a coherent 3D reflectivity volume of the study area, we used both P- and S-wave receiver-function data, as well as the ScS reverberation records of two deep earthquakes occurring in South America. We also measured Rayleigh phase velocities in the frequency range of 20-100 s using the two plane-wave method to remove multi-pathing effects (Forsyth and Li, 2005). Finite-frequency kernels were computed for a total of 63 teleseismic events to improve

  5. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath NE China and implications for the lithospheric delamination hypothesis beneath the southern Great Xing'an range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haichao; Niu, Fenglin; Obayashi, Masayuki; Grand, Stephen P.; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; John Chen, Y.; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru

    2017-08-01

    We measured shear wave splitting from SKS data recorded by the transcontinental NECESSArray in NE China to constrain lithosphere deformation and sublithospheric flows beneath the area. We selected several hundreds of high quality SKS/SKKS waveforms from 32 teleseismic earthquakes occurring between 09/01/2009 and 08/31/2011 recorded by 125 broadband stations. These stations cover a variety of tectonic terranes, including the Songliao basin, the Changbaishan mountain range and Zhangguancai range in the east, the Great Xing'an range in the west and the Yanshan orogenic belt in the southwest. We assumed each station is underlaid by a single anisotropic layer and employed a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) weighted multi-event stacking method to estimate the two splitting parameters (the fast polarization direction φ, and delay time, δt) that gives the best fit to all the SKS/SKKS waveforms recorded at each station. Overall, the measured fast polarization direction lies more or less along the NW-SE direction, which significantly differs from the absolute plate motion direction, but is roughly consistent with the regional extension direction. This suggests that lithosphere deformation is likely the general cause of the observed seismic anisotropy. The most complicated anisotropic structure is observed beneath the southern Great Xing'an range and southwest Songliao basin. The observed large variations in splitting parameters and the seismic tomographic images of the area are consistent with ongoing lithospheric delamination beneath this region.

  6. Warm water and life beneath the grounding zone of an Antarctic outlet glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shin; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Fukuda, Takehiro

    2013-04-01

    Ice-ocean interaction plays a key role in rapidly changing Antarctic ice sheet margins. Recent studies demonstrated that warming ocean is eroding floating part of the ice sheet, resulting in thinning, retreat and acceleration of ice shelves and outlet glaciers. Field data are necessary to understand such processes, but direct observations at the interface of ice and the ocean are lacking, particularly beneath the grounding zone. To better understand the interaction of Antarctic ice sheet and the ocean, we performed subglacial measurements through boreholes drilled in the grounding zone of Langhovde Glacier, an outlet glacier in East Antarctica. Langhovde Glacier is located at 69°12'S, 39°48'E, approximately 20 km south of a Japanese research station Syowa. The glacier discharges ice into Lützow-holm Bay through a 3-km-wide floating terminus at a rate of 130 m a-1. Fast flowing feature is confined by bedrock to the west and slow moving ice to the east, and it extends about 10 km upglacier from the calving front. In 2011/12 austral summer season, we operated a hot water drilling system to drill through the glacier at 2.5 and 3 km from the terminus. Inspections of the boreholes revealed the ice was underlain by a shallow saline water layer. Ice and water column thicknesses were found to be 398 and 24 m at the first site, and 431 and 10 m at the second site. Judging from ice surface and bed elevations, the drilling sites were situated at within a several hundred meters from the grounding line. Sensors were lowered into the boreholes to measure temperature, salinity and current within the subglacial water layer. Salinity and temperature from the two sites were fairly uniform (34.25±0.05 PSU and -1.45±0.05°C), indicating vertical and horizontal mixing in the layer. The measured temperature was >0.7°C warmer than the in-situ freezing point, and very similar to the values measured in the open ocean near the glacier front. Subglacial current was up to 3 cm/s, which

  7. Age and provenance constraints on seismically-determined crustal layers beneath the Paleozoic southern Central Asian Orogen, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yaran; Windley, Brian F.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhang, Liqao; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-06-01

    We present 110 ages and 51 in-situ δ18O values for zircon xenocrysts from a post-99 Ma intraplate basaltic rock suite hosted in a subduction-accretion complex of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in order to constrain a seismic profile across the Paleozoic Southern Orogen of Inner Mongolia and the northern margin of the North China Craton. Two zircon populations are recognized, namely a Phanerozoic group of 70 zircons comprising granitoid-derived (ca. 431-99 Ma; n = 31; peak at 256 Ma), meta-granitoid-derived (ca. 449-113 Ma; n = 24; peak at 251 Ma) and gabbro-derived (436-242 Ma; n = 15; peaks at 264 and 244 Ma) grains. Each textural type is characterized by a distinct zircon oxygen isotope composition and is thus endowed with a genetic connotation. The Precambrian population (2605-741 Ma; n = 40) exhibits a prominent age peak at 2520 Ma (granulite-facies metamorphism) and four small peaks at ca. 1900, 1600, and 800 Ma. Our new data, together with literature zircon ages, significantly constrain models of three seismically-determined deep crustal layers beneath the fossil subduction zone-forearc along the active northern margin of the North China Craton, namely: (1) an upper arc crust of early to mid-Paleozoic age, intruded by a major Permian-Triassic composite granitoid-gabbroic pluton (8-20 km depth); (2) a middle crust, predominantly consisting of mid-Meso- to Neoproterozoic felsic and mafic gneisses; and (3) a lower crust composed predominantly of late Archean granulite-facies rocks. We conclude that the Paleozoic orogenic crust is limited to the upper crustal level, and the middle to lower crust has a North China Craton affinity. Furthermore, integrating our data with surface geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, we present a new conceptual model of orogenic uplift, lithospheric delamination and crustal underthrusting for this key ocean-continent convergent margin.

  8. Implications for Lithospheric Reheating beneath the African Superswell from P nl Wave Propagation in Central and Southern Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    characterized by a lid structure with a constant velocity. There appears to be little evidence for (1) mantle velocity gradients beneath southern Africa that...therefore conclude that there is little evidence for (1) a mantle lid beneath central Africa containing a positive velocity gradient or (2).a low velocity... Fucks , M.A. Khan, P.K.H. Maguire, W.D. Mooney, U. Achauer, P.M. Davis, R.P. Meyer, L.W. Braile, 1.0. Nyambok, and G.A. Thompson, The East African rift

  9. Variations in the mantle transition zone beneath the Ethiopian Rift and Afar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Hetenyi, G.; Blanchard, T.; Stuart, G. W.

    2010-12-01

    We use receiver functions calculated on broadband seismological data across Ethiopia to identify and map 3-D changes in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness beneath the Ethiopian rift, Afar and the uplifted Ethiopian Plateau. The MTZ that divides the upper and lower mantle in the Earth is marked by discontinuities whose position and nature is controlled by local temperature and composition. It is commonly assumed that positive temperature anomalies cause an overall thinning of the MTZ by deepening the mineral phase transition of olivine (α-spinel) to wadsleyite (β-spinel) at around 410 km depth and shallowing the mineral phase transition of ringwoodite (γ-spinel) to magnesiowustite-perovskite at around 660 km depth. Such regions of anomalously hot mantle have been interpreted to extend from the core-mantle boundary (e.g. the African Superplume) to the Earth's surface from global tomographic models. Previous studies in Ethiopia or Afar that invoke receiver functions are mainly restricted to illuminating the MTZ beneath permanent seismological stations and, together with a regional receiver function study, all have found difficulty in imaging the discontinuities. They were unable to provide conclusive evidence for a thinned transition zone and could not constrain lateral changes in MTZ thickness that are required to assess whether the African Superplume intersects the MTZ beneath Ethiopia. We use seismological data from permanent stations as well as from four temporary arrays to compute receiver functions. We perform time-to-depth migration using the common conversion point (CCP) method with a regional velocity model that includes the slow mantle anomalies to estimate the depth-to-discontinuties and produce an MTZ thickness map. The signature of both the 410 and the 660 km discontinuities is clearly identified across ~500x500 km2. The 410 is relatively flat at 444±10 km depth throughout the region. The 660 is more perturbed with steep topographic changes

  10. Ps mantle transition zone imaging beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains: Evidence for an upwelling hydrous mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Dueker, Kenneth G.; Huang, Hsin-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We analyze teleseismic P-to-S conversions for high-resolution imaging of the mantle transition zone beneath the Colorado Rocky Mountains using data from a dense PASSCAL seismic broadband deployment. A total of 6,021 P-to-S converted receiver functions are constructed using a multi-channel minimum-phase deconvolution method and migrated using the common converted point technique with the 3-D teleseismic P- and S-wave tomography models of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010). The image finds that the average depths of the 410-km discontinuity (the 410) and 660-km discontinuity (the 660) at 408 ± 1.9 km and 649 ± 1.6 km respectively. The peak-to-peak topography of both discontinuities is 33 km and 27 km respectively. Additionally, prominent negative polarity phases are imaged both above and below the 410. To quantify the mean properties of the low-velocity layers about 410 km, we utilize double gradient layer models parameterization to fit the mean receiver function waveform. This waveform fitting is accomplished as a grid-search using anelastic synthetic seismograms. The best-fitting model reveals that the olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation width is 21 km, which is significantly larger than anhydrous mineral physics prediction (4-10 km) (Smyth and Frost, 2002). The findings of a wide olivine-wadsleyite phase transformation and the negative polarity phases above and below the 410, suggest that the mantle, at least in the 350-450 km depth range, is significantly hydrated. Furthermore, a conspicuous negative polarity phase below the 660 is imaged in high velocity region, we speculate the low velocity layer is due to dehydration flux melting in an area of convective downwelling. Our interpretation of these results, in tandem with the tomographic image of a Farallon slab segment at 800 km beneath the region (Schmandt and Humphreys, 2010), is that hydrous and upwelling mantle contributes to the high-standing Colorado Rocky Mountains.

  11. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  12. Geophysical and Geochemical Signatures Associated with Mantle Fluids Beneath an Active Shear Zone, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, K.; Asamori, K.; Sueoka, S.; Tamura, H.; Shimizu, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 1997, the Kagoshima earthquake doublet, consisting of two closely associated Mw ~ 6 strike-slip events, five km and 48 days apart, has occurred in southwest Japan. The location is where an E-W trending discontinuity along 32°N latitude on southern Kyushu Island is clearly defined in GPS velocities, indicating the presence of a highly active left-lateral shear zone. However, there have not been any obvious indications of active faulting at the surface prior to the earthquake doublet, which could be associated with this shear zone. Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric sounding data obtained in the source region of the earthquake doublet reveals a near-vertical conductive zone with a width of 20 km, extending down to the base of the crust and perhaps into the upper mantle toward the Okinawa trough. The prominent conductor corresponds to the western part of the active shear zone. Elevated 3He/4He ratios in groundwaters sampled from hot spring and drinking water wells suggest the emission of mantle-derived helium from the seismic source region. The geophysical and geochemical observations are significant indications that the invasion of mantle fluids into the crust, driven by upwelling asthenosphere from the Okinawa trough, triggers the notable left-lateral shearing in the zone in the present-day subduction system. In addition, the existence of aqueous fluids in and below the seismogenic layer could change the strength of the zones, and alter the local stress regime, resulting in the occurrence of the 1997 earthquake doublet.

  13. Seismic anisotropy beneath Southern Iberia and Northern Morocco: first results from the IberArray broad-band seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J.; Gallart, J.

    2009-12-01

    The region formed by the Betic and Rift belts and the extensional Alboran basin, located in Southern Iberia and Northern Morocco, is one of the most complex and controversial geological zones in Western Europe. There is still not a commonly accepted hypothesis about the mechanism responsible for its formation, as models including lithospheric delamination, convective removal or subduction have been proposed by different authors. In this context, the knowledge about the presence and properties of upper mantle anisotropy from SKS splitting measurements can provide valuable information. Until few years ago, very scarce data regarding the presence of anisotropy in the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula were available. The installation of new permanent and semi-permanent broadband stations in the region has allowed obtaining a first insight into the anisotropic properties (Buontempo et al, 2008). Those data have evidenced the presence of geographical variations in the anisotropic parameters, with fast velocity directions (FVD) parallel to the mountain belt in the Internal Betics and a rotation on fast split directions towards NS around the Gibraltar arc. However additional data, especially in the Northern part of Morocco, seem to be necessary to discern between the different geodynamical models proposed. In the framework of the large-scale TOPOIBERIA project, the IberArray broad-band seismic network was deployed over this region for about 18 months, beginning in summer 2007. This portable array, formed by up to 55 new generation dataloggers equipped with broad-band seismometers, covers the southern part of Iberia (35 stations) and northern Morocco (20 stations) in an approximately regular grid, with a nominal spacing of 60 km. Data from the permanent broadband stations maintained by different institutions operating in the region has been integrated into the IberArray database. Events with epicentral distances between 85 and 120 degrees and magnitude greater than 5

  14. High Resolution Seismic Images of Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Q.; Wang, P.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Shim, S.

    2009-12-01

    Taking advantage of the abundance of natural sources (earthquakes) in western Pacific subduction zones and the many seismograph stations in the Americas, we use inverse scattering - a generalized Radon transform - of SS precursors to image the transition zone discontinuities underneath Hawaii and the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. The GRT makes use of scattering theory and extracts structural information from broad band data windows that include precursors to SS (which are the specular reflections at the discontinuities that form the main arrivals) as well as non-specular scattered energy (which is often discarded as noise). More than 150,000 seismograms (from the IRIS Data Management Center) are used to form a 3-D image of the transition zone discontinuities beneath the central Pacific. In addition to clear signals near 410, 520, and 660 km depth, the data also reveal scatter interfaces near 370 km dept and between 800-1000 km depth, which may be regional, laterally intermittent scatter horizons. Our images reveal a conspicuous uplift of the 660 discontinuity in a region of 800km in diameter to the west of the active volcanoes of Hawaii. No correspondent localized depression of the 410 discontinuity is found. Instead, we find a smaller scale anomaly suggesting that the 410 discontinuity is locally elevated in the same region. This may indicate the presence of melt or minor chemical constitutes. The lack of correlation between and differences in lateral length scale of the topographies of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are also consistent with a deep-mantle plume impinging on the transition zone, creating a pond of hot material underneath 660 discontinuity, and with secondary plumes connecting to the present-day hotspot at Earth’s surface. Our observations suggest that more complicated plume morphology and plume dynamics within the Earth's mantle should be taken into account to describe the plumes and, in particular, mass transport across the transition zone

  15. Constraining the hydration of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Northern Chile using subduction zone guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed from earthquakes at 180-280 km depth recorded at stations in the fore-arc of Northern Chile, where the 44 Ma Nazca plate subducts beneath South America. Characteristic P-wave dispersion is observed at several stations in the Chilean fore-arc with high frequency energy (>5 Hz) arriving up to 3 s after low frequency (<2 Hz) arrivals. This dispersion has been attributed to low velocity structure within the subducting Nazca plate which acts as a waveguide, retaining and delaying high frequency energy. Full waveform modelling shows that the single LVL proposed by previous studies does not produce the first motion dispersion observed at multiple stations, or the extended P-wave coda observed in arrivals from intermediate depth events within the Nazca plate. These signals can however be accurately accounted for if dipping low velocity fault zones are included within the subducting lithospheric mantle. A grid search over possible LVL and faults zone parameters (width, velocity contrast and separation distance) was carried out to constrain the best fitting model parameters. Our results imply that fault zone structures of 0.5-1.0 km thickness, and 5-10 km spacing, consistent with observations at the outer rise are present within the subducted slab at intermediate depths. We propose that these low velocity fault zone structures represent the hydrated structure within the lithospheric mantle. They may be formed initially by normal faults at the outer rise, which act as a pathway for fluids to penetrate the deeper slab due to the bending and unbending stresses within the subducting plate. Our observations suggest that the lithospheric mantle is 5-15% serpentinised, and therefore may transport approximately 13-42 Tg/Myr of water per meter of arc. The guided wave observations also suggest that a thin LVL (∼1 km thick) interpreted as un-eclogitised subducted oceanic crust persists to depths of at least 220 km. Comparison of the inferred seismic

  16. Intermittent tremor migrations beneath Guerrero, Mexico, and implications for fault healing within the slow slip zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yajun; Rubin, Allan M.

    2017-01-01

    Slow slip events exhibit significant complexity in slip evolution and variations in recurrence intervals. Behavior that varies systematically with recurrence interval is likely to reflect different extents of fault healing between these events. Here we use high-resolution tremor catalogs beneath Guerrero, Mexico, to investigate the mechanics of slow slip. We observe complex tremor propagation styles, including rapid tremor migrations propagating either along the main tremor front or backward, reminiscent of those in northern Cascadia. We also find many migrations that originate well behind the front and repeatedly occupy the same source region during a tremor episode, similar to those previously reported from Shikoku, Japan. These migrations could be driven by slow slip in the surrounding regions, with recurrence intervals possibly modulated by tides. The propagation speed of these migrations decreases systematically with time since the previous migration over the same source area. Tremor amplitudes seem consistent with changes in the propagation speeds being controlled primarily by changes in the slip speeds. One interpretation is that the high propagation speeds and inferred high slip speeds during the migrations with short recurrence intervals are caused by incomplete healing within the host rock adjacent to the shear zone, which could lead to high permeability and reduced dilatant strengthening of the fault gouge. Similar processes may operate in other slow slip source regions such as Cascadia.

  17. Investigation of mantle kinematics beneath the Hellenic-subduction zone with teleseismic direct shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confal, Judith M.; Eken, Tuna; Tilmann, Frederik; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Çubuk-Sabuncu, Yeşim; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay

    2016-12-01

    The subduction and roll-back of the African plate beneath the Eurasian plate along the arcuate Hellenic trench is the dominant geodynamic process in the Aegean and western Anatolia. Mantle flow and lithospheric kinematics in this region can potentially be understood better by mapping seismic anisotropy. This study uses direct shear-wave splitting measurements based on the Reference Station Technique in the southern Aegean Sea to reveal seismic anisotropy in the mantle. The technique overcomes possible contamination from source-side anisotropy on direct S-wave signals recorded at a station pair by maximizing the correlation between the seismic traces at reference and target stations after correcting the reference stations for known receiver-side anisotropy and the target stations for arbitrary splitting parameters probed via a grid search. We obtained splitting parameters at 35 stations with good-quality S-wave signals extracted from 81 teleseismic events. Employing direct S-waves enabled more stable and reliable splitting measurements than previously possible, based on sparse SKS data at temporary stations, with one to five events for local SKS studies, compared with an average of 12 events for each station in this study. The fast polarization directions mostly show NNE-SSW orientation with splitting time delays between 1.15 s and 1.62 s. Two stations in the west close to the Hellenic Trench and one in the east show N-S oriented fast polarizations. In the back-arc region three stations exhibit NE-SW orientation. The overall fast polarization variations tend to be similar to those obtained from previous SKS splitting studies in the region but indicate a more consistent pattern, most likely due to the usage of a larger number of individual observations in direct S-wave derived splitting measurements. Splitting analysis on direct shear waves typically resulted in larger split time delays compared to previous studies, possibly because S-waves travel along a longer path

  18. Imaging Seismic Zones and Magma beneath Mount St. Helens with the iMUSH Broadband Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K.; Moran, S. C.; Abers, G. A.; Crosbie, K.; Crosson, R. S.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thelen, W. A.; Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Bachmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    We deployed 70 broadband seismometers from 2014 to 2016 to image the seismic velocity structure beneath Mount St. Helens (MSH), Washington, as part of the collaborative imaging Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) project. The broadband array had a 100 km diameter centered on MSH with an average station spacing of 10 km, augmented by dozens of permanent stations. We picked P- and S-wave arrival times and also incorporated picks from the permanent network. More than 400 local events M>0.5 occurred during the deployment, providing over 12,000 P-wave and 6,000 S-wave arrival times. In addition, we incorporated 23 explosions that were part of the active-source component of iMUSH. We used the program struct3DP to invert travel times to obtain a 3-D seismic velocity model and relocated hypocenters, with travel times computed using a 3-D eikonal-equation solver. Principal features of our 3-D model include: (1) Low P- and S-wave velocities along the St. Helens seismic Zone (SHZ), striking NNW-SSE north of MSH from near the surface to where we lose resolution at 15-20 km depth. This anomaly corresponds to high conductivity as imaged by iMUSH magnetotelluric studies. The SHZ also coincides with a sharp boundary in continental Moho reflectivity that has been interpreted as the eastern boundary of a serpentinized mantle wedge (Hansen et al, 2016). We speculate that the SHZ and low velocities are related to fluids rising from the eastern boundary of the wedge; (2) A 4-5% negative P- and S-wave velocity anomaly beneath MSH at depths of 6-15 km with a quasi-cylindrical geometry and a diameter of 5 km, probably indicating a magma storage region. Based on resolution testing of similar-sized features, it is possible that the velocity anomaly we see underneath MSH is narrower and higher (i.e., more negative) amplitude; (3) A broad, high-amplitude, low P-wave velocity region below 10-km depth extending between Mount Adams and Mount Rainier along and to the east of the main Cascade arc

  19. Evidence from P-wave receiver functions for lower mantle plumes and mantle transition zone water beneath West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Emry, E.; Juliá, J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Wiens, D. A.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    West Antarctica has experienced abundant Cenozoic volcanism, and it is suspected that the region is influenced by upwelling thermal plumes from the lower mantle; however this has not yet been verified, because seismic tomography results are not well resolved at mantle transition zone (MTZ) depths. We use P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) from the 2007-2013 Antarctic POLENET array to explore the characteristics of the MTZ throughout Marie Byrd Land and the West Antarctic Rift System. We obtained over 8000 high-quality PRFs for earthquakes occurring at 30-90° with Mb>5.5 using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method filtered with a Gaussian-width of 0.5 and 1.0, corresponding to frequencies less than ~0.24 Hz and ~0.48 Hz, respectively. We stack P receiver functions as single-station and by common conversion point and migrate them to depth using the ak135 1-d velocity model. Results suggest that the thickness of the MTZ varies throughout the region with thinning beneath the Ruppert Coast of Marie Byrd Land and beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Whitmore Mountains. We identify the 520' discontinuity throughout much of West Antarctica; the discontinuity is most prominent beneath the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Whitmore Mountains. Additionally, prominent negative peaks are detected above the transition zone beneath much of West Antarctica and may be evidence for water-induced partial melt above the MTZ. We propose that the MTZ beneath West Antarctica is hotter than average in some regions, possibly due to material upwelling from the lower mantle. Furthermore, we propose that the transition zone is water-rich and that upward migration of hydrated material results in formation of a partial melt layer above the MTZ.

  20. Imprint of Southern Red Sea Major Tectonic Zone In A New Bouguer Anomaly Map of Southern Yemen Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, V.

    A new Bouguer anomaly map of western part of southern Yemen margin has been compiled. Densities of rock samples from main geological units (Precambrian base- ment, Mesozoic sediments, Tertiary volcanites) have been measured and used for grav- ity modeling. Regional gravity map indicates decrease of thickness of continental crust from volcanites of the Yemen Trap Series towards the coast of the Gulf of Aden. Most remarkable feature in the map of residual anomalies is a positive anomaly over the Dhala graben. The Dhala graben is a prominent geological structure in the area of study trending parallel to the Red Sea axis. Gravity modeling on a profile across the Dhala graben presumes intrusive plutonic rocks beneath the graben. There are two other areas in the southwestern tip of Arabia, which have essentially the same struc- tural position as the Dhala graben: the Jabal Tirf volcanic rift zone in the southern Saudi Arabia and Jabal Hufash extensional zone in northern Yemen. All three areas extend along the line trending parallel to the Red Sea axis with length of about 500 km. The line coincides with the axis of Afar (Danakil) depression after Arabia is shifted and rotated back to Africa. These facts imply conclusion that the Oligocene - Early Miocene magmatic activity on the Jabal Tirf - Dhala lineament is related to the same original deep tectonic zone, forming present-day Afar depression and still active.

  1. Near-source attenuation of high-frequency body waves beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Shahram; Sedaghati, Farhad; Nazemi, Nima

    2018-03-01

    Attenuation characteristics in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) are estimated from 157 local seismograph recordings out of 46 earthquakes of 2.6 ≤ M ≤ 4.1 with hypocentral distances up to 60 km and focal depths down to 25 km. Digital waveform seismograms were obtained from local earthquakes in the NMSZ recorded by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis. Using the coda normalization method, we tried to determine Q values and geometrical spreading exponents at 13 center frequencies. The scatter of the data and trade-off between the geometrical spreading and the quality factor did not allow us to simultaneously derive both these parameters from inversion. Assuming 1/ R 1.0 as the geometrical spreading function in the NMSZ, the Q P and Q S estimates increase with increasing frequency from 354 and 426 at 4 Hz to 729 and 1091 at 24 Hz, respectively. Fitting a power law equation to the Q estimates, we found the attenuation models for the P waves and S waves in the frequency range of 4 to 24 Hz as Q P = (115.80 ± 1.36) f (0.495 ± 0.129) and Q S = (161.34 ± 1.73) f (0.613 ± 0.067), respectively. We did not consider Q estimates from the coda normalization method for frequencies less than 4 Hz in the regression analysis since the decay of coda amplitude was not observed at most bandpass filtered seismograms for these frequencies. Q S/ Q P > 1, for 4 ≤ f ≤ 24 Hz as well as strong intrinsic attenuation, suggest that the crust beneath the NMSZ is partially fluid-saturated. Further, high scattering attenuation indicates the presence of a high level of small-scale heterogeneities inside the crust in this region.

  2. Transition zone structure beneath Ethiopia from 3-D fast marching pseudo-migration stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Lopez, A.; Levin, V.

    2008-12-01

    Several models for the origin of the Afar hotspot have been put forth over the last decade, but much ambiguity remains as to whether the hotspot tectonism found there is due to a shallow or deeply seated feature. Additionally, there has been much debate as to whether the hotspot owes its existence to a 'classic' mantle plume feature or if it is part of the African Superplume complex. To further understand the origin of the hotspot, we employ a new receiver function stacking method that incorporates a fast-marching three- dimensional ray tracing algorithm to improve upon existing studies of the mantle transition zone structure. Using teleseismic data from the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment and the EAGLE (Ethiopia Afar Grand Lithospheric Experiment) experiment, we stack receiver functions using a three-dimensional pseudo- migration technique to examine topography on the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Previous methods of receiver function pseudo-migration incorporated ray tracing methods that were not able to ray trace through highly complicated 3-D structure, or the ray tracing techniques only produced 3-D time perturbations associated 1-D rays in a 3-D velocity medium. These previous techniques yielded confusing and incomplete results for when applied to the exceedingly complicated mantle structure beneath Ethiopia. Indeed, comparisons of the 1-D versus 3-D ray tracing techniques show that the 1-D technique mislocated structure laterally in the mantle by over 100 km. Preliminary results using our new technique show a shallower then average 410 km discontinuity and a deeper than average 660 km discontinuity over much of the region, suggested that the hotspot has a deep seated origin.

  3. 2-dimensional triplicated waveform modeling of the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.; Chen, L.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) of Northeast Asia has long been investigated by geoscientists for its critical importance where the subducted Pacific slab is stagnant above the 660km discontinuity, accompanied by complicated mantle processes. Taking advantages of the frequent occurrent deep earthquakes in subduction zone and dense seismic arrays in Northeast China, we successfully constructed the fine-scale P and SH velocity structure of a narrow azimuthal fan area based on 2-Dimensional (2D) triplicated waveform modeling for three deep close earthquakes, in which the triplicated waveforms are very sensitive to MTZ velocity structure in general, particularly the morphology of the stagnant slab in Northeast Asia. In our 2D triplication study, for the first time, we show a quite consistent feature of a high velocity layer for both Vp and Vs with the thickness of 140km and the length of 1200km just atop the 660km discontinuity, the western edge of the stagnant slab intersect with the North-South Gravity Lineament in China and has the subducting age of 30 Ma. Compared with a quite normal Vp, the Shear wave velocity reduction of -0.5% in the slab and -2.5% in the upper MTZ is required to reconcile the SH waves featured by the broad BOD. The high Vp/Vs ratio beneath Northeast Asia may imply a water-rich MTZ with the H2O content of 0.1-0.3 wt%. Particularly, a low velocity anomaly of about 150km wide was detected in the overall high-velocity stagnant slab by both P and SH triplicated waveform modeling, with the velocity anomaly value of -1% and -3%, respectively. The gap/window in the stagnant slab may provide a passage for hot deeper mantle materials to penetrate through the thick slab and feed the surface Changbaishan volcano. We also speculate that the existence of such a gap can be the manifestation of the original heterogeneity in the subducted slab and will further exacerbatethe impending gravitational instability and speed up mantle avalanche.

  4. Geology of the continental margin beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from seismic-reflection data

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Bohannon, R.G.; Sliter, R.W.; Calvert, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    We interpret seismic-reflection data, which were collected in Santa Monica Bay using a 70-in3 generator-injector air gun, to show the geologic structure of the continental shelf and slope and of the deep-water, Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins. The goal of this research is to investigate the earthquake hazard posed to urban areas by offshore faults. These data reveal that northwest of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, the Palos Verdes Fault neither offsets the seafloor nor cuts through an undeformed sediment apron that postdates the last sea level rise. Other evidence indicates that this fault extends northwest beneath the shelf in the deep subsurface. However, other major faults in the study area, such as the Dume and San Pedro Basin Faults, were active recently, as indicated by an arched seafloor and offset shallow sediment. Rocks under the lower continental slope are deformed to differing degrees on opposite sides of Santa Monica Canyon. Northwest of this canyon, the continental slope is underlain by a little-deformed sediment apron; the main structures that deform this apron are two lower-slope anticlines that extend toward Point Dume and are cored by faults showing reverse or thrust separation. Southeast of Santa Monica Canyon, lower-slope rocks are deformed by a complex arrangement of strike-slip, normal, and reverse faults. The San Pedro Escarpment rises abruptly along the southeast side of Santa Monica Canyon. Reverse faults and folds underpinning this escarpment steepen progressively southeastward. Locally they form flower structures and cut downward into basement rocks. These faults merge downward with the San Pedro Basin fault zone, which is nearly vertical and strike slip. The escarpment and its attendant structures diverge from this strike-slip fault zone and extend for 60 km along the margin, separating the continental shelf from the deep-water basins. The deep-water Santa Monica Basin has large extent but is filled with only a thin (less than 1.5-km

  5. Xenolith constraints on seismic velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. E.; Boyd, F. R.; Schutt, D.; Bell, D. R.; Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    We impose geologic constraints on seismic three-dimensional (3-D) images of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa by calculating seismic velocities and rock densities from approximately 120 geothermobarometrically calibrated mantle xenoliths from the Archean Kaapvaal craton and adjacent Proterozoic mobile belts. Velocity and density estimates are based on the elastic and thermal moduli of constituent minerals under equilibrium P-T conditions at the mantle source. The largest sources of error in the velocity estimates derive from inaccurate thermo-barometry and, to a lesser extent, from uncertainties in the elastic constants of the constituent minerals. Results are consistent with tomographic evidence that cratonic mantle is higher in velocity by 0.5-1.5% and lower in density by about 1% relative to off-craton Proterozoic samples at comparable depths. Seismic velocity variations between cratonic and noncratonic xenoliths are controlled dominantly by differences in calculated temperatures, with compositional effects secondary. Different temperature profiles between cratonic and noncratonic regions have a relatively minor influence on density, where composition remains the dominant control. Low-T cratonic xenoliths exhibit a positive velocity-depth curve, rising from about 8.13 km/s at uppermost mantle depths to about 8.25 km/s at 180-km depth. S velocities decrease slightly over the same depth interval, from about 4.7 km/s in the uppermost mantle to 4.65 km/s at 180-km depth. P and S velocities for high-T lherzolites are highly scattered, ranging from highs close to those of the low-T xenoliths to lows of 8.05 km/s and 4.5 km/s at depths in excess of 200 km. These low velocities, while not asthenospheric, are inconsistent with seismic tomographic images that indicate high velocity root material extending to depths of at least 250 km. One plausible explanation is that high temperatures determined for the high-T xenoliths are a nonequilibrium consequence of

  6. Triggered Slow Slip and Afterslip on the Southern Hikurangi Subduction Zone Following the Kaikōura Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ellis, Susan; Hamling, Ian; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta; Denys, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The 2016 MW7.8 Kaikōura earthquake ruptured a complex sequence of strike-slip and reverse faults in New Zealand's northeastern South Island. In the months following the earthquake, time-dependent inversions of Global Positioning System and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data reveal up to 0.5 m of afterslip on the subduction interface beneath the northern South Island underlying the crustal faults that ruptured in the earthquake. This is clear evidence that the far southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone accommodates plate motion. The MW7.8 earthquake also triggered widespread slow slip over much of the subduction zone beneath the North Island. The triggered slow slip included immediate triggering of shallow (<15 km), short (2-3 weeks) slow slip events along much of the east coast, and deep (>30 km), long-term (>1 year) slow slip beneath the southern North Island. The southern Hikurangi slow slip was likely triggered by large (0.5-1.0 MPa) static Coulomb stress increases.

  7. Controls on deep drainage beneath the root soil zone in snowmelt-dominated environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. C.; Harpold, A. A.; Kampf, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt is the dominant source of streamflow generation and groundwater recharge in many high elevation and high latitude locations, yet we still lack a detailed understanding of how snowmelt is partitioned between the soil, deep drainage, and streamflow under a variety of soil, climate, and snow conditions. Here we use Hydrus 1-D simulations with historical inputs from five SNOTEL snow monitoring sites in each of three regions, Cascades, Sierra, and Southern Rockies, to investigate how inter-annual variability on water input rate and duration affects soil saturation and deep drainage. Each input scenario was run with three different soil profiles of varying hydraulic conductivity, soil texture, and bulk density. We also created artificial snowmelt scenarios to test how snowmelt intermittence affects deep drainage. Results indicate that precipitation is the strongest predictor (R2 = 0.83) of deep drainage below the root zone, with weaker relationships observed between deep drainage and snow persistence, peak snow water equivalent, and melt rate. The ratio of deep drainage to precipitation shows a stronger positive relationship to melt rate suggesting that a greater fraction of input becomes deep drainage at higher melt rates. For a given amount of precipitation, rapid, concentrated snowmelt may create greater deep drainage below the root zone than slower, intermittent melt. Deep drainage requires saturation below the root zone, so saturated hydraulic conductivity serves as a primary control on deep drainage magnitude. Deep drainage response to climate is mostly independent of soil texture because of its reliance on saturated conditions. Mean water year saturations of deep soil layers can predict deep drainage and may be a useful way to compare sites in soils with soil hydraulic porosities. The unit depth of surface runoff often is often greater than deep drainage at daily and annual timescales, as snowmelt exceeds infiltration capacity in near-surface soil layers

  8. Shear-wave polarization anisotropy in the mantle wedge beneath the southern part of Tohoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, J.; Nakajima, J.; Hasegawa, A.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated shear-wave polarization anisotropy in the mantle wedge beneath the southern part of Tohoku, Japan, by using waveform data of intermediate depth earthquakes with M>2.5 recorded by the seismic networks of Tohoku University and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). We selected waveform data with ray paths whose incident angles to the surface are 35 degrees or less to avoid contamination of particle motions by converted phases. All the seismograms thus selected were filtered with bandpassed ranges of 2-8 Hz. Cross-correlation method [Ando et al., 1983] was used for determining delay time between the leading and following shear-waves (delay time) and the leading shear-wave polarization direction (fast direction). Two horizontal components of observed seismograms were rotated with the direction from 0 to 180 degrees with an interval of 5 degrees, and shifted one horizontal component by a time lag. The time lag varied from 0 to 1 s with an interval of 0.01 s. The length of time window used to calculate correlation coefficient was set to be nearly equal to one cycle of the shear-wave. We do not use the data whose maximum correlation coefficient is less than 0.8. Obtained results show that most of the fast directions at stations in the back-arc side are nearly E-W, whereas those at stations in the fore-arc side are N-S. We infer that the anisotropy caused by lattice-preferred orientation of olivine, which is probably produced by flow in the mantle wedge, is a likely candidate for the observed shear-wave splitting with E-W trend fast directions in the back-arc side. Although it is not certain what causes the N-S trend fast directions in the for-arc side, the same trend is seen in the previous studies of other areas in Tohoku [Okada et al.,1995; Nakajima, 2002]. Observed delay times are mostly 0.1-0.3 s, which is consistent with the results of Okada et al. [1995] and Nakajima [2002]. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the staff of the JMA for allowing us to use

  9. Evolution of rhyolitic magmas in the crustal magmatic system beneath the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. R.; Kamenetsky, V.; McPhie, J.; Wallace, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) produces the most frequent rhyolitic eruptions on Earth. This volcanic arc is also characterized by bimodal volcanism, with eruptions of andesite (primarily in the NE and SW of the zone) and minor basalt. Here we use melt inclusions (MI) to investigate the magmatic evolution of rhyolites in the TVZ and their link to TVZ basalts. Our study focuses on recent (<50 ka) explosive rhyolitic eruptions, as well as several small-volume explosive basaltic eruptions, from the Okataina Volcanic Centre in the northern part of the TVZ. The rhyolitic melts of the TVZ are thought to be formed via fractionation of a basaltic parent plus assimilation of metasedimentary crust. Trace element data from our TVZ melt inclusions lend support to this idea, with constant ratios of incompatible trace elements (e.g., U/Th) in the TVZ basalts and rhyolites. Assuming that these elements are completely incompatible, we have calculated that the TVZ rhyolites can be produced by ~80% fractional crystallization of a basaltic parent. We have also used MI volatile contents to assess the pressures (and thus depths) in the crust of magma emplacement and differentiation. Both the TVZ rhyolites and basalts are volatile-rich. Quartz-hosted MI in the rhyolites typically contain 5.5- 7.6 wt% H2O and up to 2500 ppm Cl, and olivine-hosted MI in the basalts contain up to 4.5 wt% H2O and 1250 ppm Cl. The H2O concentrations imply crystallization pressures of at least 200-440 MPa for the rhyolites, which correspond to depths of ~8-16 km. However, the presence of rhyolitic MI with lower H2O (3.5-5 wt%) suggests that crystallization may have occurred over a wide range of pressures. Additionally, the basalts erupted in the TVZ likely crystallized at minimum pressures of 100-200 MPa. Together, this suggests that basaltic and rhyolitic melt zones occur over a wide range of depths (~4-16 km). Furthermore, the emplacement of the basaltic parent and the AFC process to create the rhyolites had

  10. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  11. Strength of plate coupling in the southern Ryukyu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Lo, Chung-Liang; Wu, Wen-Nan; Lin, Jing-Yi; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Wang, Hsueh-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the strength of a plate coupling is critical for assessing potential seismic and tsunamic hazards in subduction zones. The interaction between an overriding plate and the associated subducting plate can be used to evaluate the strength of plate coupling by examining the mantle lithospheric buoyancy. Here, we calculate the mantle lithosphere buoyancy across the northern portion of the southern Ryukyu subduction zone based on gravity modeling with the constraints from a newly derived P-wave seismic velocity model. The result indicates that the strength of the plate coupling in the study area is relatively strong, which is consistent with previous observations in the southernmost Ryukyu subduction zone. Because few large earthquakes (Mw > 7) have occurred in the southern Ryukyu subduction zone, a large amount of energy is locked and accumulated by plate coupling, that could be released in the near future.

  12. A preparation zone for volcanic explosions beneath Naka-dake crater, Aso volcano, as inferred from magnetotelluric surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Wataru; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Utsugi, Mitsuru; Takakura, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    The 1st crater of Naka-dake, Aso volcano, is one of the most active craters in Japan, and known to have a characteristic cycle of activity that consists of the formation of a crater lake, drying-up of the lake water, and finally a Strombolian-type eruption. Recent observations indicate an increase in eruptive activity including a decrease in the level of the lake water, mud eruptions, and red hot glows on the crater wall. Temporal variations in the geomagnetic field observed around the craters of Naka-dake also indicate that thermal demagnetization of the subsurface rocks has been occurring in shallow subsurface areas around the 1st crater. Volcanic explosions act to release the energy transferred from magma or volcanic fluids. Measurement of the subsurface electrical resistivity is a promising method in investigating the shallow structure of the volcanic edifices, where energy from various sources accumulates, and in investigating the behaviors of magma and volcanic fluids. We carried out audio-frequency magnetotelluric surveys around the craters of Naka-dake in 2004 and 2005 to determine the detailed electrical structure down to a depth of around 1 km. The main objective of this study is to identify the specific subsurface structure that acts to store energy as a preparation zone for volcanic eruption. Two-dimensional inversions were applied to four profiles across the craters, revealing a strongly conductive zone at several hundred meters depth beneath the 1st crater and surrounding area. In contrast, we found no such remarkable conductor at shallow depths beneath the 4th crater, which has been inactive for 70 years, finding instead a relatively resistive body. The distribution of the rotational invariant of the magnetotelluric impedance tensor is consistent with the inversion results. This unusual shallow structure probably reflects the existence of a supply path of high-temperature volcanic gases to the crater bottom. We propose that the upper part of the

  13. Mantle transition zone beneath the central Tien Shan: Lithospheric delamination and mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey; Vinnik, Lev; Makeyeva, Larissa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) under the central Tien Shan in central Asia by using recordings of seismograph stations in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and adjacent northern China. We apply P-wave receiver functions techniques and evaluate the differential time between the arrivals of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic boundaries. The differential time is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km boundary. Under part of the southern central Tien Shan with the lowest S wave velocity in the uppermost mantle and the largest thickness of the crust, the thickness of the MTZ increases by 15-20 km relative to the ambient mantle and the reference model IASP91. The increased thickness is a likely effect of low (about - 150 K) temperature. This anomaly is indicative of delamination and sinking of the mantle lithosphere. The low temperature in the MTZ might also be a relic of subduction of the oceanic lithosphere in the Paleozoic, but this scenario requires strong coupling and coherence between structures in the MTZ and in the lithosphere during plate motions in the last 300 Myr. Our data reveal a reduction of thickness of the MTZ of 10-15 km under the Fergana basin, in the neighborhood of the region of small-scale basaltic volcanism at the time near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The reduced thickness of the MTZ is the effect of a depressed 410-km discontinuity, similar to that found in many hotspots. This depression suggests a positive temperature anomaly of about 100-150 K, consistent with the presence of a thermal mantle plume. A similar depression on the 410-km discontinuity is found underneath the Tarim basin.

  14. Preliminary Results of Crustal Structure beneath the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone Using Teleseismic Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Aziz Zanjani, A.; Hu, S.; Liu, Y.; Herrmann, R. B.; Conder, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a on-going EarthScope FlexArray project, we deployed 45 broadband seismographs in a 300-km-long linear profile across the Wabash Valley Seismic Zone (WVSZ). Here we present preliminary results of crustal structure beneath WVSZ based on teleseismic receiver functions and ambient noise tomography. We combined waveform data of the temporary stations in 2014 with those of permanent seismic stations and the transportable array stations in our study area since 2011. We found 656 teleseismic events with clear P-wave signals and obtained 2657 good-quality receiver functions of 84 stations using a time-domain iterative deconvolution method. We estimated crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath each station using the H-κ stacking method. A high-resolution crustal structural image along the linear profile was obtained using the Common-Conversion-Point (CCP) stacking method. We also measured Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities from 5 to 50 s by cross-correlating ambient noises between stations and did joint-inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersions for S-velocity structures beneath selected stations. The results show that the average crustal thickness in the region is 47 km with a gentle increase of crustal thickness from southeast to northwest. A mid-crustal interface is identified in the CCP image that also deepens from 15 km in the southeastern end to >20 km in the northwest. The CCP image shows that the low-velocity sedimentary layer along the profile is broad and is thickest (~10 km) near the center of the Wabash Valley. Beneath the center of the Valley there is a 40-km-wide positive velocity discontinuity at a depth of 40 km in the lower crust that might be the top of a rift pillow in this failed continental rift. Further results using 3D joint inversion and CCP migration will be presented at the meeting.

  15. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    SciT

    Syuhada, E-mail: hadda9@gmail.com; Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences; Hananto, Nugroho D.

    2015-04-24

    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stationsmore » by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.« less

  16. Fluid pressure development beneath the décollement at the Nankai subduction zone: its implications for slow earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, T.; Kamiya, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Inagaki, F.; Kubo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Pore fluid pressure along a fault zone is very important for understanding earthquake generation processes in subduction zones. However, quantitative constraints on the pore pressure are quite limited. Here we report two estimates of the pore pressure developed within the underthrust sediments in the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto, Japan, using the shipboard data obtained during IODP Expedition 370 (Heuer et al., 2017). First estimates are based on the depth trend of porosity data in the lower Shikoku Basin (LSB) facies, in which the décollement zone has propagated. Porosities in the LSB facies generally decrease with depth, but turn to increase by 5-7% below the décollement zone at 760 mbsf. Deeper than 830 mbsf, porosities resume a general compaction trend. By applying the method followed by Screaton et al. (2002) in which the downward porosity-increase is reflected by an excess pore pressure, we estimated the highest excess pore pressure of 4.2 MPa (λ* = 0.4: a ratio of excess pore pressure to effective overburden stress) at 1020 mbsf within the underthrust sediments. Another estimate is based on the analysis of upwelling drilling-mud flow from the borehole, which is a direct evidence the development of overpressure. We assumed that the borehole penetrated a disc-shaped high pore pressure zone with 10 m thickness and the steady-state flow. Then the pore pressure for a given radius of the disc-shaped zone, which is necessary for explaining the observed flow rate, was calculated using Darcy's law. The calculation yields that the pore pressure exceeded by 2-4 MPa above hydrostatic in case of the 10-13 m2 permeability and the 100-1000 m radius of the disc-shaped zone. Our analysis indicates a significant development of excess pore pressure beneath the décollement zone, most likely at the depth of 1020 mbsf where the highest overpressure was estimated from the downhole porosity trend and also an anomaly in relative hydrocarbon gas concentrations. Friction

  17. Seismic evidence for water transport out of the mantle transition zone beneath the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The mantle transition zone has been considered a major water reservoir in the deep Earth. Mass transfer across the transition-zone boundaries may transport water-rich minerals from the transition zone into the water-poor upper or lower mantle. Water release in the mantle surrounding the transition zone could cause dehydration melting and produce seismic low-velocity anomalies if some conditions are met. Therefore, seismic observations of low-velocity layers surrounding the transition zone could provide clues of water circulation at mid-mantle depths. Below the Alpine orogen, a depressed 660-km discontinuity has been imaged clearly using seismic tomography and receiver functions, suggesting downwellings of materials from the transition zone. Multitaper-correlation receiver functions show prominent ∼0.5-1.5% velocity reductions at ∼750-800-km depths, possibly caused by partial melting in the upper part of lower mantle. The gap between the depressed 660-km discontinuity and the low-velocity layers is consistent with metallic iron as a minor phase in the topmost lower mantle reported by laboratory studies. Velocity drops atop the 410-km discontinuity are observed surrounding the Alpine orogeny, suggesting upwelling of water-rich rock from the transition zone in response to the downwelled materials below the orogeny. Our results provide evidence that convective penetration of the mantle transition zone pushes hydrated minerals both upward and downward to add hydrogen to the surrounding mantle.

  18. Mantle transition zone beneath northeast China from P-receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    We used receiver functions to examine lateral topographical variations on the 410- and 660-km beneath northeast China and particularly the Kuril-Japan arc junctions. Compared to other receiver functions studies, our analysis was based on greater station coverage of higher density by combining all recent seismic arrays so far deployed in northeast China. Our image shows that the 410-km is featured by a ~10-20 km uplift extending in the NNE direction beneath some areas of the Quaternary basaltic rocks distributed at Abaga and at Wudalianchi. The Clapeyron slope of the olivine phase transiton at 410-km suggests that the uplift is compatible with a negative thermal anomaly. We also confirm a significant depression of the 660 from the Changbai volcanism in the north to Korea in the south along the NW-SE direction. The depression is also accompanied by an uplift of the 660 to the west. The shallow 660-km discontinuity is also particularly detected beneath the Kuril-Japan arc junctions, while it was not detected before. The thermal anomaly at 410 km depth is most likely a remnant of a detached mantle lithosphere that recently sank to depth, thus providing robust evidence for the source and evolution of these basalts. The depression of the 660-km discontinuity may support that the subducting Pacific slab bends sharply and becomes stagnant when it meets strong resistance at a depth of about 670 km. After accumulation to a great extent the stagnant slab finally penetrates into the lower mantle. Combined with the previous triplicated studies, the shallow 660-km may suggest that descending Pacific slab at its leading and junction edges might be accommodated by a tearing near a depth of 660 km. Acknowledgements. Two liner seismic arrays were deployed by the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration. The data of the permanent stations were provided by the Data Management Centre of China, National Seismic Network at the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake

  19. Upper mantle and transition zone structure beneath Ethiopia: Regional evidence for the African Superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Nyblade, A. A.; Pasyanos, M.; Owens, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    Throughout much of the Cenozoic, Ethiopia has undergone extensive tectonism, including rifting, volcanism and uplift, and the origin of this tectonism remains enigmatic. While the cause of the tectonism has often been attributed to one or more mantle plumes, recent global tomographic studies suggest that the African Superplume, a broad, through-going mantle upwelling, may be related to the tectonism. To further understand the origin of the tectonism in Ethiopia, we employ a variety of methods, including an S wave travel time body wave tomography, receiver function analysis of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, and surface wave tomography. Using data from the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment [2000-2002], we computed new S wave models of the upper mantle seismic velocity structure from 150 - 400 km depth. The S wave model revealed an elongated low wave speed region that is deep (> 300 km) and wide (> 500 km). The location of the low wave speed anomaly aligns with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but the center of the anomaly shifts to the west with depth. Results from receiver function stacking of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities show a shallow 660 beneath most of Ethiopia, implying that the low wave speed anomaly found in the S wave model likely extends to at least 660 km depth. This result suggests that the low velocity anomaly may be related to the African Superplume. A group velocity surface wave tomographic study of East Africa was also computed using data from permanent and temporary stations from Africa and Arabia. Results of this study reveal low Sn velocities beneath much of the region, and suggest that low elevations found in the region between the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus likely reflect an isostatic response to crustal thinning. If the crust in this region had not been thinned by approximately 10 - 15 km, then it is likely that the high elevation of the Ethiopian and East African Plateaus would be

  20. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  1. Variations of soil microbial community structures beneath broadleaved forest trees in temperate and subtropical climate zones

    SciT

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. Furthermore, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRImore » (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from 0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomybased association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-fortime substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.« less

  2. Variations of soil microbial community structures beneath broadleaved forest trees in temperate and subtropical climate zones

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; ...

    2017-02-10

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. Furthermore, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRImore » (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from 0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomybased association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-fortime substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.« less

  3. Upper- and mid-crustal radial anisotropy beneath the central Himalaya and southern Tibet from seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi; Gao, Xing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Zhenxing

    2012-05-01

    Through analysis of the Rayleigh wave and Love wave empirical Green's functions recovered from cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise, we image the radial anisotropy and shear wave velocity structure beneath southern Tibet and the central Himalaya. Dense ray path coverage from 22 broadband seismic stations deployed by the Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment project provides the unprecedented opportunity to resolve the spatial distribution of the radial anisotropy within the crust of the central Himalaya and southern Tibet. In the shallow subsurface, the obtained results indicate significant radial anisotropy with negative magnitude (VSV > VSH) mainly associated with the Indus Yarlung Suture and central Himalaya, possibly related to the fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations formed during the uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau. With increasing depth, the magnitude of radial anisotropy varies from predominantly negative to predominantly positive, and a mid-crustal layer with prominent positive radial anisotropy (VSV < VSH) has been detected. The top of the mid-crustal anisotropic layer correlates nicely with the starting depth of the mid-crustal lower velocity layers detected in our previous study. The spatial correlation of the positive radial anisotropy layers and mid-crustal lower velocity layers might suggest lateral crustal channel flow induced alignment of mineral grains, most likely micas or amphiboles, within the mid-crust of the central Himalaya and southern Tibet. This observation provides independent seismic evidence to support the thermo-mechanical model, which involves the southward extrusion of a low viscosity mid-crustal channel driven by the denudation effect focused at the southern flank of the Tibetan Plateau to explain the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen.

  4. The subcontinental mantle beneath southern New Zealand, characterised by helium isotopes in intraplate basalts and gas-rich springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, L.; Poreda, R.; Reay, A.; Weaver, S. D.

    2000-07-01

    relationship with either age or proximity to the Cenozoic intraplate volcanic centres or with major faults. In general, areas characterised by mantle 3He emission are interpreted to define those regions beneath which mantle melting and basalt magma addition to the crust are recent. The strongest mantle 3He anomaly (equivalent to >80% mantle helium component) is centred over southern Dunedin, measured in magmatic CO 2-rich mineral water springs issuing from crystalline basement rocks which outcrop at the southern extent of Miocene intraplate basaltic volcanism which ceased 9 Ma ago. This mantle helium anomaly overlaps with an area characterised by elevated surface high heat flow, compatible with a long-lived mantle melt/heat input into the crust. In comparison Banks Peninsula, another Miocene intraplate basaltic centre, is characterised by relatively low surface heat flow and a small mantle helium contribution measured in a nitrogen-rich spring. Here the thermal transient induced by the magmatic event has either dissipated or has not reached the surface. In the former case one might be dealing with storage and mixing of magmatic and crustal gases at shallow crustal levels and in the latter with active to recent mantle-melt degassing at depth. Along the most actively deforming part of the plate boundary zone, the transpressional Alpine Fault and Marlborough fault systems, mantle helium is present in gas-rich springs in all those areas underlain by actively subducting oceanic crust (the Australian plate in the south and Pacific plate in the north), whereas the central part of the Alpine transpressional fault is characterised by pure crustal radiogenic helium. Areas where the mantle helium component is negligible are restricted to the centre part of the South Island, extending along its length from Southland to northern Canterbury and Murchison. These areas are interpreted to delineate the extent of thicker and colder lithosphere compared to all other areas where mantle helium

  5. Strength of the Subduction Plate Interface beneath the Seismogenic Zone: A Microstructural Investigation of Deformation Mechanisms within a Phyllosilicate- and Amphibole-rich Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Šilerová, D.

    2017-12-01

    interface beneath the seismogenic zone was therefore controlled by multiple syn-kinematic mechanisms, with overall strength dominated by the rheology of phyllosilicates and amphibole, generating very low viscosities at the plate interface and enhancing strain localization.

  6. Along-strike variations in seismic structure of the locked-sliding transition on the plate boundary beneath the southern part of Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Iidaka, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Saiga, A.; Umeyama, E.; Tsumura, N.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Nankai trough region, where the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts beneath the SW Japan arc, is a well-known seismogenic zone of interplate earthquakes. A narrow zone of nonvolcanic tremor has been found in the SW Japan fore-arc, along strike of the arc (Obara, 2002). The epicentral distribution of tremor corresponds to the locked-sliding transition estimated from thermal and deformation models (Hyndman et al., 1995). The spatial distribution of the tremor is not homogeneous in a narrow belt but is spatially clustered. Obara [2002] suggested fluids as a source for tremor because of the long duration and the mobility of the tremor activity. The behavior of fluids at the plate interface is a key factor in understanding fault slip processes. Seismic reflection characteristics and seismic velocity variations can provide important information on the fluid-related heterogeneity of structure around plate interface. However, little is known about the deeper part of the plate boundary, especially the transition zone on the subducting plate. To reveal the seismic structure of the transition zone, we conducted passive and active seismic experiments in the southern part of Kii Peninsula, SW Japan. Sixty 3-component portable seismographs were installed on a 60-km-long line (SM-line) nearly perpendicular to the direction of the subduction of the PHS with approximately 1 km spacing. To improve accuracy of hypocenter locations, we additionally deployed six 3-component seismic stations around the survey line. Waveforms were continuously recorded during a five-month period from December, 2009. In October of 2010, a deep seismic profiling was also conducted. 290 seismometers were deployed on the SM-line with about 200 m spacing, on which five explosives shots were fired as controlled seismic sources. Arrival times of local earthquakes and explosive shots were used in a joint inversion for earthquake locations and 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs structures, using the iterative damped least

  7. Images of crust beneath southern California will aid study of earthquakes and their effects

    Fuis, G.S.; Okaya, D.A.; Clayton, R.W.; Lutter, W.J.; Ryberg, T.; Brocher, T.M.; Henyey, T.M.; Benthien, M.L.; Davis, P.M.; Mori, J.; Catchings, R.D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Kohler, M.D.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Bohannon, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Whittier Narrows earthquake of 1987 and the Northridge earthquake of 1991 highlighted the earthquake hazards associated with buried faults in the Los Angeles region. A more thorough knowledge of the subsurface structure of southern California is needed to reveal these and other buried faults and to aid us in understanding how the earthquake-producing machinery works in this region.

  8. Topography of the Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Beneath Alaska and Its Geodynamic Implications: Constraints From Receiver Function Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Haider H.; Gao, Stephen S.; Kong, Fansheng; Liu, Kelly H.

    2017-12-01

    The 410 and 660 km discontinuities (d410 and d660, respectively) beneath Alaska and adjacent areas are imaged by stacking 75,296 radial receiver functions recorded by 438 broadband seismic stations with up to 30 years of recording period. When the 1-D IASP91 Earth model is used for moveout correction and time depth conversion, significant and spatially systematic variations in the apparent depths of the d410 and d660 are observed. The mean apparent depth of the d410 and d660 for the entire study area is 417 ± 12 km and 665 ± 12 km, respectively, and the mean mantle transition zone (MTZ) thickness is 248 ± 8 km which is statistically identical to the global average. For most of the areas, the undulations of the apparent depths of the d410 and d660 are highly correlated, indicating that lateral velocity variations in the upper mantle above the d410 contribute to the bulk of the observed apparent depth variations by affecting the traveltimes of the P-to-S converted phases from both discontinuities. Beneath central Alaska, a broad zone with greater than normal MTZ thicknesses and shallower than normal d410 is imaged, implying that the subducting Pacific slab has reached the MTZ and is fragmented or significantly thickened. Within the proposed Northern Cordilleran slab window, an overall thinner than normal MTZ is observed and is most likely the result of a depressed d410. This observation, when combined with results from seismic tomography investigations, may indicate advective thermal upwelling from the upper MTZ through the slab window.

  9. Deep magma body beneath the summit and rift zones of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Delaney, P.T.; Fiske, R.S.; Miklius, Asta; Okamura, A.T.; Sako, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    A magnitude 7.2 earthquake in 1975 caused the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to move seaward in response to slippage along a deep fault. Since then, a large part of the volcano's edifice has been adjusting to this perturbation. The summit of Kilauea extended at a rate of 0.26 meter per year until 1983, the south flank uplifted more than 0.5 meter, and the axes of both the volcano's rift zones extended and subsided; the summit continues to subside. These ground-surface motions have been remarkably steady and much more widespread than those caused by either recurrent inflation and deflation of the summit magma chamber or the episodic propagation of dikes into the rift zones. Kilauea's magmatic system is, therefore, probably deeper and more extensive than previously thought; the summit and both rift zones may be underlain by a thick, near vertical dike-like magma system at a depth of 3 to 9 kilometers.

  10. Deep magma body beneath the summit and rift zones of kilauea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Delaney, P T; Fiske, R S; Miklius, A; Okamura, A T; Sako, M K

    1990-03-16

    A magnitude 7.2 earthquake in 1975 caused the south flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, to move seaward in response to slippage along a deep fault. Since then, a large part of the volcano's edifice has been adjusting to this perturbation. The summit of Kilauea extended at a rate of 0.26 meter per year until 1983, the south flank uplifted more than 0.5 meter, and the axes of both the volcano's rift zones extended and subsided; the summit continues to subside. These ground-surface motions have been remarkably steady and much more widespread than those caused by either recurrent inflation and deflation of the summit magma chamber or the episodic propagation of dikes into the rift zones. Kilauea's magmatic system is, therefore, probably deeper and more extensive than previously thought; the summit and both rift zones may be underlain by a thick, near vertical dike-like magma system at a depth of 3 to 9 kilometers.

  11. Recharge beneath low-impact design rain gardens and the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on urban, coastal groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater resources in urban, coastal environments are highly vulnerable to increased human pressures and climate variability. Impervious surfaces, such as buildings, roads, and parking lots prevent infiltration, reduce recharge to underlying aquifers, and increase contaminants in surface runoff that often overflow sewage systems. To mitigate these effects, cities worldwide are adopting low impact design (LID) approaches that direct runoff into natural vegetated systems, such as rain gardens that reduce, filter, and slow stormwater runoff, and are hypothesized to increase infiltration and recharge rates to aquifers. The effects of LID on recharge rates and quality is unknown, particularly during intense precipitation events for cities along the Pacific coast in response to interannual variability of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Using vadose zone monitoring sensors and instruments, I collected and monitored soil, hydraulic, and geochemical data to quantify the rates and quality of infiltration and recharge to the California Coastal aquifer system beneath a LID rain garden and traditional turf-lawn setting in San Francisco, CA. The data were used to calibrate a HYDRUS-3D model to simulate recharge rates under historical and future variability of ENSO. Understanding these processes has important implications for managing groundwater resources in urban, coastal environments.

  12. Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: Constraints from ODP Leg 204

    Trehu, A.M.; Long, P.E.; Torres, M.E.; Bohrmann, G.; Rack, F.R.; Collett, T.S.; Goldberg, D.S.; Milkov, A.V.; Riedel, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Bangs, N.L.; Barr, S.R.; Borowski, W.S.; Claypool, G.E.; Delwiche, M.E.; Dickens, G.R.; Gracia, E.; Guerin, G.; Holland, M.; Johnson, J.E.; Lee, Y.-J.; Liu, C.-S.; Su, X.; Teichert, B.; Tomaru, H.; Vanneste, M.; Watanabe, M. E.; Weinberger, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, we sampled the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) from the seafloor to its base in contrasting geological settings defined by a 3D seismic survey. By integrating results from different methods, including several new techniques developed for Leg 204, we overcome the problem of spatial under-sampling inherent in robust methods traditionally used for estimating the hydrate content of cores and obtain a high-resolution, quantitative estimate of the total amount and spatial variability of gas hydrate in this structural system. We conclude that high gas hydrate content (30-40% of pore space or 20-26% of total volume) is restricted to the upper tens of meters below the seafloor near the summit of the structure, where vigorous fluid venting occurs. Elsewhere, the average gas hydrate content of the sediments in the gas hydrate stability zone is generally <2% of the pore space, although this estimate may increase by a factor of 2 when patchy zones of locally higher gas hydrate content are included in the calculation. These patchy zones are structurally and stratigraphically controlled, contain up to 20% hydrate in the pore space when averaged over zones ???10 m thick, and may occur in up to ???20% of the region imaged by 3D seismic data. This heterogeneous gas hydrate distribution is an important constraint on models of gas hydrate formation in marine sediments and the response of the sediments to tectonic and environmental change. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Early Carboniferous (˜357 Ma) crust beneath northern Arabia: Tales from Tell Thannoun (southern Syria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Ren, Minghua; Ali, Kamal; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Al Safarjalani, Abdulrahman; Nasir, Sobhi; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Leybourne, Matthew I.; Romer, Rolf L.

    2014-05-01

    Continental crust beneath northern Arabia is deeply buried and poorly known. To advance our knowledge of this crust, we studied 8 xenoliths brought to the surface by Neogene eruptions of Tell Thannoun, S. Syria. The xenolith suite consists of two peridotites, one pyroxenite, four mafic granulites, and one charnockite. The four mafic granulites and charnockite are probably samples of the lower crust, and two mafic granulites gave 2-pyroxene equilibration temperatures of 780-800 °C, which we take to reflect temperatures at the time of formation. Peridotite and pyroxenite gave significantly higher temperatures of ∼900 °C, consistent with derivation from the underlying lithospheric mantle. Fe-rich peridotite yielded T∼800 °C, perhaps representing a cumulate layer in the crust. Three samples spanning the lithologic range of the suite (pyroxenite, mafic granulite, and charnockite) yielded indistinguishable concordant U-Pb zircon ages of ∼357 Ma, interpreted to approximate when these magmas crystallized. These igneous rocks are mostly juvenile additions from the mantle, as indicated by low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.70312 to 0.70510) and strongly positive initial εNd(357 Ma) (+4 to +9.5). Nd model ages range from 0.55 to 0.71 Ga. We were unable to unequivocally infer a tectonic setting where these melts formed: convergent margin, rift, or hotspot. These xenoliths differ from those of Jordan and Saudi Arabia to the south in four principal ways: 1) age, being least 200 Ma younger than the presumed Neoproterozoic (533-1000 Ma) crust beneath Jordan and Saudi Arabia; 2) the presence of charnockite; 3) abundance of Fe-rich mafic and ultramafic lithologies; and 4) the presence of sapphirine. Our studies indicate that northern Arabian plate lithosphere contains a significant proportion of juvenile Late Paleozoic crust, the extent of which remains to be elucidated. This discovery helps explain fission track resetting documented for rocks from Israel and provides insights into

  14. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciT

    Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.; Scatena, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed inmore » the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the

  15. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

  16. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Huet, B.; Labrousse, L.; Yao, K.; Agard, P.; Jolivet, L.

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr-Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes extremely penetrative but

  17. Structure and Deformation in the Transpressive Zone of Southern California Inferred from Seismicity, Velocity, and Qp Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.

    2004-12-01

    deeper and shows a more complex 3D distribution in areas exhibiting compressional tectonics within the Pacific plate. The VP values are 0.2 to 0.4 km/s too high to support an abundant occurrence of schist beneath the Mojave Desert and the San Gabriel Mountains. The models reflect mapped changes, from east to west, in the lithology of the Peninsular Ranges. The interface between the shallow Moho of the Continental Borderland and the deep Moho of the continent forms a broad zone to the north beneath the western Transverse Ranges, Ventura basin and the Los Angles Basin and a narrow zone to the south, along the Peninsular Ranges. Similarly, the 3D Qp model includes several features that correspond to regional tectonic features and possibly the thermal structure of the southern California crust. A clear low Qp zone extends from the San Bernardino Basin, across the Chino Basin, San Gabriel Valley, into the Los Angeles Basin. This zone is consistent with the geology and decreases with depth from east to west. The Peninsular Ranges have a high Qp zone consistent with the high velocities in the 3D VP model. There are also zones of high Qp in the southern Mojave and southern Sierras. Several clear transition zones of rapidly varying Qp, extend across major late Quaternary faults and connect regions of high and low Qp. The strongest low Qp zone coincides with the Salton Trough where near-surface low Qp is associated with the sediments and the deeper low Qp may be associated with elevated mid-crustal temperatures.

  18. Using P-wave Triplications to Constrain the Mantle Transition Zone beneath Central Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H. C.; Tseng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Iranian Plateau is a tectonically complex region resulting from the continental collision between the African and Eurasian plates. The convergence of the two continents created the Zagros Mountains, the high topography southwest of Iran, and active seismicity along the Zagros-Bitlis suture. Tomographic studies in Iran reveal low seismic speeds and high attenuation of Sn wave in the uppermost mantle beneath the Iranian Plateau relative to adjacent regions. The deeper structure, however, remains curiously inconclusive. By contrast, a prominent fast seismic anomaly is found under central Tibet near depth of 600 km in the mantle transition zone (TZ), and it is speculated to be the remnant of lithosphere detached during the continental collision. We conduct a comparative study that utilizes triplicate arrivals of high-resolution P waveforms to investigate the velocity structure of mantle beneath the central Iranian Plateau and surroundings. Due to the abrupt increase in seismic wave speeds and density across the 410- and 660-km discontinuities, seismic waves at epicentral distances of 15-30 degrees would form multiple arrivals and the relative times and amplitudes between them are most sensitive to the variations in seismic speeds near the TZ. We combine several broadband arrays to construct 8 seismic profiles, each about 800 km long, that mainly sample the TZ under central Iranian Plateau, Turan shield and part of South Caspian basin. Move-outs between arrivals are clear in the profiles. Relative timings suggest a slightly smaller 660-km contrast under stable Turan shield. In the next stage, it is necessary to model waveforms after the source effect being removed properly. Our preliminary tests show that the F-K method can efficiently calculate the synthetic seismograms. We will determine the 1D velocity model for each sampled sector by minimizing the overall misfits between observed and predicted waveforms. The lateral variations may be further explored by

  19. Seismic High Attenuation Beneath Southern New England Indicates High Asthenospheric Temperature and No Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M. T.; Menke, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic attenuation exhibits strong geographic variability in northeastern North America, with the highest values associated with the previously-recognized Northern Appalachian Anomaly (NAA) in southern New England. The shear wave quality factor at 100 km depth is 14s<25, the ratio of P-wave and S-wave quality factors is QP/Qs=1.2±0.03, and the frequency dependence parameter is α=0.39±0.025. The high values of Qp/Qs and α are compatible with laboratory measurements of unmelted rock and incompatible with widespread melting. The low Qs (high shear attenuation) implies high mantle temperatures ( 1550-1650°C) at 100 km depth (assuming no melt). Small-scale variations in attenuation suggests structural heterogeneity within the NAA, possibly due to lithospheric delamination caused by directional asthenospheric flow.

  20. Ductile shear zones beneath strike-slip faults: Implications for the thermomechanics of the San Andreas fault zone

    Thatcher, W.; England, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    We have carried out two-dimensional (2-D) numerical experiments on the bulk flow of a layer of fluid that is driven in a strike-slip sense by constant velocities applied at its boundaries. The fluid has the (linearized) conventional rheology assumed to apply to lower crust/upper mantle rocks. The temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of the fluid and the shear heating that accompanies deformation have been incorporated into the calculations, as has thermal conduction in an overlying crustal layer. Two end-member boundary conditions have been considered, corresponding to a strong upper crust driving a weaker ductile substrate and a strong ductile layer driving a passive, weak crust. In many cases of practical interest, shear heating is concentrated close to the axial plane of the shear zone for either boundary condition. For these cases, the resulting steady state temperature field is well approximated by a cylindrical heat source embedded in a conductive half-space at a depth corresponding to the top of the fluid layer. This approximation, along with the application of a theoretical result for one-dimensional shear zones, permits us to obtain simple analytical approximations to the thermal effects of 2-D ductile shear zones for a range of assumed rheologies and crustal geotherms, making complex numerical calculations unnecessary. Results are compared with observable effects on heat flux near the San Andreas fault using constraints on the slip distribution across the entire fault system. Ductile shearing in the lower crust or upper mantle can explain the observed increase in surface heat flux southeast of the Mendocino triple junction and match the amplitude of the regional heat flux anomaly in the California Coast Ranges. Because ductile dissipation depends only weakly on slip rate, faults moving only a few millimeters per year can be important heat sources, and the superposition of effects of localized ductile shearing on both currently active and now

  1. Identification of the Low-velocity Zone Beneath the Northern Taiwan by the P-wave Delays Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. W.; Che-Min, L.

    2017-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, located in northern Taiwan is near to the Tatun volcano group and the Shanchiao fault which is an active fault. This region is a complex tectonic environment. The Tatun volcano group is seen as a dormant volcano. Recently, the location of the magma reservoir of the Tatun volcano was discussed again. However, the volume and the location of the magma reservoir are still unclear. There are several seismic networks operated by different institutions around Taipei and Tatun volcano. In this study, we combined the data of these networks to analysis the P-wave arrival times for clarifying the magma reservoir. The events with hypocenters are deeper than 100 km and the local magnitude (ML) are larger than 4.0 were collected to analysis. Our results show that the stations could be separated into three groups by the slope of the P-wave arrival time. They are distributed at the western of the Basin edge, the Jin-Shan Plain areal and the Taipei Basin, respectively. When the epicenter distance of the different stations is the same, the P-wave arrival time of the stations on the west side of the basin edge will be 0.3 0.5 seconds later than that in the Taipei Basin, and the stations on the Jin-Shan Plain will be 0.1 0.4 seconds later than in the Taipei Basin. The slope of the P-wave arrival time in 3 groups is very different, indicating that the low-velocity zone is existed in shallow crustal beneath of these areas. However, the low-velocity zone can be connected to the magma reservoir of the Tatun volcano group or submarine volcano of Keelung Island or not? It can be discussed the correlation between the magma reservoir and the low-velocity zone by more events collected.

  2. Spatial variation of slip behavior beneath the Alaska Peninsula along Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Peninsula, including the Shumagin and Semidi segments in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, is one of the best places in the world to study along-strike variations in the seismogenic zone. Understanding the cause of along-strike variations on the plate interface and seismic potential is significant for better understanding of the dynamic mechanical properties of faults and the rheology of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle in subduction zones. GPS measurements can be used to study these properties and estimate the slip deficit distribution on the plate interface. We re-surveyed pre-existing (1992-2001) campaign GPS sites in 2016 and estimated a new dense and highly precise GPS velocity field for the Alaska Peninsula. We find evidence for only minimal time variations in the slip distribution in the region. We used the TDEFNODE software package to invert for the slip deficit distribution from the new velocities. There are long-wavelength systematic misfits to the vertical velocities from the optimal model that fits the horizontal velocities well, which cannot be explained by altering the slip distribution on the subduction plate interface. Possible explanations for the systematic misfit are still under investigation since the plate geometry, GIA effect and reference frame errors do not explain the misfits. In this study, we use only the horizontal velocities. We divided the overall Alaska Peninsula area into three sub-areas, which have strong differences in the pattern of the observed deformation, and explored optimal models for each sub-area. The width of the locked region decreases step-wise from NE to SW along strike. Then we compared each of these models to all of the data to identify the locations of the along-strike boundaries that mark the transition from strongly to weakly coupled segments of the margin. We identified three sharp boundaries separating segments with different fault slip deficit rate distributions. Significant change in fault

  3. Plume dynamics beneath the African plate inferred from the geochemistry of the Tertiary basalts of southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R. M.; Rogers, N. W.

    2002-09-01

    Southern Ethiopian flood basalts erupted in two episodes: the pre-rift Amaro and Gamo transitional tholeiites (45-35 million years) followed by the syn-extensional Getra-Kele alkali basalts (19-11 million years). These two volcanic episodes are distinct in both trace element and isotope ratios (Zr/Nb ratios in Amaro/Gamo lavas fall between 7 and 14, and 3-4.7 in the Getra-Kele lavas whereas 206Pb/204Pb ratios fall between 18-19 and 18.9-20, respectively). The distinctive chemistries of the two eruptive phases record the tapping of two distinct source regions: a mantle plume source for the Amaro/Gamo phase and an enriched continental mantle lithosphere source for the Getra-Kele phase. Isotope and trace element variations within the Amaro/Gamo lavas reflect polybaric fractional crystallisation initiated at high pressures accompanied by limited crustal contamination. We show that clinopyroxene removal at high (0.5 GPa) crustal pressures provides an explanation for the common occurrence of transitional tholeiites in Ethiopia relative to other, typically tholeiitic flood basalt provinces. The mantle plume signature inferred from the most primitive Amaro basalts is isotopically distinct from that contributing to melt generation in central Ethiopian and Afar. This, combined with Early Tertiary plate reconstructions and similarities with Kenyan basalts farther south, lends credence to derivation of these melts from the Kenyan plume rather than the Afar mantle plume. The break in magmatism between 35 and 19 Ma is consistent with the northward movement away from the Kenya plume predicted from plate tectonic reconstructions. In this model the Getra-Kele magmatism is a response to heating of carbonatitically metasomatised lithosphere by the Afar mantle plume beneath southern Ethiopia at this time.

  4. Dynamic Passage of Topography Beneath the Southern Costa Rica Forearc seen with Seismic Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, J. H.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    3D seismic reflection data (CRISP) collected across the southern Costa Rica margin reveals that a thick, deforming sedimentary wedge underlies the younger slope sediments (Silver et al., this meeting). The older wedge material and younger slope sediments are separated by a high-amplitude regional unconformity. Seismic stratigraphy of the sedimentary strata overlying this regional unconformity reflects a dynamic deformation history of the margin. The younger slope sediments contain series of more localized unconformities, separating sedimentary units as thick as 1 km that reveal a dynamically changing set of inverted, overlapping basins. The geometry of these overlapping, inverted basins indicate sequential uplift events. The direction of basin thickening varies upsection, and these basins are cut by both thrust and normal faults and are deformed by folding. Structural development appears to be controlled by relief on the subducting plate interface, which induces uplift and subsidence and thereby controls the pattern of erosion and deposition. We interpret the evolution of these inverted stratigraphic packages as forming from subducting topography. Correlating these seismic-stratigraphic packages to recent drilling based on preliminary magnetostratigraphy from IODP site U1413 (Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013), allows us to date the passage of the subducting plate topography beginning ~2 Ma.

  5. Tomographic Imaging of the Peru Subduction Zone beneath the Altiplano and Implications for Andean Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. M.; Foote, E. J.; Stubailo, I.; Phillips, K. E.; Clayton, R. W.; Skinner, S.; Audin, L.; Tavera, H.; Dominguez Ramirez, L. A.; Lukac, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    This work describes preliminary tomography results from the Peru Seismic Experiment (PERUSE) a 100 station broadband seismic network installed in Peru. The network consists a linear array of broadband seismic stations that was installed mid-2008 that runs from the Peruvian coast near Mollendo to Lake Titicaca. A second line was added in late 2009 between Lake Titicaca and Cusco. Teleseismic and local earthquake travel time residuals are being combined in the tomographic inversions. The crust under the Andes is found to be 70-80 km thick decreasing to 30 km near the coast. The morphology of the Moho is consistent with the receiver function images (Phillips et al., 2010; this meeting) and also gravity. Ray tracing through the heterogeneous structure is used to locate earthquakes. However the rapid spatial variation in crustal thickness, possibly some of the most rapid in the world, generates shadow zones when using conventional ray tracing for the tomography. We use asymptotic ray theory that approximates effects from finite frequency kernels to model diffracted waves in these regions. The observation of thickened crust suggests that models that attribute the recent acceleration of the Altiplano uplift to crustal delamination are less likely than those that attribute it to crustal compression.

  6. Preliminary assessment of a previously unknown fault zone beneath the Daytona Beach sand blow cluster near Marianna, Arkansas

    Odum, Jackson K.; Williams, Robert; Stephenson, William J.; Tuttle, Martitia P.; Al-Shukri, Hadar

    2016-01-01

    We collected new high‐resolution P‐wave seismic‐reflection data to explore for possible faults beneath a roughly linear cluster of early to mid‐Holocene earthquake‐induced sand blows to the south of Marianna, Arkansas. The Daytona Beach sand blow deposits are located in east‐central Arkansas about 75 km southwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and about 80 km south of the southwestern end of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Previous studies of these sand blows indicate that they were produced between 10,500 and 5350 yr B.P. (before A.D. 1950). The sand blows are large and similar in size to those in the heart of the NMSZ produced by the 1811–1812 earthquakes. The seismic‐reflection profiles reveal a previously unknown zone of near‐vertical faults imaged in the 100–1100‐m depth range that are approximately coincident with a cluster of earthquake‐induced sand blows and a near‐linear surface lineament composed of air photo tonal anomalies. These interpreted faults are expressed as vertical discontinuities with the largest displacement fault showing about 40 m of west‐side‐up displacement at the top of the Paleozoic section at about 1100 m depth. There are about 20 m of folding on reflections within the Eocene strata at 400 m depth. Increasing fault displacement with depth suggests long‐term recurrent faulting. The imaged faults within the vicinity of the numerous sand blow features could be a causative earthquake source, although it does not rule out the possibility of other seismic sources nearby. These newly located faults add to a growing list of potentially active Pleistocene–Holocene faults discovered over the last two decades that are within the Mississippi embayment region but outside of the historical NMSZ.

  7. Imaging of Upper-Mantle Upwelling Beneath the Salton Trough, Southern California, by Joint Inversion of Ambient Noise Dispersion Curves and Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Barak, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new 2D shear-wave velocity model of the crust and upper-mantle across the Salton Trough, southern California, obtained by jointly inverting our new dataset of receiver functions and our previously published Rayleigh-wave group-velocity model (Barak et al., G-cubed, 2015), obtained from ambient-noise tomography. Our results show an upper-mantle low-velocity zone (LVZ) with Vs ≤4.2 km/s extending from the Elsinore Fault to the Sand Hills Fault, that together bracket the full width of major San Andreas dextral motion since its inception 6 Ma b.p., and underlying the full width of low topography of the Imperial Valley and Salton Trough. The lateral extent of the LVZ is coincident with the lateral extent of an upper-mantle anisotropic region interpreted as a zone of SAF-parallel melt pockets (Barak & Klemperer, Geology, 2016). The shallowest part of the LVZ is 40 km depth, coincident with S-receiver function images. The western part of the LVZ, between the Elsinore and San Jacinto faults (the region of greatest modern dextral slip), appears to continue to significantly greater depth; but a puzzling feature of our preliminary models is that the eastern part of the LVZ, from the San Jacinto Fault to the Sand Hills Fault, appears to be underlain by more-normalvelocity upper mantle (Vs ≥ 4.5 km/s) below 75 km depth. We compare our model to the current SCEC community models CVM-H and CVM-S, and to P-wave velocity models obtained by the active-source Salton Sea Imaging Project (SSIP). The hypothesized lower-crustal low-velocity zone beneath the Salton Trough in our previous model (Barak et al., G-cubed, 2015), there interpreted as a region of partial melt, is not supported by our new modeling. Melt may be largely absent from the lower crust of the Salton trough; but appears required in the upper mantle at depths as shallow as 40 km.

  8. Could Fluid Seeps Originate from the Seismogenic Zone? Evidence from Southern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, E. A.; Kluesner, J. W.; Nale, S. M.; Bangs, N. L.; McIntosh, K. D.; Ranero, C. R.; Tryon, M. D.; Spinelli, G. A.; Rathburn, T.; von Huene, R.

    2013-12-01

    The prevailing conceptual model of convergent margin hydrogeology is one in which fluid sourced from porosity loss and dehydration reactions seaward of the updip limit of the seismogenic zone reach the seafloor via relatively low angle splay faults that act as high permeability conduits through an otherwise nearly impermeable upper plate [e.g., Lauer and Saffer, GRL, 39:L13604, 2012; Saffer and Tobin, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 39:157-186, 2011]. Interpretation of newly acquired 3D seismic reflection data and high resolvability multibeam and backscatter data, showing evidence for abundant potential fluid seeps sourced beneath the sediment cover and farther landward than previously thought possible, may require reevaluation of this concept. Kluesner et al. [2013, G3, doi:10.1002/ggge.20058], identified 160 potential fluid seeps in an 11 km wide swath off southern Costa Rica, based on pockmarks and high backscatter mounds, each showing subsurface indicators of fluid migration in the seismic data. Approximately half of these potential seeps are on the outer continental shelf; these are landward of the updip limit of the seismogenic zone, as estimated by both the transition from high to low reflectivity of the plate boundary and the intersection of the 150°C isotherm with the plate boundary [Ranero et al., 2008, G3, doi:10.1029/2007GC001679; Bangs et al., 2012, AGU Fall Meeting, T13A-2587; Bangs et al., this meeting]. We have mapped high probability fluid pathways beneath these potential seeps, based on seismic meta-attribute volumes calculated using user-trained neural network algorithms [Kluesner et al., this meeting]. The mapped fluid pathways are high-angle through the sedimentary section, and they root into basement highs and basement faults. Fluids could originate along the plate interface, where potential sources and pathways are known (Mid-slope sites: Hensen et al., 2004, Geology, 32:201-204), or above or below the interface, although sources from these

  9. Modulation of the thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) on the ground deformation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Gola, Gianluca; Santilano, Alessandro; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Pepe, Susi; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Manzella, Adele; Tizzani, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    We present a model able to simulate the physical process responsible for the long-term ground deformation of Ischia Island Volcano (Southern Italy) by considering the role of the thermo-rheological properties of the crust. To this aim, we develop and implement in a Finite Element (FE) environment an innovative approach that integrates and homogenizes a large amount of data derived from several and different observation techniques (i.e, geological, geophysical and remote sensing). In detail, the main steps of the proposed approach are: (i) the generation of a 3D geological model of the crust beneath the Island by merging the available geological and geophysical information; (ii) the optimization of a 3D thermal model by exploiting the thermal measurements available in literature; (iii) the definition of the 3D B/D (Brittle/Ductile) transition by using the temperature distribution of the crust and the physical information of the rocks; (iv) the optimization of the ground deformation velocity model (that takes into account the rheological stratification) by considering the spatial and temporal information detected via satellite multi-orbit C-Band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements acquired during the 1992-2010 time period. The achieved results allow investigating the physical process responsible for the observed ground deformation pattern. In particular, they reveal how the rheology modulates the spatial and temporal evolution of long-term subsidence phenomenon, highlighting a coupling effect of the viscosities of the rocks and the gravitational loading of the volcano edifice. Moreover, the achieved results provide a very detailed and realistic image of the subsurface crust of the Ischia Island Volcano in order to study the ongoing deformation phenomena.

  10. The San Gabriel mountains bright reflective zone: Possible evidence of young mid-crustal thrust faulting in southern California

    Ryberg, T.; Fuis, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    During the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), a reflection/retraction survey was conducted along a line extending northeastward from Seal Beach, California, to the Mojave Desert, crossing the Los Angeles basin and San Gabriel Mountains. Shots and receivers were spaced most densely through the San Gabriel Mountains for the purpose of obtaining a combined reflection and refraction image of the crust in that area. A stack of common-midpoint (CMP) data reveals a bright reflective zone, 1-s thick, that dominates the stack and extends throughout most of the mid-crust of the San Gabriel Mountains. The top of this zone ranges in depth from 6 s (???18-km depth) in the southern San Gabriel Mountains to 7.5 s (???23-km depth) in the northern San Gabriel Mountains. The zone bends downward beneath the surface traces of the San Gabriel and San Andreas faults. It is brightest between these two faults, where it is given the name San Gabriel Mountains 'bright spot' (SGMBS). and becomes more poorly defined south of the San Gabriel fault and north of the San Andreas fault. The polarity of the seismic signal at the top of this zone is clearly negative, and our analysis suggests it represents a negative velocity step. The magnitude of the velocity step is approximately 1.7 km/s. In at least one location, an event with positive polarity can be observed 0.2 s beneath the top of this zone, indicating a thickness of the order of 500 m for the low-velocity zone at this location. Several factors combine to make the preferred interpretation of this bright reflective zone a young fault zone, possibly a 'master' decollement. (1) It represents a significant velocity reduction. If the rocks in this zone contain fluids, such a reduction could be caused by a differential change in fluid pressure between the caprock and the rocks in the SGMBS; near-lithostatic fluid pressure is required in the SGMBS. Such differential changes are believed to occur in the neighborhood of active fault

  11. Upper mantle structure beneath southern African cratons from seismic finite-frequency P- and S-body wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssof, M.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.; Levander, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present a 3D high-resolution seismic model of the southern African cratonic region from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S-body wave dataset recorded by the Southern African Seismic Experiment (SASE). Utilizing 3D sensitivity kernels, we invert traveltime residuals of teleseismic body waves to calculate velocity anomalies in the upper mantle down to a 700 km depth with respect to the ak135 reference model. Various resolution tests allow evaluation of the extent of smearing effects and help defining the optimum inversion parameters (i.e., damping and smoothness) for regularizing the inversion calculations. The fast lithospheric keels of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons reach depths of 300-350 km and 200-250 km, respectively. The paleo-orogenic Limpopo Belt is represented by negative velocity perturbations down to a depth of ˜ 250 km, implying the presence of chemically fertile material with anomalously low wave speeds. The Bushveld Complex has low velocity down to ˜ 150 km, which is attributed to chemical modification of the cratonic mantle. In the present model, the finite-frequency sensitivity kernels allow to resolve relatively small-scale anomalies, such as the Colesberg Magnetic Lineament in the suture zone between the eastern and western blocks of the Kaapvaal Craton, and a small northern block of the Kaapvaal Craton, located between the Limpopo Belt and the Bushveld Complex.

  12. Structure of a seismogenic fault zone in dolostones: the Foiana Line (Italian Southern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Fondriest, M.; Smith, S. A.; Aretusini, S.

    2012-12-01

    Fault zones in carbonate rocks (limestones and dolostones) represent significant upper crustal seismogenic sources in several areas worldwide (e.g. L'Aquila 2009 Mw = 6.3 in central Italy). Here we describe an exhumed example of a regionally-significant fault zone cutting dolostones. The Foiana Line (FL) is a major NNE-SSW-trending sinistral transpressive fault cutting sedimentary Triassic dolostones in the Italian Southern Alps. The FL has a cumulative vertical throw of 1.5-2 km that reduces toward its southern termination. The fault zone is 50-300 m wide and is exposed for ~ 10 km along strike within several outcrops exhumed from increasing depths from the south (1 km) to the north (2.5 km). The southern portion of the FL consists of heavily fractured (shattered) dolostones, with particles of a few millimeters in size (exposed in badlands topography over an area of 6 km2), cut by a dense network of 1-20 m long mirror-like fault surfaces with dispersed attitudes. The mirror-like faults have mainly dip-slip reverse kinematics and displacements ranging between 0.04 m and 0.5 m. The northern portion of the FL consists of sub-parallel fault strands spaced 2-5 m apart, surrounded by 2-3 m thick bands of shattered dolostones. The fault strands are characterized by smooth to mirror-like sub-vertical slip surfaces with dominant strike-slip kinematics. Overall, deformation is more localized moving from South to North along the FL. Mirror-like fault surfaces similar to those found in the FL were produced in friction experiments at the deformation conditions expected during seismic slip along the FL (Fondriest et al., this meeting). Scanning Electron Microscope investigations of the natural shattered dolostones beneath the mirror-like fault surfaces show: 1) lack of significant shear strain (even at a few micrometers from the slip surface), 2) pervasive extensional fracturing down to the micrometer scale, 3) exploded clasts with radial fractures, and 4) chains of split

  13. Seismic structure of subducted Philippine Sea plate beneath the southern Ryukyu arc by receiver function and local earthquakes tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic coupling of the Ryukyu subduction zone is assumed to be weak from the lack of historical interplate large earthquakes. However, recent investigation of repeating slow slip events (Heki & Kataoka, 2008), shallow low frequency earthquakes (Ando et al., 2012), and source of 1771 Yaeyama mega-tsunami (Nakamura, 2009), showed that the interplate coupling is not weak in the south of Ryukyu Trench. The biannually repeating SSEs (Mw=6.5) occur at the depth of 20-40 km on the upper interface of the subducted Philippine Sea plate beneath Yaeyama region, where earthquake swarm occurred on 1991 and 1992. To reveal the relation among the crustal structure, earthquake swarms, and occurrence of slow slip events (SSE), local earthquake tomography and receiver function (RF) analysis was computed in the southwestern Ryukyu arc. A tomographic inversion was used to determine P and S wave structures beneath Iriomote Island in the southwestern Ryukyu region for comparison with the locations of the SSE. The seismic tomography (Thurber & Eberhart-Phillips, 1999) was employed. The P- and S- wave arrival time data picked manually by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) are used. The 6750 earthquakes from January 2000 to July 2012 were used. For the calculation of the receiver function, the 212 earthquakes whose magnitudes are over 6.0 and epicentral distances are between 30 and 90 degrees were selected. The teleseicmic waveforms observed at two short-period seismometers of the JMA, and one broadband seismometer of F-net of National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention were used. The water level method (the water level is 0.01) is applied to original waveforms. Assuming that each later phase in a RF is the wave converted from P to S at a depth, I transformed the time domain RF into the depth domain one along each ray path in a reference velocity model. The JMA2001 velocity model is used in this study. The results of tomography show that the low Vp and high Vp

  14. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  15. Receiver function imaging of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Tanzania Craton and the Eastern and Western Branches of the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Liu, K. H.; Fu, X.; Gao, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the mechanism of initiation and development of the Eastern African Rifting System (EARS) circumfluent the Tanzania Craton (TC), over 7,100 P-to-S radial receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 87 broadband seismic stations are stacked to map the topography of mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities beneath the TC and the Eastern and Western Branches of the EARS. After time-depth conversion using the 1-D IASP91 Earth model, the resulting 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuity apparent depths are found to be greater than the global averages beneath the whole study area, implying slower than normal upper mantle velocities. The mean thickness of the MTZ beneath the Western Branch and TC is about 252 km, which is comparable to the global average and is inconsistent with the existence of present-day thermal upwelling originating from the lower mantle. In contrast, beneath the Eastern Branch, an 30 km thinning of the MTZ is observed from an up to 50 km and 20 km apparent depression of the d410 and d660, respectively. On the basis of previous seismic tomographic results and empirical relationships between velocity and thermal anomalies, we propose that the most plausible explanation for the observations beneath the volcanic Eastern Branch is the existence of a low-velocity layer extending from the surface to the upper MTZ, probably caused by decompression partial melting associated with continental rifting. The observations are in general agreement with an upper mantle origin for the initiation and development of both the Western and Eastern Branches of the EARS beneath the study area.

  16. A synoptic view of the distribution and connectivity of the mid-crustal low velocity zone beneath Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Xie, Z.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau results from the convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. However, the physical processes that have controlled the deformation history of Tibet, particularly the potential localization of deformation either in the vertical or horizontal directions remain subject to debate. There are a growing list and wide variety of observations that suggest that the Tibetan crust is warm and presumably ductile. Some of observations are often taken as prima facie evidence for the existence of partial melt or aqueous fluids in the middle or deep crust beneath Tibet and in some cases for the decoupling or partitioning of strain between the upper crust and uppermost mantle. However, most of this evidence is highly localized along nearly linear seismic or magneto-telluric profiles. This motivates the two questions addressed by this study. First, how pervasive across Tibet are the phenomena on which inferences of the existence of crustal partial melt rest? In particular, how pervasive are mid-crustal low velocity zones across Tibet? Second, what is the geometry or inter-connectivity of the crustal low velocity zones observed across Tibet? In this study, we address these questions by producing a new 3-D model of crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave speeds inferred from Rayleigh wave dispersion observed on cross-correlations of long time series of ambient seismic noise. Broadband seismic data from about 600 stations (Chinese Provincial networks, FDSN, several PASSCAL experiments including the INDEPTH IV experiment) yield about 50,000 inter-station paths, which are used to generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps from 10 sec to 50 sec period. The time series lengths in the cross-correlations range from 1 to 2 years in duration. The resulting Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps are inverted for a 3D Vsv model of crustal and upper most mantles. The major results from our model are summarized below: (1) A crustal LVZ exists across most of the high Tibetan

  17. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-12-01

    A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence (mb > 4.0) along the convergent margin of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system reveals an anomalously high concentration of events between 27° and 30.5°N, beneath a chain of seamounts between Tori-shima and Nishino-shima volcanoes. This seismicity is dominated by the 1985/1986 earthquake swarm represented in the Engdahl—van der Hilst—Buland database by 146 earthquakes in the body wave magnitude range 4.3-5.8 and focal depth range 1-100 km. The epicentral cluster of the swarm is elongated parallel to the volcanic chain. Available focal mechanisms are consistent with an extensional tectonic regime and reveal nodal planes with azimuths close to that of the epicentral cluster. Earthquakes of the 1985/1986 swarm occurred in seven time phases. Seismic activity migrated in space from one phase to the other. Earthquake foci belonging to individual phases of the swarm aligned in vertically disposed seismically active columns. The epicentral zones of the columns are located in the immediate vicinity of seamounts Suiyo and Mokuyo, recently reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency as volcanically active. The three observations—episodic character of earthquake occurrence, column-like vertically arranged seismicity pattern, and existence of volcanic seamounts at the seafloor above the earthquake foci—led us to interpret the 1985/1986 swarm as a consequence of subduction-related magmatic and/or fluid activity. A modification of the shallow earthquake swarm magmatic model of D. Hill fits earthquake foci distribution, tectonic stress orientation and fault plane solutions. The 1985/1986 deep-rooted earthquake swarm in the Izu-Bonin region represents an uncommon phenomenon of plate tectonics. The portion of the lithospheric wedge that was affected by the swarm should be composed of fractured rigid, brittle material so that the source of magma and/or fluids which might induce the swarm should be

  18. Seismically active column and volcanic plumbing system beneath the island arc of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří; Hanuš, Václav

    2009-12-01

    A detailed spatio-temporal analysis of teleseismic earthquake occurrence (mb > 4.0) along the convergent margin of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system reveals an anomalously high concentration of events between 27° and 30.5°N, beneath a chain of seamounts between Tori-shima and Nishino-shima volcanoes. This seismicity is dominated by the 1985/1986 earthquake swarm represented in the Engdahl-van der Hilst-Buland database by 146 earthquakes in the body wave magnitude range 4.3-5.8 and focal depth range 1-100 km. The epicentral cluster of the swarm is elongated parallel to the volcanic chain. Available focal mechanisms are consistent with an extensional tectonic regime and reveal nodal planes with azimuths close to that of the epicentral cluster. Earthquakes of the 1985/1986 swarm occurred in seven time phases. Seismic activity migrated in space from one phase to the other. Earthquake foci belonging to individual phases of the swarm aligned in vertically disposed seismically active columns. The epicentral zones of the columns are located in the immediate vicinity of seamounts Suiyo and Mokuyo, recently reported by the Japanese Meteorological Agency as volcanically active. The three observations-episodic character of earthquake occurrence, column-like vertically arranged seismicity pattern, and existence of volcanic seamounts at the seafloor above the earthquake foci-led us to interpret the 1985/1986 swarm as a consequence of subduction-related magmatic and/or fluid activity. A modification of the shallow earthquake swarm magmatic model of D. Hill fits earthquake foci distribution, tectonic stress orientation and fault plane solutions. The 1985/1986 deep-rooted earthquake swarm in the Izu-Bonin region represents an uncommon phenomenon of plate tectonics. The portion of the lithospheric wedge that was affected by the swarm should be composed of fractured rigid, brittle material so that the source of magma and/or fluids which might induce the swarm should be situated at a

  19. Tephrochronology of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. J.; Miranda, C. G.; Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martínez, R.; Stern, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Correlations among and identification of the source volcanoes for over 60 Late Glacial and Holocene tephras preserved in eight lacustrine sediment cores taken from small lakes near Coyhaique, Chile (46° S), were made based on the stratigraphic position of the tephra in the cores, lithostratigraphic data (tephra layer thickness and grain size), and tephra petrochemistry (glass color and morphology, phenocryst phases, and bulk-tephra trace element contents determined by ICP-MS). The cores preserve a record of explosive eruptions, since ˜17,800 calibrated years before present (cal years BP), of the volcanoes of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ). The suggested source volcanoes for 55 of these tephras include Hudson (32 events), Mentolat (10 events), and either Macá or Cay or some of the many minor monogenetic eruptive centers (MECs; 13 events) in the area. Only four of these eruptions had been previously identified in tephra outcrops in the region, indicating the value of lake cores for identifying smaller eruptions in tephrochronologic studies. The tephra records preserved in these lake cores, combined with those in marine cores, which extend these records back to 20,000 cal years BP, prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, suggest that no significant temporal change in the frequency of explosive eruptions was associated with deglaciation. Over this time period, Hudson volcano, one of the largest and longest lived volcanoes in the Southern Andes, has had >55 eruptions (four of them were very large) and has produced >45 km3 of pyroclastic material, making it also one of the most active volcanoes in the SVZ in terms of both frequency and volume of explosive eruptions.

  20. A transitional volume beneath the Sannio-Irpinia border region (southern Apennines): Different tectonic styles at different depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Matteo, Ada; Massa, Bruno; Milano, Girolamo; D'Auria, Luca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the border between the Sannio and Irpinia seismogenic regions, a sector of the southern Apennine chain considered among the most active seismic areas of the Italian peninsula, to shed further light on its complex seismotectonic setting. We integrated recent seismicity with literature data. A detailed analysis of the seismicity that occurred in the 2013-2016 time interval was performed. The events were relocated, after manual re-picking, using different approaches. To retrieve information about the stress field active in the area, inversion of Fault Plane Solutions was also carried out. Hypocentral distribution of the relocated events (ML ≤ 3.5), whose depth is included between 5 and 25 km with the deepest ones located in the NW sector of the study area, shows a different pattern between the northern sector and the southern one. The computed Fault Plane Solutions can be grouped in three depth ranges: < 12 km, dominated by normal dip-slip kinematics; 12-18 km, characterized by normal dip-slip and strike-slip kinematics; > 18 km, dominated by strike-slip kinematics. Stress field inversion across the whole area shows that we are dealing with an heterogeneous set of data, apparently governed by distinct stress fields. We built an upper crustal model profile through integration of geological data, well logs and seismic tomographic profiles. Our results suggest the co-existence of different tectonic styles at distinct crustal depths: the upper crust seems to be affected mostly by normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faulting prevails in the intermediate and lower crust. We infer about the existence of a transitional volume, located between 12 and 18 km depth, between the Sannio and Irpinia regions, acting as a vertical transfer zone.

  1. Oceanic crust in the mid-mantle beneath Central-West Pacific subduction zones: Evidence from S-to-P converted waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of subducted slabs is enigmatic, yet intriguing. We analyze seismic arrivals at ~20-50 s after the direct P wave in an array in northeast China (NECESSArray) recordings of four deep earthquakes occurring beneath the west-central Pacific subduction zones (from the eastern Indonesia to Tonga region). We employ the array analyzing techniques of 4th root vespagram and beam-form analysis to constrain the slowness and back azimuth of later arrivals. Our analyses reveal that these arrivals have a slightly lower slowness value than the direct P wave and the back azimuth deviates slightly from the great-circle direction. Along with calculation of one-dimensional synthetic seismograms, we conclude that the later arrival is corresponding to an energy of S-to-P converted at a scatterer below the sources. Total five scatterers are detected at depths varying from ~700 to 1110 km in the study region. The past subducted oceanic crust most likely accounts for the seismic scatterers trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the west-central subduction zones. Our observation in turn reflects that oceanic crust at least partly separated from subducted oceanic lithosphere and may be trapped substantially in the mid-mantle surrounding subduction zones, in particular in the western Pacific subduction zones.

  2. Ultra-low velocity zones beneath the Philippine and Tasman Seas revealed by a trans-dimensional Bayesian waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachhai, Surya; Dettmer, Jan; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-11-01

    Ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) are small-scale structures in the Earth's lowermost mantle inferred from the analysis of seismological observations. These structures exhibit a strong decrease in compressional (P)-wave velocity, shear (S)-wave velocity, and an increase in density. Quantifying the elastic properties of ULVZs is crucial for understanding their physical origin, which has been hypothesized either as partial melting, iron enrichment, or a combination of the two. Possible disambiguation of these hypotheses can lead to a better understanding of the dynamic processes of the lowermost mantle, such as, percolation, stirring and thermochemical convection. To date, ULVZs have been predominantly studied by forward waveform modelling of seismic waves that sample the core-mantle boundary region. However, ULVZ parameters (i.e. velocity, density, and vertical and lateral extent) obtained through forward modelling are poorly constrained because inferring Earth structure from seismic observations is a non-linear inverse problem with inherent non-uniqueness. To address these issues, we developed a trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion that enables rigorous estimation of ULVZ parameter values and their uncertainties, including the effects of model selection. The model selection includes treating the number of layers and the vertical extent of the ULVZ as unknowns. The posterior probability density (solution to the inverse problem) of the ULVZ parameters is estimated by reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that employs parallel tempering to improve efficiency/convergence. First, we apply our method to study the resolution of complex ULVZ structure (including gradually varying structure) by probabilistically inverting simulated noisy waveforms. Then, two data sets sampling the CMB beneath the Philippine and Tasman Seas are considered in the inversion. Our results indicate that both ULVZs are more complex than previously suggested. For the

  3. Enhanced and asymmetric melting beneath the southern Mariana back-arc spreading ridge under the influence of the Pacific plate subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, T.; Seama, N.; Shindo, H.; Nogi, Y.; Okino, K.

    2017-12-01

    Back-arc spreading ridges in the southern Mariana Trough are slow-spreading ridges but have features suggesting enhanced melting beneath the ridges and influences on seafloor spreading processes by fluid derived from the subducted Pacific slab underlying the ridges. To reveal melting and dehydration processes and dynamics in the upper mantle in the southern Mariana Trough, we conducted a marine magnetotelluric (MT) experiment along a 120 km-length transect across a ridge segment at 13°N. We obtained electromagnetic field data at 9 stations along the transect, and analyzed them for estimating MT responses, striping seafloor topographic distortion from the responses, and imaging a 2-D electrical resistivity structure by 2-D inversion of TM-mode responses. A resultant 2-D inversion model showed 1) a conductive area at 10-20 km depth beneath the ridge center, the center of which slightly offsets to the trench side, 2) a moderately conductive area expanding asymmetrically around and under the conductor of 1), 3) a resistive area thickening from the ridge center up to about 40 km on the remnant arc side, and 4) a resistive area with a constant thickness of about 150 km on the trench side. These model features suggest 1) a melt body beneath the ridge center, possibly containing slab-derived water 2) water- and melt-retained mantle area produced by hydration of the back-arc mantle wedge and asymmetric passive decompression melting in the hydrous mantle wedge, 3) cooled and residual lithospheric mantle off the ridge center, and 4) mantle wedge and subducted Pacific lithospheric mantle that are both cold and depleted. The electrical resistivity structure obtained in the southern Mariana Trough, which clearly contrasts with the structure of the central Mariana Trough at 18°N in that this lacks a conductor beneath the ridge center, provides insights on the mantle dynamics and its relation to the characteristic tectonics and many kinds of observational results in the southern

  4. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  5. Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

  6. Carbon limitation leads to suppression of first year oak seedlings beneath evergreen understory shrubs in Southern Appalachian hardwood forests

    Colin M. Beier; Jonathan L. Horton; John F. Walker; Barton D. Clinton; Erik T. Nilsen

    2005-01-01

    Inhibition of canopy tree recruitment beneath thickets of the evergreen shrubs Rhododendron maximum L. and Kalmia latifolia L. has long been observed in South Appalachian forests, yet the mechanisms of this process remain unresolved. We present a first-year account of suppression of oak seedlings in relation to ...

  7. Investigation of Along-Arc Geochemical Variations in the Southern Volcanic Zone: Azufre-Planchon-Peteroa Volcanic Complex, Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbik, S. P.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Tormey, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) is a vast and complex continental arc that has been studied extensively to provide an understanding of arc-magma genesis, the origin and chemical evolution of the continental crust, and geochemical compositions of volcanic products. This study focuses on volcanic rocks from the Azufre-Planchon-Peteroa (APP 35°15'S) volcanic complex, within the Transitional SVZ (34.3-37.0 °S), where crustal thickness increases from approximately 30 km in the south (Central SVZ), to 55 km in the north (Northern SVZ). Planchon is the northernmost volcano in the SVZ to erupt basaltic products, while Peteroa is the currently active cone, erupting tephra of andesitic composition, most recently in September of 2011. New data for the APP are consistent with the hypothesis of Tormey et al. (1995) that the APP experienced variable depths of crystal fractionation, and that crustal assimilation at Planchon is restricted to the lower crustal depths, as reflected by limited variability in 87Sr/86Sr isotopes. New δ18O data (26.5‰) from an outcropping dolomitic limestone country rock in the vicinity of the Azufre volcano also confirms the upper crustal source of anomalously high (7.1 and 7.3‰) oxygen isotopic values for Azufre dacites. A trend of high La/Yb (6.5-9.1) and Yb depletion with increasing La/Yb for Planchon basalts is consistent with the role of garnet as a residual or crystallizing phase at lower crustal depths, however, the La/Yb range is small when compared to published data from nearby TSVZ centers such as Nevado de Longavi (La/Yb = 5.5 to 16.7) and San Pedro Pellado (La/Yb =7.2 to 13.6). Geochemical modeling of the Planchon data shows that both hornblende and garnet must be involved in the magmatic evolution, even though erupted basalts are free of major hydrous phases, in order to account for the more limited range of La/Yb. Interestingly, baseline values of La/Yb for basalt and basaltic andesites from throughout the TSVZ, including

  8. Imaging the mantle tranzition zone beneath the South American platform using P- and S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, M.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.; Assumpcao, M.; Kind, R.

    2009-04-01

    results observed are: 1) A clear cratonic signature, consisting of higher wave velocities for the mantle under the cratons and normal (410km and 660km) depths for the discontinuities 2) Strong presence of the Nazca subducted plate near 410 and 660 km discontinuities under the Southern part of the Parana basin 3) Lack of variation in the Transition Zone thickness and in the mantle velocities due to the presence of the possible plume proposed in 1995 by Vandecar at the Northern Parana basin region and 4) A possible transition zone thinning near the Matiqueira complex, at the Ribeira fold beld, near the Atlantic passive margin.

  9. Depth-Dependent Earthquake Properties Beneath Long-Beach, CA: Implications for the Rheology at the Brittle-Ductile Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbal, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Except for a few localities, seismicity along faults in southern California is generally confined to depths shallower than 15 km. Among faults hosting deep seismicity, the Newport-Inglewood Fault (NIF), which traverses the Los-Angeles basin, has an exceptionally mild surface expression and low deformation rates. Moreover, the NIF structure is not as well resolved as other, less well instrumented faults because of poor signal-to-noise ratio. Here we use data from three temporary dense seismic arrays, which were deployed for exploration purposes and contain up to several thousands of vertical geophones, to investigate the properties of deep seismicity beneath Long-Beach (LB), Compton and Santa-Fe Springs (SFS). The latter is located 15 km northeast of the NIF, presumably above a major detachment fault underthrusting the basin.Event detection is carried out using a new approach for microseismic multi-channel picking, in which downward-continued data are back-projected onto the volume beneath the arrays, and locations are derived from statistical analysis of back-projection images. Our technique reveals numerous, previously undetected events along the NIF, and confirms the presence of an active shallow structure gently dipping to the north beneath SFS. Seismicity characteristics vary along the NIF strike and dip. While LB seismicity is uncorrelated with the mapped trace of the NIF, Compton seismicity illuminates a sub-vertical fault that extends down to about 20 km. This result, along with the reported high flux of mantle Helium along the NIF (Boles et al., 2015), suggests that the NIF is deeply rooted and acts as a major conduit for mantle fluids. We find that the LB size distribution obeys the typical power-law at shallow depths, but falls off exponentially for events occurring below 20 km. Because deep seismicity occurs uniformly beneath LB, this transition is attributed to a reduction in seismic asperity density with increasing depth, consistent with a transition

  10. Determining Crustal Structure beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone and Adjacent Areas: Application of a Reverberation-removal Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) and some of the adjacent areas are covered by a low-velocity sedimentary sequence, giving rise to strong reverberations in the P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) and making it difficult to reliably determine crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio using the conventional H-k stacking technique. Here we apply a newly developed technique (Yu et al., 2015; doi: 10.1002/2014JB011610) to effectively remove or reduce the reverberations from the sedimentary layer to obtain more reliable results. Stacking of a total of 38528 radial RFs recorded by 343 stations in the study area shows systematic spatial variations in crustal thickness (H), Vp/Vs ratio and amplitude (R; relative to the direction P) of the converted Moho phases. Our results indicate that the upper Mississippi Embayment (ME), a broad southwest-plunging trough with the thickest sedimentary layer in the study area, is characterized by a thin crustal thickness (~32 km), while adjacent areas have relatively thicker crust (>40 km). This area also possesses relatively large Vp/Vs (>1.85) values, suggesting possible intrusion of mantle-derived mafic rocks. Most part of the Ozark Uplift is characterized by relatively small Vp/Vs (<1.79) values which indicate an overall felsic crust. In contrast to the NMSZ which is part of the Reelfoot rift, the southern Illinois Basin, which is an intracontinental sag basin, is characterized by a crust of about 45 km which is a few km thicker than the surrounding areas, and a normal Vp/Vs, suggesting sharp differences in crustal structure between rift and sag basins.

  11. Deep Ore-controlling Role Beneath the Collision-related Deposit Zone in South Tibetan Plateau, Preliminary Results Revealed by Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, C.; Jin, S.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Dong, H.; Yin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan plateau is the largest and most recent plateau orogenic belt in the world, and the south part is expected as the ongoing India-Eurasia continental collision zone. The collision-related deposit zones which are distributed in south plateau could be roughly divided into three parts: the porphyry deposit in the Gangdese magmatic belt, the chromite deposit along the Yarlung-Zangbo suture (YZS) and the prospective deposit along the gneiss domes in the Tethys Himalayan. The deep ore-controlling role of those deposit zones is still remain controversial. Previous magnetotelluric (MT) data deployed from Himalayan to Gangdese terrane were inverted using a three dimensional (3D) MT inversion algorithm ModEM. The results show that the resistivity cover layers above -10 km are distributed along the whole profiles, whereas small and sporadic conductors could be also imaged. The middle to lower crust beneath -25 km is imaged as large scale but discontinuous conductive zones which have a central resistivity less than 10 ohm·m. We suggest the middle to lower crustal conductors could be interpreted as partial melting. This hypothesis is supported by some previous geological and geochemical studies. The Metallogenesis and partial melting play an important role in promoting each other. For the metallogenesis, the high water content is one of the prominent factors, and could be released on breakdown of amphibole in eclogite and garnet amphibolite during melting. On the other hand, the increasing of the water content would probably advance partial melting. The results indicate that the deep process and magmatism beneath different deposit zones are probably varying. We studied the rheological characteristics from the perspective of subsurface electrical structures. We hope by comparative analysis, the process of `origins - migration -formation' for the system of deep `magma - rheology - deposition' would be better understood.

  12. Evidence for shallow dehydration of the subducting plate beneath the Mariana forearc: New insights into the water cycle at subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water is efficiently recycled at subduction zones. It is fluxed from the surface into the mantle by the subducted plate and back to the surface or crust through explosive arc volcanism and degassing. Fluids released from dehydrating the subducting plate are transfer agents of water. Geophysical modeling [1] and the geochemistry of arc glasses [2] suggest that at cold-slab subduction zones, such as the Mariana convergent margin, the downgoing plate mostly dehydrates beneath the volcanic arc front (≥ ~ 80 -100 km depth to slab) to trigger volcanism. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the water fluxes released beneath forearcs, as examples of forearc magmatism are extremely rare. Here, we investigate the Southernmost Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR), where MORB-like spreading occurred unusually close to the trench, sampling slab-derived aqueous fluids released at ~ 30 to 100 km depth from the subducted plate. Examining the trace element and water contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions and glassy rinds from the young (2 - 4 Ma) and fresh SEMFR pillowed basalts provide new insights into the global water cycle. SEMFR lavas contain ~2 wt % H2O, and the olivine-hosted melt inclusions have the highest subduction-related H2O/Ce ratios (H2O/Ce = 6000 - 19000) ever recorded in arc magmas (H2O/Ce < 10600 and global averaged H2O/Ce < 3000). Our findings show that (i) slab-derived fluids released beneath forearcs are water-rich compared to the deeper fluids released beneath the arc system; and (ii) cold downgoing plates lose most of their water at shallow depths (~ 70 - 80 km slab depth), suggesting that water is efficiently recycled beneath the forearc (≥ 90%). 1. Van Keken, P.E., et al., Subduction factory: 4. Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 2011. 116(B1): p. B01401, DOI: 10.1029/2010jb007922. 2. Ruscitto, D.M., et al., Global variations in H2O/Ce: 2. Relationships to arc magma

  13. 76 FR 34859 - Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, Savannah River, Augusta, GA AGENCY: Coast... Boat Race. The Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race will consist of a series of high-speed boat... hazards associated with the high-speed boat races. Discussion of Rule From July 14, 2011 through July 17...

  14. Ice in the northern lowlands and southern highlands of Mars and its enrichment beneath the Elysium Lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cave, Julie A.

    1992-01-01

    The simultaneously examination of ejecta mobility, crater morphology, and surface features has enabled several conclusions to be drawn regarding the location of subsurface ice in the region. The ice distribution is shown to be highly dependent upon latitude and geological situation; in particular, pronounced differences in the distribution between the highland and lowlands are seen, and concentrations of ice were detected beneath the Elysium lavas.

  15. The Effect of Riparian Zones in Structuring Small Mammal Communities in the Southern Appalachians

    Joshua Laerm; Michael A. Menzel; Dorothy J. Wolf; James R. Welch

    1997-01-01

    Riparian zones have been shown to be important in structuring vertebrate communities and in maintaining biodiversity. We examined the role of riparian zones in structuring small mammal communities in a southern Appalachian watershed at Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, Macon County, North Carolina. We established pitfall and live-trap grids in three replicates each of...

  16. Breaker zone aerosol dynamics in the southern Baltic Sea

    SciT

    Zielinski, T.; Zielinski, A.

    This paper presents the results of lidar based investigations of aerosol concentrations and their size distributions over the breaker zones. The measurements were carried out under various weather conditions over breaker zones of the Gulf of Gdansk (1992) and from a station on the open Baltic Sea (International Experiment BAEX in 1993).

  17. Anisotropic structures of oceanic slab and mantle wedge in a deep low-frequency tremor zone beneath the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiga, Atsushi; Kato, Aitaro; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iidaka, Takashi; Okubo, Makoto; Tsumura, Noriko; Iwasaki, Takaya; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2013-03-01

    is an important feature of elastic wave propagation in the Earth and can arise from a variety of ordered architectures such as fractures with preferential alignments or preferred crystal orientations. We studied the regional variations in shear wave anisotropy around a deep Low-Frequency Earthquake (LFE) zone beneath the Kii Peninsula, SW Japan, using waveforms of local earthquakes observed by a dense linear array along the LFE zone. The fast directions of polarization are subparallel to the strike of the margin for both crustal and intraslab earthquakes. The delay time of the split shear waves in intraslab earthquakes is larger than that in crustal earthquakes and shows a down-dip variation across the LFE zone. This indicates that anisotropy exists in the mantle wedge and in the lower crust and/or oceanic slab. We explain the observed delay time of 0.015-0.045 s by suggesting that the mantle wedge consists of a deformed, 1-15 km thick serpentine layer if the mantle wedge is completely serpentinized. In addition to high-fluid pressures within the oceanic crust, the sheared serpentine layer may be a key factor driving LFEs in subduction zones.

  18. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  19. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  20. Paleohydrology of the southern Great Basin, with special reference to water table fluctuations beneath the Nevada Test Site during the late(?) Pleistocene

    Winograd, Isaac Judah; Doty, Gene C.

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude of water-table rise during Pleistocene pluvial climates, and of the resultant shortening of groundwater flow path and reduction in unsaturated zone thickness, is mandatory for a technical evaluation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) or other arid zone sites as repositories for high-level or transuranic radioactive wastes. The distribution of calcitic veins filling fractures in alluvium, and of tufa deposits between the Ash Meadows spring discharge area and the Nevada Test Site indicates that discharge from the regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifer during the Late( ) Pleistocene pluvial periods may have occurred at an altitude about 50 meters higher than at present and 14 kilometers northeast of Ash Meadows. Use of the underflow equation (relating discharge to transmissivity, aquifer width, and hydraulic gradient), and various assumptions regarding pluvial recharge, transmissivity, and altitude of groundwater base level, suggest possible rises in potentiometric level in the carbonate aquifer of about -90 meters beneath central Frenchman Flat. During Wisconsin time the rise probably did not exceed 30 meters. Water-level rises beneath Frenchman Flat during future pluvials are unlikely to exceed 30 meters and might even be 10 meters lower than modern levels. Neither the cited rise in potentiometric level in the regional carbonate aquifer, nor the shortened flow path during the Late( ) Pleistocene preclude utilization of the NTS as a repository for high-level or transuranic-element radioactive wastes provided other requisite conditions are met as this site. Deep water tables, attendant thick (up to several hundred meter) unsaturated zones, and long groundwater flow paths characterized the region during the Wisconsin Stage and probably throughout the Pleistocene Epoch and are likely to so characterize it during future glacial periods. (USGS)

  1. Ecological zones in the Southern Appalachians: first approximation

    Steven A. Simon; Thomas K. Collins; Gary L. Kauffman; W. Henry McNab; Christopher J. Ulrey

    2005-01-01

    Forest environments of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and their characteristic plant communities are among the most varied in the Eastern United States. Considerable data are available on the distribution of plant communities relative to temperature and moisture regimes, but not much information on fertility as an environmental influence has been published; nor has...

  2. Subduction Zone Dewatering at the Southern End of New Zealand's Hikurangi Margin - Insights from 2D Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchley, G. J.; Klaeschen, D.

    2016-12-01

    The southern end of New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin is characterised by highly-oblique convergence as it makes a southward transition into a right-lateral transform plate boundary. Long-offset seismic data that cross part of the offshore portion of this transition zone give new insight into the nature of the margin. We have carried out two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrations with an iterative reflection tomography to update the velocity field on two seismic lines in this area. The depth-migrated sections show much-improved imaging of faulting within the wedge, and the seismic velocities themselves give clues about the distribution of gas and/or overpressured regions at the plate boundary and within the overlying wedge. A fascinating observation is a major splay fault that has been (or continues to be) a preferred dewatering pathway through the wedge, evidenced by a thermal anomaly that has left its mark on the overlying gas hydrate layer. Another interesting observation is a thick and laterally extensive low velocity zone beneath the subduction interface, which might have important implications for the long-term mechanical stability of the interface. Our on-going work on these data is focused on amplitude versus offset analysis in an attempt to better understand the nature of the subduction interface and also the shallower gas hydrate system. This study is an example of how distinct disturbances of the gas hydrate system can provide insight into subduction zone fluid flow processes that are important for understanding wedge stability and ultimately earthquake hazard.

  3. Shear Wave Velocity Structure beneath the African-Anatolian Subduction Zone in Southwestern Turkey from Inversions of Rayleigh Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoman, U. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Kahraman, M.; Sahin, S.; Turkelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    The ongoing subduction of the African Plate under western Anatolia results in a highly complex tectonic structure especially beneath Isparta Angle (IA) and the surroundings where the Hellenic and Cyprian slabs with different subduction geometries intersect. The primary objective is to accurately image the lithospheric structure at this convergent plate boundary and further understand the reasons responsible for the active deformation. Data was gathered from a temporary seismic network consisting of 10 broadband stations that was installed in August 2006 with the support from University of Missouri and nine more stations deployed in March 2007 with the support from Bogazici Research Fund (project ID:07T203). In addition, 21 permanent stations of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and two from Süleyman Demirel University (SDU) together with five stations from IRIS/Geofon Network were also included to extend the station coverage. We used earthquakes in a distance range of 30-120 degrees with body wave magnitudes larger than 5.5. Depending on the signal to noise ratio, azimuthal coverage of events, and coherence from station, 81 events provided high-quality data for our analysis. The distribution of events shows a good azimuthal coverage, which is important for resolving both lateral heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy. We adopted a two-plane-wave inversion technique of Forsyth and Li (2003) to simultaneously solve for the incoming wave field and phase velocity. This relatively simpler representation of a more complex wavefield provided quite stable patterns of amplitude variations in many cases. To begin with, an average phase velocity dispersion curve was obtained and used as an input for tomographic inversions. Two-dimensional tomographic maps of isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic phase velocity variations were generated. Phase velocities can only tell us integrated information about the upper mantle. Furthermore, we inverted phase

  4. Shear zones bounding the central zone of the Limpopo Mobile Belt, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCouri, Stephen; Vearncombe, Julian R.

    Contrary to previously suggested north-directed thrust emplacement of the central zone of the Limpopo mobile belt, we present evidence indicating west-directed emplacement. The central zone differs from the marginal zones in rock types, structural style and isotopic signature and is an allochthonous thrust sheet. It is bounded in the north by the dextral Tuli-Sabi shear zone and in the south by the sinistral Palala shear zone which are crustal-scale lateral ramps. Published gravity data suggest that the lateral ramps are linked at depth and they probably link at the surface, in a convex westward frontal ramp, in the vicinity of longitude 26°30'E in eastern Botswana. Two phases of movement, the first between 2.7 and 2.6 Ga and the second between 2.0 and 1.8 Ga. occurred on both the Tuli-Sabi and the Palala shear zones.

  5. Geodetic Evidence of Magma Beneath the Puna Geothermal Ventures Power Plant, Lower East Rift Zone, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Precise level surveys of the Puna Geothermal Ventures power plant site have been conducted at 2 to 3 year intervals over the past 16 years following an initial pre-production base-line survey in 1992. Pre-1992 USGS studies near the plant showed slow general subsidence and this pattern has continued since then. The average rate of subsidence for the first 11 years of the present survey series was 0.71 cm per year (1992- 2003). It was against this background of subsidence that small but significant upward movements were detected in 2005 in an area approximately 500 m wide directly under the power plant. This positive anomaly had an amplitude of only 0.5 cm but was clearly discernable because of the part-per-million resolution possible with traditional precise leveling. The 13-year (at that time) data set made it possible to interpret this event with confidence. The cause of the deformation was reported in 2005 to be shallow and localized in comparison to factors contributing to the subsidence of the surrounding area. Subsequent drilling activity penetrated magma beneath the anomaly, providing strong physical evidence that fluid pressure was the probable cause of the anomaly.

  6. Upper-mantle deformation beneath the Pyrenean domain inferred from SKS splitting in northern Spain and southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, Mickaël; Chevrot, Sébastien; Gaudot, Ianis; Haugmard, Méric

    2017-08-01

    We performed shear wave splitting analysis on 203 permanent (French RLPB, CEA and Catalonian networks) and temporary (PyrOPE and IberArray experiments) broad-band stations around the Pyrenees. These measurements considerably enhance the spatial resolution and coverage of seismic anisotropy in that region. In particular, we characterize with different shear wave splitting analysis methods the small-scale variations of splitting parameters ϕ and δt along three dense transects crossing the western and central Pyrenees with an interstation spacing of about 7 km. While we find a relatively coherent seismic anisotropy pattern in the Pyrenean domain, we observe abrupt changes of splitting parameters in the Aquitaine Basin and delay times along the Pyrenees. We moreover observe coherent fast directions despite complex lithospheric structures in Iberia and the Massif Central. This suggests that two main sources of anisotropy are required to interpret seismic anisotropy in this region: (i) lithospheric fabrics in the Aquitaine Basin (probably frozen-in Hercynian anisotropy) and in the Pyrenees (early and late Pyrenean dynamics); (ii) asthenospheric mantle flow beneath the entire region (imprint of the western Mediterranean dynamics since the Oligocene).

  7. Upper-Mantle Deformation Beneath the Pyrenean Domain Inferred from SKS Splitting in Northern Spain and Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnin, M. J. A.; Chevrot, S.; Gaudot, I.; Haugmard, M.

    2017-12-01

    We performed shear wave splitting analysis on 203 permanent (French RLPB, CEA and Catalonian networks) and temporary (PYROPE and IberArray experiments) broad-band stations around the Pyrenees. These measurements considerably enhance the spatial resolution and coverage of seismic anisotropy in that region. In particular, we characterize with different shear wave splitting analysis methods the small-scale variations of splitting parameters φ and δt along three dense transects crossing the western and central Pyrenees with an interstation spacing of about 7 km. While we find a relatively coherent seismic anisotropy pattern in the Pyrenean domain, we observe abrupt changes of splitting parameters in the Aquitaine Basin and delay times along the Pyrenees. We moreover observe coherent fast directions despite complex lithospheric structures in Iberia and the Massif Central. This suggests that two main sources of anisotropy are required to interpret seismic anisotropy in this region: (i) lithospheric fabrics in the Aquitaine Basin (probably frozen-in Hercynian anisotropy) and in the Pyrenees (early and late Pyrenean dynamics); (ii) asthenospheric mantle flow beneath the entire region (imprint of the western Mediterranean dynamics since the Oligocene).

  8. Late holocene tectonics and paleoseismicity, southern cascadia subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S H; Carver, G A

    1992-01-10

    Holocene deformation indicative of large subduction-zone earthquakes has occurred on two large thrust fault systems in the Humboldt Bay region of northern California. Displaced stratigraphic markers record three offsets of 5 to 7 meters each on the Little Salmon fault during the past 1700 years. Smaller and less frequent Holocene displacements have occurred in the Mad River fault zone. Elsewhere, as many as five episodes of sudden subsidence of marsh peats and fossil forests and uplift of marine terraces are recorded. Carbon-14 dates suggest that the faulting, subsidence, and uplift events were synchronous. Relations between magnitude and various fault-offset parameters indicate that earthquakes accompanying displacements on the Little Salmon fault had magnitudes of at least 7.6 to 7.8. More likely this faulting accompanied rupture of the boundary between the Gorda and North American plates, and magnitudes were about 8.4 or greater.

  9. Late Holocene tectonics and paleoseismicity, southern Cascadia subduction zone

    Clarke, S.H.; Carver, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Holocene deformation indicative of large subduction-zone earthquakes has occurred on two large thrust fault systems in the Humboldt Bay region of northern California. Displaced stratigraphic markers record three offsets of 5 to 7 meters each on the Little Salmon fault during the past 1700 years. Smaller and less frequent Holocene displacements have occurred in the Mad River fault zone. Elsewhere, as many as five episodes of sudden subsidence of marsh peats and fossil forests and uplift of marine terraces are recorded. Carbon-14 dates suggest that the faulting, subsidence, and uplift events were synchronous. Relations between magnitude and various fault-offset parameters indicate that earthquakes accompanying displacements on the Little Salmon fault had magnitudes of at least 7.6 to 7.8. More likely this faulting accompanied rupture of the boundary between the Gorda and North American plates, and magnitudes were about 8.4 or greater.

  10. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  11. Receiver function imaging of the mantle discontinuties beneath Fennoscandia and northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassetto, Andrew; Thybo, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Receiver functions from the Mantle Investigations of Norwegian Uplift Structure experiment (MAGNUS) are depth-converted using interval wavespeeds from AK-135 for the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities and combined using common-conversion-point stacking. This preliminary work shows a potentially complex mantle-transition-zone beneath southern Norway, with reduction in the amplitude of the 410-arrival and 20-30 km of shallowing of the 660-arrival beneath the axis of the Oslo Rift. To refine these measurements and place them in a regional context, we incorporate the MAGNUS dataset with permanent stations and previous temporary seismic deployments across Fennoscandia and northern Europe. New constraints on the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and character of the mantle-transition-zone will aid in understanding the causes for potentially recent uplift in the southern Scandes and the region of unusually slow upper mantle resolved beneath the region (Weidle and Maupin, 2008).

  12. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  13. Vascular plant flora of the alpine zone in the southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A

    James F. Fowler; B. E. Nelson; Ronald L. Hartman

    2014-01-01

    Field detection of changes in occurrence, distribution, or abundance of alpine plant species is predicated on knowledge of which species are in specific locations. The alpine zone of the Southern Rocky Mountain Region has been systematically inventoried by the staff and floristics graduate students from the Rocky Mountain Herbarium over the last 27 years. It is...

  14. Ground-Water Quality Beneath Irrigated Cropland of the Northern and Southern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska and Texas, 2003-04

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    A study of the quality of ground water beneath irrigated cropland was completed for the northern and southern High Plains aquifer. Ground-water samples were collected from 30 water-table monitoring wells in the northern agricultural land-use (NAL) study area in Nebraska in 2004 and 29 water-table monitoring wells in the southern agricultural land-use (SAL) study area in Texas in 2003. The two study areas represented different agricultural and hydrogeologic settings. The primary crops grown in the NAL study area were corn and soybeans, and the primary crop in the SAL study area was cotton. Overall, pesticide and fertilizer application rates were larger in the NAL study area. Also, precipitation and recharge rates were greater in the NAL study area, and depths to water and evapotranspiration rates were greater in the SAL study area. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated cropland was different in the two study areas. Nitrate concentrations were larger and pesticide detections were more frequent in the NAL study area. Nitrate concentrations in NAL samples ranged from 1.96 to 106 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen, with a median concentration of 10.6 mg/L. Water in 73 percent of NAL samples had at least one pesticide or pesticide degradate detected. Most of the pesticide compounds detected (atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, simazine, and degradates of those pesticides) are applied to corn and soybean fields. Nitrate concentrations in SAL samples ranged from 0.96 to 21.6 mg/L, with a median of 4.12 mg/L. Water in 24 percent of SAL samples had at least one pesticide or pesticide degradate detected. The pesticide compounds detected were deethylatrazine (a degradate of atrazine and propazine), propazine, fluometuron, and tebuthiuron. Most of the pesticides detected are applied to cotton fields. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in the SAL area and were positively correlated with both nitrate and chloride concentrations, suggesting a combination of human and

  15. Inversion for Double-Layer Anisotropy in the Mantle Beneath the Middle America and Izu-Bonin Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We measured shear wave splitting for the intraslab events in the Middle America and Izu-Bonin subduction zones recorded at Pacific stations to infer the anisotropic structure in the subslab mantle. The receiver-side anisotropy is accounted for by considering both azimuthal anisotropy determined by SKS splitting and radial anisotropy given in global tomographic model, although the latter does not change the overall pattern of subslab anisotropy. By removing the anisotropy effects from both receiver and source sides, the initial polarization directions (p) of the shear waves used were recovered, most of which are in reasonable agreement with that predicted form the CMT solutions. For both subduction zones, the polarization-splitting plots strongly suggest the presence of two layers of anisotropy. To constrain the two-layer model, we perform inversions which minimize the misfit in both the splitting parameters and p. In the MASZ, the best model contains an upper layer with the fast direction in parallel with the absolute plate motion of the Cocos plate and a lower layer 40-60 degree clockwise from the APM. The delay times are 1.5 and 1.9 s respectively. The interference of the double layer produced dts in excess of 3 s at a certain range of p. The SKS splitting were also inverted for a two-layer model, yielding similar splitting characters and the clockwise rotation. We are investigating why this rotation takes place and how this observation is related to the dynamics of the asthenosphere.

  16. Possible detachment zone in Precambrian rocks of Kanjamalai Hills, Cauvery Suture Zone, Southern India: Implications to accretionary tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, D. P.; Chetty, T. R. K.

    2014-07-01

    Existence of a possible detachment zone at Elampillai region, NW margin of Kanjamalai Hills, located in the northern part of Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), Southern India, is reported here for the first time. Detailed structural mapping provides anatomy of the zone, which are rarely preserved in Precambrian high grade terranes. The detachment surface separates two distinct rock units of contrasting lithological and structural characters: the upper and lower units. The detachment zone is characterized by a variety of fold styles with the predominance of tight isoclinal folds with varied plunge directions, limb rotations and the hinge line variations often leading to lift-off fold like geometries and deformed sheath folds. Presence of parasitic folding and associated penetrative strains seem to be controlled by differences in mechanical stratigraphy, relative thicknesses of the competent and incompetent units, and the structural relief of the underlying basement. Our present study in conjunction with other available geological, geochemical and geochronological data from the region indicates that the structures of the detachment zone are genetically related to thrust tectonics forming a part of subduction-accretion-collision tectonic history of the Neoproterozoic Gondwana suture.

  17. Parallel inversion of a massive ERT data set to characterize deep vadose zone contamination beneath former nuclear waste infiltration galleries at the Hanford Site B-Complex (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.; Rucker, D. F.; Wellman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington, USA, originated in the early 1940's as part of the Manhattan Project and produced plutonium used to build the United States nuclear weapons stockpile. In accordance with accepted industrial practice of that time, a substantial portion of relatively low-activity liquid radioactive waste was disposed of by direct discharge to either surface soil or into near-surface infiltration galleries such as cribs and trenches. This practice was supported by early investigations beginning in the 1940s, including studies by Geological Survey (USGS) experts, whose investigations found vadose zone soils at the site suitable for retaining radionuclides to the extent necessary to protect workers and members of the general public based on the standards of that time. That general disposal practice has long since been discontinued, and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) is now investigating residual contamination at former infiltration galleries as part of its overall environmental management and remediation program. Most of the liquid wastes released into the subsurface were highly ionic and electrically conductive, and therefore present an excellent target for imaging by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) within the low-conductivity sands and gravels comprising Hanford's vadose zone. In 2006, USDOE commissioned a large scale surface ERT survey to characterize vadose zone contamination beneath the Hanford Site B-Complex, which contained 8 infiltration trenches, 12 cribs, and one tile field. The ERT data were collected in a pole-pole configuration with 18 north-south trending lines, and 18 east-west trending lines ranging from 417m to 816m in length. The final data set consisted of 208,411 measurements collected on 4859 electrodes, covering an area of 600m x 600m. Given the computational demands of inverting this massive data set as a whole, the data were initially inverted in parts with a shared memory inversion code, which

  18. Mantle transition zone beneath central-eastern Greenland: Possible evidence for a deep tectosphere from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Helene Anja; Vinnik, Lev; Thybo, Hans

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the mantle of central-eastern Greenland by using recordings with data from 24 local broad-band seismograph stations. We apply P wave receiver function technique and evaluate the difference in the arrival times of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities. These boundaries mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The difference in the arrival time of the phases from the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and relatively insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km discontinuity. Near the east coast of Greenland in the region of the Skaergaard basalt intrusions we find two regions where the differential time is reduced by more than 2 s. The 410-km discontinuity in these regions is depressed by more than 20 km. The depression may be explained by a temperature elevation of 150 °C. We hypothesize that the basaltic intrusions and the temperature anomalies at a depth of 400 km are, at least partly, effects of the passage of Greenland over the Iceland hotspot at about 55 Ma. This explanation is consistent with the concept of tectosphere and implies that the upper mantle to a depth of 400 km translates coherently with the Greenland plate.

  19. Fault-zone waves observed at the southern Joshua Tree earthquake rupture zone

    Hough, S.E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Leary, P.

    1994-01-01

    Waveform and spectral characteristics of several aftershocks of the M 6.1 22 April 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake recorded at stations just north of the Indio Hills in the Coachella Valley can be interpreted in terms of waves propagating within narrow, low-velocity, high-attenuation, vertical zones. Evidence for our interpretation consists of: (1) emergent P arrivals prior to and opposite in polarity to the impulsive direct phase; these arrivals can be modeled as headwaves indicative of a transfault velocity contrast; (2) spectral peaks in the S wave train that can be interpreted as internally reflected, low-velocity fault-zone wave energy; and (3) spatial selectivity of event-station pairs at which these data are observed, suggesting a long, narrow geologic structure. The observed waveforms are modeled using the analytical solution of Ben-Zion and Aki (1990) for a plane-parallel layered fault-zone structure. Synthetic waveform fits to the observed data indicate the presence of NS-trending vertical fault-zone layers characterized by a thickness of 50 to 100 m, a velocity decrease of 10 to 15% relative to the surrounding rock, and a P-wave quality factor in the range 25 to 50.

  20. Fault Scarp Detection Beneath Dense Vegetation Cover: Airborne Lidar Mapping of the Seattle Fault Zone, Bainbridge Island, Washington State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Berghoff, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of a commercial airborne laser mapping industry is paying major dividends in an assessment of earthquake hazards in the Puget Lowland of Washington State. Geophysical observations and historical seismicity indicate the presence of active upper-crustal faults in the Puget Lowland, placing the major population centers of Seattle and Tacoma at significant risk. However, until recently the surface trace of these faults had never been identified, neither on the ground nor from remote sensing, due to cover by the dense vegetation of the Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests and extremely thick Pleistocene glacial deposits. A pilot lidar mapping project of Bainbridge Island in the Puget Sound, contracted by the Kitsap Public Utility District (KPUD) and conducted by Airborne Laser Mapping in late 1996, spectacularly revealed geomorphic features associated with fault strands within the Seattle fault zone. The features include a previously unrecognized fault scarp, an uplifted marine wave-cut platform, and tilted sedimentary strata. The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) is now conducting trenching studies across the fault scarp to establish ages, displacements, and recurrence intervals of recent earthquakes on this active fault. The success of this pilot study has inspired the formation of a consortium of federal and local organizations to extend this work to a 2350 square kilometer (580,000 acre) region of the Puget Lowland, covering nearly the entire extent (approx. 85 km) of the Seattle fault. The consortium includes NASA, the USGS, and four local groups consisting of KPUD, Kitsap County, the City of Seattle, and the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). The consortium has selected Terrapoint, a commercial lidar mapping vendor, to acquire the data.

  1. Formation of mantle "lone plumes" in the global downwelling zone - A multiscale modelling of subduction-controlled plume generation beneath the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Li, Zheng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    It has been established that almost all known mantle plumes since the Mesozoic formed above the two lower mantle large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The Hainan plume is one of the rare exceptions in that instead of rising above the LLSVPs, it is located within the broad global mantle downwelling zone, therefore classified as a "lone plume". Here, we use the Hainan plume example to investigate the feasibility of such lone plumes being generated by subducting slabs in the mantle downwelling zone using 3D geodynamic modelling. Our geodynamic model has a high-resolution regional domain embedded in a relatively low resolution global domain, which is set up in an adaptive-mesh-refined, 3D mantle convection code ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion). We use a recently published plate motion model to define the top mechanical boundary condition. Our modelling results suggest that cold slabs under the present-day Eurasia, formed from the Mesozoic subduction and closure of the Tethys oceans, have prevented deep mantle hot materials from moving to the South China Sea from regions north or west of the South China Sea. From the east side, the Western Pacific subduction systems started to promote the formation of a lower-mantle thermal-chemical pile in the vicinity of the future South China Sea region since 70 Ma ago. As the top of this lower-mantle thermal-chemical pile rises, it first moved to the west, and finally rested beneath the South China Sea. The presence of a thermochemical layer (possible the D″ layer) in the model helps stabilizing the plume root. Our modelling is the first implementation of multi-scale mesh in the regional model. It has been proved to be an effective way of modelling regional dynamics within a global plate motion and mantle dynamics background.

  2. Thermal and climatic zoning for construction in the southern part of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verichev, Konstantin; Salimova, Alisa; Carpio, Manuel

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the updated boundaries of thermal zones in the tree southern regions of Chile, based on the method of heating degrees-days according to hourly temperature measurements at meteorological stations in the last decade. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning of Chile has not updated these boundaries since 1999. Using the Climatic Severity index method, the relative energy consumption of dwellings was analyzed for cooling and heating in summer and winter periods, respectively. The analysis revealed that, within the limits of a single thermal zone, the energy costs for cooling in the summer period of the same house may differ by 50 %.

  3. Crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of the Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, T. R. K.; Yellappa, T.; Santosh, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Cauvery suture zone (CSZ) in southern India has witnessed multiple deformations associated with multiple subduction-collision history, with incorporation of the related accretionary belts sequentially into the southern continental margin of the Archaean Dharwar craton since Neoarchean to Neoproterozoic. The accreted tectonic elements include suprasubduction complexes of arc magmatic sequences, high-grade supracrustals, thrust duplexes, ophiolites, and younger intrusions that are dispersed along the suture. The intra-oceanic Neoarchean-Neoproterozoic arc assemblages are well exposed in the form of tectonic mélanges dominantly towards the eastern sector of the CSZ and are typically subjected to complex and multiple deformation events. Multi-scale analysis of structural elements with detailed geological mapping of the sub-regions and their structural cross sections, geochemical and geochronological data and integrated geophysical observations suggest that the CSZ is an important zone that preserves the imprints of multiple cycles of Precambrian plate tectonic regimes.

  4. Mantle transition zone-derived EM1 component beneath NE China: Geochemical evidence from Cenozoic potassic basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Li-Hui; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Mao, Fu-Gen; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Zhong, Yuan; Xie, Lie-Wen; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2017-05-01

    well-developed correlations between Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb and Mg isotopes, negative correlations of 206Pb/204Pb with K2 O, K/U, Hf/Hf*, positive correlations of δ26 Mg with MgO, and 143Nd/144Nd with Fe2OT3 and U/Pb. We propose that the EM1 reservoir contains recycled ancient carbonate-bearing sediments, subducted into the mantle transition zone, where K, Rb, Ba and Pb are sequestered by K-hollandite as suggested by Murphy et al. (2002) for the Gaussberg lamproites. Loss of small amounts of carbonate melt extracted Th, U and some of the LREE, while retaining K, Rb, Ba, Pb, Zr and Hf in the residue, thereby generating the observed trace element anomalies. In Cenozoic time, this deep EM1 reservoir ascended into the shallow asthenosphere and underwent low-degree partial melting, at pressures below the stability field of K-hollandite, thereby releasing K, Rb and Ba into the melt. The partial melts ascended through subcontinental lithosphere and were progressively modified by interaction with the lithospheric mantle, thus accounting for the linear chemical and isotopic trends noted above. This interaction imposed a progressively more depleted character on the erupted melt, both in terms of isotopic composition and trace element enrichment.

  5. Artificial and natural radionuclides in soils of the southern and middle taiga zones of Komi Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosikov, V. A.; Lodygin, E. D.; Shuktomova, I. I.

    2017-07-01

    Specific activities of artificial (137Cs, 90Sr) and natural (40K, 232Th, 226Ra) radionuclides in background soils of southern and middle taiga of Komi Republic have been estimated with consideration for the landscape-geochemical features of the territory. It has been shown that their accumulation and migration in soils are determined by the following factors: position in relief, texture, and organic matter content. No anomalous zones with increased contents of radionuclides in soils have been revealed.

  6. Effects of Southern Hemispheric Wind Changes on Global Oxygen and the Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, J.; Dietze, H.; Oschlies, A.

    2016-02-01

    We use a coupled ocean biogeochemistry-circulation model to compare the impact of changes in southern hemispheric winds with that of warming induced buoyancy fluxes on dissolved oxygen. Changes in the southern hemispheric wind fields, which are in line with an observed shift of the southern annual mode, are a combination of a strengthening and poleward shift of the southern westerlies. We differentiate between effects caused by a strengthening of the westerlies and effects of a southward shift of the westerlies that is accompanied by a poleward expansion of the tropical trade winds. Our results confirm that the Southern Ocean plays an important role for the marine oxygen supply: a strengthening of the southern westerlies, that leads to an increase of the water formation rates of the oxygen rich deep and intermediate water masses, can counteract part of the warming-induced decline in marine oxygen levels. The wind driven intensification of the Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation drives an increase of the global oxygen supply. Furthermore the results show that the shift of the boundary between westerlies and trades results in an increase of subantarctic mode water and an anti-correlated decrease of deep water formation and reduces the oceanic oxygen supply. In addition we find that the increased meridional extension of the southern trade winds, results in a strengthening and southward shift of the subtropical wind stress curl. This alters the subtropical gyre circulation (intensification and southward shift) and with it decreases the water mass transport into the oxygen minimum zone. In a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario, the poleward shift of the trade-to-westerlies boundary is as important for the future evolution of the suboxic volume as direct warming-induced changes.

  7. Low Velocity Zones along the San Jacinto Fault, Southern California, inferred from Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Yang, H.; Peng, Z.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Vernon, F.

    2013-12-01

    Natural fault zones have regions of brittle damage leading to a low-velocity zone (LVZ) in the immediate vicinity of the main fault interface. The LVZ may amplify ground motion, modify rupture propagation, and impact derivation of earthquke properties. Here we image low-velocity fault zone structures along the San Jacinto Fault (SJF), southern California, using waveforms of local earthquakes that are recorded at several dense arrays across the SJFZ. We use generalized ray theory to compute synthetic travel times to track the direct and FZ-reflected waves bouncing from the FZ boundaries. This method can effectively reduce the trade-off between FZ width and velocity reduction relative to the host rock. Our preliminary results from travel time modeling show the clear signature of LVZs along the SJF, including the segment of the Anza seismic gap. At the southern part near the trifrication area, the LVZ of the Clark Valley branch (array JF) has a width of ~200 m with ~55% reduction in Vp and Vs. This is consistent with what have been suggested from previous studies. In comparison, we find that the velocity reduction relative to the host rock across the Anza seismic gap (array RA) is ~50% for both Vp and Vs, nearly as prominent as that on the southern branches. The width of the LVZ is ~230 m. In addition, the LVZ across the Anza gap appears to locate in the northeast side of the RA array, implying potential preferred propagation direction of past ruptures.

  8. Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Ordos block and the Qinling-Dabie orogen, China: Eastward Tibetan asthenospheric flow around the southern Ordos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yong; Chen, Yongshun John

    2016-12-01

    SKS wave splitting analysis is performed to estimate the seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle using teleseismic data recorded by a temporary seismic array of 180 stations called SOSArray deployed in the southern Ordos block and the Qinling-Dabie orogen. The most important finding is that large delay times with NW-SE fast polarization directions in the northeastern Tibet are continuous across the boundary into the southwestern part of the Ordos block, where the SKS wave splitting results are significantly different from those in the rest of the Ordos block. Based on our SKS wave splitting results in addition to the results from previous studies, we propose an asthenospheric flow model for the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan upper mantle. The model consists of two corner flows around the southwestern corner and the southeastern corner of the Ordos block and the eastward flow along the Weihe graben and the Qinling-Dabie orogen for the escaping Tibetan upper mantle. Finally, the clockwise turning flow of the asthenosphere around the southwestern corner of Ordos block has currently extended laterally into the interior of the Ordos block, suggesting that the thick cold lithospheric root of the southwestern Ordos block there is currently being replaced with hot Tibetan asthenosphere at depths, that is, we observed an on-going process of thermal erosion of a cratonic lithosphere by lateral hot asthenospheric flow.

  9. The role of thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the modulation of the ground deformation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, R.; Gola, G.; Santilano, A.; De Novellis, V.; Pepe, S.; Manzo, M.; Manzella, A.; Tizzani, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop a model of the ground deformation behaviour occurred at Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the 1992-2010 time period. The model is employed to investigate the forces and physical parameters of the crust controlling the subsidence of the Island. To this aim, we integrate and homogenize in a Finite Element (FE) environment a large amount of data derived from several and different observation techniques (i.e., geological, geophysical and remote sensing). In detail, the main steps of the multiphysics model are: (i) the generation of a 3D geological model of the crust beneath the Island by merging the available geological and geophysical information; (ii) the optimization of a 3D thermal model by exploiting the thermal measurements available in literature; (iii) the definition of the 3D Brittle/Ductile transition by using the temperature distribution of the crust and the physical information of the rocks; (iv) the optimization of the ground deformation velocity model (that takes into account the rheological stratification) by considering the spatial and temporal information detected via satellite multi-orbit C-Band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements acquired during the 1992-2010 time period. The achieved results allow investigating the physical process responsible for the observed ground deformation pattern. In particular, they reveal how the rheology modulates the spatial and temporal evolution of the long-term subsidence phenomenon, highlighting a coupling effect of the viscosities of the rocks and the gravitational loading of the volcano edifice. Moreover, the achieved results provide a very detailed and realistic velocity field image of the subsurface crust of the Ischia Island Volcano.

  10. Tomographic inversion of P-wave velocity and Q structures beneath the Kirishima volcanic complex, Southern Japan, based on finite difference calculations of complex traveltimes

    Tomatsu, T.; Kumagai, H.; Dawson, P.B.

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the P-wave velocity and attenuation structures beneath the Kirishima volcanic complex, southern Japan, by inverting the complex traveltimes (arrival times and pulse widths) of waveform data obtained during an active seismic experiment conducted in 1994. In this experiment, six 200-250 kg shots were recorded at 163 temporary seismic stations deployed on the volcanic complex. We use first-arrival times for the shots, which were hand-measured interactively. The waveform data are Fourier transformed into the frequency domain and analysed using a new method based on autoregressive modelling of complex decaying oscillations in the frequency domain to determine pulse widths for the first-arrival phases. A non-linear inversion method is used to invert 893 first-arrival times and 325 pulse widths to estimate the velocity and attenuation structures of the volcanic complex. Wavefronts for the inversion are calculated with a finite difference method based on the Eikonal equation, which is well suited to estimating the complex traveltimes for the structures of the Kirishima volcano complex, where large structural heterogeneities are expected. The attenuation structure is derived using ray paths derived from the velocity structure. We obtain 3-D velocity and attenuation structures down to 1.5 and 0.5 km below sea level, respectively. High-velocity pipe-like structures with correspondingly low attenuation are found under the summit craters. These pipe-like structures are interpreted as remnant conduits of solidified magma. No evidence of a shallow magma chamber is visible in the tomographic images.

  11. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts ( 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China. Reference: Raczek, I., Stoll, B., Hofmann, A.W., Jochum, K.P. 2001. High-precision trace element data for the USGS reference materials BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1, BHVO-2, AGV-1, AGV-2, DTS-1, DTS-2, GSP-1 and GSP-2 by ID-TIMS and MIC-SSMS. Geostandards Newsletter 25(1), 77-86.

  12. Diffuse Extension of the Southern Mariana Margin: Implications for Subduction Zone Infancy and Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Ohara, Y.; Sleeper, J. D.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Brounce, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    Opening of the southern Mariana margin takes place in contrasting modes: Extension normal to the trench forms crust that is passively accreted to a rigid Philippine Sea plate and forms along focused and broad accretion axes. Extension also occurs parallel to the trench and has split apart an Eocene-Miocene forearc terrain accreting new crust diffusely over a 150-200 km wide zone forming a pervasive volcano-tectonic fabric oriented at high angles to the trench and the backarc spreading center. Earthquake seismicity indicates that the forearc extension is active over this broad area and basement samples date young although waning volcanic activity. Diffuse formation of new oceanic crust and lithosphere is unusual; in most oceanic settings extension rapidly focuses to narrow plate boundary zones—a defining feature of plate tectonics. Diffuse crustal accretion has been inferred to occur during subduction zone infancy, however. We hypothesize that, in a near-trench extensional setting, the continual addition of water from the subducting slab creates a weak overriding hydrous lithosphere that deforms broadly. This process counteracts mantle dehydration and strengthening proposed to occur at mid-ocean ridges that may help to focus deformation and melt delivery to narrow plate boundary zones. The observations from the southern Mariana margin suggest that where lithosphere is weakened by high water content narrow seafloor spreading centers cannot form. These conditions likely prevail during subduction zone infancy, explaining the diffuse contemporaneous volcanism inferred in this setting.

  13. Link between the double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem and cloud biases over the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yen-Ting; Frierson, Dargan M. W.

    2013-01-01

    The double-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) problem, in which excessive precipitation is produced in the Southern Hemisphere tropics, which resembles a Southern Hemisphere counterpart to the strong Northern Hemisphere ITCZ, is perhaps the most significant and most persistent bias of global climate models. In this study, we look to the extratropics for possible causes of the double-ITCZ problem by performing a global energetic analysis with historical simulations from a suite of global climate models and comparing with satellite observations of the Earth’s energy budget. Our results show that models with more energy flux into the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere (at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface) tend to have a stronger double-ITCZ bias, consistent with recent theoretical studies that suggest that the ITCZ is drawn toward heating even outside the tropics. In particular, we find that cloud biases over the Southern Ocean explain most of the model-to-model differences in the amount of excessive precipitation in Southern Hemisphere tropics, and are suggested to be responsible for this aspect of the double-ITCZ problem in most global climate models. PMID:23493552

  14. Tectonic evolution of the Yarlung suture zone, Lopu Range region, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Andrew K.; Kapp, Paul; Ding, Lin; Campbell, Clay; Liu, XiaoHui

    2017-01-01

    The Lopu Range, located 600 km west of Lhasa, exposes a continental high-pressure metamorphic complex beneath India-Asia (Yarlung) suture zone assemblages. Geologic mapping, 14 detrital U-Pb zircon (n = 1895 ages), 11 igneous U-Pb zircon, and nine zircon (U-Th)/He samples reveal the structure, age, provenance, and time-temperature histories of Lopu Range rocks. A hornblende-plagioclase-epidote paragneiss block in ophiolitic mélange, deposited during Middle Jurassic time, records Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous subduction initiation followed by Early Cretaceous fore-arc extension. A depositional contact between fore-arc strata (maximum depositional age 97 ± 1 Ma) and ophiolitic mélange indicates that the ophiolites were in a suprasubduction zone position prior to Late Cretaceous time. Five Gangdese arc granitoids that intrude subduction-accretion mélange yield U-Pb ages between 49 and 37 Ma, recording Eocene southward trench migration after collision initiation. The south dipping Great Counter Thrust system cuts older suture zone structures, placing fore-arc strata on the Kailas Formation, and sedimentary-matrix mélange on fore-arc strata during early Miocene time. The north-south, range-bounding Lopukangri and Rujiao faults comprise a horst that cuts the Great Counter Thrust system, recording the early Miocene ( 16 Ma) transition from north-south contraction to orogen-parallel (E-W) extension. Five early Miocene (17-15 Ma) U-Pb ages from leucogranite dikes and plutons record crustal melting during extension onset. Seven zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the horst block record 12-6 Ma tectonic exhumation. Jurassic—Eocene Yarlung suture zone tectonics, characterized by alternating episodes of contraction and extension, can be explained by cycles of slab rollback, breakoff, and shallow underthrusting—suggesting that subduction dynamics controlled deformation.

  15. Mantle Structure Beneath East Africa and Zambia from Body Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Nyblade, A.; Tugume, F.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, P and S travel time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are being inverted, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds variations extending to a depth of 1200 km. Preliminary results show that at depths of 200 km of less, low wave speed anomalies are well developed beneath the Eastern and Western Branches of the East African Rift System. At deep depths, the low wave speed anomalies focus under the center and southern part of the East African Plateau and extend into the transition zone. At transition zone depths and within the top part of the lower mantle, the low wave speed anomaly shifts to the southwest beneath Zambia, indicating that the low wave speed anomaly is continuous across the transition zone and that it extends into the lower mantle. This result suggests that the upper mantle low wave speed anomaly beneath East Africa is connected to the African superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

  16. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research. © 2014 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Simulated effects of southern hemispheric wind changes on the Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, Julia; Dietze, Heiner; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A coupled ocean biogeochemistry-circulation model is used to investigate the impact of observed past and anticipated future wind changes in the Southern Hemisphere on the oxygen minimum zone in the tropical Pacific. We consider the industrial period until the end of the 21st century and distinguish effects due to a strengthening of the westerlies from effects of a southward shift of the westerlies that is accompanied by a poleward expansion of the tropical trade winds. Our model results show that a strengthening of the westerlies counteracts part of the warming-induced decline in the global marine oxygen inventory. A poleward shift of the trade-westerlies boundary, however, triggers a significant decrease of oxygen in the tropical oxygen minimum zone. In a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario, the poleward shift of the trade-westerlies boundary and warming-induced increase in stratification contribute equally to the expansion of suboxic waters in the tropical Pacific.

  18. The Kramer deposit of southern California--Preliminary insights on the origins of zoned lacustrine evaporite borate deposits

    SciT

    Swihart, G.H.; McBay, E.H.; Smith, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Lacustrine evaporite borate deposits span the range from mineralogically unzoned or poorly zoned to concentrically or complexly zoned types. Deposits often contain an inner ulexite or probertite (Na-Ca borates) zone and an outer colemanite (Ca borate) zone. A few deposits contain an innermost borax (Na borate) zone. Boron isotopic analyses of core material from the zoned borax-ulexite-colemanite Kramer deposit have been made with the aim of providing a better understanding of the processes of zone formation. Samples from 6 depths over a 63 foot interval in the borax zone yield a [delta] B-11 range of +0.1 to +2.3 permil. Twomore » samples in the portion of the ulexite zone below the borax zone, vertically separated from one another by 20 feet, yield identical results of [delta]B-11 = [minus]2.1 permit. Three ulexite samples from a 10 foot interval above the borax zone produced results in the range [delta]B-11 = [minus]4.6 to [minus]5.5 permil. A number of possible origins for ulexite at Kramer have been proposed: (1) primary precipitation from the lake brines; (2) postdepositional alteration of the borax zone margin by Ca-rich groundwater; (3) mixing of seeping lake brines and Ca-rich groundwater in muds around the lake. Given the small variation in B isotopic composition exhibited in the borax zone, mechanisms 1 and 2 would produce upper and lower portions of the ulexite zone with similar isotopic compositions. In the third scenario, the difference in composition of the upper and lower ulexites could be due to distance from the lake and relative proportions of seeped lake brine (B-11-rich) and clay adsorbed B (B-10-rich). Furthermore, the cotton ball form of the ulexite in this core is identical to that of ulexite forming today just beneath the surface of dry lakes in NV and CA.« less

  19. Geomorphic evidence of Quaternary tectonics within an underlap fault zone of southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Salvatore Ivo; Pescatore, Eva; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    A composite seismic source, the Irpinia - Agri Valley Fault zone, located in the axial sector of the fold-and-thrust belt of southern Apennines, Italy, is investigated. This composite source is made up of a series of nearly parallel, NW-striking normal fault segments which caused many historical earthquakes. Two of these fault segments, known as the San Gregorio Magno and Pergola-Melandro, and the fault-related mountain fronts, form a wedge-shaped, right-stepping, underlap fault zone. This work is aimed at documenting tectonic geomorphology and geology of this underlap fault zone. The goal is to decipher the evidence of surface topographic interaction between two bounding fault segments and their related mountain fronts. In particular, computation of geomorphic indices such as mountain front sinuosity (Smf), water divide sinuosity (Swd), asymmetry factor (AF), drainage basin elongation (Bs), relief ratio (Rh), Hypsometry (HI), normalized steepness (Ksn), and concavity (θ) is integrated with geomorphological analysis, the geological mapping, and structural analysis in order to assess the recent activity of the fault scarp sets recognized within the underlap zone. Results are consistent with the NW-striking faults as those showing the most recent tectonic activity, as also suggested by presence of related slope deposits younger than 38 ka. The results of this work therefore show how the integration of a multidisciplinary approach that combines geomorphology, morphometry, and structural analyses may be key to solving tectonic geomorphology issues in a complex, fold-and-thrust belt configuration.

  20. Misinterpretation of lateral acoustic variations on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles as fault offsets of Holocene bay mud beneath the southern part of San Francisco Bay, California

    Marlow, M. S.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Childs, J. R.; Mann, D. M.; Anima, R.J.; Kayen, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    We collected high-resolution seismic reflection profiles in the southern part of San Francisco Bay in 1992 and 1993 to investigate possible Holocene faulting along postulated transbay bedrock fault zones. The initial analog records show apparent offsets of reflection packages along sharp vertical boundaries. These records were originally interpreted as showing a complex series of faults along closely spaced, sharp vertical boundaries in the upper 10 m (0.013 s two-way travel time) of Holocene bay mud. A subsequent survey in 1994 was run with a different seismic reflection system, which utilized a higher power source. This second system generated records with deeper penetration (max. 20 m, 0.026 s two-way travel time) and demonstrated that the reflections originally interpreted as fault offsets by faulting were actually laterally continuous reflection horizons. The pitfall in the original interpretations was caused by lateral variations in the amplitude brightness of reflection events, coupled with a long (greater than 15 ms) source signature of the low-power system. These effects combined to show apparent offsets of reflection packages along sharp vertical boundaries. These boundaries, as shown by the second system, in fact occur where the reflection amplitude diminishes abruptly on laterally continuous reflection events. This striking lateral variation in reflection amplitude is attributable to the localized presence of biogenic(?) gas.

  1. Seismicity and structure of Nazca Plate subduction zone in southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    We image the Nazca plate subduction zone system by detecting and (re)locating intra-slab earthquakes in southern Peru. Dense seismic arrays (PeruSE, 2013) were deployed along four lines to target geophysical characterization of the subduction system in the transition zone between flat and normal dipping segments of the Nazca plate (2-15°S). The arc volcanism is absent near the flat slab segment, and currently, the correlation between the location of the active volcanic front and corresponding slab depth is neither clear nor consistent between previously published models from seismicity. We detect 620 local earthquakes from August 2008 to February 2013 by manually picking 6559 and 4145 arrival times for P- and S-phases, respectively. We observe that the S-phase data is helpful to reduce the trade-off between origin time and depth of deeper earthquakes (>100 km). Earthquake locations are relocated to constrain the Nazca slab-mantle interface in the slab-dip transition zone using 7322 measurements of differential times of nearby earthquake pairs by waveform cross-correlation. We also employ the double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to further improve earthquake source locations and the spatial resolution of the velocity structure simultaneously. The relocated hypocenters clearly delineate the dipping Wadati-Benioff zone in the slab-dip transition zone between the shallow- (25°) to-flat dipping slab segment in the north and the normal (40°) dipping segment in the south. The intermediate-depth seismicity in the flat slab region stops at a depth of ~100 km and a horizontal distance of ~400 km from the trench. We find a significant slab-dip difference (up to 10°) between our relocated seismicity and previously published slab models along the profile region sampling the normal-dip slab at depth (>100 km).

  2. Propagation of back-arc extension in the arc of the southern New Hebrides Subduction Zone (South West Pacific) and possible relation to subduction initiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, M.; Patriat, M.; Collot, J.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Meffre, S.; Falloon, T.; Rouillard, P.; Pelletier, B.; Roach, M. J.; Fournier, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geophysical data acquired during three expeditions of the R/V Southern Surveyor allows us to characterize the deformation of the upper plate at the southern termination of the New Hebrides subduction zone where it bends 90° eastward along the Hunter Ridge. As shown by GPS measurements and earthquake slip vectors systematically orthogonal to the trench, this 90° bend does not mark a transition from subduction to strike slip as usually observed at subduction termination. Here the convergence direction remains continuously orthogonal to the trench notwithstanding its bend. Multibeam bathymetric data acquired in the North Fiji Basin reveals active deformation and fragmentation of the upper plate. It shows the southward propagation of a N-S back-arc spreading ridge into the pre-existing volcanic arc, and the connection of the southern end of the spreading axis with an oblique active rift in the active arc. Ultimately the active arc lithosphere is sheared as spreading progressively supersedes rifting. Consequently to such incursion of back-arc basin extension into the arc, peeled off and drifted pieces of arc crust are progressively isolated into the back-arc basin. Another consequence is that the New Hebrides arc is split in two distinct microplates, which move independently relative to the lower plate, and thereby define two different subduction systems. We suggest arc fragmentation could be a consequence of the incipient collision of the Loyalty Ridge with the New Hebrides Arc. We further speculate that this kinematic change could have resulted, less than two million year ago, in the initiation of a new subduction orthogonal to the New Hebrides Subduction possibly along the paleo STEP fault. In this geodynamic setting, with an oceanic lithosphere subducting beneath a sheared volcanic arc, a particularly wide range of primitive subduction-related magmas have been produced including adakites, island arc tholeiites, back-arc basin basalts, and medium-K subduction

  3. Late quaternary paleoseismology of the southern Steens fault zone, northern Nevada

    Personius, S.F.; Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Mahan, S.A.; Kyung, J.B.; Cisneros, H.; Lidke, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The 192-km-long Steens fault zone is the most prominent normal fault system in the northern Basin and Range province of western North America. We use trench mapping and radiometric dating to estimate displacements and timing of the last three surface-rupturing earthquakes (E1-E3) on the southern part of the fault south of Denio, Nevada. Coseismic displacements range from 1.1 to 2.2 ?? 0.5 m, and radiometric ages indicate earthquake times of 11.5 ?? 2.0 ka (E3), 6.1 ?? 0.5 ka (E2), and 4.6 ?? 1.0 ka (E1). These data yield recurrence intervals of 5.4 ?? 2.1 k.y. between E3 and E2, 1.5 ?? 1.1 k.y. between E2 and E1, and an elapsed time of 4.6 ?? 1.0 k.y. since E1. The recurrence data yield variable interval slip rates (between 0.2 ?? 0.22 and 1.5 ?? 2.3 mm/yr), but slip rates averaged over the past ???18 k.y. (0.24 ?? 0.06 mm/year) are similar to long-term (8.5-12.5 Ma) slip rates (0.2 ?? 0.1 mm /yr) measured a few kilometers to the north. We infer from the lack of significant topographic relief across the fault in Bog Hot Valley that the fault zone is propagating southward and may now be connected with a fault at the northwestern end of the Pine Forest Range. Displacements documented in the trench and a rupture length of 37 km indicate a history of three latest Quaternary earthquakes with magnitudes of M 6.6-7.1 on the southern part of the Steens fault zone.

  4. Crustal structure beneath western and eastern Iceland from surface waves and receiver functions

    Du, Z.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2002-01-01

    We determine the crustal structures beneath 14 broad-band seismic stations, deployed in western, eastern, central and southern Iceland, using surface wave dispersion curves and receiver functions. We implement a method to invert receiver functions using constraints obtained from genetic algorithm inversion of surface waves. Our final models satisfy both data sets. The thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 3.7 km s-1, is fairly uniform at ???6.5-9 km beneath the Tertiary intraplate areas of western and eastern Iceland, and unusually thick at 11 km beneath station HOT22 in the far south of Iceland. The depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 4.1 km s-1 is ???20-26 km in western Iceland and ???27-33 km in eastern Iceland. These results agree with those of explosion profiles that detect a thinner crust beneath western Iceland than beneath eastern Iceland. An earlier report of a substantial low-velocity zone beneath the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust is confirmed by a similar observation beneath an additional station there. As was found in previous receiver function studies, the most reliable feature of the results is the clear division into an upper sequence that is a few kilometres thick where velocity gradients are high, and a lower, thicker sequence where velocity gradients are low. The transition to typical mantle velocities is variable, and may range from being very gradational to being relatively sharp and clear. A clear Moho, by any definition, is rarely seen, and there is thus uncertainty in estimates of the thickness of the crust in many areas. Although a great deal of seismic data are now available constraining the structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath Iceland, their geological nature is not well understood.

  5. Quantifying Vertical Exhumation in Intracontinental Strike-Slip Faults: the Garlock fault zone, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, L.; Blythe, A. E.; Fendick, A.

    2012-12-01

    New apatite fission-track ages show varying rates of vertical exhumation at the eastern terminus of the Garlock fault zone. The Garlock fault zone is a 260 km long east-northeast striking strike-slip fault with as much as 64 km of sinistral offset. The Garlock fault zone terminates in the east in the Avawatz Mountains, at the intersection with the dextral Southern Death Valley fault zone. Although motion along the Garlock fault west of the Avawatz Mountains is considered purely strike-slip, uplift and exhumation of bedrock in the Avawatz Mountains south of the Garlock fault, as recently as 5 Ma, indicates that transpression plays an important role at this location and is perhaps related to a restricting bend as the fault wraps around and terminates southeastward along the Avawatz Mountains. In this study we complement extant thermochronometric ages from within the Avawatz core with new low temperature fission-track ages from samples collected within the adjacent Garlock and Southern Death Valley fault zones. These thermochronometric data indicate that vertical exhumation rates vary within the fault zone. Two Miocene ages (10.2 (+5.0/-3.4) Ma, 9.0 (+2.2/-1.8) Ma) indicate at least ~3.3 km of vertical exhumation at ~0.35 mm/yr, assuming a 30°C/km geothermal gradient, along a 2 km transect parallel and adjacent to the Mule Spring fault. An older Eocene age (42.9 (+8.7/-7.3) Ma) indicates ~3.3 km of vertical exhumation at ~0.08 mm/yr. These results are consistent with published exhumation rates of 0.35 mm/yr between ~7 and ~4 Ma and 0.13 mm/yr between ~15 and ~9 Ma, as determined by apatite fission-track and U-Th/He thermochronometry in the hanging-wall of the Mule Spring fault. Similar exhumation rates on both sides of the Mule Spring fault support three separate models: 1) Thrusting is no longer active along the Mule Spring fault, 2) Faulting is dominantly strike-slip at the sample locations, or 3) Miocene-present uplift and exhumation is below detection levels

  6. Modeling the Geometry of Plate Boundary and Seismic Structure in the Southern Ryukyu Trench Subduction Zone, Japan, Using Amphibious Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Arai, R.; Obana, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Miura, S.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present the new model, the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea Plate interface beneath the southern Ryukyu Trench subduction zone, estimated from seismic tomography and focal mechanism estimation by using passive and active data from a temporary amphibious seismic network and permanent land stations. Using relocated low-angle thrust-type earthquakes, repeating earthquakes, and structural information, we constrained the geometry of plate boundary from the trench axis to a 60 km depth with uncertainties of less than 5 km. The estimated plate geometry model exhibited large variation, including a pronounced convex structure that may be evidence of a subducted seamount in the eastern portion of study area, whereas the western part appeared smooth. We also found that the active earthquake region near the plate boundary, defined by the distance from our plate geometry model, was clearly separated from the area dominated by short-term slow-slip events (SSEs). The oceanic crust just beneath the SSE-dominant region, the western part of the study area, showed high Vp/Vs ratios (>1.8), whereas the eastern side showed moderate or low Vp/Vs (<1.75). We interpreted this as an indication that high fluid pressures near the surface of the slab are contributing to the SSE activities. Within the toe of the mantle wedge, P and S wave velocities (<7.5 and <4.2 km/s, respectively) lower than those observed through normal mantle peridotite might suggest that some portions of the mantle may be at least 40% serpentinized.

  7. Spatial and space-time clustering of tuberculosis in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Enqueselassie, Fikre; Hagos, Seifu

    2018-01-01

    Spatial targeting is advocated as an effective method that contributes for achieving tuberculosis control in high-burden countries. However, there is a paucity of studies clarifying the spatial nature of the disease in these countries. This study aims to identify the location, size and risk of purely spatial and space-time clusters for high occurrence of tuberculosis in Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia during 2007 to 2016. A total of 15,805 patient data that were retrieved from unit TB registers were included in the final analyses. The spatial and space-time cluster analyses were performed using the global Moran's I, Getis-Ord [Formula: see text] and Kulldorff's scan statistics. Eleven purely spatial and three space-time clusters were detected (P <0.001).The clusters were concentrated in border areas of the Gurage Zone. There were considerable spatial variations in the risk of tuberculosis by year during the study period. This study showed that tuberculosis clusters were mainly concentrated at border areas of the Gurage Zone during the study period, suggesting that there has been sustained transmission of the disease within these locations. The findings may help intensify the implementation of tuberculosis control activities in these locations. Further study is warranted to explore the roles of various ecological factors on the observed spatial distribution of tuberculosis.

  8. Deep resistivity sounding studies in detecting shear zones: A case study from the southern granulite terrain of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. B.; Stephen, Jimmy

    2006-10-01

    The resistivity signatures of the major crustal scale shear zones that dissect the southern granulite terrain (SGT) of South India into discrete geological fragments have been investigated. Resistivity structures deduced from deep resistivity sounding measurements acquired with a 10 km long Schlumberger spreads yield significant insights into the resistivity distribution within the E-W trending shear system comprising the Moyar-Bhavani-Salem-Attur shear zone (MBSASZ) and Palghat-Cauvery shear zone (PCSZ). Vertical and lateral extensions of low resistivity features indicate the possible existence of weak zones at different depths throughout the shear zones. The MBSASZ characterized by very low resistivity in its deeper parts (>2500 m), extends towards the south with slightly higher resistivities to encompass the PCSZ. A major resistivity transition between the northern and southern parts is evident in the two-dimensional resistivity images. The northern Archaean granulite terrain exhibits a higher resistivity than the southern Neoproterozoic granulite terrain. Though this resistivity transition is not clear at greater depths, the extension of low resistivity zones has been well manifested. It is speculated here that a network of crustal scale shear zones in the SGT may have influenced the strength of the lithosphere.

  9. How the gas hydrate system gives insight into subduction wedge dewatering processes in a zone of highly-oblique convergence on the southern Hikurangi margin of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchley, Gareth; Klaeschen, Dirk; Pecher, Ingo; Henrys, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    The southern end of New Zealand's Hikurangi subduction margin is characterised by highly-oblique convergence as it makes a southward transition into a right-lateral transform plate boundary at the Alpine Fault. Long-offset seismic data that cross part of the offshore portion of this transition zone give new insight into the nature of the plate boundary. We have carried out 2D pre-stack depth migrations, with an iterative reflection tomography to update the velocity field, on two seismic lines in this area to investigate fluid flow processes that have implications for the mechanical stability of the subduction interface. The results show distinct and focused fluid expulsion pathways from the subduction interface to the shallow sub-surface. For example, on one of the seismic lines there is a clear disruption of the gas hydrate system at its intersection with a splay fault - a clear indication of focused fluid release from the subduction interface. The seismic velocities derived from tomography also highlight a broad, pronounced low velocity zone beneath the deforming wedge that we interpret as a thick zone of gas-charged fluids that may have important implications for the long-term frictional stability of the plate boundary in this area. The focused flow upward toward the seafloor has the potential to result in the formation of concentrated gas hydrate deposits. Our on-going work on these data will include amplitude versus offset analysis in an attempt to better characterise the nature of the subduction interface, the fluids in that region, and also the shallower gas hydrate system.

  10. The effect of offset on fracture permeability of rocks from the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Flores, P.; Wang, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.; Nara, Y.; Sarkar, V.; Cembrano, J.

    2017-11-01

    The Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) represents one of the largest undeveloped geothermal provinces in the world. Development of the geothermal potential requires a detailed understanding of fluid transport properties of its main lithologies. The permeability of SVZ rocks is altered by the presence of fracture damage zones produced by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Andean Transverse Faults (ATF). We have therefore measured the permeability of four representative lithologies from the volcanic basement in this area: crystalline tuff, andesitic dike, altered andesite and granodiorite. For comparative purposes, we have also measured the permeability of samples of Seljadalur basalt, an Icelandic rock with widely studied and reported hydraulic properties. Specifically, we present the results of a systematic study of the effect of fractures and fracture offsets on permeability as a function of increasing effective pressure. Baseline measurements on intact samples of SVZ rocks show that the granodiorite has a permeability (10-18 m2), two orders of magnitude higher than that of the volcanic rocks (10-20 m2). The presence of throughgoing mated macro-fractures increases permeability by between four and six orders of magnitude, with the highest permeability recorded for the crystalline tuff. Increasing fracture offset to produce unmated fractures results in large increases in permeability up to some characteristic value of offset, beyond which permeability changes only marginally. The increase in permeability with offset appears to depend on fracture roughness and aperture, and these are different for each lithology. Overall, fractured SVZ rocks with finite offsets record permeability values consistent with those commonly found in geothermal reservoirs (>10-16 m2), which potentially allow convective/advective flow to develop. Hence, our results demonstrate that the fracture damage zones developed within the SVZ produce permeable regions, especially within the

  11. Active tectonics of the Imperial Valley, southern California: fault damage zones, complex basins and buried faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, P.; Ma, Y.; Stock, J. M.; Hole, J. A.; Fuis, G. S.; Han, L.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing oblique slip at the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the Salton Trough produced the Imperial Valley. Deformation in this seismically active area is distributed across a complex network of exposed and buried faults resulting in a largely unmapped seismic hazard beneath the growing population centers of El Centro, Calexico and Mexicali. To better understand the shallow crustal structure in this region and the connectivity of faults and seismicity lineaments, we used data primarily from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) to construct a P-wave velocity profile to 15 km depth, and a 3-D velocity model down to 8 km depth including the Brawley Geothermal area. We obtained detailed images of a complex wedge-shaped basin at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. Two deep subbasins (VP <5.65 km/s) are located in the western part of the larger Imperial Valley basin, where seismicity trends and active faults play a significant role in shaping the basin edge. Our 3-D VP model reveals previously unrecognized NE-striking cross faults that are interacting with the dominant NW-striking faults to control deformation. New findings in our profile include localized regions of low VP (thickening of a 5.65-5.85 km/s layer) near faults or seismicity lineaments interpreted as possibly faulting-related. Our 3-D model and basement map reveal velocity highs associated with the geothermal areas in the eastern valley. The improved seismic velocity model from this study, and the identification of important unmapped faults or buried interfaces will help refine the seismic hazard for parts of Imperial County, California.

  12. Characterization of potential zones of dust generation at eleven stations in the southern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, I.; Assamoi, P.; Bertrand, J.; Giorgi, F.

    Synoptic wind data for multi-decadal periods at eleven stations located in the southern Sahara region (Agadez, Atar, Bilma, Dori, Gao, Kayes, Nema, Niamey, Nouadhibou, Ouagadougou and Tessalit) are used to study the monthly dust deflation power over the region. We found that, regardless of the conditions of the soil, the deflation power (or wind efficiency) is not sufficient to generate significant amounts of aerosols south of 15°N. North of this latitude, the deflation power is much larger, with potential zones of either very strong deflation (Nouadhibou and Bilma) or severe deflation (Gao, Tessalit, Nema, Atar, Agadez). Stations in the Sahel region such as Gao, Agadez and Tessalit are characterized by a gradual reinforcement of the deflation power between 1970 and 1984 in correspondence of increasing desertification over the region. During this same period, Bilma, a well know region of dust source, experienced a major reduction in deflation power due to shifts in large scale wind patterns.

  13. A hybrid zone of the genus Ctenomys: A case study in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Camila S.; Gava, Adriana; de Freitas, Thales R.O.

    2012-01-01

    We describe variation at microsatellite loci and the chromosomal polymorphisms of a hybrid population, and hybridizing populations of Ctenomys minutus (the minor tuco-tuco) from the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cytogenetic analysis and a survey of six microsatellite loci included 101 specimens of C. minutus from the parental populations (2n/AN = 42/74 and 48a/76) and their contact zone. Cytogenetic analysis recorded 26 different karyotypes exhibited by 50 individuals from the hybrid population. Of the 26 karyotypes, only 14% presented a parental-like configuration, and none had the combinations of 2n and AN expected for an F1 hybrid. The remaining karyotypes were alternative hybrid forms, with 2n varying from 42 to 46 and AN from 68 to 80. These results suggest chromosomal rearrangements are only of minor significance in the establishment of reproductive barriers for this species. PMID:23412911

  14. The Two Subduction Zones of the Southern Caribbean: Lithosphere Tearing and Continental Margin Recycling in the East, Flat Slab Subduction and Laramide-Style Uplifts in the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Bezada, M. J.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The southern Caribbean plate boundary is a complex strike-slip fault system bounded by oppositely vergent subduction zones, the Antilles subduction zone in the east, and a currently locked Caribbean-South American subduction zone in the west (Bilham and Mencin, 2013). Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography images both the Atlanic (ATL) and the Caribbean (CAR) plates subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America. Ps receiver functions show a depressed 660 discontinuity and thickened transition zone associated with each subducting plate. In the east the oceanic (ATL) part of the South American (SA) plate subducts westward beneath the CAR, initiating the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike slip system, a subduction-transform edge propagator (STEP) fault (Govers and Wortel, 2005). The point at which the ATL tears away from SA as it descends into the mantle is evidenced by the Paria cluster seismicity at depths of 60-110 km (Russo et al, 1993). Body wave tomography and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) thickness determined from Sp and Ps receiver functions and Rayleigh waves suggest that the descending ATL also viscously removes the bottom third to half of the SA continental margin lithospheric mantle as it descends. This has left thinned continental lithosphere under northern SA in the wake of the eastward migrating Antilles subduction zone. The thinned lithosphere occupies ~70% of the length of the El Pilar-San Sebastian fault system, from ~64oW to ~69oW, and extends inland several hundred kilometers. In northwestern SA the CAR subducts east-southeast at low angle under northern Colombia and western Venezuela. The subducting CAR is at least 200 km wide, extending from northernmost Colombia as far south as the Bucaramanga nest seismicity. The CAR descends steeply under Lake Maracaibo and the Merida Andes. This flat slab is associated with three Neogene basement cored, Laramide-style uplifts: the Santa Marta

  15. Sonograph mosaic of northern California and southern Oregon Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciT

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Clarke, S.H.

    1985-02-01

    During June 15 to July 9, 1984, the third leg of the cooperative US Geological Survey-Institute of Oceanographic Sciences GLORIA survey of the conterminous US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) collected digital acoustic data off northern California and southern Oregon. The region covered during leg 3 extends from the 200-m isobath westward to the 375-km (200-nmi) EEZ boundary and from about 39/sup 0/ to 43/sup 0/N. The survey used the IOS GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar, a 2-channel airgun seismic reflection system, and 3.5 kHz and 10 kHz high-resolution seismic systems. The GLORIA data were collected in a pattern that permitted overlappingmore » coverage so that a mosaic of the sonographs could be constructed. These sonographs were slant-range and anamorphically corrected aboard ship, and a mosaic was constructed at a scale of 1:375,000. Among the most striking geomorphic features revealed in this segment of the EEZ is the Mendocino transform fault, which extends for more than 120 nmi along the northern base of the Mendocino fracture zone and delineates the southern boundary of the Gorda plate. Other features clearly revealed are the complex geometry of the Gorda rift valley, and the subparallel flanking ridges and dramatically deformed base of the continental slope at the eastern boundary of the Gorda plate. The data are presently being processed by image analytical techniques to enhance the fine-scale features such as sediment waves, slumps, and areas of differing sedimentary facies.« less

  16. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    Thatcher, Wayne R.; Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  17. The Eastern California Shear Zone as the northward extension of the southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, W.; Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R. W.

    2016-04-01

    Cluster analysis offers an agnostic way to organize and explore features of the current GPS velocity field without reference to geologic information or physical models using information only contained in the velocity field itself. We have used cluster analysis of the Southern California Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field to determine the partitioning of Pacific-North America relative motion onto major regional faults. Our results indicate the large-scale kinematics of the region is best described with two boundaries of high velocity gradient, one centered on the Coachella section of the San Andreas Fault and the Eastern California Shear Zone and the other defined by the San Jacinto Fault south of Cajon Pass and the San Andreas Fault farther north. The ~120 km long strand of the San Andreas between Cajon Pass and Coachella Valley (often termed the San Bernardino and San Gorgonio sections) is thus currently of secondary importance and carries lesser amounts of slip over most or all of its length. We show these first order results are present in maps of the smoothed GPS velocity field itself. They are also generally consistent with currently available, loosely bounded geologic and geodetic fault slip rate estimates that alone do not provide useful constraints on the large-scale partitioning we show here. Our analysis does not preclude the existence of smaller blocks and more block boundaries in Southern California. However, attempts to identify smaller blocks along and adjacent to the San Gorgonio section were not successful.

  18. The seasonal sea-ice zone in the glacial Southern Ocean as a carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer; Knorr, Gregor; Zhang, Xu; Chapligin, Bernhard; Maier, Edith; Esper, Oliver; Friedrichsen, Hans; Lohmann, Gerrit; Meyer, Hanno; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2015-09-18

    Reduced surface-deep ocean exchange and enhanced nutrient consumption by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean have been linked to lower glacial atmospheric CO2. However, identification of the biological and physical conditions involved and the related processes remains incomplete. Here we specify Southern Ocean surface-subsurface contrasts using a new tool, the combined oxygen and silicon isotope measurement of diatom and radiolarian opal, in combination with numerical simulations. Our data do not indicate a permanent glacial halocline related to melt water from icebergs. Corroborated by numerical simulations, we find that glacial surface stratification was variable and linked to seasonal sea-ice changes. During glacial spring-summer, the mixed layer was relatively shallow, while deeper mixing occurred during fall-winter, allowing for surface-ocean refueling with nutrients from the deep reservoir, which was potentially richer in nutrients than today. This generated specific carbon and opal export regimes turning the glacial seasonal sea-ice zone into a carbon sink.

  19. The seasonal sea-ice zone in the glacial Southern Ocean as a carbon sink

    PubMed Central

    Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer; Knorr, Gregor; Zhang, Xu; Chapligin, Bernhard; Maier, Edith; Esper, Oliver; Friedrichsen, Hans; Lohmann, Gerrit; Meyer, Hanno; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Reduced surface–deep ocean exchange and enhanced nutrient consumption by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean have been linked to lower glacial atmospheric CO2. However, identification of the biological and physical conditions involved and the related processes remains incomplete. Here we specify Southern Ocean surface–subsurface contrasts using a new tool, the combined oxygen and silicon isotope measurement of diatom and radiolarian opal, in combination with numerical simulations. Our data do not indicate a permanent glacial halocline related to melt water from icebergs. Corroborated by numerical simulations, we find that glacial surface stratification was variable and linked to seasonal sea-ice changes. During glacial spring–summer, the mixed layer was relatively shallow, while deeper mixing occurred during fall–winter, allowing for surface-ocean refueling with nutrients from the deep reservoir, which was potentially richer in nutrients than today. This generated specific carbon and opal export regimes turning the glacial seasonal sea-ice zone into a carbon sink. PMID:26382319

  20. Seismological and Geodynamic Monitoring Network in the "javakheti" Test Zone in the Southern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Karakhanyan, A.; Durgaryan, R.; Basilaia, G.; Sokhadze, G.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Javakheti Highland located in the border region between Armenia and Georgia (sharing a border with Turkey) is an area in the Southern Caucasus of young Holocene-Quaternary volcanism and a region with convergence of a number of active faults. Issues related to the geometry, kinematics and slip-rate of these faults and assessment of their seismic hazard remain unclear in part due to the fragmentary nature of the studies carried out soley within the borders of each of the countries as opposed to region wide. In the frame of the ISTC A-1418 Project "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" the Javakheti Highland was selected as a trans-border test-zone. This designation allowed for the expansion and upgrading of the seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks under the auspices of several international projects (ISTC CSP-053 Project "Development of Communication System for seismic hazard situations in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia", NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response") as well as through joint research programs with the National Taiwan University and Institute of Earth Sciences (IES, Taiwan), Universite Montpellier II (France) and Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre-Université de Strasbourg (France). Studies of geodynamic processes, and seismicity of the region and their interaction have been carried out utilizing the newly established seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks and have served as a basis for the study of the geologic and tectonic structure . Upgrading and expansion of seismological and geodynamic networks required urgent solutions to the following tasks: Introduction of efficient online systems for information acquisition, accumulation and transmission (including sattelite systems) from permanent and temporary installed stations, Adoption of international standards for organization and management of databases in GIS

  1. The Effect of Earthquakes on Episodic Tremor and Slip Events on the Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainvil, A. K.; Schmidt, D. A.; Nuyen, C.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study is to explore how slow slip events on the southern Cascadia Subduction Zone respond to nearby, offshore earthquakes by examining GPS and tremor data. At intermediate depths on the plate interface ( 40 km), transient fault slip is observed in the form of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events. These ETS events occur regularly (every 10 months), and have a longer duration than normal earthquakes. Researchers have been documenting slow slip events through data obtained by continuously running GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest. Some studies have proposed that pore fluid may play a role in these ETS events by lowering the effective stress on the fault. The interaction of earthquakes and ETS can provide constraints on the strength of the fault and the level of stress needed to alter ETS behavior. Earthquakes can trigger ETS events, but the connection between these events and earthquake activity is less understood. We originally hypothesized that ETS events would be affected by earthquakes in southern Cascadia, and could result in a shift in the recurrence interval of ETS events. ETS events were cataloged using GPS time series provided by PANGA, in conjunction with tremor positions, in Southern Cascadia for stations YBHB and DDSN from 1997 to 2017. We looked for evidence of change from three offshore earthquakes that occurred near the Mendocino Triple Junction with moment magnitudes of 7.2 in 2005, 6.5 in 2010, and 6.8 in 2014. Our results showed that the recurrence interval of ETS for stations YBHB and DDSN was not altered by the three earthquake events. Future is needed to explore whether this lack of interaction is explained by the non-optimal orientation of the receiver fault for the earthquake focal mechanisms.

  2. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

  3. Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

  4. Seismicity and structure of Nazca Plate subduction zone in southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.; Thurber, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    We define subducting plate geometries in the Nazca subduction zone by (re)locating intra-slab earthquakes in southern Peru (2-18°S) and taking previously published converted phase analysis results, to clarify the slab geometry and inferred relationships to the seismicity. We also provide both P- and S-wave velocities of the subducting Nazca Plate and mantle wedge portions close to the slab using double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to understand upper plate volcanism and subduction process. A total of 492 regional earthquakes from August 2008 to February 2013 recorded from the dense seismic array (PeruSE, 2013) are selected for the relocation and tomography. The relocated seismicity shows a smooth contortion in the slab-dip transition zone for 400 km between the shallow (25°)-to-flat dipping interface in the north and 40°-dipping interface in the south. We find a significant slab-dip difference (up to 10°) between our results and previously published slab models along the profile region sampling the normal-dip slab at depth (>100 km). Robust features in both P- and S-wave tomography inversions are dipping low-velocity slabs down to 100 km transitioning to higher-velocities at 100-140 km in both flat slab and dipping slab regions. Differences in the velocities of the mantle wedge between the two regions may indicate different hydration states in the wedge.

  5. Mercury concentration variability in the zooplankton of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella

    2017-12-01

    Being a toxic element, mercury is introduced to the human organism through the consumption of fish and seafood, which in turn often feed on zooplankton. The bioaccumulation of Hg by zooplankton is an important factor influencing the magnitude of the mercury load introduced with food into the predator organism. Therefore the present article attempts to identify the processes and factors influencing Hg concentration in the zooplankton of the coastal zone, an area where marine organisms - an attractive food source for humans - thrive. This is particularly important in areas where climate changes influence the species composition and quantity of plankton. The studies were carried out on three test sites in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea in the period from December 2011 to May 2013. The obtained results show that the shorting of the winter season is conducive to Hg increase in zooplankton and, consequently, in the trophic chain. High mercury concentrations were measured in genus Synchaeta and Keratella when Mesodinium rubrum were predominant in phytoplankton, while other sources of this metal in the plankton fauna were epilithon, epiphton and microbenthos. This is of particular importance when it comes to sheltered bays and estuaries with low water dynamics.

  6. Tsunamigenic potential of a newly discovered active fault zone in the outer Messina Strait, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lili; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Cukur, Deniz; Chiocci, Francesco L.; Ridente, Domenico; Gross, Felix; Bialas, Jörg; Krastel, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    The 1908 Messina tsunami was the most catastrophic tsunami hitting the coastline of Southern Italy in the younger past. The source of this tsunami, however, is still heavily debated, and both rupture along a fault and a slope failure have been postulated as potential origin of the tsunami. Here we report a newly discovered active Fiumefreddo-Melito di Porto Salvo Fault Zone (F-MPS_FZ), which is located in the outer Messina Strait in a proposed landslide source area of the 1908 Messina tsunami. Tsunami modeling showed that this fault zone would produce devastating tsunamis by assuming slip amounts of ≥5 m. An assumed slip of up to 17 m could even generate a tsunami comparable to the 1908 Messina tsunami, but we do not consider the F-MPS_FZ as a source for the 1908 Messina tsunami because its E-W strike contradicts seismological observations of the 1908 Messina earthquake. Future researches on the F-MPS_FZ, however, may contribute to the tsunami risk assessment in the Messina Strait.

  7. Forearc structure beneath southwestern British Columbia: A three-dimensional tomographic velocity model

    Ramachandran, K.; Dosso, S.E.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional compressional wave velocity model of the forearc crust and upper mantle and the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath southwestern British Columbia and the adjoining straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. The velocity model was constructed through joint tomographic inversion of 50,000 first-arrival times from earthquakes and active seismic sources. Wrangellia rocks of the accreted Paleozoic and Mesozoic island arc assemblage underlying southern Vancouver Island in the Cascadia forearc are imaged at some locations with higher than average lower crustal velocities of 6.5-7.2 km/s, similar to observations at other island arc terranes. The mafic Eocene Crescent terrane, thrust landward beneath southern Vancouver Island, exhibits crustal velocities in the range of 6.0-6.7 km/s and is inferred to extend to a depth of more than 20 km. The Cenozoic Olympic Subduction Complex, an accretionary prism thrust beneath the Crescent terrane in the Olympic Peninsula, is imaged as a low-velocity wedge to depths of at least 20 km. Three zones with velocities of 7.0-7.5 km/s, inferred to be mafic and/or ultramafic units, lie above the subducting Juan de Fuca plate at depths of 25-35 km. The forearc upper mantle wedge beneath southeastern Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia exhibits low velocities of 7.2-7.5 km/s, inferred to correspond to ???20% serpentinization of mantle peridotites, and consistent with similar observations in other warm subduction zones. Estimated dip of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath southern Vancouver Island is ???11??, 16??, and 27?? at depths of 30, 40, and 50 km, respectively. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1101 Section 100.1101 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events for the San Diego Captain of the Port... 83] 1. San Diego Fall Classic Sponsor San Diego Rowing Club. Event Description Competitive rowing...

  9. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1101 Section 100.1101 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1101 Southern California annual marine events for the San Diego Captain of the Port... 83] 1. San Diego Fall Classic Sponsor San Diego Rowing Club. Event Description Competitive rowing...

  10. The Relationship between Teachers Commitment and Female Students Academic Achievements in Some Selected Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibiso, Abyot; Olango, Menna; Bibiso, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's commitment and female students academic achievement in selected secondary school of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The research method employed was survey study and the sampling techniques were purposive, simple random and stratified random sampling. Questionnaire…

  11. A Thick, Deformed Sedimentary Wedge in an Erosional Subduction Zone, Southern Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, E. A.; Kluesner, J. W.; Edwards, J. H.; Vannucchi, P.

    2014-12-01

    A paradigm of erosional subduction zones is that the lower part of the wedge is composed of strong, crystalline basement (Clift and Vannucchi, Rev. Geophys., 42, RG2001, 2004). The CRISP 3D seismic reflection study of the southern part of the Costa Rica subduction zone shows quite the opposite. Here the slope is underlain by a series of fault-cored anticlines, with faults dipping both landward and seaward that root into the plate boundary. Deformation intensity increases with depth, and young, near-surface deformation follows that of the deeper structures but with basin inversions indicating a dynamic evolution (Edwards et al., this meeting). Fold wavelength increases landward, consistent with the folding of a landward-thickening wedge. Offscraping in accretion is minimal because incoming sediments on the lower plate are very thin. Within the wedge, thrust faulting dominates at depth in the wedge, whereas normal faulting dominates close to the surface, possibly reflecting uplift of the deforming anticlines. Normal faults form a mesh of NNW and ENE-trending structures, whereas thrust faults are oriented approximately parallel to the dominant fold orientation, which in turn follows the direction of roughness on the subducting plate. Rapid subduction erosion just prior to 2 Ma is inferred from IODP Expedition 334 (Vannucchi et al., 2013, Geology, 49:995-998). Crystalline basement may have been largely removed from the slope region during this rapid erosional event, and the modern wedge may consist of rapidly redeposited material (Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013) that has been undergoing deformation since its inception, producing a structure quite different from that expected of an eroding subduction zone.

  12. Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea

    Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the main fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea—a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and ruptures on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that rupture of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault.

  13. Project Hi-CLIMB: A Synoptic View of the Himalayan Collision Zone and Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nábělek, J. L.; Vergne, J.; Hetenyi, G.

    2005-12-01

    Project Hi-CLIMB is a broadband seismic experiment whose goal is to produce a high-resolution continuous profile across the Himalaya and southern Tibet. The centerpiece of the project is a closely spaced, linear array of broadband seismographs, extending from the Ganga lowland, across the Himalayas, and onto the central Tibetan plateau. A complementary array of sparsely spaced stations flanks the linear array. Over 270 sites were occupied during the experiment. The principal institutions involved in the field operations were the Oregon State U. and U. of Illinois (USA), Dept. of Mines and Geology (Nepal), Chinese Academy of Geol. Sci. and Peking U. (China) and the Inst. of Earth Sci. (Taiwan). The major funding for this project was provided by the NSF, Continental Dynamics program. We focus on the receiver function images from the main profile. We observe clear Moho and the upper-mantle discontinuities. The Moho, which in southern Nepal is at 45 km depth (relative to sea level), dips at a gentle angle under the Himalaya. Crossing the Himalaya, its depth rapidly increases, reaching the of 70 km near the Yarlung River. We have succeeded in imagining the Main Himalayan Trust (MHT) as it descends northward at a shallow depth from its surface expression, the Main Frontal Thrust in southern Nepal. In Nepal along the profile, MHT is expressed by a pronounced seismic low velocity zone, which we believe indicates a presence of trapped aqueous fluids in the fault zone, thus lowering the strength of the megathrust. The low velocity associated with the MHT disappears for a short distance north but reappears again as the MHT increases its dip under S. Tibet. We believe the characteristics of the low velocity associated with the MHT in S. Tibet indicate a presence of partial melt due to an increase in depth and frictional heating. A low-velocity wedge above the MHT suggests an accumulation of the melt. This could be an ongoing process of generation of the Himalayan granites. The

  14. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  15. Prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Olani, Abebe; Habtamu, Yitbarek; Wegayehu, Teklu; Anberber, Manyazewal

    2016-03-01

    A study was made to determine the prevalence of camel trypanosomosis (surra) and its associated risk factors in Borena zone, southern Ethiopia during 2013-2014. A total of 2400 blood samples were collected and examined by the buffy coat and thin blood film laboratory methods, and data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The overall prevalence of camel trypanosomosis in the area was found to be 2.33 %. Prevalence was significantly different among the surveyed districts (P = 0.000), the pastoral associations (F = 6.408, P = 0.000), altitudinal divisions (P = 0.000), age groups (P = 0.034), and between animals possessing packed cell volume (PCV) values greater than 25 % and less than 25 % (P = 0.000); whereas, prevalence of the disease was not statistically significantly different between the sexes (P = 0.311) and among the body condition score groups (P = 0.739). The PCV of trypanosome positive and trypanosome negative camels differ significantly (P = 0.001), and prevalence of trypanosomosis was seen to be negatively correlated with packed cell volume (r = -0.069, P = 0.000) revealing the effect of camel trypanosomosis on anemia state of parasitized animals. In conclusion, camel trypanosomosis is a serious and economically important disease hampering camel production and productivity in southern Ethiopia. Further studies involving more sensitive molecular techniques to reveal the precise magnitude of the disease and to identify the vector species of the parasite are recommended.

  16. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    PubMed

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  17. Response of Gravity, Magnetic, and Geoelectrical Resistivity Methods on Ngeni Southern Blitar Mineralization Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaryo

    2018-03-01

    The research with entitle response of gravity, magnetic, and geoelectrical resistivity methods on Ngeni Southern Blitar mineralization zone has been done. This study aims to find the response of several geophysical methods of gravity, magnetic, and geoelectrical resistivity in an integrated manner. Gravity data acquisition was acquired 224 data which covers the whole region of Blitar district by using Gravity Meter La Coste & Romberg Model “G”, and magnetic data acquisition were acquired 195 data which covers the southern Blitar district only by using Proton Precession Magnetometer G-856. Meanwhile geoelectrical resistivity data only done in Ngeni village which is the location of phyropilite mining with the composition content of Fe, Si, Ca, S, Cu, and Mn by using ABEM Terrameter SAS 300C. Gravity data processing was performed to obtain the Bouguer anomaly value, which included unit conversion, tidal correction, drift correction, correction of tie point, base station correction, free air correction, and Bouguer correction. Magnetic data processing has been done by some corrections i.e daily, drift, and IGRF(International Geomagnetic Refference Field) to obtain the total magnetic anomaly. From gravity data processing has been obtained the simple Bouguer anomaly value in range from -10mGal until 115mGal. From this data processing has been obtained the total magnetic anomaly value in range from -650nT until 800nT. Meanwhile from geoelectrical resistivity 3.03Ωm until 11249.91 Ωm. There is a correlation between gravity anomaly, magnetic anomaly, and geoelectrical resistivity anomaly that are associated with deep anomaly, middle anomaly, and shallow anomaly.

  18. Lithospheric Instability beneath the Southeast Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, G. A.; Lorinczi, P.; Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    The South Carpathian Project, a major seismological experiment carried out during 2009-2011 by the University of Leeds, the National Institute of Earth Physics in Bucharest, the Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute in Budapest, and the Seismological Survey of Serbia in Belgrade, has resulted in the most detailed tomographic images yet obtained of the upper mantle structure beneath the Pannonian - Carpathian region (Ren et al., EPSL, 2012). These images illuminate the upper mantle over a wide region, but they specifically shed new light on the unique geological structure which is responsible for the damaging earthquakes that occur in the upper mantle beneath the Vrancea Zone of the South-east Carpathians. The earthquakes occur at the NE end of an asymmetric high velocity structure that extends upward to the SW, oblique to the southern edge of the South Carpathians. This sub-vertical high-velocity body is bounded by slow anomalies to the NW and SE, which extend down to the top of the Mantle Transition Zone. With increasing depth, the fast region becomes more circular in cross-section until about 400 km where the fast anomaly fades out. The main mass of fast (presumably dense) material is located directly beneath the seismic activity. The earthquakes are all characterised by near-vertical T-axes, which means they are caused by vertical stretching. The seismic moment release rate can be used to estimate vertical strain rates; these strain-rates imply that the mantle at 200 km is moving downward at about 20 mm/yr relative to the surface. The depth distribution of seismic-moment release rate follows a characteristic pattern that is most easily explained if this high velocity structure is produced by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability acting on an unstable stratification of mantle lithosphere above asthenosphere. Three-dimensional numerical experiments assuming viscous flow confirm that the drip-like structure that we image may be a natural consequence of a Rayleigh

  19. Lithospheric Deformation Along the Southern and Western Suture Zones of the Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuyen, C.; Porritt, R. W.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton that played an early role in the construction and growth of the North American continent. This region, which encompasses the majority of modern day Wyoming and southern Montana, initially collided with other Archean blocks in the Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.8 Ga), creating the Canadian Shield. From 1.8-1.68 Ga, the Yavapai Province crashed into the Wyoming Province, suturing the two together. The accretion of the Yavapai Province gave way to the Cheyenne Belt, a deformational zone that exists along the southern border of the Wyoming Province where earlier studies have found evidence for crustal imbrication and double a Moho. Current deformation within the Wyoming province is due to its interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot, which is currently located in the northwest portion of the region. This study images the LAB along the western and southern borders of the Wyoming Province in order to understand how the region's Archean lithosphere has responded to deformation over time. These results shed light on the inherent strength of Archean cratonic lithosphere in general. We employ two methods for this study: common conversion point (CCP) stacking of S to P receiver functions and teleseismic and ambient Rayleigh wave dispersion. The former is used to image the LAB structure while the latter is used to create a velocity gradient for the region. Results from both of the methods reveal a notably shallower LAB depth to the west of the boundary. The shallower LAB west of the Wyoming Province is interpreted to be a result of lithospheric thinning due to the region's interaction with the Yellowstone Hotspot and post-Laramide deformation and extension of the western United States. We interpret the deeper LAB east of the boundary to be evidence for the Wyoming Province's resistance to lithospheric deformation from the hotspot and tectonic processes. CCP images across the Cheyenne Belt also reveal a shallower LAB under the western

  20. Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

    1994-04-01

    In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust

  1. Geochemical particle fluxes in the Southern Indian Ocean seasonal ice zone: Prydz Bay region, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilskaln, C. H.; Manganini, S. J.; Trull, T. W.; Armand, L.; Howard, W.; Asper, V. L.; Massom, R.

    2004-02-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed between December 1998 and January 2000 and from March 2000 to February 2001 at two offshore Prydz Bay sites within the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Indian Ocean located between 62-63°S and 73-76°E to quantify seasonal biogeochemical particle fluxes. Samples were obtained from traps placed at 1400, 2400, and 3400 m during the first deployment year (PZB-1) and from 3300 m in the second deployment year (PZB-2). All geochemical export fluxes were highly seasonal with primary peaks occurring during the austral summer and relatively low fluxes prevailing through the winter months. Secondary flux peaks in mid-winter and in early spring were suggestive of small-scale, sea-ice break-up events and the spring retreat of seasonal ice, respectively. Biogenic silica represented over 70% (by weight) of the collected trap material and provided an annual opal export of 18 g m -2 to 1 km and 3-10 g m -2 to 3 km. POC fluxes supplied an annual export of approximately 1 g m -2, equal to the estimated ocean-wide average. Elevated particulate C org/C inorg and Si bio/C inorg molar ratios indicate a productive, diatom-dominated system, although consistently small fluxes of planktonic foraminifera and pteropod shells document a heterotrophic source of carbonate to deeper waters in the SIZ. The observation of high Si bio/C org ratios and the δ15N time-series data suggest enhanced rates of diatom-POC remineralization in the upper 1000 m relative to bioSiO 2. The occurrence in this region of a pronounced temperature minimum, associated with a strong pycnocline and subsurface particle maximum at 50-100 m, may represent a zone where sinking, diatom-rich particulates temporarily accumulate and POC is remineralized.

  2. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  3. Is the Vincent fault in southern California the Laramide subduction zone megathrust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Platt, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Vincent fault (VF) in the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California separates a Meso-Proterozoic gneiss complex and Mesozoic granitoid rocks in the upper plate from the ocean-affiliated Late Cretaceous Pelona schist in the lower plate, and it has been widely interpreted as the original Laramide subduction megathrust. A 500 to 1000 m thick mylonite zone, consisting of a low-stress (LS) section at the bottom, a high-stress (HS) section at the top, and a weakly deformed section in between, is developed above the VF. Our kinematic, thermobarometric and geochronological analysis of the mylonite zone indicates that the VF is a normal fault. Shear sense indicators including asymmetric porphyroblasts, quartz new grain fabric, mineral fish, and quartz CPO from the HS and the LS sections exhibit a top-to-SE sense of shear on the SW-dipping mylonitic foliation, which is contrary to what one would expect for the Laramide subduction megathrust. A few samples from the LS section were overprinted by HS microstructure, implying that the LS mylonites predate the HS mylonites. TitaniQ thermometer and Si-in-muscovite barometer show that the P-T conditions are 389 ± 6 °C, 5 kbar for the LS mylonites and 329 ± 6 °C, 2.4 kbar for HS mylonites. Considering the temporal sequence of HS and LS mylonites, they are likely to be formed during exhumation. A comparison with the lower plate leads to the same conclusion. The top 80-100 m of the Pelona schist underneath the VF is folded and also mylonitized, forming the Narrows synform and S3 simultaneously. Our previous study found that S3 of the Pelona schist has a top-to-SE sense of shear and similar P-T conditions as the LS mylonite in the upper plate, so S3 of the Pelona schist is likely to be formed together with the LS mylonites in the upper plate. While mylonitization of Pelona schist (S3) overprinted both the subduction-related S1 fabric and the return-flow-related S2 fabric, it is reasonable to argue that the mylonite zone above

  4. Wave-induced bedload transport - a study of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gic-Grusza, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    The wave-induced bedload transport and spatial distribution of its magnitude in the southern Baltic coastal zone of Poland are estimated. The vicinity of Lubiatowo was selected as a representative part of the Polish coast. It was assumed that transport is a function of shear stress; alternative approaches, based on force balances and discharge relationships, were not considered in the present study. Four models were studied and compared over a wide range of bottom shear stress and wind-wave conditions. The set of models comprises classic theories that assume a simplified influence of turbulence on sediment transport (e.g., advocated by authors such as Du Boys, Meyer-Peter and Müller, Ribberink, Engelund and Hansen). It is shown that these models allow to estimate transport comparable to measured values under similar environmental conditions. A united general model for bedload transport is proposed, and a set of maps of wave bedload transport for various wind conditions in the study area is presented.

  5. Estimates of deep percolation beneath native vegetation, irrigated fields, and the Amargosa-River Channel, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Akstin, Katherine C.; Boyd, Robert A.; Henkelman, Katherine K.

    2003-01-01

    The presence and approximate rates of deep percolation beneath areas of native vegetation, irrigated fields, and the Amargosa-River channel in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada were evaluated using the chloride mass-balance method and inferred downward velocities of chloride and nitrate peaks. Estimates of deep-percolation rates in the Amargosa Desert are needed for the analysis of regional ground-water flow and transport. An understanding of regional flow patterns is important because ground water originating on the Nevada Test Site may pass through the area before discharging from springs at lower elevations in the Amargosa Desert and in Death Valley. Nine boreholes 10 to 16 meters deep were cored nearly continuously using a hollow-stem auger designed for gravelly sediments. Two boreholes were drilled in each of three irrigated fields in the Amargosa-Farms area, two in the Amargosa-River channel, and one in an undisturbed area of native vegetation. Data from previously cored boreholes beneath undisturbed, native vegetation were compared with the new data to further assess deep percolation under current climatic conditions and provide information on spatial variability.The profiles beneath native vegetation were characterized by large amounts of accumulated chloride just below the root zone with almost no further accumulation at greater depths. This pattern is typical of profiles beneath interfluvial areas in arid alluvial basins of the southwestern United States, where salts have been accumulating since the end of the Pleistocene. The profiles beneath irrigated fields and the Amargosa-River channel contained more than twice the volume of water compared to profiles beneath native vegetation, consistent with active deep percolation beneath these sites. Chloride profiles beneath two older fields (cultivated since the 1960’s) as well as the upstream Amargosa-River site were indicative of long-term, quasi-steady deep percolation. Chloride profiles beneath the

  6. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the Southern Ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiso, J. C.; McClain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-02-01

    The spatial and seasonal distributions of phytoplankton pigment concentration over the entire southern ocean have been studied for the first time using the coastal zone color scanner historical data set (from October 1978 through June 1986). Enhanced pigment concentrations are observed between 35°S and 55°S throughout the year, with such enhanced regions being more confined to the south in the austral summer and extending further north in the winter. North and south of the polar front, phytoplankton blooms (>1 mg/m3) are not uniformly distributed around the circumpolar region. Instead, blooms appear to be located in regions of ice retreat (or high melt areas) such as the Scotia Sea and the Ross Sea, in relatively shallow areas (e.g., the Patagonian and the New Zealand shelves), in some regions of Ekman upwelling like the Tasman Sea, and near areas of high eddy kinetic energy such as the Agulhas retroflection. Among all features examined by regression analysis, bathymetry appears to be the one most consistently correlated with pigments (correlation coefficient being about -0.3 for the entire region). The cause of negative correlation with bathymetry is unknown but is consistent with the observed abundance of iron in shallow areas in the Antarctic region. It is also consistent with resuspension of phytoplankton cells by wind-induced mixing, especially in shallow waters. On the other hand, in the deep ocean (especially at latitudes <45°S where surface nutrients may be limiting), upwelling induced by topographic features may cause resupply of nutrients to the surface and shoaling of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum. Low pigment values are common at low latitudes and in regions of high wind stress, where deep mixing and net loss of surface pigment occur. Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate) are found to correlate significantly with pigments when the entire southern ocean is considered, but south of 55°S the correlation is poor, probably because the

  7. Magnetotelluric evidence for a deep-crustal mineralizing system beneath the Olympic Dam iron oxide copper-gold deposit, southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinson, Graham S.; Direen, Nicholas G.; Gill, Rob M.

    2006-07-01

    The iron oxide copper-gold Olympic Dam deposit, situated along the margin of the Proterozoic Gawler craton, South Australia, is the world's largest uranium deposit and sixth-largest copper deposit; it also contains significant reserves of gold, silver, and rare earth elements. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms for genesis of the economic liberalization is fundamental for defining exploration models in similar crustal settings. To delineate crustal structures that may constrain mineral system fluid pathways, coincident deep crustal seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) transects were obtained along a 220 km section that crosses Olympic Dam and the major crustal boundaries. In this paper we present results from 58 long-period (10 104 s) MT sites, with site spacing of 5 10 km. A two-dimensional inversion of MT data from 33 sites to a depth of 100 km shows four notable features: (1) sedimentary cover sequences with low resistivity (<20 Ω·m) thicken to 10 km toward the northern cover sequences of the Adelaide Rift Complex; (2) a northeast-dipping crustal boundary separates a highly resistive (>1000 Ω·m) Archean crustal core from a more conductive crust and mantle to the north (typically <500 Ω·m); (3) to the north of Olympic Dam, the upper-middle crust to ˜20 km is quite resistive (˜1000 Ω·m), but the lower crust is much more conductive (<100 Ω·m); and (4) beneath Olympic Dam, we image a low-resistivity region (<100 Ω·m) throughout the crust, coincident with a seismically transparent region. We argue that the cause of the low-resistivity and low-reflectivity region beneath Olympic Dam may be due to the upward movement of CO2-bearing volatiles near the time of deposit formation that precipitated conductive graphite liberalization along grain boundaries, simultaneously annihilating acoustic impedance boundaries. The source of the volatiles may be from the mantle degassing or retrograde metamorphism of the lower crust associated with Proterozoic

  8. The TIPTEQ seismological network in Southern Chile - Studying the Seismogenic Coupling Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, C.; Rietbrock, A.; Lange, D.; Bataille, K.; Hofmann, S.; Dahm, T.; Scherbaum, F.; Tilman, F.; Hermosilla, G.; Group, T. S.

    2005-12-01

    Subduction zones generate the world's largest and most destructive earthquakes. Understanding the factors leading to these earthquakes in the coupling zone of convergent margins and their interrelation with surface deformation are the main aims of the international and interdisciplinary research initiative TIPTEQ (From The Incoming Plate To megaThrust EarthQuake Processes) which is financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). These aims shall be achieved by obtaining high resolution images of the seismogenic zone and the forearc structure, which will form the base for identifying the processes involved. Our studies focus spatially on the nucleation zone of the Mw=9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, the worldwide largest instrumentally ever recorded earthquake. Within this project a large temporary seismological network is installed in southern Chile since Nov. 2004, covering the forearc between 37° and 39°S. It consists of 120 digitally recording and continuously running seismic stations equipped with short period sensors. The network covers the forearc between 37° and 39°S. The onshore network is complemented by 10 ocean bottom seismometers/hydrophones (OBS/OBH), and the stations (except for 20 stations which will operate until October 2005) were in operation until July 2005. The network is characterized by very short station spacings in the centre which will assure an increased quantity of P and S phase onset times and which will achieve the observation of the whole wavefield (coherent waveforms). A second network of 20 onshore and 20 offshore stations is installed at and around Chiloe Island for a one year period. Until now we collected about 1.2 TByte of data. First steps of the data processing are the event detection, the onset time picking, and the localisation of the (local) earthquakes (catalog). Later steps include the determination of the velocity and attenuation structure (tomography), the analysis of the stress field by moment tensor

  9. Tectonic controls on the genesis of ignimbrites from the Campanian Volcanic Zone, southern Italy

    Rolandi, G.; Bellucci, F.; Heizler, M.T.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Campanian Plain is an 80 x 30 km region of southern Italy, bordered by the Apennine Chain, that has experienced subsidence during the Quaternary. This region, volcanologically active in the last 600 ka, has been identified as the Campanian Volcanic Zone (CVZ). The products of three periods of trachytic ignimbrite volcanism (289-246 ka, 157 ka and 106 ka) have been identified in the Apennine area in the last 300 ka. These deposits probably represent distal ash flow units of ignimbrite eruptions which occurred throughout the CVZ. The resulting deposits are interstratified with marine sediments indicating that periods of repeated volcano-tectonic emergence and subsidence may have occurred in the past. The eruption, defined as the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI), with the largest volume (310 km3), occurred in the CVZ 39 ka ago. The products of the CI eruption consist of two units (unit-1 and unit-2) formed from a single compositionally zoned magma body. Slightly different in composition, three trachytic melts constitute the two units. Unit-1 type A is an acid trachyte, type B is a trachyte and type C of unit-2 is a mafic trachyte. The CI, vented from pre-existing neotectonic faults, formed during the Apennine uplift, Initially the venting of volatile-rich type A magma deposited the products to the N-NE of the CVZ. During the eruption, the Acerra graben already affected by a NE-SW fault system, was transected by E-W faults, forming a cross-graben that extended to the gulf of Naples. E-W faults were then further dislocated by NE-SW transcurrent movements. This additional collapse significantly influenced the deposition of the B-type magma of unit-1, and the C-type magma of unit-2 toward the E-SE and S, in the Bay of Naples. The pumice fall deposit underlying the CI deposits, until now thought to be associated with the CI eruption, is not a strict transition from plinian to CI-forming activity. It is derived instead from an independent source probably located near the

  10. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs). However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective space–time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district) to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Scan statistics, Global Moran’s I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi*) statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings. Results A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001), with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001), with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012. Conclusion The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control

  11. Upper crustal structure beneath East Java from ambient noise tomography: A preliminary result

    SciT

    Martha, Agustya Adi; Graduate Research on Earthquakes and Active Tectonics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung; Widiyantoro, Sri

    East Java has a fairly complex geological structure. Physiographically East Java can be divided into three zones, i.e. the Southern Mountains zone in the southern part, the Kendeng zone in the middle part, and the Rembang zone in the northern part. Most of the seismic hazards in this region are due to processes in the upper crust. In this study, the Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) method is used to image the upper crustal structure beneath East Java. We have used seismic waveform data recorded by 8Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) stationary seismographic stations and 16 portable seismographs installed formore » 2 to 8 weeks. The data were processed to obtain waveforms fromnoise cross-correlation between pairs of seismographic stations. Our preliminary results indicate that the Kendeng zone, an area of low gravity anomaly, is associated with a low velocity zone. On the other hand, the southern mountain range, which has a high gravity anomaly, is related to a high velocity anomaly as shown by our tomographic images.« less

  12. New insight into defining the lakes of the southern Baltic coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Cieśliński, Roman; Olszewska, Alicja

    2018-01-29

    There exist many classification systems of hydrographic entities such as lakes found along the coastlines of seas and oceans. Each system has its advantages and can be used with some success in the area of protection and management. This paper aims to evaluate whether the studied lakes are only coastal lakes or rather bodies of water of a completely different hydrological and hydrochemical nature. The attempt to create a new classification system of Polish coastal lakes is related to the incompleteness of lake information in existing classifications. Thus far, the most frequently used are classifications based solely on lake basin morphogenesis or hydrochemical properties. The classifications in this paper are based not only on the magnitude of lake water salinity or hydrochemical analysis but also on isolation from the Baltic Sea and other sources of water. The key element of the new classification system for coastal bodies of water is a departure from the existing system used to classify lakes in Poland and the introduction of ion-"tracking" methods designed to identify anion and cation distributions in each body of water of interest. As a result of the work, a new classification of lakes of the southern Baltic Sea coastal zone was created. Featured objects such as permanently brackish lakes, brackish lakes that may turn into freshwater lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that may turn into brackish lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that experience low levels of salinity due to specific incidents, and permanently freshwater lakes. The authors have adopted 200 mg Cl -  dm -3 as a maximum value of lake water salinity. There are many conditions that determine the membership of a lake to a particular group, but the most important is the isolation lakes from the Baltic Sea. Changing a condition may change the classification of a lake.

  13. Tsunami impact to Washington and northern Oregon from segment ruptures on the southern Cascadia subduction zone

    Priest, George R.; Zhang, Yinglong; Witter, Robert C.; Wang, Kelin; Goldfinger, Chris; Stimely, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the size and arrival of tsunamis in Oregon and Washington from the most likely partial ruptures of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) in order to determine (1) how quickly tsunami height declines away from sources, (2) evacuation time before significant inundation, and (3) extent of felt shaking that would trigger evacuation. According to interpretations of offshore turbidite deposits, the most frequent partial ruptures are of the southern CSZ. Combined recurrence of ruptures extending ~490 km from Cape Mendocino, California, to Waldport, Oregon (segment C) and ~320 km from Cape Mendocino to Cape Blanco, Oregon (segment D), is ~530 years. This recurrence is similar to frequency of full-margin ruptures on the CSZ inferred from paleoseismic data and to frequency of the largest distant tsunami sources threatening Washington and Oregon, ~Mw 9.2 earthquakes from the Gulf of Alaska. Simulated segment C and D ruptures produce relatively low-amplitude tsunamis north of source areas, even for extreme (20 m) peak slip on segment C. More than ~70 km north of segments C and D, the first tsunami arrival at the 10-m water depth has an amplitude of <1.9 m. The largest waves are trapped edge waves with amplitude ≤4.2 m that arrive ≥2 h after the earthquake. MM V–VI shaking could trigger evacuation of educated populaces as far north as Newport, Oregon for segment D events and Grays Harbor, Washington for segment C events. The NOAA and local warning systems will be the only warning at greater distances from sources.

  14. Seismic properties of lawsonite eclogites from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeyeong; Wallis, Simon; Endo, Shunsuke; Ree, Jin-Han

    2016-05-01

    We present new data on the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) and seismic properties of omphacite and lawsonite in extremely fresh eclogite from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala, to discuss the seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic crust. The CPO of omphacite is characterized by (010)[001], and it shows P-wave seismic anisotropies (AVP) of 1.4%-3.2% and S-wave seismic anisotropies (AVS) of 1.4%-2.7%. Lawsonite exhibits (001) planes parallel to the foliation and [010] axes parallel to the lineation, and seismic anisotropies of 1.7%-6.6% AVP and 3.4%-14.7% AVS. The seismic anisotropy of a rock mass consisting solely of omphacite and lawsonite is 1.2%-4.1% AVP and 1.8%-6.8% AVS. For events that propagate more or less parallel to the maximum extension direction, X, the fast S-wave velocity (VS) polarization is parallel to the Z in the Y-Z section (rotated from the X-Z section), causing trench-normal seismic anisotropy for orthogonal subduction. Based on the high modal abundance and strong fabric of lawsonite, the AVS of eclogites is estimated as ~ 11.7% in the case that lawsonite makes up ~ 75% of the rock mass. On this basis, we suggest that lawsonite in both blueschist and eclogite may play important roles in the formation of complex pattern of seismic anisotropy observed in NE Japan: weak trench-parallel anisotropy in the forearc basin domains and trench-normal anisotropy in the backarc region.

  15. Characterizing potentially induced earthquake rate changes in the Brawley Seismic Zone, southern California

    Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Brawley seismic zone (BSZ), in the Salton trough of southern California, has a history of earthquake swarms and geothermal energy exploitation. Some earthquake rate changes may have been induced by fluid extraction and injection activity at local geothermal fields, particularly at the North Brawley Geothermal Field (NBGF) and at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). We explore this issue by examining earthquake rate changes and interevent distance distributions in these fields. In Oklahoma and Arkansas, where considerable wastewater injection occurs, increases in background seismicity rate and aftershock productivity and decreases in interevent distance were indicative of fluid‐injection‐induced seismicity. Here, we test if similar changes occur that may be associated with fluid injection and extraction in geothermal areas. We use stochastic epidemic‐type aftershock sequence models to detect changes in the underlying seismogenic processes, shown by statistically significant changes in the model parameters. The most robust model changes in the SSGF roughly occur when large changes in net fluid production occur, but a similar correlation is not seen in the NBGF. Also, although both background seismicity rate and aftershock productivity increased for fluid‐injection‐induced earthquake rate changes in Oklahoma and Arkansas, the background rate increases significantly in the BSZ only, roughly corresponding with net fluid production rate increases. Moreover, in both fields the interevent spacing does not change significantly during active energy projects. This suggests that, although geothermal field activities in a tectonically active region may not significantly change the physics of earthquake interactions, earthquake rates may still be driven by fluid injection or extraction rates, particularly in the SSGF.

  16. Determinants of use of health facility for childbirth in rural Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asseffa, Netsanet Abera; Bukola, Fawole; Ayodele, Arowojolu

    2016-11-16

    Maternal mortality remains a major global public health concern despite many international efforts. Facility-based childbirth increases access to appropriate skilled attendance and emergency obstetric care services as the vast majority of obstetric complications occur during delivery. The purpose of the study was to determine the proportion of facility delivery and assess factors influencing utilization of health facility for childbirth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural districts of Hadiya zone, southern Ethiopia. Participants who delivered within three years of the survey were selected by stratified random sampling. Trained interviewers administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. We employed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify determinants of facility-based delivery. Data from 751 participants showed that 26.9% of deliveries were attended in health facilities. In bivariate analysis, maternal age, education, husband's level of education, possession of radio, antenatal care, place of recent ANC attended, planned pregnancy, wealth quintile, parity, birth preparedness and complication readiness, being a model family and distance from the nearest health facility were associated with facility delivery. On multiple logistic regression, age, educational status, antenatal care, distance from the nearest health facility, wealth quintile, being a model family, planned pregnancy and place of recent ANC attended were the determinants of facility-based childbirth. Efforts to improve institutional deliveries in the region must strengthen initiatives that promote female education, opportunities for wealth creation, female empowerment and increased uptake of family planning among others. Service related barriers and cultural influences on the use of health facility for childbirth require further evaluation.

  17. New constraints shed light on strike-slip faulting beneath the southern Apennines (Italy): The 21 August 1962 Irpinia multiple earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoli, Paola; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Palombo, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Console, Rodolfo; Ferrari, Graziano

    2016-11-01

    On 21 August 1962 an earthquake sequence set off near the city of Benevento, in Italy's southern Apennines. Three earthquakes, the largest having Mw 6.1, struck virtually the same area in less than 40 min (at 18:09, 18:19 and 18:44 UTC, respectively). Several historical earthquakes hit this region, and its seismic hazard is accordingly among the highest countrywide. Although poorly understood in the past, the seismotectonics of this region can be revealed by the 1962 sequence, being the only significant earthquake in the area for which modern seismograms are available. We determine location, magnitude, and nodal planes of the first event (18:09 UTC) of the sequence. The focal mechanism exhibits dominant strike-slip rupture along a north-dipping, E-W striking plane or along a west-dipping, N-S striking plane. Either of these solutions is significantly different from the kinematics of the typical large earthquakes occurring along the crest of the Southern Apennines, such as the 23 November 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Mw 6.9), caused by predominant normal faulting along NW-SE-striking planes. The epicentre of the 21 August 1962, 18:09 event is located immediately east of the chain axis, near one of the three north-dipping, E-W striking oblique-slip sources thought to have caused one of the three main events of the December 1456 sequence (Io XI MCS), the most destructive events in the southern Apennines known to date. We maintain that the 21 August 1962, 18:09 earthquake occurred along the E-W striking fault system responsible for the southernmost event of the 1456 sequence and for two smaller but instrumentally documented events that occurred on 6 May 1971 (Mw 5.0) and 27 September 2012 (Mw 4.6), further suggesting that normal faulting is not the dominant tectonic style in this portion of the Italian peninsula.

  18. Sediment features at the grounding zone and beneath Ekström Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, imaged using on-ice vibroseis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Emma C.; Eisen, Olaf; Hofstede, Coen; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The grounding zone, where an ice sheet becomes a floating ice shelf, is known to be a key threshold region for ice flow and stability. A better understanding of ice dynamics and sediment transport across such zones will improve knowledge about contemporary and palaeo ice flow, as well as past ice extent. Here we present a set of seismic reflection profiles crossing the grounding zone and continuing to the shelf edge of Ekström Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Using an on-ice vibroseis source combined with a snowstreamer we have imaged a range of sub-glacial and sub-shelf sedimentary and geomorphological features; from layered sediment deposits to elongated flow features. The acoustic properties of the features as well as their morphology allow us to draw conclusions as to their material properties and origin. These results will eventually be integrated with numerical models of ice dynamics to quantify past and present interactions between ice and the solid Earth in East Antarctica; leading to a better understanding of future contributions of this region to sea-level rise.

  19. Pore pressure development beneath the décollement at the Nankai subduction zone: Implications for plate boundary fault strength and sediment dewatering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarbek, Robert M.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2009-07-01

    Despite its importance for plate boundary fault processes, quantitative constraints on pore pressure are rare, especially within fault zones. Here, we combine laboratory permeability measurements from core samples with a model of loading and pore pressure diffusion to investigate pore fluid pressure evolution within underthrust sediment at the Nankai subduction zone. Independent estimates of pore pressure to ˜20 km from the trench, combined with permeability measurements conducted over a wide range of effective stresses and porosities, allow us to reliably simulate pore pressure development to greater depths than in previous studies and to directly quantify pore pressure within the plate boundary fault zone itself, which acts as the upper boundary of the underthrusting section. Our results suggest that the time-averaged excess pore pressure (P*) along the décollement ranges from 1.7-2.1 MPa at the trench to 30.2-35.9 MPa by 40 km landward, corresponding to pore pressure ratios of λb = 0.68-0.77. For friction coefficients of 0.30-0.40, the resulting shear strength along the décollement remains <12 MPa over this region. When noncohesive critical taper theory is applied using these values, the required pore pressure ratios within the wedge are near hydrostatic (λw = 0.41-0.59), implying either that pore pressure throughout the wedge is low or that the fault slips only during transient pulses of elevated pore pressure. In addition, simulated downward migration of minima in effective stress during drainage provides a quantitative explanation for down stepping of the décollement that is consistent with observations at Nankai.

  20. The mafic-ultramafic complex of Aniyapuram, Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India: Petrological and geochemical constraints for Neoarchean suprasubduction zone tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellappa, T.; Venkatasivappa, V.; Koizumi, T.; Chetty, T. R. K.; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, T.

    2014-12-01

    Several Precambrian mafic-ultramafic complexes occur along the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ) in Southern Granulite Terrain, India. Their origin, magmatic evolution and relationship with the associated high-grade rocks have not been resolved. The Aniyapuram Mafic-Ultramafic Complex (AMUC), the focus of the present study in southern part of the CSZ, is dominantly composed of peridotites, pyroxenites, gabbros, metagabbros/mafic granulites, hornblendites, amphibolites, plagiogranites, felsic granulites and ferruginous cherts. The rock types in the AMUC are structurally emplaced within hornblende gneiss (TTG) basement rocks and are highly deformed. The geochemical signature of the amphibolites indicates tholeiitic affinity for the protolith with magma generation in island arc-setting. N-MORB normalized pattern of the amphibolites show depletion in HFS-elements (P, Zr, Sm, Ti, and Y) and enrichment of LIL-elements (Rb, Ba, Th, Sr) with negative Nb anomalies suggesting involvement of subduction component in the depleted mantle source and formation in a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting. Our new results when correlated with the available age data suggest that the lithological association of AMUC represent the remnants of the Neoarchean oceanic lithosphere.

  1. Seismic High Attenuation Region Observed Beneath Southern New England From Teleseismic Body Wave Spectra: Evidence for High Asthenospheric Temperature Without Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mingduo T.; Menke, William H.

    2017-11-01

    Seismic attenuation exhibits strong geographic variability in northeastern North America, with the highest values associated with the previously recognized Northern Appalachian Anomaly (NAA) in southern New England. The shear wave quality factor at 100 km depth is 14 < QS < 25, the ratio of P wave and S wave quality factors is QP/QS = 1.2 ± 0.03 (95%), and the frequency dependence parameter is α = 0.39 ± 0.025 (95%). The high values of QP/QS and α are compatible with laboratory measurements of unmelted rock and, in the case of α, incompatible with widespread melting. The low QS implies high mantle temperatures ( 1,550-1,650°C) at 100 km depth (assuming no melt). Small-scale variations in attenuation suggest structural heterogeneity within the NAA, possibly due to lithospheric delamination caused by asthenospheric flow.

  2. Native and introduced earthworms from selected chaparral, woodland, and riparian zones in southern California

    Hulton B. Wood; Samuel W. James

    1993-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the earthworm fauna of southern California. Some 20 different species of earthworms were collected and identified in a survey of various southern California wildland habitats. The ecology and biology of earthworms are outlined, and the results of the survey are documented. Introduced species belonging to the Lumbricidae family were...

  3. Oxygen Isotopes in Intra-Back Arc Basalts from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, B. H.; Wang, Z.; Saal, A. E.; Frey, F. A.; Blusztajn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical compositions of volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) reflect complex and dynamic interactions among the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the mantle wedge, and the overlying continental crust. Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts can be a useful means to identifying their relative contributions to the arc magmatism. In this study, we report high-precision oxygen-isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts in a set of intra-back arc basalts from the SVZ. The samples were collected from monogenetic cinder cones east of the volcanic front (35-39 degrees S), and have been geochemically well-characterized with major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Compared to lavas from the volcanic front, these intra-back arc lavas have similar radiogenic isotope, and a more alkalic and primitive (higher MgO content) chemical composition. We determined the oxygen-isotope ratios using the CO2-laser-fluorination method set up at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University following the techniques reported in Wang et al (2011). The samples were analyzed with standards of Gore Mountain Garnet (5.77×0.12‰ 1σ; Valley et al., 1995) and Kilbourne Hole Olivine (5.23×0.07‰ 1σ; Sharp, 1990) in order to account for minor changes in the vacuum line during analyses. The obtained δ18OSMOW values of olivine phenocrysts from the intra-back arc basalts vary from 4.98×0.01 to 5.34×0.01‰. This range, surprisingly, is similar to the δ18O values of olivines from mantle peridotites (5.2×0.2‰). Preliminary results indicate significant correlations of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and trace element ratios of the basaltic matrix with the δ18O values of olivine phenocrysts, indicating at least three components involved in the formation of the arc volcanism. By comparing the δ18O with the variations of major and trace element contents (e.g., MgO, TiO2 and Ni), and trace element ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb), we evaluate the effects

  4. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciT

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even withmore » its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.« less

  5. Along-strike variability of primitive magmas (major and volatile elements) inferred from olivine-hosted melt inclusions, southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. J.; Stern, C. R.

    2018-01-01

    Glass compositions of melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts found in tephras derived from explosive eruptions of the four volcanoes along the volcanic front of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ) are used to constrain primitive magma compositions and melt generation parameters. Primitive magmas from Hudson, Macá, and Melimoyu have similar compositions and are formed by low degrees (8-18%) of partial melting. Compared to these other three centers, primitive magmas from Mentolat have higher Al2O3 and lower MgO, TiO2 and other incompatible minor elements, and are generated by somewhat higher degrees (12-20%) of partial melting. The differences in the estimated primitive parental magma compositions between Mentolat and the other three volcanic centers are consistent with difference in the more evolved magmas erupted from these centers, Mentolat magmas having higher Al2O3 and lower MgO, TiO2 and other incompatible minor element contents, suggesting that these differences are controlled by melting processes in the mantle source region above the subducted oceanic plate. Parental magma S = 1430-594 and Cl = 777-125 (μg/g) contents of Hudson, Macá, and Melimoyu are similar to other volcanoes further north in the SVZ. However, Mentolat primitive magmas have notably higher concentrations of S = 2656-1227 and Cl = 1078-704 (μg/g). The observed along-arc changes in parental magma chemistry may be due to the close proximity below Mentolat of the subducted Guamblin Fracture Zone that could efficiently transport hydrous mineral phases, seawater, and sediment into the mantle, driving enhanced volatile fluxed melting beneath this center compared to the others. Table S2. Olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositions, host-olivine compositions, and the post-entrapment crystallization corrected melt inclusion compositions. Table S3. Olivine-hosted melt inclusion modeling information. Table S4. Major element compositions of the fractionation corrected melt inclusion

  6. Across-arc geochemical variations in the Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile (34.5-38.0°S): Constraints on mantle wedge and slab input compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, G.; Hoernle, K.; Gill, J.; Hauff, F.; Wehrmann, H.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; van den Bogaard, P.; Bindeman, I.; Lara, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal assimilation (e.g. Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988) and/or subduction erosion (e.g. Stern, 1991; Kay et al., 2005) are believed to control the geochemical variations along the northern portion of the Chilean Southern Volcanic Zone. In order to evaluate these hypotheses, we present a comprehensive geochemical data set (major and trace elements and O-Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes) from Holocene primarily olivine-bearing volcanic rocks across the arc between 34.5°S and 38.0°S, including volcanic front centers from Tinguiririca to Callaqui, the rear arc centers of Infernillo Volcanic Field, Laguna del Maule and Copahue, and extending 300 km into the backarc. We also present an equivalent data set for Chile trench sediments outboard of this profile. The volcanic arc (including volcanic front and rear arc) samples primarily range from basalt to andesite/trachyandesite, whereas the backarc rocks are low-silica alkali basalts and trachybasalts. All samples show some characteristic subduction zone trace element enrichments and depletions, but the backarc samples show the least. Backarc basalts have higher Ce/Pb, Nb/U, Nb/Zr, and Ta/Hf, and lower Ba/Nb and Ba/La, consistent with less of a slab-derived component in the backarc and, consequently, lower degrees of mantle melting. The mantle-like δ18O in olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts (volcanic arc = 4.9-5.6‰ and backarc = 5.0-5.4‰) and lack of correlation between δ18O and indices of differentiation and other isotope ratios, argue against significant crustal assimilation. Volcanic arc and backarc samples almost completely overlap in Sr and Nd isotopic composition. High precision (double-spike) Pb isotope ratios are tightly correlated, precluding significant assimilation of older sialic crust but indicating mixing between a South Atlantic Mid Ocean-Ridge Basalt (MORB) source and a slab component derived from subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust. Hf-Nd isotope ratios define separate linear arrays for the volcanic

  7. Sulphur-cycling bacteria and ciliated protozoans in a Beggiatoaceae mat covering organically enriched sediments beneath a salmon farm in a southern Chilean fjord.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos P; Valenzuela, Cristian; Matamala, Yessica; Godoy, Félix A; Aranda, Nicol

    2015-11-15

    The colourless mat covering organically enriched sediments underlying an intensive salmon farm in Estero Pichicolo, southern Chile, was surveyed by combined 454 PyroTag and conventional Sanger sequencing of 16S/18S ribosomal RNA genes for Bacteria and Eukarya. The mat was dominated by the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Candidatus Isobeggiatoa, Candidatus Parabeggiatoa and Arcobacter. By order of their abundances, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were represented by diverse deltaproteobacterial Desulfobacteraceae, but also within Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. The eukaryotic PyroTags were dominated by polychaetes, copepods and nematodes, however, ciliated protozoans were highly abundant in microscopy observations, and were represented by the genera Condylostoma, Loxophyllum and Peritromus. Finally, the abundant Sulfurimonas/Sulfurovum also suggest the occurrence of zero-valence sulphur oxidation, probably derived from Beggiatoaceae as a result of bacteriovorus infaunal activity or generated as free S(0) by the Arcobacter bacteria. The survey suggests an intense and complex sulphur cycle within the surface of salmon-farm impacted sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mushy Magma beneath Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, R.; Helmberger, D. V.; Sun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Zhu, L.

    2009-12-01

    A recent prospective on the Yellowstone Caldera discounts its explosive potential based on inferences from tomographic studies on regional earthquake data which suggests a high degree of crystallization of the underlying magma body. In this study, we analyzed P-wave receiver functions recorded by broadband stations above the caldera from 100 teleseismic earthquakes between January and November 2008. After applying a number of waveform modeling tools, we obtained much lower seismic velocities than previous estimates, 2.3 km/sec (Vp) and 1.1 km/sec (Vs), with a thickness of 3.6 km in the upper crust. This shallow low velocity zone is severe enough to cause difficulties with seismic tool applications. In particular, seismologists expect teleseismic P-waves to arrive with motions up and away or down and back. Many of the observations recorded by the Yellowstone Intermountain Seismic Array, however, violate this assumption. We show that many of the first P-wave arrivals observed at seismic stations on the edge of the caldera do not travel through the magma body but have taken longer but faster paths around the edge or wrap-around phases. Three stations near the trailing edge have reversal radial-component motions, while stations near the leading edge do not. Adding our constraints on geometry, we conclude that this relatively shallow magma body has a volume of over 4,300 km3. We estimate the magma body by assuming a fluid-saturated porous material consisting of granite and a mixture of rhyolite melt and supercritical water and CO2 at temperatures of 800 oC and pressure at 5 km (0.1 GPa).Theoretical calculations of seismic wave speed suggests that the magma body beneath the Yellowstone Caldera has a porosity of 32% filled with 92% rhyolite melt and 8% water-CO2 by volume.

  9. Seismic imaging of deep low-velocity zone beneath the Dead Sea basin and transform fault: Implications for strain localization and crustal rigidity

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.; Flores, C.H.; Rotstein, Y.; Qabbani, I.; Harder, S.H.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    New seismic observations from the Dead Sea basin (DSB), a large pull-apart basin along the Dead Sea transform (DST) plate boundary, show a low velocity zone extending to a depth of 18 km under the basin. The lower crust and Moho are not perturbed. These observations are incompatible with the current view of mid-crustal strength at low temperatures and with support of the basin's negative load by a rigid elastic plate. Strain softening in the middle crust is invoked to explain the isostatic compensation and the rapid subsidence of the basin during the Pleistocene. Whether the deformation is influenced by the presence of fluids and by a long history of seismic activity on the DST, and what the exact softening mechanism is, remain open questions. The uplift surrounding the DST also appears to be an upper crustal phenomenon but its relationship to a mid-crustal strength minimum is less clear. The shear deformation associated with the transform plate boundary motion appears, on the other hand, to cut throughout the entire crust. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Crustal Structure Beneath India and Tibet: New Constraints From Inversion of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arun; Ravi Kumar, M.; Mohanty, Debasis D.; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Srinagesh, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent comprises geological terranes of varied age and structural character. In this study, we provide new constraints to existing crustal models by inverting the P-to-s receiver functions (RFs) at 317 broadband seismic stations. Inversion results fill crucial gaps in existing velocity models (CRUST1.0 and SEAPS) by capturing regions which are less represented. The final model produced is much more heterogeneous and is able to capture the structural variations between closely spaced seismic stations. In comparison to the global models, major differences are seen for seismic stations located over various rift zones (e.g., Godavari, Narmada, and Cambay) and those close to the coastal regions where transition from oceanic to continental crust is expected to create drastic changes in the crustal configuration. Seismic images are produced along various profiles using 49,682 individual RFs recorded at 442 seismic stations. Lateral variations captured using migrated images across the Himalayan collisional front revealed the hitherto elusive southern extent of the Moho and intracrustal features south of the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Poisson's ratio and crustal thickness estimates obtained using H-k stacking technique and inversion of RFs are grossly similar lending credence to the robustness of inversions. An updated crustal thickness map produced using 1,525 individual data points from controlled source seismics and RFs reveals a (a) thickened crust (>55 km) at the boundary of Dharwar Craton and Southern Granulite Terrain, (b) clear difference in crustal thickness estimates between Eastern Dharwar Craton and Western Dharwar Craton, (c) thinner crust beneath Cambay Basin between southwest Deccan Volcanic Province and Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, (d) thinner crust (<35 km) beneath Bengal Basin, (e) thicker crust (>40 km) beneath paleorift zones like Narmada Son Lineament and Godavari Graben, and (f) very thick crust beneath central Tibet (>65 km) with maximum

  11. Subduction in the Southern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Bezada, M.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Pindell, J.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Caribbean is bounded at either end by subduction zones: In the east at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone the Atlantic part of the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. In the north and west under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt accretionary prism, the Caribbean subducts under South America. In a manner of speaking, the two plates subduct beneath each other. Finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography confirms this, imaging the Atlantic and the Caribbean subducting steeply in opposite directions to transition zone depths under northern South America (Bezada et al, 2010). The two subduction zones are connected by the El Pilar-San Sebastian strike-slip fault system, a San Andreas scale system. A variety of seismic probes identify where the two plates tear as they begin to subduct (Niu et al, 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Miller et al. 2009; Masy et al, 2009). The El Pilar system forms at the southeastern corner of the Antilles subduction zone by the Atlantic tearing from South America. The deforming plate edges control mountain building and basin formation at the eastern end of the strike-slip system. In northwestern South America the Caribbean plate tears, its southernmost element subducting at shallow angles under northernmost Colombia and then rapidly descending to transition zone depths under Lake Maracaibo (Bezada et al., 2010). We believe that the flat slab produces the Merida Andes, the Perija, and the Santa Marta ranges. The southern edge of the nonsubducting Caribbean plate underthrusts northern Venezuela to about the width of the coastal mountains (Miller et al., 2009). We infer that the underthrust Caribbean plate supports the coastal mountains, and controls continuing deformation.

  12. The Influence of Weather Anomalies on Mercury Cycling in the Marine Coastal Zone of the Southern Baltic-Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decreased emission loads of mercury, historical deposits of this metal in various compartments of the environment may become an additional diffuse source in the future. Global climate change manifests itself in the temperate zone in several ways: warmer winters, shorter icing periods, increased precipitation and heightened frequency of extreme events such as strong gales and floods, all of which cause disturbances in the rate and direction of mercury biogeochemical cycling. The present study was conducted at two sites, Oslonino and Gdynia Orlowo (both in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk), from which samples were collected once a month between January 2012 and December 2012. In the Southern Baltic region, climate changes can certainly enhance coast to basin fluxes of mercury and the transfer of bioavailable forms of this metal to the food web. They may also, in the future, contribute to uncontrollable increases of mercury in the seawater.

  13. Big mantle wedge, anisotropy, slabs and earthquakes beneath the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2017-09-01

    The Japan Sea is a part of the western Pacific trench-arc-backarc system and has a complex bathymetry and intense seismic activities in the crust and upper mantle. Local seismic tomography revealed strong lateral heterogeneities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, which was determined using P and S wave arrival times of suboceanic earthquakes relocated precisely with sP depth phases. Ambient-noise tomography revealed a thin crust and a thin lithosphere beneath the Japan Sea and significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies in the shallow mantle beneath the western and eastern margins of the Japan Sea. Observations with ocean-bottom seismometers and electromagnetometers revealed low-V and high-conductivity anomalies at depths of 200-300 km in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the subducting Pacific slab, and the anomalies are connected with the low-V zone in the normal mantle wedge beneath NE Japan, suggesting that both shallow and deep slab dehydrations occur and contribute to the arc and back-arc magmatism. The Pacific slab has a simple geometry beneath the Japan Sea, and earthquakes occur actively in the slab down to a depth of ∼600 km beneath the NE Asian margin. Teleseismic P and S wave tomography has revealed that the Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to the mantle transition zone (MTZ, 410-660 km) depths beneath the southern Japan Sea and the Tsushima Strait, and a slab window is revealed within the aseismic Philippine Sea slab. Seismic anisotropy tomography revealed a NW-SE fast-velocity direction in the BMW, which reflects corner flows induced by the fast deep subduction of the Pacific slab. Large deep earthquakes (M > 7.0; depth > 500 km) occur frequently beneath the Japan Sea western margin, which may be related to the formation of the Changbai and Ulleung intraplate volcanoes. A metastable olivine wedge is revealed within the cold core of the Pacific slab at the MTZ depth, which may be related

  14. Detailed Configuration of the Underthrusting Indian Lithosphere Beneath Western Tibet Revealed by Receiver Function Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Pei, Shunping

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the teleseismic waveform data recorded by 42 temporary stations from the Y2 and ANTILOPE-1 arrays using the P and S receiver function techniques to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath western Tibet. The Moho is reliably identified as a prominent feature at depths of 55-82 km in the stacked traces and in depth migrated images. It has a concave shape and reaches the deepest location at about 80 km north of the Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS). An intracrustal discontinuity is observed at 55 km depth below the southern Lhasa terrane, which could represent the upper border of the eclogitized underthrusting Indian lower crust. Underthrusting of the Indian crust has been widely observed beneath the Lhasa terrane and correlates well with the Bouguer gravity low, suggesting that the gravity anomalies in the Lhasa terrane are induced by topography of the Moho. At 20 km depth, a midcrustal low-velocity zone (LVZ) is observed beneath the Tethyan Himalaya and southern Lhasa terrane, suggesting a layer of partial melts that decouples the thrust/fold deformation of the upper crust from the shortening and underthrusting in the lower crust. The Sp conversions at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) can be recognized at depths of 130-200 km, showing that the Indian lithospheric mantle is underthrusting with a ramp-flat shape beneath southern Tibet and probably is detached from the lower crust immediately under the IYS. Our observations reconstruct the configuration of the underthrusting Indian lithosphere and indicate significant along strike variations.

  15. The Hellenic Subduction Zone: A tomographic image and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakman, W.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Vlaar, N. J.

    1988-01-01

    New tomographic images of the Hellenic subduction zone demonstrate slab penetration in the Aegean Upper Mantle to depths of at least 600 km. Beneath Greece the lower part of the slab appears to be detached at a depth of about 200 km whereas it still seems to be unruptured beneath the southern Aegean. Schematically we derive minimum time estimates for the duration of the Hellenic subduction zone that range from 26 to 40 Ma. This is considerably longer than earlier estimates which vary between 5 and about 13 Ma.

  16. Multi Plumes and Their Flows beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; van der Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    The three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa is estimated down to the lower mantle to investigate vertical and horizontal extension of low-velocity anomalies that bear out the presence of mantle plumes and their flows beneath lithosphere. We estimated this model through joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. With the unprecedented resolution in our S-velocity model, we found different flow patterns of hot materials upwelling beneath Afar beneath the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. While the low-velocity anomaly from Afar is well confined beneath the Gulf of Aden, inferring mantle flow along the gulf, N-S channel of low velocity is found beneath Arabia, not along the Red Sea. The Afar plume is distinctively separate from the Kenya plume, showing its origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identified another low-velocity extension to the lower mantle beneath Jordan and northern Arabia, which is thought to have caused volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirmed horizontal plume flow from Afar in NS direction beneath Arabia and in NE-SW direction beneath Ethiopia as a likely cause of the observed seismic anisotropy.

  17. Thermochronometrically constrained anatomy and evolution of a Miocene extensional accommodation zone and tilt domain boundary: The southern Wassuk Range, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorynski, Kyle E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Douglas Walker, J.

    2013-06-01

    (AHe) and Zircon (ZHe) (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from the southern Wassuk Range (WR) coupled with 40Ar/39Ar age data from the overlying tilted Tertiary section are used to constrain the thermal evolution of an extensional accommodation zone and tilt-domain boundary. AHe and ZHe data record two episodes of rapid cooling related to the tectonic exhumation of the WR fault block beginning at ~15 and ~4 Ma. Extension was accommodated through fault-block rotation and variably tilted the southern WR to the west from ~60°-70° in the central WR to ~15°-35° in the southernmost WR and Pine Grove Hills, and minimal tilting in the Anchorite Hills and along the Mina Deflection to the south. Middle Miocene geothermal gradient estimates record heating immediately prior to large-magnitude extension that was likely coeval with the extrusion of the Lincoln Flat andesite at ~14.8 Ma. Geothermal gradients increase from ~19° ± 4°C/km to ≥ 65° ± 20°C/km toward the Mina Deflection, suggesting that it was the focus of Middle Miocene arc magmatism in the upper crust. The decreasing thickness of tilt blocks toward the south resulted from a shallowing brittle/ductile transition zone. Postmagmatic Middle Miocene extension and fault-block advection were focused in the northern and central WR and coincidentally moderated the large lateral thermal gradient within the uppermost crust.

  18. Variations of the aerosol concentration and chemical composition over the arid steppe zone of Southern Russia in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M. S.; Gubanova, D. P.; Iordanskii, M. A.; Lebedev, V. A.; Maksimenkov, L. O.; Minashkin, V. M.; Obvintsev, Y. I.; Chketiani, O. G.

    2016-12-01

    Variations in the surface aerosol over the arid steppe zone of Southern Russia have been measured. The parameters of atmospheric aerosol (mass concentration, both dispersed and elemental compositions) and meteorological parameters were measured in Tsimlaynsk raion (Rostov oblast). The chemical composition of aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer has been determined, and the coefficients of enrichment of elements with respect to clarkes in the Earth's crust have been calculated. It is shown that, in summer, arid aerosols are transported from both alkaline and sandy soils of Kalmykia to the air basin over the observation zone. Aerosol particles in the surface air layer over this region have been found to contain the products of combustion of oil, coal, and ethylized fuel. These combustion products make a small contribution to the total mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol; however, they are most hazardous to the health of people because of their sizes and heavy-metal contents. A high concentration of submicron sulfur-containing aerosol particles of chemocondensation nature has been recorded. Sources of aerosol of both natural and anthropogenic origins in southern Russia are discussed.

  19. Water movement through a thick unsaturated zone underlying an intermittent stream in the western Mojave Desert, southern California, USA

    Izbicki, J.A.; Radyk, J.; Michel, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that small amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of intermittent streamflow in washes in the upper Mojave River basin, in the western Mojave Desert, near Victorville, California. These washes flow only a few days each year after large storms. To reach the water table, water must pass through an unsaturated zone that is more than 130 m thick. Results of this study, done in 1994-1998, showy that infiltration to depths below the root zone did not occur at control sites away from the wash. At these sites, volumetric water contents were as low as 0.01 and water potentials (measured as the combination of solute and matric potentials using a water activity meter) were as negative as -14,000 kPa. Water-vapor movement was controlled by highly negative solute potentials associated with the accumulation of soluble salts in the unsaturated zone. Highly negative matric potentials above and below the zone of maximum solute accumulation result from movement of water vapor toward the highly negative solute potentials at that depth. The ??18O and ??D (delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium) isotopic composition of water in coarse-grained deposits plots along a Rayleigh distillation line consistent with removal of water in coarse-grained layers by vapor transport. Beneath Oro Grande Wash, water moved to depths below the root zone and, presumably, to the water table about 130 m below land surface. Underneath Oro Grande Wash, volumetric water contents were as high as 0.27 and water potentials (measured as matric potential using tensiometers) were between -1.8 and -50 kPa. On the basis of tritium data, water requires at least 180-260 years to infiltrate to the water table. Clay layers impede the downward movement of water. Seasonal changes in water vapor composition underneath the wash are consistent with the rapid infiltration of a small quantity of water to great depths and subsequent equilibration of vapor with water in the surrounding material. It may be

  20. Upper crust beneath the central Illinois basin, United States

    McBride, J.H.; Kolata, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Newly available industry seismic reflection data provide critical information for understanding the structure and origin of the upper crust (0-12 km depth) beneath the central Illinois basin and the seismic-tectonic framework north of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. Mapping of reflector sequences furnishes the first broad three-dimensional perspective of the structure of Precambrian basement beneath the central United States Midcontinent. The highly coherent basement reflectivity is expressed as a synformal wedge of dipping and subhorizontal reflections situated beneath the center of the Illinois basin that thickens and deepens to the northeast (e.g., 0 to ???5.3 km thickness along a 123 km south to north line). The thickening trend of the wedge qualitatively mimics the northward thickening of the Late Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone; however, other Paleozoic units in the Illinois basin generally thicken southward into the basin center. The seismic data also reveal an anomalous subsequence defined by a spoon-shaped distribution of disrupted reflections located along the southern margin of the wedge. The boundaries of this subsequence are marked by distinct steeply dipping reflections (possible thrust faults?) that continue or project up to antiformal disruptions of lower Paleozoic marker reflectors, suggesting Paleozoic or possibly later tectonic reactivation of Precambrian structure. The areal extent of the subsequence appears to roughly correspond to an anomalous concentration of larger magnitude upper to middle crustal earthquakes. There are multiple hypotheses for the origin of the Precambrian reflectivity, including basaltic flows or sills interlayered with clastic sediments and/or emplaced within felsic igneous rocks. Such explanations are analogous to nearby Keweenawan rift-related volcanism and sedimentation, which initiated during Proterozoic rifting, and were followed eventually by reverse faulting along the rift margins caused

  1. Mineral chemistry of isotropic gabbros from the Manamedu Ophiolite Complex, Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India: Evidence for neoproterozoic suprasubduction zone tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellappa, T.; Tsunogae, T.; Chetty, T. R. K.; Santosh, M.

    2016-11-01

    The dismembered units of the Neoproterozoic Manamedu Ophiolite Complex (MOC) in the Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India comprises a well preserved ophiolitic sequence of ultramafic cumulates of altered dunites, pyroxenites, mafic cumulates of gabbros, gabbro-norites and anorthosites in association with plagiogranites, isotropic gabbros, metadolerites, metabasalts/amphibolites and thin layers of ferruginous chert bands. The isotropic gabbros occur as intrusions in association with gabbroic anorthosites, plagiogranite and metabasalts/amphibolites. The gabbros are medium to fine grained with euhedral to subhedral orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes and subhedral plagioclase, together with rare amphiboles. Mineral chemistry of isotropic gabbros reveal that the clinopyroxenes are diopsidic to augitic in composition within the compositional ranges of En(42-59), Fs(5-12), Wo(31-50). They are Ca-rich and Na poor (Na2O < 0.77 wt%) characterized by high-Mg (Mg# 79-86) and low-Ti (TiO2 < 0.35 wt%) contents. The tectonic discrimination plots of clinopyroxene data indicate island arc signature of the source magma. Our study further confirms the suprasubduction zone origin of the Manamedu ophiolitic suite, associated with the subduction-collision history of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean during the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent.

  2. Comparative assessment of genetic and morphological variation at an extensive hybrid zone between two wild cats in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Tatiane C; Tirelli, Flávia P; de Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species.

  3. Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

  4. The offshore Palos Verdes fault zone near San Pedro, Southern California

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Langenheim, V.E.; Calvert, A.J.; Sliter, R.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data are combined with a variety of other geophysical and geological data to interpret the offshore structure and earthquake hazards of the San Pedro shelf, near Los Angeles, California. Prominent structures investigated include the Wilmington graben, the Palos Verdes fault zone, various faults below the west part of the San Pedro shelf and slope, and the deep-water San Pedro basin. The structure of the Palos Verdes fault zone changes markedly along strike southeastward across the San Pedro shelf and slope. Under the north part of the shelf, this fault zone includes several strands, with the main strand dipping west. Under the slope, the main fault strands exhibit normal separation and mostly dip east. To the southeast near Lasuen Knoll, the Palos Verdes fault zone locally is low angle, but elsewhere near this knoll, the fault dips steeply. Fresh seafloor scarps near Lasuen Knoll indicate recent fault movement. We explain the observed structural variation along the Palos Verdes fault zone as the result of changes in strike and fault geometry along a master right-lateral strike-slip fault at depth. Complicated movement along this deep fault zone is suggested by the possible wave-cut terraces on Lasuen Knoll, which indicate subaerial exposure during the last sea level lowstand and subsequent subsidence of the knoll. Modeling of aeromagnetic data indicates a large magnetic body under the west part of the San Pedro shelf and upper slope. We interpret this body to be thick basalt of probable Miocene age. This basalt mass appears to have affected the pattern of rock deformation, perhaps because the basalt was more competent during deformation than the sedimentary rocks that encased the basalt. West of the Palos Verdes fault zone, other northwest-striking faults deform the outer shelf and slope. Evidence for recent movement along these faults is equivocal, because we lack age dates on deformed or offset sediment.

  5. Permian-Carboniferous arc magmatism in southern Mexico: U-Pb dating, trace element and Hf isotopic evidence on zircons of earliest subduction beneath the western margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Obregón, C.; Solari, L.; Gómez-Tuena, A.; Elías-Herrera, M.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Macías-Romo, C.

    2014-07-01

    Undeformed felsic to mafic igneous rocks, dated by U-Pb zircon geochronology between 311 and 255 Ma, intrude different units of the Oaxacan and Acatlán metamorphic complexes in southwestern Mexico. Rare earth element concentrations on zircons from most of these magmatic rocks have a typical igneous character, with fractionated heavy rare earths and negative Eu anomalies. Only inherited Precambrian zircons are depleted in heavy rare earth elements, which suggest contemporaneous crystallization in equilibrium with metamorphic garnet during granulite facies metamorphism. Hf isotopic signatures are, however, different among these magmatic units. For example, zircons from two of these magmatic units (Cuanana pluton and Honduras batholith) have positive ɛHf values (+3.8-+8.5) and depleted mantle model ages (using a mean crustal value of 176Lu/177Hf = 0.015) ( T DMC) ranging between 756 and 1,057 Ma, whereas zircons from the rest of the magmatic units (Etla granite, Zaniza batholith, Carbonera stock and Sosola rhyolite) have negative ɛHf values (-1 to -14) and model ages between 1,330 and 2,160 Ma. This suggests either recycling of different crustal sources or, more likely, different extents of crustal contamination of arc-related mafic magmas in which the Oaxacan Complex acted as the main contaminant. These plutons thus represent the magmatic expression of the initial stages of eastward subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the western margin of Gondwana, and confirm the existence of a Late Carboniferous-Permian magmatic arc that extended from southern North America to Central America.

  6. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  7. Miocene burial and exhumation of the India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet: response to slab dynamics and erosion

    Carrapa, Barbara; Orme, D.A.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Kapp, Paul; Cosca, Michael A.; Waldrip, R.

    2014-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet preserves a record of geodynamic and erosional processes following intercontinental collision. Apatite fission-track and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data from the Oligocene–Miocene Kailas Formation, within the India-Asia collision zone, show a synchronous cooling signal at 17 ± 1 Ma, which is younger than the ca. 26–21 Ma depositional age of the Kailas Formation, constrained by U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and requires heating (burial) after ca. 21 Ma and subsequent rapid exhumation. Data from the Gangdese batholith underlying the Kailas Formation also indicate Miocene exhumation. The thermal history of the Kailas Formation is consistent with rapid subsidence during a short-lived phase of early Miocene extension followed by uplift and exhumation driven by rollback and northward underthrusting of the Indian plate, respectively. Significant removal of material from the India-Asia collision zone was likely facilitated by efficient incision of the paleo–Indus River and paleo–Yarlung River in response to drainage reorganization and/or intensification of the Asian monsoon.

  8. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  9. Recovery of Nitrogen Pools and Processes in Degraded Riparian Zones in the Southern Appalachians

    John T. Walker; James M. Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Christopher D. Geron

    2009-01-01

    Establishment of riparian buffers is an effective method for reducing nutrient input to streams. However, the underlying biogeochemical processes are not fully understood. The objective of this 4-yr study was to examine the effects of riparian zone restoration on soil N cycling mechanisms in a mountain pasture previously degraded by cattle. Soil inorganic N pools,...

  10. The hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Italian Southern Alps) through the seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistacchi, A.; Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Garofalo, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The 600 m-thick, strike slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) experienced several hundred seismic slip events at c. 8 km depth, well-documented by numerous pseudotachylytes, was then exhumed and is now exposed in beautiful and very continuous outcrops. The fault zone was also characterized by hydrous fluid flow during the seismic cycle, demonstrated by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites. We have characterized the GLFZ with > 2 km of scanlines and semi-automatic mapping of faults and fractures on several photogrammetric 3D Digital Outcrop Models (3D DOMs). This allowed us obtaining 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models, based on robust probability density functions for parameters of fault and fracture sets, and simulating the fault zone hydraulic properties. In addition, the correlation between evidences of fluid flow and the fault/fracture network parameters have been studied with a geostatistical approach, allowing generating more realistic time-varying permeability models of the fault zone. Based on this dataset, we have developed a FEM hydraulic model of the GLFZ for a period of some tens of years, covering one seismic event and a postseismic period. The higher permeability is attained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when fractures are (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability decreases in the postseismic due to fracture sealing. The flow model yields a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern and a marked channelling of fluid flow in the inner part of the fault zone, due to permeability anisotropy related to the spatial arrangement of different fracture sets. Amongst possible seismological applications of our study, we will discuss the possibility to evaluate the coseismic fracture intensity due to off-fault damage, and the heterogeneity and evolution of mechanical parameters due to fluid-rock interaction.

  11. Quantitative kinematic analysis within the Khlong Marui shear zone, southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Grasemann, Bernhard; Edwards, Michael A.; Fritz, Harald

    2012-02-01

    The NNE trending Khlong Marui shear zone has a strong geomorphic signal with marked fault-strike parallel topographic ridges. The lithologies within the strike-slip zone mainly consist of vertical layers of mylonitic meta-sedimentary rocks associated with orthogneisses, mylonitic granites, and pegmatitic veins. The pegmatitic veins concordantly intrude the mylonitic foliation but were sheared at the rims indicating syn-kinematic emplacement. Microstructures and mineral assemblages suggest that the rocks in the area have been metamorphosed at amphibolite facies and low to medium greenschist facies by the first deformation. The Khlong Marui shear zone was deformed under dextral simple shear flow with a small finite strain. The ductile-to-brittle deformation involves a period of exhumation of lenses of higher grade rocks together with low grade fault rocks probably associated with positive flower structures. The final stage brittle deformation is reflected by normal faulting and formation of proto-cataclasites to cataclasites of the original mylonitic meta-sedimentary host rock. Although clear age-constraints are still missing, we use regional relationships to speculate that earlier dextral strike-slip displacement of the Khlong Marui shear zone was related to the West Burma and Shan-Thai collision and subduction along the Sunda Trench in the Late Cretaceous, while the major exhumation period of the ductile lens was tectonically influenced by the early India-Asia collision. The changing stress field has responded by switching from dextral strike-slip to normal faulting in the Khlong Marui shear zone, and is associated with "escape tectonics" arising from the overall India-Asia collision.

  12. Subduction zone mantle enrichment by fluids and Zr-Hf-depleted crustal melts as indicated by backarc basalts of the Southern Volcanic Zone, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Paul M.; Søager, Nina; Alfastsen, Mads; Bertotto, Gustavo W.

    2016-10-01

    We aim to identify the components metasomatizing the mantle above the subducting Nazca plate under part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). We present new major and ICP-MS trace element and Sr, Nd and high-precision Pb isotope analyses of primitive olivine-phyric alkali basalts from the Northern Segment Volcanic Field, part of the Payenia province in the backarc of the Transitional SVZ. One new 40Ar-39Ar age determination confirms the Late Pleistocene age of this most northerly part of the province. All analysed rocks have typical subduction zone type incompatible element enrichment, and the rocks of the Northern Segment, together with the neighbouring Nevado Volcanic Field, have isotopic compositions intermediate between adjacent Transitional SVZ arc rocks and southern Payenia OIB-type basaltic rocks. Modelling the Ba-Th-Sm variation we demonstrate that fluids as well as 1-2% melts of upper continental crust (UCC) enriched their mantle sources, and La-Nb-Sm variations additionally indicate that the pre-metasomatic sources ranged from strongly depleted to undepleted mantle. Low Eu/Eu* and Sr/Nd also show evidence for a UCC component in the source. The contribution of Chile Trench sediments to the magmas seems insignificant. The Zr/Sm and Hf/Sm ratios are relatively low in many of the Northern Segment rocks, ranging down to 17 and 0.45, respectively, which, together with relatively high Th/U, is argued to indicate that the metasomatizing crustal melts were derived by partial melting of subducted UCC that had residual zircon, in contrast to the UCC melts added to Transitional SVZ arc magmas. Mixing between depleted and undepleted mantle, enriched by UCC and fluids, is suggested by Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes of the Northern Segment and Nevado magmas. The metasomatized undepleted mantle south of the Northern Segment is suggested to be part of upwelling OIB-type mantle, whereas the pre-metasomatically depleted mantle also can be found as a component in some arc

  13. Discordant 14C ages from buried tidal-marsh soils in the Cascadia subduction zone, southern Oregon coast

    Nelson, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    Peaty, tidal-marsh soils interbedded with estuarine mud in late Holocene stratigraphic sequences near Coos Bay, Oregon, may have been submerged and buried during great (M > 8) subduction earthquakes, smaller localized earthquakes, or by nontectonic processes. Radiocarbon dating might help distinguish among these alternatives by showing that soils at different sites were submerged at different times along this part of the Cascadia subduction zone. But comparison of conventional 14C ages for different materials from the same buried soils shows that they contain materials that differ in age by many hundreds of years. Errors in calibrated soil ages represent about the same length of time as recurrence times for submergence events (150-500 yr)-this similarity precludes using conventional 14C ages to distinguish buried soils along the southern Oregon coast. Accelerator mass spectrometer 14C ages of carefully selected macrofossils from the tops of peaty soils should provide more precise estimates of the times of submergence events. ?? 1992.

  14. The Southern Part of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ; 42-46S) of the Andes: History of Medium and Large Explosive Holocene Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, C. R.; Naranjo, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Chaitén volcano is one of 13 large volcanic centers, and numerous small cones, comprising the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), that results from the subduction of the Nazca plate (at 7.8 cm/yr) between the landward extension of the Chiloé FZ at 42S and the Chile Rise - Trench triple junction at 46S. Chaitén is a rhyolite dome inside a 3 km diameter caldera located 15 km west of the larger Michinmahuida stratovolcano. Other stratovolcanoes in the SSVZ include Yate, Hornopirén, Corcovado, Yanteles, Melimoyu, Mentolat, Cay and Macá. Hudson volcano, the southernmost in the Southern SVZ, is a large 10 km caldera, while Huequi and Hualaihué - Cordón Cabrera are a group of small aligned cinder cones possibly related to a larger eroded volcanic complex. Prior to the May 2008 eruption of Chaitén, the only well documented historic eruptions in this segment of the Andean arc were the explosive eruption of Hudson in August 1991 (Naranjo et al. 1993), and two eruptions of Michinmahuida in 1742 and 1834-35. Tephra deposits provide evidence of 11 prehistoric explosive Holocene eruptions of the southernmost SSVZ Hudson volcano, including two large eruptions near <6700 and <3600 BP (Naranjo and Stern 1998). The 6700 BP eruption produced greater than 18 km3 of andesitic tephra, possibly the largest Holocene eruption in all the southern Andes. Although Hudson is clearly the most active of the Southern SVZ volcanoes in terms of both volume and frequency of explosive eruptions, tephra deposits indicate that seven of the other SSVZ volcanoes, including Chaitén, also have had medium to large Holocene explosive eruptions (Naranjo and Stern 2004). Three of these eruptions were from Corcovado at approximately <9190, <7980 and <6870 BP, one from Yanteles at <9180 BP, two from Melimoyu at <2740 and <1750 BP, one from Mentolat at <6960 and one from Macá at <1540 BP. Two other eruptions, at <6350 and <3820 BP, we interpret as having been produced by

  15. Geologic map and cross sections of the Embudo Fault Zone in the Southern Taos Valley, Taos County, New Mexico

    Bauer, Paul W.; Kelson, Keith I.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Peggy S.; Aby, Scott B.; Felix, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The southern Taos Valley encompasses the physiographic and geologic transition zone between the Picuris Mountains and the San Luis Basin of the Rio Grande rift. The Embudo fault zone is the rift transfer structure that has accommodated the kinematic disparities between the San Luis Basin and the Española Basin during Neogene rift extension. The eastern terminus of the transfer zone coincides with the intersection of four major fault zones (Embudo, Sangre de Cristo, Los Cordovas, and Picuris-Pecos), resulting in an area of extreme geologic and hydrogeologic complexities in both the basin-fill deposits and the bedrock. Although sections of the Embudo fault zone are locally exposed in the bedrock of the Picuris Mountains and in the late Cenozoic sedimentary units along the top of the Picuris piedmont, the full proportions of the fault zone have remained elusive due to a pervasive cover of Quaternary surficial deposits. We combined insights derived from the latest geologic mapping of the area with deep borehole data and high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity models to develop a detailed stratigraphic/structural model of the rift basin in the southern Taos Valley area. The four fault systems in the study area overlap in various ways in time and space. Our geologic model states that the Picuris-Pecos fault system exists in the basement rocks (Picuris formation and older units) of the rift, where it is progressively down dropped and offset to the west by each Embudo fault strand between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In this model, the Miranda graben exists in the subsurface as a series of offset basement blocks between the Ponce de Leon neighborhood and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In the study area, the Embudo faults are pervasive structures between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos, affecting all geologic units that are older than the Quaternary surficial deposits. The Los Cordovas faults are thought to represent the late Tertiary to

  16. Deformation and Oil Migration Along the Active Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone, Southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sample, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Deformation bands occur in an outcrop of a petroleum-bearing, sandstone-rich unit of the Monterey Formation along the active Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), near Corona del Mar, California. The deformation bands likely developed in a damage zone associated with a strand of the NIFZ. The bands appear to have formed in poorly lithified sandstone. They are relatively oil-free whereas the matrix sandstone contains oil in pore space. The deformation bands acted as baffles to flow, but continuing deformation likely breached permeability barriers over time. Thus the bands did not completely isolate compartments from oil migration, but similar structures in the subsurface would likely slow the rate of production in reservoirs. The network of bands at Corona del Mar forms a mesh with band intersection lines lying parallel to the trend of the NIFZ (northwest). This geometry formed as continuing deformation in the NIFZ rotated early bands into unfavorable orientations for continuing deformation, and new bands formed at high angles to the first set. Permeability in this setting is likely to have been anisotropic, higher parallel to strike of the NIFZ and lower vertically and perpendicular to the strike of the fault zone. One unique type of deformation band found here formed by dilation and early oil migration along fractures, and consequent carbonate cementation along fracture margins. These are thin, planar zones of oil 1 - 2 mm thick sandwiched between parallel, carbonate-cemented, positively weathering ribs. These bands appear to represent early oil migration by hydrofracture. Based on crosscutting relationships between structures and cements, there are three distinct phases of oil migration: early migration along discrete hydrofractures; dominant pore migration associated with periodic breaching of deformation bands; and late migration along open fractures, some several centimeters in width. This sequence may be representative of migration histories along the NIFZ in

  17. Heterogeneous subduction structure within the Pacific plate beneath the Izu-Bonin arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Xing, Junhui; Jiang, Xiaodian

    2018-05-01

    The Izu-Bonin subduction zone is a subduction system formed in early Eocene. The structure of the subduction zone becomes complicated with the evolution of the surrounding plate motion, and many aspects are still unkown or ambiguous. The geodynamic implications are further investigated in related to published seismic observations and geochemical characters of the Izu-Bonin subduction zone. As indicated by seismic tomography and epicentral distributions, the dip angle of the plate beneath the segment to the south of 29°-30°N (the southern Izu-Bonin) is much steeper than the northern one (the northern Izu-Bonin). Deep focus events in the southern segment extend to the depth of ∼600 km, whereas in the northern section deep events just terminate at 420-450 km. Particularly, tomographic images show an obvious boundary between the northern and southern Izu-Bonin at depths of 150-600 km neglected in the previous studies. The northern and southern segments are even separated by a wide range of low-velocity anomaly in P and S wave tomography at 380 km and 450 km depths. In this depth range, three events near 30°N are characterized by strike-slip mechanisms with slab parallel σ1 and horizontally north-south trending σ3, which differ with the typical down-dip compression mechanisms for neighboring events. These events could be attributed to an abrupt change of the morphology and movement of the slab in the transition segment between the northern and southern Izu-Bonin. Indicated by the focal mechanisms, the northern and southern Izu-Bonin exhibits an inhomogeneous stress field, which is closely related to age differences of the downgoing slab. Because of the reheating process, the thermal age of the Pacific plate entering the Izu-Bonin trench in the past 10 Ma, is only 60-90 ± 20 Ma, along with the younger plate subducting in the northern segment. The seismic anisotropy implies that mantle wedge flow orientation is between the motion direction of the Pacific plate and

  18. Localized zones of denitrification in a floodplain aquifer in southern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Laura; Bahr, Jean M.; Roden, Eric E.

    2010-12-01

    A floodplain aquifer within an agricultural watershed near Madison, Wisconsin (USA), was studied to determine whether denitrification was occurring below the surface organic layer. Groundwater levels and concentrations of O2, Cl-, NO{3/-}, SO{4/2-}, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and major cations were monitored over a 1-year period along a 230-m transect between an agricultural field and a stream discharge point. Seventeen groundwater samples were analyzed for δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 composition. Samples in which NO{3/-} was too low for stable isotope analysis were analyzed for excess dissolved N2. Groundwater NO{3/-} concentrations declined between the agricultural field and the discharge point. Chloride and δ15NNO3/δ18ONO3 data indicated that the drop in NO{3/-} was caused primarily by dilution of shallow NO{3/-}-rich water with deeper, NO{3/-}-depleted groundwater. Two localized zones of denitrification were identified in the upland-wetland transition by their δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 signatures, and two in the stream hyporheic zone by the presence of excess dissolved N2. The combined stratigraphic, hydrologic, and geochemical data in these locations correspond to groundwater mixing zones where NO{3/-} is delivered to subsurface layers that support denitrification fueled by dissolved (e.g. DOC or dissolved Fe(II)) and/or solid-phase (e.g. particulate organic carbon, solid-associated Fe(II), or pyrite) electron donors.

  19. Stratigraphic architecture and depositional history of lower Miocene, Planulina Zone, Southern Louisiana

    SciT

    Gates, B.C.; Galloway, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Planulina zone is a wedge of clastic sediment positioned between the Anahuac shale below and the Oakville sandstone interval above. Planulna sediments were deposited on an erosional surface, during a general rise in the sea level, and formed a retrogradational wedge. Within the study area, the Planulina zone consists of two large depositional complexes: the Mud Lake complex in west Cameron Parish, Louisiana, and the East Cameron complex in east Cameron Parish. The lowermost depositional sequence in the East Cameron complex is preserved in a network of submarine canyons that were eroded into the upper slope. Framework sands weremore » deposited in channel systems confined to the axis of the canyons, and the sands are encased in marine shale containing benthonic foraminifera indicative of an upper to middle slope paleoenvironment. Two younger depositional sequences overlie the submarine canyon facies and were deposited by deltaic systems that prograded basinward. A zone of expansion extends east to west through the Planulina interval and is named the ''Planulina flexure.'' The flexure is a large fault located at the relict shelf edge and soles out downdip inn the Anahuac shale. Several thousand feet of sediment downthrown on the flexure is equivalent to several hundred feet upthrown, and the flexure represented the boundary dividing updip deltaic processes from downdip slope processes during the beginning of Planulina deposition. The Planulina depositional history and stratigraphic architecture are directly related to the displacement along the flexure and the structural deformation of the underlying Anahuac shale.« less

  20. Spatial Distribution, Structure, Biomass, and Physiology of Microbial Assemblages across the Southern Ocean Frontal Zones during the Late Austral Winter

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Roger B.; Lowery, H. Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    We examined the spatial distributions of picoplankton, nanoplankton, and microplankton biomass and physiological state relative to the hydrography of the Southern Ocean along 90° W longitude and across the Drake Passage in the late austral winter. The eastern South Pacific Ocean showed some large-scale biogeographical differences and size class variability. Microbial ATP biomass was greatest in euphotic surface waters. The horizontal distributions of microbial biomass and physiological state (adenylate energy charge ratio) coincided with internal currents (fronts) of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In the Drake Passage, the biological scales in the euphotic and aphotic zones were complex, and ATP, total adenylate, and adenylate energy charge ratio isopleths were compressed due to the extension of the sea ice from Antarctica and constriction of the Circumpolar Current through the narrow passage. The physiological state of microbial assemblages and biomass were much higher in the Drake Passage than in the eastern South Pacific Ocean. The temperature of Antarctic waters, not dissolved organic carbon, was the major variable controlling picoplankton growth. Estimates of picoplankton production based on ATP increments with time suggest that production under reduced predation pressure was 1 to 10 μg of carbon per liter per day. Our results demonstrate the influence of large-scale hydrographic processes on the distribution and structure of microplankton, nanoplankton, and picoplankton across the Southern Ocean. PMID:16346777

  1. Environmental radiation and potential ecological risk levels in the intertidal zone of southern region of Tamil Nadu coast (HBRAs), India.

    PubMed

    Punniyakotti, J; Ponnusamy, V

    2018-02-01

    Natural radioactivity content and heavy metal concentration in the intertidal zone sand samples from the southern region of Tamil Nadu coast, India, have been analyzed using gamma ray spectrometer and ICP-OES, respectively. From gamma spectral analysis, the average radioactivity contents of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in the intertidal zone sand samples are 12.13±4.21, 59.03±4.26, and 197.03±26.24Bq/kg, respectively. The average radioactivity content of 232 Th alone is higher than the world average value. From the heavy metal analysis, the average Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations are 3.1, 80.24, 82.84, 23.66, 91.67, and 137.07ppm, respectively. The average Cr and Ni concentrations are lower, whereas other four metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations are higher than world surface rock average values. From pollution assessment parameter values, the pollution level is "uncontaminated to moderately contaminated" in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composition and structure of aggregates from compacted soil horizons in the southern steppe zone of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. S.; Abrosimov, K. N.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Kust, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and structure of aggregates from different agrogenic soils in the southern steppe zone of European Russia have been studied. It is shown that the multi-level study (from the macro- to microlevel) of these horizons makes it possible to identify soil compaction caused by different elementary soil processes: solonetz-forming, vertisol-forming, and mechanical (wheel) compaction in the rainfed and irrigated soils. The understanding of the genesis of the compaction of soil horizons (natural or anthropogenic) is important for the economic evaluation of soil degradation. It should enable us to make more exact predictions of the rates of degradation processes and undertake adequate mitigation measures. The combined tomographic and micromorphological studies of aggregates of 1-2 and 3-5 mm in diameter from compacted horizons of different soils have been performed for the first time. Additional diagnostic features of negative solonetz- forming processes (low open porosity of aggregates seen on tomograms and filling of a considerable part of the intraped pores with mobile substance) and the vertisol-forming processes (large amount of fine intraaggregate pores seen on tomograms and a virtual absence of humus-clay plasma in the intraped zone)—have been identified. It is shown that the combination of microtomographic and micromorphological methods is helpful for studying the pore space of compacted horizons in cultivated soils.

  3. Structural anatomy of a dismembered ophiolite suite from Gondwana: The Manamedu complex, Cauvery suture zone, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, T. R. K.; Yellappa, T.; Nagesh, P.; Mohanty, D. P.; Venkatasivappa, V.; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, T.

    2011-08-01

    Detailed geological and structural mapping of the Manamedu ophiolite complex (MOC), from the south-eastern part of the Cauvery suture zone (CSZ) within the Gondwana collisional suture in southern India reveals the anatomy of a dismembered ophiolite succession comprising pyroxenite actinolite-hornblendite, hornblendite, gabbro-norite, gabbro, anorthosite, amphibolite, plagiogranite, mafic dykes, and associated pelagic sediments such as chert-magnetite bands and carbonate horizons. The magmatic foliation trajectory map shows inward dipping foliations and a variety of fold structures. Structural cross-sections of the MOC reveal gentle inward dips with repetition and omission of different lithologies often marked by curvilinear hinge lines. The succession displays imbricate thrust sheets and slices of dismembered ophiolite suites distributed along several localities within the CSZ. The MOC can be interpreted as a deformed large duplex structure associated with south-verging back thrust system, consistent with crustal-scale 'flower structure'. The nature and distribution of ophiolitic rocks in the CSZ suggest supra-subduction zone setting associated with the lithospheric subduction of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Ocean, followed by collision and obduction during the final stage of amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent in the end Precambrian.

  4. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  5. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT WATER MASSES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY ON DIMETHYLSULPHIDE AND DIMETHYLSULPHONIOPROPIONATE IN THE SUBANTARCTIC ZONE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN DURING ACE-1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of salinity, temperature, phytoplankton biomass and speciation, dissolved nitrate, dimethylsulphide (DMS) in seawater and air, and dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), were made in the subantarctic zone of the Southern Ocean from 40|-54|S, and 140|-153|E during the So...

  6. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan

    2017-01-01

    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  7. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California Annual Marine Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain... Description Competitive long distance sailboat race from Los Angeles to Honolulu. Date Bi-annually in early...

  8. Modern diatom assemblages as tools for paleoenvironmental reconstruction: a case study from estuarine intertidal zones in southern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Ana; Boski, Tomasz; Moura, Delminda; Szkornik, Katie; Witkowski, Andrzej; Connor, Simon; Laut, Lazaro; Sobrinho, Frederico; Oliveira, Sónia

    2017-04-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae that live in saline, brackish and freshwater environments, either floating in the water column or associated with various substrates (e.g., muddy and sandy sediments). Diatoms are sensitive to changes in environmental variables such as salinity, sediment texture, nutrient availability, light and temperature. This characteristic, along with their short lifespan, allows diatoms to quickly respond to environmental changes. Since the beginning of the 20th century, diatoms have been widely used to study the Holocene evolution of estuaries worldwide, particularly to reconstruct ecological responses to sea-level and climate changes. However, diatoms have been poorly studied in estuarine intertidal zones, due to the complexity of these environments, which have both fluvial and marine influences. The aim of this study was to understand diatom diversity and spatial distribution in intertidal zones from two geomorphologically and hydrologically distinct estuaries. Sediment samples were collected from within the intertidal zones along the Arade and Guadiana River estuaries in southern Iberia. The sampling points embraced almost all the tidal and salinity gradients of both estuaries, capturing the highest possible environmental variability and hence of diatom assemblages. At each sampling point, the salinity and pH of the sediment interstitial water were measured. The sediment samples were subdivided for diatom identification, textural analysis and organic matter determination. All sampling points were georeferenced by DGPS and the duration of tidal inundation was calculated for each site. Following diatom identification, the data were analysed statistically (i.e. cluster analysis, PCA, DCA and RDA). The present study revealed that there is a great diatom diversity in both estuaries (418 species), with several species new to science. The most important diatom species (with abundances higher or equal to 5%) occur in five ecological groups, which are

  9. Ductile extension of syn-magmatic lower crusts, with application to volcanic passive margins: the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidault, Marie; Geoffroy, Laurent; Arbaret, Laurent; Aubourg, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Deep seismic reflection profiles of present-day volcanic passive margins often show a 2-layered lower crust, from top to bottom: an apparently ductile 12 km-thick middle-lower layer (LC1) of strong folded reflectors and a 4 km-thick supra-Moho layer (LC2) of horizontal and parallel reflectors. Those layers appear to be structurally disconnected and to develop at the early stages of margins evolution. A magmatic origin has been suggested by several studies to explain those strong reflectors, favoring mafic sills intrusion hypothesis. Overlying mafic and acidic extrusives (Seaward Dipping Reflectors sequences) are bounded by continentward-dipping detachment faults rooting in, and co-structurated with, the ductile part of the lower crust (LC1). Consequently the syn-rift to post-rift evolution of volcanic passive margins (and passive margins in general) largely depends on the nature and the properties of the lower crust, yet poorly understood. We propose to investigate the properties and rheology of a magma-injected extensional lower crust with a field analogue, the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps, Italy). The Ivrea Zone displays a complete back-thrusted section of a Variscan continental lower crust that first underwent gravitational collapse, and then lithospheric extension. This Late Paleozoic extension was apparently associated with the continuous intrusion of a large volume of mafic to acid magma. Both the magma timing and volume, and the structure of the Ivrea lower crust suggest that this section represents an adequate analogue of a syn-magmatic in-extension mafic rift zone which aborted at the end of the Permian. Notably, we may recognize the 2 layers LC1 and LC2. From a number of tectonic observations, we reconstitute the whole tectonic history of the area, focusing on the strain field evolution with time, in connection with mafic magma injection. We compare those results with available data from extensional mafic lower crusts at rifts and margins.

  10. Evidences of a lithospheric fault zone in the Sicily Channel continental rift (southern Italy) from instrumental seismicity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, M.; Parisi, L.

    2014-10-01

    Sicily Channel is a portion of Mediterranean Sea, between Sicily (Southern Italy) and Tunisia, representing a part of the foreland Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt. The seismicity of the region is commonly associated with the normal faulting related to the rifting process and volcanic activity of the region. However, certain seismic patterns suggest the existence of some mechanism coexisting with the rifting process. In this work, we present the results of a statistical analysis of the instrumental seismicity and a reliable relocalization of the events recorded in the last 30 yr in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method and 3-D Vp and Vs tomographic models. Our procedure allows us to discern the seismic regime of the Sicily sea from the Tyrrhenian one and to describe the main features of an active fault zone in the study area that could not be related to the rifting process. We report that most of the events are highly clustered in the region between 12.5°-13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth of 5-40 km, and reaching 70 km depth in the southernmost sector. The alignment of the seismic clusters, the distribution of volcanic and geothermal regions and the location of some large events occurred in the last century suggest the existence of a subvertical shear zone extending for least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial distribution of the seismic moment suggests that this transfer fault zone is seismically discontinuous showing large seismic gaps in proximity of the Ferdinandea Island, and Graham and Nameless Bank.

  11. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  12. Balanced sediment fluxes in southern California’s Mediterranean-climate zone salt marshes

    Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Salt marsh elevation and geomorphic stability depends on mineral sedimentation. Many Mediterranean-climate salt marshes along southern California, USA coast import sediment during El Niño storm events, but sediment fluxes and mechanisms during dry weather are potentially important for marsh stability. We calculated tidal creek sediment fluxes within a highly modified, sediment-starved, 1.5-km2 salt marsh (Seal Beach) and a less modified 1-km2marsh (Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. We measured salt marsh plain suspended sediment concentration and vertical accretion using single stage samplers and marker horizons. At Seal Beach, a 2014 storm yielded 39 and 28 g/s mean sediment fluxes and imported 12,000 and 8800 kg in a western and eastern channel. Western channel storm imports offset 8700 kg exported during 2 months of dry weather, while eastern channel storm imports augmented 9200 kg imported during dry weather. During the storm at Mugu, suspended sediment concentrations on the marsh plain increased by a factor of four; accretion was 1–2 mm near creek levees. An exceptionally high tide sequence yielded 4.4 g/s mean sediment flux, importing 1700 kg: 20 % of Mugu’s dry weather fluxes. Overall, low sediment fluxes were observed, suggesting that these salt marshes are geomorphically stable during dry weather conditions. Results suggest storms and high lunar tides may play large roles, importing sediment and maintaining dry weather sediment flux balances for southern California salt marshes. However, under future climate change and sea level rise scenarios, results suggest that balanced sediment fluxes lead to marsh elevational instability based on estimated mineral sediment deficits.

  13. Hybridization between mouse lemurs in an ecological transition zone in southern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Gligor, M; Ganzhorn, J U; Rakotondravony, D; Ramilijaona, O R; Razafimahatratra, E; Zischler, H; Hapke, A

    2009-02-01

    Hybrid zones in ecotones can be useful model systems for the study of evolutionary processes that shape the distribution and discreteness of species. Such studies could be important for an improved understanding of the complex biogeography of Madagascar, which is renowned for its outstanding degree of small-scale endemism. Certain forest remnants in central Madagascar indicate that transitional corridors across the island could have connected microendemics in different forest types in the past. Evolutionary processes in such corridors are difficult to study because most of these corridors have disappeared due to deforestation in central Madagascar. We studied a hybrid zone in one of the few remaining ecotonal corridors between dry and humid forests in Madagascar, which connects two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus in dry spiny forest and Microcebus murinus in humid littoral forest. We sampled 162 mouse lemurs at nine sites across this boundary. Morphometric analyses revealed intermediate morphotypes of many individuals in transitional habitat. Bayesian clustering of microsatellite genotypes and assignment tests yielded evidence for a mixed ancestry of mouse lemurs in the ecotone, where we also observed significant linkage disequilibria and heterozygote deficiency. In contrast to these observations, mitochondrial haplotypes displayed a sharply delimited boundary at the eastern edge of spiny forest, which was noncoincident with the signals from microsatellite data. Among several alternative scenarios, we propose asymmetric nuclear introgression due to male-biased dispersal, divergent environmental selection, and an expansion of dry spiny forest in the course of aridification as a probable explanation of our observations.

  14. Enrichment of trace elements in garnet amphibolites from a paleo-subduction zone: Catalina Schist, southern California

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance, P-T stability, solubility, and element-partitioning behavior of minerals such as rutile, garnet, sphene, apatite, zircon, zoisite, and allanite are critical variables in models for mass transfer from the slab to the mantle wedge in deep regions of subduction zones. The influence of these minerals on the composition of subduction-related magmas has been inferred (and disputed) from inverse modelling of the geochemistry of island-arc basalt, or by experiment. Although direct samples of the dehydration + partial-melting region of a mature subduction zone have not been reported from subduction complexes, garnet amphibolites from melanges of circumpacific and Caribbean blueschist terranes reflect high T (>600??C) conditions in shallower regions. Such rocks record geochemical processes that affected deep-seated, high-T portions of paleo-subduction zones. In the Catalina Schist, a subduction-zone metamorphic terrane of southern California, metasomatized and migmatitic garnet amphibolites occur as blocks in a matrix of meta-ultramafic rocks. This mafic and ultramafic complex may represent either slab-derived material accreted to the mantle wedge of a nascent subduction zone or a portion of a shear zone closely related to the slab-mantle wedge contact, or both. The trace-element geochemistry of the complex and the distribution of trace elements among the minerals of garnet amphibolites were studied by INAA, XRF, electron microprobe, and SEM. In order of increasing alteration from a probable metabasalt protolith, three common types of garnet amphibolite blocks in the Catalina Schist are: (1) non-migmatitic, clinopyroxene-bearing blocks, which are compositionally similar to MORB that has lost an albite component; (2) garnet-amphibolite blocks, which have rinds that reflect local interaction between metabasite, metaperidotite, and fluid; and (3) migmatites that are extremely enriched in Th, HFSE, LREE, and other trace elements. These trace-element enrichments

  15. Imaging Magma Plumbing Beneath Askja Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, T. S.; White, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Using a dense seismic network we have imaged the plumbing system beneath Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland. Local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. We find a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~7 km around the depth of the brittle-ductile transition. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. We use relationships between mineralogy and seismic velocities to estimate that this region contains ~10% partial melt, similar to observations made at other volcanoes such as Kilauea. This low-velocity body is deeper than the depth range suggested by geodetic studies of a deflating source beneath Askja. Beneath the large low-velocity zone a region of reduced velocities extends into the lower crust and is coincident with seismicity in the lower crust. This is suggestive of a high temperature channel into the lower crust which could be the pathway for melt rising from the mantle. This melt either intrudes into the lower crust or stalls at the brittle-ductile boundary in the imaged body. Above this, melt can travel into the fissure swarm through large dikes or erupt within the Askja caldera itself.We generate travel time tables using a finite difference technique and the residuals used to simultaneously solve for both the earthquake locations and velocity structure. The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga dike intrusion has provided a 45 km long, distributed source of large earthquakes which are well located and provide accurate arrival time picks. Together with long-term background seismicity these provide excellent illumination of the Askja volcano from all directions.hhhh

  16. Mantle plumes and associated flow beneath Arabia and East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Van der Lee, Suzan

    2011-02-01

    We investigate mantle plumes and associated flow beneath the lithosphere by imaging the three-dimensional S-velocity structure beneath Arabia and East Africa. This image shows elongated vertical and horizontal low-velocity anomalies down to at least mid mantle depths. This three-dimensional S-velocity model is obtained through the joint inversion of teleseismic S- and SKS-arrival times, regional S- and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, and independent Moho constraints from receiver functions, reflection/refraction profiles, and gravity measurements. In the resolved parts of our S-velocity model we find that the Afar plume is distinctly separate from the Kenya plume, showing the Afar plume's origin in the lower mantle beneath southwestern Arabia. We identify another quasi-vertical low-velocity anomaly beneath Jordan and northern Arabia which extends into the lower mantle and may be related to volcanism in Jordan, northern Arabia, and possibly southern Turkey. Comparing locations of mantle plumes from the joint inversion with fast axes of shear-wave splitting, we confirm horizontal mantle flow radially away from Afar. Low-velocity channels in our model support southwestward flow beneath Ethiopia, eastward flow beneath the Gulf of Aden, but not northwestwards beneath the entire Red Sea. Instead, northward mantle flow from Afar appears to be channeled beneath Arabia.

  17. Evidences of a Lithospheric Fault Zone in the Sicily Channel Continental Rift (Southern Italy) from Instrumental Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, L.; Calo, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sicily Channel continental rift is located in the African Plate and is submerged by a shallow sea extending from the northern coast of Africa to the southern coast of Sicily (southern Italy). The area is affected by an extensional regime since early Pliocene, which thins the continental crust and produces NW-SE oriented Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta grabens. The rift-related volcanic activity is represented by Pantelleria and Linosa Islands and a series of magmatic manifestations roughly NNE-SSW aligned, from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, in proximity of the Sicilian coast. Recent rapid magmatic ascents occurred along the strip near to the Sicilian coast in a region named Graham Bank. The NNE-SSW strip has already been recognised as a separation belt between the western sector of the rift (Pantelleria graben) and the eastern one (Linosa and Malta grabens). Seismic profiles suggest the presence of near vertical structures associated with strike slip fault zones. Bathymetric data show a 15-20 km wide zone characterised by several shallow basins irregularly alternated by topographic highs. However, evidences of a N-S or NNE-SSW orientated faults have not been found. In this work we re-localised the instrumental seismicity recorded between 1981 and 2012 in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method (Waldhauser, 2001, 2012) and 3D Vp and Vs models (Calò et al., 2013). The statistical analysis of the relocated seismicity together with the study of seismic energy release distribution allows us to describe the main patterns associated with the active faults in the western Sicily Straits. Here we find that most of the events in the Sicily Channel are highly clustered between 12.5°- 13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth between 5-40 km, reaching in some cases 70 km of depth. Seismic events seem to be aligned along a sub-vertical shear zone that is long at least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial

  18. Variable rates of late Quaternary strike slip on the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California.

    Sharp, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    3 strike slip displacements of strata with known approximate ages have been measured at 2 locations on the San Jacinto fault zone. Minimum horizontal offset between 5.7 and 8.6km in no more than 0.73Myr NE of Anza indicates 8-12 mm/yr average slip rate since late Pleistocene time. Horizontal slip of 1.7m has been calculated for the youngest sediment of Lake Cahuilla since its deposition 271- 510 yr BP. The corresponding slip rate is 2.8-5.0 mm/yr. Right lateral offset of 10.9m measured on a buried stream channel older than 5060 yr BP but younger than 6820 yr BP yields average slip rates for the intermediate time periods, 400 to 6000 yr BP of 1-2 mm/yr. The rates of slip suggest a relatively quiescent period from about 4000 BC to about 1600 AD.-from Author

  19. Thermal environment of the Southern Washington region of the Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Marie S.; Johnson, H. Paul; Harris, Robert N.

    2017-08-01

    Eleven recently collected multichannel seismic (MCS) profiles from the Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects experiment offshore Washington State are used to characterize the distribution of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) from seaward of the deformation front onto the continental shelf of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The 11 MCS lines consisted of nine lines perpendicular and two lines parallel to the Cascadia margin covering a 100 km along-strike region of the accretionary wedge. From these MCS profiles we generated a 3-D view of the Cascadia margin thermal structure by interpreting 40,232 individual BSR picks in terms of temperature and heat flow. Overall BSR-derived heat flow values decrease from approximately 95 mW m-2 10 km east of the deformation front to approximately 60 mW m-2 located 60 km landward of the deformation front. Anomalously low heat flow values near 25 mW m-2 on a prominent midmargin terrace indicate recent sediment failure within the accretionary prism. Localized differences between BSR heat flow and numerical models reflect an estimated regional mean vertical fluid flow of +0.53 cm yr-1 for the survey area, with localized fluid flow approaching a maximum of +3.8 cm yr-1. Distinct finite element models for the nine MCS profiles perpendicular to the deformation front reproduce BSR heat flow values, producing an overall root-mean-square misfit of 10.2 mW m-2. At the deformation front, the incoming oceanic sediment/crust interface temperatures vary from 164°C to 179°C, indicating the updip limit of the Cascadia seismogenic zone.

  20. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    are being explored and sampled at the present time (1969). A little lead has been mined and smelted in the past but operations were on a very small scale and of short duration. Small amounts of lead, zinc, and copper minerals accompany dolomite replacement of Cretaceous limestone in a few scattered places, and several promising prospects are being investigated by means of trenches and drilling. One magnetite and several hematite prospects were examined but none offers any potential for economic development. Thick beds of gypsum in Lower Cretaceous limestone on Mesa de Los Santos, south of Bucaramanga are being quarried from outcrops for use in cement manufacture. The deposit was discovered shortly before the present project began, and although its extent beneath overlying strata is not yet determined by drilling, it appears to be in a small evaporite basin of about three kilometers in radius. Reserves of gypsum are large, but future development will have to be by underground mining. Outcrops of Cretaceous limestone of high purity are widespread and are more than adequate to meet all demands, which at present are for cement and calcined lime, road construction material, and to a small extent for agricultural lime and polished decorative stone. Upper Paleozoic limestone of the Diamante Formation crops out in a few places; it has been used near Bucaramanga for cement manufacture. Marble is present in several localities of the Santander massif in Lower Paleozoic and Devonian rocks. Impurities, fractures, and solution cavities render most of it unsuitable for decorative purposes, but selected parts are used in floor tile and terrazo. Recrystallized limestone of the Diamante Formation in the same area, usually referred to as marble, is of uniform high purity throughout a thick and uninterrupted section, and offers a good source of limestone raw material. A little is now used for agricultural lime. The potential of this resource has not been fully evalua

  1. Late Quaternary strike-slip along the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone and its tectonic implications in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-xing; Zheng, Wen-jun; Zhang, Pei-zhen; Lei, Qi-yun; Wang, Xu-long; Wang, Wei-tao; Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Ning

    2017-11-01

    The Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan are composed of discontinuous a set of active faults with various strikes and slip motions that are located to the north of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Despite growing understanding of the geometry and kinematics of these active faults, the late Quaternary deformation pattern in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan remains controversial. The active E-W trending Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone is located in the southern Gobi Alashan. Study of the geometry and nature of slip along this fault zone holds crucial value for better understanding the regional deformation pattern. Field investigations combined with high-resolution imagery show that the Taohuala Shan fault and the E-W trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F2 and F5) are left-lateral strike-slip faults, whereas the NW or WNW-trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F1 and F3) are reverse faults. We collected Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and cosmogenic exposure age dating samples from offset alluvial fan surfaces, and estimated a vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr, and a strike-slip rate of 0.14-0.93 mm/yr for the Taohuala Shan fault. Strata revealed in a trench excavated across the major fault (F5) in the Ayouqi fault zone and OSL dating results indicate that the most recent earthquake occurred between ca. 11.05 ± 0.52 ka and ca. 4.06 ± 0.29 ka. The geometry and kinematics of the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone enable us to build a deformation pattern for the entire Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, which suggest that this region experiences northeastward oblique extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. These left-lateral strike-slip faults in the region are driven by oblique compression but not associated with the northeastward extension of the Altyn Tagh fault.

  2. Topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic: The Azores, Canary and Cape Verde plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Lessing, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analysed over 1700 seismograms from MW > 5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of known hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 50-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: (i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from known hotspots, (ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and (iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be ponding beneath the endothermic 660 km phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone as a whole, except for those branches which appear as the thinner upwellings of Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  3. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution is of paramount importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation along faults at depth. Here we present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). This workflow has been developed on a real case of study: the strike-slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). It consists of a fault zone exhumed from ca. 10 km depth, hosted in granitoid rocks of Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). Individual seismogenic slip surfaces generally show green cataclasites (cemented by the precipitation of epidote and K-feldspar from hydrothermal fluids) and more or less well preserved pseudotachylytes (black when well preserved, greenish to white when altered). First of all, a digital model for the outcrop is reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs, processed with VisualSFM software. By using high resolution photographs the DOM can have a much higher resolution than with LIDAR surveys, up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Then, image processing is performed to map the fault-rock distribution with the ImageJ-Fiji package. Green cataclasites and epidote/K-feldspar veins can be quite easily separated from the host rock (tonalite) using spectral analysis. Particularly, band ratio and principal component analysis have been tested successfully. The mapping of black pseudotachylyte veins is more tricky because the differences between the pseudotachylyte and biotite spectral signature are not appreciable. For this reason we have tested different morphological processing tools aimed at identifying (and subtracting) the tiny biotite grains. We propose a solution based on binary images involving a combination of size and circularity thresholds. Comparing the results with manually segmented images, we noticed that major problems occur only when pseudotachylyte veins are very thin and discontinuous. After

  4. Physical and Biological Drivers of Biogeochemical Tracers Within the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone of the Southern Ocean From Profiling Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Ellen M.; Martz, Todd R.; Talley, Lynne D.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.

    2018-02-01

    Here we present initial findings from nine profiling floats equipped with pH, O2, NO3-, and other biogeochemical sensors that were deployed in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean in 2014 and 2015 through the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modelling (SOCCOM) project. A large springtime phytoplankton bloom was observed that coincided with sea ice melt for all nine floats. We argue this bloom results from a shoaling of the mixed layer depth, increased vertical stability, and enhanced nutrient and light availability as the sea ice melts. This interpretation is supported by the absence of a springtime bloom when one of the floats left the SIZ in the second year of observations. During the sea ice covered period, net heterotrophic conditions were observed. The rate of uptake of O2 and release of dissolved inorganic carbon (derived from pH and estimated total alkalinity) and NO3- is reminiscent of biological respiration and is nearly Redfieldian for the nine floats. A simple model of mixed layer physics was developed to separate the physical and biological components of the signal in pH and O2 over one annual cycle for a float in the Ross Sea SIZ. The resulting annual net community production suggests that seasonal respiration during the ice covered period of the year nearly balances the production in the euphotic layer of up to 5 mol C m-2 during the ice free period leading to a net of near zero carbon exported to depth for this one float.

  5. Agrogenic transformation of soil organic C in conditions of southern-taiga zone, European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz

    2017-04-01

    The principal regional features of soil organic carbon (SOC) agrogenic transformation and water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) genesis and environmental functions have been investigated in the Podzols and Podzoluvisols of the representative natural and agro- ecosystems in the southern taiga subzone of the European part of Russia. Especial attention has been done to the role of SOC agrogenic degradation and WSOS with acidic and ligand properties in soil carbon dioxide emission. The long-term agroecological investigations run in the regional set of representative agrolandscape monitoring stations in the educational farm "Mikhailovskoye" (Podolsk district, Moscow region), Field experimental station and Forest experimental station (RTSAU campus, Moscow) and in the Central Forest biosphere reserve (Nelidovo district, Tver region). Field research methods include sorption lysimetry and radioactive tracers. The laboratory ones - chromatography and spectrophotometry. There were used activated charcoal brand "Carbolite", chemically purified quartz sand and barley plant residues (2-3 mm), totally labeled with 14C in the soil-horizontally distributed sorption columns. Obtained results became useful for quantitative assessment of the principal stages and processes in soil CO2 emission, including the water-soluble organic substances formation (3.0 g of SOC per 100 g of plant litter or 60-75 g of SOC per square meter of the organo-mineral horizon A0 per year) and CO2 emission. In the middle taiga ecosystem conditions (with relatively low soil biological activity) the highest emission of CO2 (83,0±4.1 % of the newly formed WSOS) was in case of arable Podzoluvisols, and lowest one (32,4±2,5%) - in their semihydromorphic versions.

  6. Fault zone characteristics and basin complexity in the southern Salton Trough, California

    Persaud, Patricia; Ma, Yiran; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Fuis, Gary S.; Han, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing oblique slip at the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the Salton Trough produced the Imperial Valley (California, USA), a seismically active area with deformation distributed across a complex network of exposed and buried faults. To better understand the shallow crustal structure in this region and the connectivity of faults and seismicity lineaments, we used data primarily from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project to construct a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model down to 8 km depth and a velocity profile to 15 km depth, both at 1 km grid spacing. A VP = 5.65–5.85 km/s layer of possibly metamorphosed sediments within, and crystalline basement outside, the valley is locally as thick as 5 km, but is thickest and deepest in fault zones and near seismicity lineaments, suggesting a causative relationship between the low velocities and faulting. Both seismicity lineaments and surface faults control the structural architecture of the western part of the larger wedge-shaped basin, where two deep subbasins are located. We estimate basement depths, and show that high velocities at shallow depths and possible basement highs characterize the geothermal areas.

  7. HP LT Variscan metamorphism in the Cubito-Moura schists (Ossa-Morena Zone, southern Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Simancas, José Fernando; Azor, Antonio; Azañón, José Miguel; González-Lodeiro, Francisco; Fonseca, Paulo

    2006-12-01

    Multi-equilibrium thermobarometry shows that low-grade metapelites (Cubito-Moura schists) from the Ossa-Morena Zone underwent HP-LT metamorphism from 340-370 °C at 1.0-0.9 GPa to 400-450 °C at 0.8-0.7 GPa. These HP-LT equilibriums were reached by parageneses including white K mica, chlorite and chloritoid, which define the earliest schistosity (S 1) in these rocks. The main foliation in the schists is a crenulation cleavage (S 2), which developed during decompression from 0.8-0.7 to 0.4-0.3 GPa at increasing temperatures from 400-450 °C to 440-465 °C. Fe 3+ in chlorite decreased greatly during prograde metamorphism from molar fractions of 0.4 determined in syn-S 1 chlorites down to 0.1 in syn-S 2 chlorites. These new data add to previous findings of eclogites in the Moura schists indicating that a pile of allochtonous rocks situated next to the Beja-Acebuches oceanic amphibolites underwent HP-LT metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. To cite this article: G. Booth-Rea et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  8. Mantle structure beneath eastern Africa: Evidence for a through going-mantle anomaly and its implications for the origin of Cenozoic tectonism in eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulibo, G.; Tugume, F.; Julia, J.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are used to invert P and S travel time residuals, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds and for examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. Tomographic images reveal a low wave speed anomaly (LWA) that dips to the SW beneath northern Zambia, extending to a depth of at least 900 km. The anomaly appears to be continuous across the transition zone, extending into the lower mantle. Receiver function stacks reveal an average transition zone thickness (TZT) across a wide region extending from central Zambia to the NE through Tanzania and into Kenya, which is ~30-40 km thinner than the global average. These results are not easily explained by models for the origin of the Cenozoic tectonism in eastern Africa that invoke a plume head or small scale convection either by edge flow or passive stretching of the lithosphere. However, the depth extent of the LWA coincident with a thin transition zone is consistent with a model invoking a through-going mantle anomaly beneath eastern Africa that links anomalous upper mantle to the African Superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa. This finding indicates that geodynamic processes deep in the lower mantle are influencing surface dynamics across the Afro-Arabian rift system.

  9. Origin and distribution of carbon dioxide in the unsaturated zone of the southern High Plains of Texas

    Wood, Warren W.; Petraitis, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Partial pressures of CO2, O2, N2, and Ar were monitored at two locations in the Ogallala aquifer system on the Southern High Plains of Texas. Samples were collected monthly during parts of 1980–1981 from nine depths ranging from 0.6 to 36 meters below land surface. PCO2 was observed to be greater at depth than in the active soil zone and thus appears to contradict the normal process in which CO2 is generated in the soil zone and diffuses upward to the atmosphere and downward to the water table. The δ13C of the CO2 gas was quite uniform and averaged −17.9 per mil. PO2 declined with depth, suggesting in situ generation of CO2 by the oxidation of carbon. Several hypotheses were considered to explain the origin of the CO2 at depth. It was concluded that the most probable hypothesis was that dissolved and particulate organic carbon introduced by recharging water was oxidized to CO2 by the aerobic microbial community that utilized oxygen diffusing in from the atmosphere. This hypothesis is consistent with the CO2 concentration profile, calculated production profile of CO2, δ13C values of CO2 gas, caliche, soil humic acid fraction, and dissolved carbonate in groundwater. The abundance of CO2, its concentration profile, and its probable origin provide information for evaluating the observed complex sequence of caliche dissolution and precipitation known to occur in the aquifer.

  10. Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Cardinal, D.; André, L.; Dehairs, F.

    2012-03-01

    During the Bonus-GoodHope (BGH) expedition (Jan-Mar 2008) we studied the water column distribution of total 234Th and biogenic particulate Ba (Baxs) in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The objective was to assess the export flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the surface to the mesopelagic twilight zone along a section between the Cape Basin and Weddell Gyre. Export production of POC was estimated from steady state and non steady state export fluxes of 234Th which were converted into POC fluxes, using the POC/234Th ratio of large (>53 μm) suspended particles, collected via in-situ pumps. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations from the surface to the bottom of the mixed-layer. 234Th export fluxes from the upper 100 m ranged from 496 ± 57 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1195 ± 120 dpm m-2 d-1 for the steady state model and from 149 ± 18 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1217 ± 146 dpm m-2 d-1 for the non steady state model calculated for a time window of 15 to 22 days preceding the timing of the present cruise. The POC/234Thp ratio of large, potentially sinking particles (>53 μm), was observed to increase with latitude, from 1.9 ± 0.2 μmol dpm-1 and 1.7 ± 0.3 μmol dpm-1 in the Subtropical Zone (STZ) and Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), respectively, to 3.0 ± 0.2 μmol dpm-1 in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ), 4.8 ± 1.9 μmol dpm-1 at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) to 4.1 ± 1.7 μmol dpm-1 in the northern Weddell Gyre, in line with an increasing contribution of larger cell diatoms. Steady state and non steady state POC export from the upper 100 m ranged from 0.9 ± 0.2 mmolC m-2 d-1 to 5.1 ± 2.1 mmolC m-2 d-1 and from 0.3 ± 0.0 mmolC m-2 d-1 to 4.9 ± 3.2 mmolC m-2 d-1, respectively. From the SAZ to the SACCF, non steady state POC export production represented only 15 to 54 % of the steady state POC flux, suggesting that the intensity of export had decreased over time partly due to the fact that regenerated-production based communities

  11. Discrimination and Assessment of Induced Seismicity in Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study from Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Lindsey, N.; Foxall, W.; Robertson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes induced by human activity have become a matter of heightened public concern during recent years. Of particular concern is seismicity associated with wastewater injection, which has included events having magnitudes greater than 5. The causes of the induced events are primarily changes in pore-pressure, fluid volume and perhaps temperature due to injection. Recent research in the US has focused on mid-continental regions having low rates of naturally-occurring seismicity, where induced events can be identified by relatively straightforward spatial and temporal correlation of seismicity with high-volume injection activities. Recent examples include events correlated with injection of wastewater in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Ohio, and long-term brine injection in the Paradox Valley in Colorado. Even in some of the cases where there appears at first sight to be a clear spatial correlation between seismicity and injection, it has been difficult to establish causality definitively. Here, we discuss methods to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. We concentrate our study on Southern California, where large numbers of wastewater injection wells are located in oil-producing basins that experience moderate to high rates of naturally-occurring seismicity. Using the catalog of high-precision CISN relocations produced by Hauksson et al. (BSSA, 2012), we aim to discriminate induced from natural events based on spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity occurrence characteristics and their relationships to injection activities, known active faults and other faults favorably oriented for slip under the tectonic stress field. Since the vast majority of induced earthquakes are very small, it is crucial to include all events above the detection threshold of the CISN in each area studied. In addition to exploring the correlation of seismicity to injection activities in time and space, we analyze variations in frequency-magnitude distributions, which can

  12. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Hall, B.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Swarzenski, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  13. GLORIA mosaic of west coast U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone, southern sector

    SciT

    Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent.more » Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.« less

  14. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    PubMed

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  15. CLMSZ, Garnet Mountain area, southern California: A collisionally generated contractional shear zone

    SciT

    Bracchi, K.A.; Girty, G.H.; Girty, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    The Harper Creek gneiss (HCg) and Oriflamme Canyon unit (OCu) underlie the central portion of the Cuyamaca Laguna Mountains shear zone (CLMSZ) in and around Garnet Mountain, Peninsular Ranges, California, and may have been deformed during Cretaceous arc-continent collision. U-Pb zircon work and petrological and geochemical analyses suggest that in the Garnet Mountain area, the 140 Ma HCg is derived from granite and granodiorite, whereas the 122 [+-] 1 Ma OCu is a protomylonite derived from a granite. Both units appear to be per aluminous calc-alkaline magmatic arc granitoids. Mineral assemblages suggest uppermost greenschist to lower amphibolite grade conditions duringmore » deformation. In the HCg, S-1hc is a mylonitic gneissosity with a mean attitude of N11W, 60 NE. A mineral streaking lineation lies within the plane of S-1hc and has a mean attitude of 61[degree] N76E. In the OCu, S-1oc strikes about N13W and dips 52 NE and contains a mineral streaking lineation with an attitude of 49 N52E. Dextral and sinistral shear bands, S-2d and S-2s (looking NW), transect S-1hc and S-1oc. S-2d and S-2s strike subparallel to S-1. In the HCg S-2s is weakly developed and dips about 32 NE, whereas S-2d is more dominant and dips about 76 NE. On the OCu these relationships are reversed. S-2d does not cross cut S-2s: hence, the two sets of shear bands are interpreted to be conjugates reflecting NE-SW contraction and subvertical extension during collisional development of the CLMSZ.« less

  16. Do mud deposition events on sandy beaches affect surf zone ichthyofauna? A southern Brazilian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mont'Alverne, Renata; Moraes, Leonardo E.; Rodrigues, Fábio L.; Vieira, João P.

    2012-05-01

    Using fluid mud deposition events which occur regularly at Cassino Beach in south Brazil, we evaluated the influence of such events on the structure of the ichthyofauna inhabiting its shallow surf zone. Wave action was the dominant factor in differentiating between sampling sites, being lower or even absent at the mud-influenced sectors compared to beach area without mud. Samples were collected using a beach seine net at two control locations (A1 and A2), and at three locations influenced by mud deposition (B1, B2, and B3). During the study period (21 April-04 August 2009), 15,245 fishes were captured and separated into 26 taxonomic groups, from species to family. Individuals of a total length (TL) up to 50 mm accounted for 65% of the catch, while individuals of TL < 30 mm were the most numerous and more responsible for the total abundance spatial pattern. The area with higher wave action (A2) had the lowest relative species abundance and greatest diversity, whereas the areas with mud-forced lowest wave action (B2 and B3) had the highest species abundance values. Three hypotheses were proposed to explain the higher concentration and capture of juvenile fishes at mud locations. First, longshore currents may be responsible for the displacement of juvenile aggregations toward areas of lower energy. Second, individuals may select habitats with turbid waters, which may provide greater protection from predators and increased food availability. Third, areas under the influence of fluid mud deposition show higher values of viscosity, which may reduce swimming activity and hinder the escape of juvenile fishes from nets, resulting in an increased capture of individuals compared to areas without mud.

  17. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  18. Coulomb Stress Change and Seismic Hazard of Rift Zones in Southern Tibet after the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Earthquake and Its Mw7.3 Aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Zha, X.; Lu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In southern Tibet (30~34N, 80~95E), many north-trending rifts, such as Yadong-Gulu and Lunggar rifts, are characterized by internally drained graben or half-graben basins bounded by active normal faults. Some developed rifts have become a portion of important transportation lines in Tibet, China. Since 1976, eighty-seven >Mw5.0 earthquakes have happened in the rift regions, and fifty-five events have normal faulting focal mechanisms according to the GCMT catalog. These rifts and normal faults are associated with both the EW-trending extension of the southern Tibet and the convergence between Indian and Tibet. The 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal great earthquake and its Mw7.3 aftershock occurred at the main Himalayan Thrust zone and caused tremendous damages in Kathmandu region. Those earthquakes will lead to significant viscoelastic deformation and stress changes in the southern Tibet in the future. To evaluate the seismic hazard in the active rift regions in southern Tibet, we modeled the slip distribution of the 2015 Nepal great earthquakes using the InSAR displacement field from the ALOS-2 satellite SAR data, and calculated the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) on these active normal faults in the rift zones. Because the estimated CFS depends on the geometrical parameters of receiver faults, it is necessary to get the accurate fault parameters in the rift zones. Some historical earthquakes have been studied using the field data, teleseismic data and InSAR observations, but results are in not agreement with each other. In this study, we revaluated the geometrical parameters of seismogenic faults occurred in the rift zones using some high-quality coseismic InSAR observations and teleseismic body-wave data. Finally, we will evaluate the seismic hazard in the rift zones according to the value of the estimated CFS and aftershock distribution.

  19. Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.

  20. Structure of crust and upper mantle beneath NW Himalayas, Pamir and Hindukush by multi-scale double-difference seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Zahid Imran; Zhao, Junmeng; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Shah, Syed Tallataf Hussain

    2018-08-01

    The India-Asia collision and subsequent subduction initiated the evolution of major tectonic features in the Western Syntaxis. The complex tectonic structure and shallow to deep seismicity have attracted geoscientists over the past two decades. The present research is based on a 3D tomographic inversion of P-wave arrival time data to constrain the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath the NW Himalayas and Pamir-Hindukush region using the Double-difference tomography. We utilized a very large multi-scale dataset comprising 19,080 earthquakes recorded at 397 local and regional seismic stations from 1950 to 2017. The northward dipping seismic zone coinciding with the low velocity anomaly suggests the subduction of the Indian lower crust beneath the Hindukush. The extent of the northward advancing Indian slab increases from east to west in this region. We observed no signs of northward subduction of the Indian plate under the Hindukush beyond 71°E longitude. The Indian plate overturns due south after interacting with the Asian plate beneath the southern Pamir, which correlates with the counter-clockwise rotation of the Indian plate. The Asian plate is also imaged as a southward subducting seismic zone beneath the southern Pamir. In the NW Himalayas, the northward subducting Indian plate appears as a gently dipping low velocity anomaly beneath the Karakoram Block. The stresses caused by the collision and subduction along the Shyok Suture and Indus Suture are translated to the south. The crustal scale seismicity and high velocity anomalies indicate an intense deformation in the crust, which is manifested by syntaxial bends and thrust faults to the south of the Main Mantle Thrust.

  1. Direct measurement of 3D elastic anisotropy on rocks from the Ivrea zone (Southern Alps, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pros, Z.; Lokajíček, T.; Přikryl, R.; Klíma, K.

    2003-07-01

    Lower crustal and upper mantle rocks exposed at the earth's surface present direct possibility to measure their physical properties that must be, in other cases, interpreted using indirect methods. The results of these direct measurements can be then used for the corrections of models based on the indirect data. Elastic properties are among the most important parameters studied in geophysics and employed in many fields of earth sciences. In laboratory, dynamic elastic properties are commonly tested in three mutually perpendicular directions. The spatial distribution of P- and S-wave velocities are then computed using textural data, modal composition, density and elastic constants. During such computation, it is virtually impossible to involve all microfabric parameters like different types of microcracking, micropores, mineral alteration or quality of grain boundaries. In this study, complete 3D ultrasonic transmission of spherical samples in 132 independent directions at several levels of confining pressure up to 400 MPa has been employed for study of selected mafic and ultrabasic rocks sampled in and nearby Balmuccia ultrabasic massif (Ivrea zone, Southern Alps, NW Italy). This method revealed large directional variance of maximum P-wave velocity and different symmetries (orthorhombic vs. transversal isotropic) of elastic waves 3D distribution that has not been recorded on these rocks before. Moreover, one dunite sample exhibits P-wave velocity approaching to that of olivine single crystal being interpreted as influence of CPO.

  2. Soil Moisture/ Tree Water Status Dynamics in Mid-Latitude Montane Forest, Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsough, P. C.; Malazian, A.; Meadows, M. W.; Roudneva, K.; Storch, J.; Bales, R. C.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    As part of an effort to understand the root-water-nutrient interactions in the multi-dimensional soil/vegetation system surrounding large trees, in August 2008 we instrumented a mature white fir (Abies concolor) and the surrounding soil to better define the water balance in a single tree. In July 2010, we instrumented a second tree, a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in shallower soils on a drier, exposed slope. The trees are located in a mixed-conifer forest at an elevation of 2000m in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. The deployment of more than 250 sensors to measure temperature, volumetric water content, matric potential, and snow depth surrounding the two trees complements sap-flow measurements in the trunk and stem-water-potential measurements in the canopy to capture the seasonal cycles of soil wetting and drying. We show here the results of a multi-year deployment of soil moisture sensors as critical integrators of hydrologic/ biotic interaction in a forested catchment. Sensor networks such as deployed here are a valuable tool in closing the water budget in dynamic forested catchments. While the exchange of energy, water and carbon is continuous, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous in both space and time. Thus, the prediction of the behavior of the system across multiple scales constitutes a major challenge.

  3. The geometry of pull-apart basins in the southern part of Sumatran strike-slip fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aribowo, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Models of pull-apart basin geometry have been described by many previous studies in a variety tectonic setting. 2D geometry of Ranau Lake represents a pull-apart basin in the Sumatran Fault Zone. However, there are unclear geomorphic traces of two sub-parallel overlapping strike-slip faults in the boundary of the lake. Nonetheless, clear geomorphic traces that parallel to Kumering Segment of the Sumatran Fault are considered as inactive faults in the southern side of the lake. I demonstrate the angular characteristics of the Ranau Lake and Suoh complex pull-apart basins and compare with pull-apart basin examples from published studies. I use digital elevation model (DEM) image to sketch the shape of the depression of Ranau Lake and Suoh Valley and measure 2D geometry of pull-apart basins. This study shows that Ranau Lake is not a pull-apart basin, and the pull-apart basin is actually located in the eastern side of the lake. Since there is a clear connection between pull-apart basin and volcanic activity in Sumatra, I also predict that the unclear trace of the pull-apart basin near Ranau Lake may be covered by Ranau Caldera and Seminung volcanic products.

  4. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Mantle flow beneath Arabia offset from the opening Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Joon; Merino, Miguel; Van der Lee, Suzan; Stein, Seth; Stein, Carol A.

    2011-02-01

    Continental rifting involves a poorly understood sequence of lithospheric stretching, volcanism, and mantle flow that evolves to seafloor spreading. We present new insight from inversion of seismic traveltimes and waveforms beneath Arabia and surroundings. Low velocities occur beneath the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, consistent with active spreading. However, hot material extends not below the northern Red Sea, but is offset eastward beneath Arabia, showing mantle flow from the Afar hotspot. The location of this channel beneath volcanic rocks erupted since rifting began 30 million years ago indicates that flow moves with Arabia. We propose that the absence of seafloor spreading in the northern Red Sea reflects the offset flow. This geometry may evolve to spreading in the Northern Red Sea, rifting of Arabia, or both. This situation has aspects of both active and passive rifting, showing that both can occur before coalescing to seafloor spreading.

  6. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  7. Late summer particulate organic carbon export and twilight zone remineralisation in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Cardinal, D.; André, L.; Dehairs, F.

    2013-02-01

    As part of the GEOTRACES Bonus-GoodHope (BGH) expedition (January-March 2008) in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, particulate organic carbon (POC) export was examined from the surface to the mesopelagic twilight zone using water column distributions of total 234Th and biogenic particulate Ba (Baxs). Surface POC export production was estimated from steady state and non steady state modelling of 234Th fluxes, which were converted into POC fluxes, using the POC/234Th ratio of large, potentially sinking particles (> 53 μm) collected via in situ pumps. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations from the surface to the bottom of the mixed layer, yielding 234Th export fluxes from the upper 100 m of 496 ± 214 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1195 ± 158 dpm m-2 d-1 for the steady state model and of 149 ±517 dpm m-2 d-1 to 1217 ± 231 dpm m-2 d-1 for the non steady state model. Using the POC/234Thp ratio of sinking particles (ratios varied from 1.7 ± 0.2 μmol dpm-1 to 4.8 ± 1.9 μmol dpm-1) POC export production at 100 m was calculated to range between 0.9 ± 0.4 and 5.1 ± 2.1 mmol C m-2 d-1,assuming steady state and between 0.3 ± 0.9 m-2 d-1 and 4.9 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2 d-1, assuming non steady state. From the comparison of both approaches, it appears that during late summer export decreased by 56 to 16% for the area between the sub-Antarctic zone and the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF), whereas it remained rather constant over time in the HNLC area south of the SACCF. POC export represented only 6 to 54% of new production, indicating that export efficiency was, in general, low, except in the vicinity of the SACCF, where export represented 56% of new production. Attenuation of the POC sinking flux in the upper mesopelagic waters (100-600 m depth interval) was evidenced both, from excess 234Th activities and from particulate biogenic Ba (Baxs) accumulation. Excess 234Th activities, reflected by 234Th/238U ratios as large as 1.21 ± 0

  8. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  9. The Importance of Southern Hemisphere CZOs for Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Chemical Structure in the Critical Zone and Assisting Human Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2014-12-01

    The US Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) is a network of sites designed to provide a better understanding of the integrated Earth surface system. The capacity of the critical zone to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state, which in turn depends on the time evolution of the critical zone. Many temperate and/or tectonically active critical zones contain a relatively short history due to rapid erosion but tectonically quiescent, tropical regions of the planet contain much longer records that need to be understood to cover the full suite of critical zone processes. Southern Hemisphere Critical Zone Observatories such as those proposed for Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa and for portions of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australa will allow us to extend our temporal understanding of development of spatial heterogeneity in the chemical and physical structure of the critical zone. In addition to considering Earth and climate boundary conditions, these sites incorporate the roles that humans play in driving critical zone processes. For instance along the edges of KNP there is strong evidence of soil erosions due to periurbanization and small-scale agriculture. The existence of KNP provides an important contrast between a "natural" and "human-dominated" landscape that can be exploited to evaluate human impacts on critical zone resources and to develop targeted mitigation strategies. Western Australia has an exploitive economy that relies on large-scale agriculture and mineral extraction, both are intensive users of water which is scarce. The proposed CZO there will be partly focused on managing water under intense economic pressures. It is evident that if funding can be found for these sites they will enhance both critical zone science and practical applied science.

  10. Paleomagnetic Data Bearing on the Evolution of the Walker Lane Belt Transfer Zone From mid-Miocene to Present: an Investigation of the Inferred Southern and Eastern Boundaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grow, J. S.; Geissman, J. W.; Oldow, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Walker Lane Belt (WLB) transfer zone, which initiated in the mid-Miocene, presently links the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) in the south to the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) and WLB to the east and north, respectively. This transfer zone is part of a diffuse intracontinental deformation zone that accommodates some 25 percent of the current motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The boundary of the transfer system is clear on the northern and western margins but the extent of the system to the south and east is only inferred. The extent of deformation and development of the WLB transfer zone since the mid-Miocene is being examined by a paleomagnetic study of 125 sites that includes Miocene to mid-Pliocene volcanic and shallow intrusive rocks near the inferred southern and eastern boundaries. Results from 39 sites inside and along the southern boundary (i.e. Goldfield Hills, Montezuma Range, Clayton Ridge) show about 30° of clockwise rotation (D = 028.3°, I = 57.8°, α95 = 3.9°, discordant from the expected Neogene direction of D = 358°, I = 55°). The area where 13 of these 39 sites are located (i.e. northern Amargosa Range, eastern Slate Ridge) was previously thought to lie outside of the inferred boundary, yet it also shows about 30° of clockwise rotation (D = 031.2°, I = 52.4°, α95 = 6.7°). Areas along the eastern boundary (i.e. southern San Antonio Range) of the transfer zone are still under investigation; data obtained to date are not internally consistent. Overall, the available paleomagnetic data suggest that the southern extent of the WLB transfer zone was larger than previously expected during the mid-Miocene to mid-Pliocene, and based on previous paleomagnetic, structural, and geodetic studies of the area, support a transition from more diffuse to localized deformation (forming the Mina Deflection) at about 3 Ma.

  11. Neogene Sediment Transport, Deposition, and Exhumation from the Southern Alaska Syntaxis to the Eastern Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K. D.; Witmer, J. W.; Enkelmann, E.; Plafker, G.; Brennan, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over 5 km of Neogene sedimentary strata are well exposed in the Chugach-St. Elias Ranges within the southern Alaska syntaxis. This syntaxis forms where the Pacific-North America plate boundary changes from the northwest-trending Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform system to the southwest-trending Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Active collision and subduction of the buoyant Yakutat microplate in the syntaxis results in a wide collisional zone defined by active mountain belts, extensive glaciation, and thick packages of synorogenic strata. New stratigraphic and U-Th/He thermochronologic data from Neogene synorogenic strata, named the Yakataga and Redwood Formations, provide insights on collisional tectonics, glacial erosion, and sediment transport, deposition, burial, and exhumation from the onshore Chugach and St. Elias Ranges to the exposed accretionary prism of the Aleutian trench. Stratigraphic analyses show that along the southeastern part of the syntaxis, Neogene strata are characterized by deposition in braid delta, shallow marine, and glaciomarine slope apron depositional systems that resulted in construction of a broad continental shelf. In the central part of the syntaxis, marine shelf and upper slope environments deposited thick-bedded sandstone and mudstone in a thrust belt/foreland basin system. Along the southwestern part of the syntaxis, Neogene strata were deposited in a regional submarine fan system that filled the easternmost part of the Aleutian trench. Geologic mapping of the contact between the Yakataga Formation and underlying strata along the syntaxis document an angular unconformity with maximum stratigraphic separation (> 5 km) in the central part of the syntaxis. Along strike, this unconformity becomes conformable along both the southwestern and southeastern parts of the syntaxis. The regional angular unconformity and facies transitions both point to the importance of the central part of the syntaxis in the generation and distribution of

  12. Structure of Lithospheric and Upper Mantle Discontinuities beneath Central Mongolia from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Meltzer, A.; Fischer, K. M.; Stachnik, J. C.; Munkhuu, U.; Tsagaan, B.; Russo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and preservation of high-elevation low-relief surfaces in continental interiors remains an open questions. Central Mongolia constitutes a major portion of the Mongolian Plateau and is an excellent place to link deep earth and surface processes. The lithosphere of Mongolia was constructed through accretionary orogenesis associated with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) from the late Paleozoic to the early Triassic. Alkaline volcanic basalt derived from sublithospheric sources has erupted sporadically in Mongolia since 30 Ma. Constraining the depth variation of lithospheric and upper mantle discontinuities is crucial for understanding the interaction between upper mantle structure and surface topography. We conducted receiver functions (RF) analyses suitable data recorded at112 seismic broadband stations in central Mongolia to image the LAB and mantle transition zone beneath Central Mongolia. A modified H-κ stacking was performed to determine crustal average thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Central Mongolia is characterized by thick crust (43-57 km) enabling use of both P wave RF and to S wave RF to image the LAB. The PRF traces in the depth domain are stacked based on piercing point locations for the 410 and 660 discontinuities using 0.6 ° × 0.6 ° bins in a grid. From south to north, the average lithospheric thickness is 85km in Gobi Altai gradually thinning northeastward to 78km in the southern Hangay Dome, 72 km in the northern Hangay Dome then increases to 75km in Hovsgol area. While there is overall thinning of the lithosphere from SW to NE, beneath the Hangay, there is a slight increase beneath the highest topography. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath central Mongolia is similar to global averages. This evidence argues against the hypothesis that a mantle plume exists beneath Central Mongolia causing low velocity anomalies in the upper mantle. To the east of the Hovsgol area in northern Mongolia, the MTZ thickens

  13. The TESS-HERMES survey data release 1: high-resolution spectroscopy of the TESS southern continuous viewing zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Stello, Dennis; Buder, Sven; Kos, Janez; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Duong, Ly; Lin, Jane; Lind, Karin; Ness, Melissa; Huber, Daniel; Zwitter, Tomaz; Traven, Gregor; Hon, Marc; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Khanna, Shourya; Saddon, Hafiz; Anguiano, Borja; Casey, Andrew R.; Freeman, Ken; Martell, Sarah; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Wittenmyer, Rob A.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will provide high-precision time series photometry for millions of stars with at least a half-hour cadence. Of particular interest are the circular regions of 12° radius centred around the ecliptic poles that will be observed continuously for a full year. Spectroscopic stellar parameters are desirable to characterize and select suitable targets for TESS, whether they are focused on exploring exoplanets, stellar astrophysics or Galactic archaeology. Here, we present spectroscopic stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], v sin i, vmicro) for about 16 000 dwarf and subgiant stars in TESS' southern continuous viewing zone. For almost all the stars, we also present Bayesian estimates of stellar properties including distance, extinction, mass, radius and age using theoretical isochrones. Stellar surface gravity and radius are made available for an additional set of roughly 8500 red giants. All our target stars are in the range 10 < V < 13.1. Among them, we identify and list 227 stars belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The data were taken using the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES; R ∼ 28 000) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope as part of the TESS-HERMES survey. Comparing our results with the TESS Input Catalogue (TIC) shows that the TIC is generally efficient in separating dwarfs and giants, but it has flagged more than 100 cool dwarfs (Teff < 4800 K) as giants, which ought to be high-priority targets for the exoplanet search. The catalogue can be accessed via http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/tess-hermes/, or at Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  14. Spatial Variability of Soil-Water Storage in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory: Measurement and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroza, C.; Bales, R. C.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the spatial distribution of soil moisture in mountain environments is confounded by multiple factors, including complex topography, spatial variably of soil texture, sub-surface flow paths, and snow-soil interactions. While remote-sensing tools such as passive-microwave monitoring can measure spatial variability of soil moisture, they only capture near-surface soil layers. Large-scale sensor networks are increasingly providing soil-moisture measurements at high temporal resolution across a broader range of depths than are accessible from remote sensing. It may be possible to combine these in-situ measurements with high-resolution LIDAR topography and canopy cover to estimate the spatial distribution of soil moisture at high spatial resolution at multiple depths. We study the feasibility of this approach using six years (2009-2014) of daily volumetric water content measurements at 10-, 30-, and 60-cm depths from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. A non-parametric, multivariate regression algorithm, Random Forest, was used to predict the spatial distribution of depth-integrated soil-water storage, based on the in-situ measurements and a combination of node attributes (topographic wetness, northness, elevation, soil texture, and location with respect to canopy cover). We observe predictable patterns of predictor accuracy and independent variable ranking during the six-year study period. Predictor accuracy is highest during the snow-cover and early recession periods but declines during the dry period. Soil texture has consistently high feature importance. Other landscape attributes exhibit seasonal trends: northness peaks during the wet-up period, and elevation and topographic-wetness index peak during the recession and dry period, respectively.

  15. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  17. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution in outcrops of exhumed fault zones is of fundamental importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation. We present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM), developed on the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ), a well exposed strike-slip fault in the Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). The GLFZ has been exhumed from ca. 8-10 km depth, and consists of hundreds of individual seismogenic slip surfaces lined by green cataclasites (crushed wall rocks cemented by the hydrothermal epidote and K-feldspar) and black pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts, considered as a marker for seismic slip). A digital model of selected outcrop exposures was reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs processed with VisualSFM software. The resulting DOM has a resolution up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Most of the outcrop was imaged using images each one covering a 1 x 1 m2 area, while selected structural features, such as sidewall ripouts or stepovers, were covered with higher-resolution images covering 30 x 40 cm2 areas.Image processing algorithms were preliminarily tested using the ImageJ-Fiji package, then a workflow in Matlab was developed to process a large collection of images sequentially. Particularly in detailed 30 x 40 cm images, cataclasites and hydrothermal veins were successfully identified using spectral analysis in RGB and HSV color spaces. This allows mapping the network of cataclasites and veins which provided the pathway for hydrothermal fluid circulation, and also the volume of mineralization, since we are able to measure the thickness of cataclasites and veins on the outcrop surface. The spectral signature of pseudotachylyte veins is indistinguishable from that of biotite grains in the wall rock (tonalite), so we tested morphological analysis tools to discriminate

  18. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  19. Mapping the megathrust beneath the northern Gulf of Alaska using wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles

    SciT

    Brocher, T.M.; Fuis, G.S.; Fisher, M.A.

    1993-04-01

    In the northern Gulf of Alaska and Prince William Sound, wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiling, earthquake studies, and laboratory measurements of physical properties are used to determine the geometry of the Prince William and Yakutat terranes, and the subducting Pacific plate. In this complex region, the Yakutat terrane is underthrust beneath the Prince William terrane, and both terranes are interpreted to be underlain by the Pacific plate. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles recorded along 5 seismic lines are used to unravel this terrane geometry. Modeled velocities in the upper crust of the Prince William terrane (to 18-km depth) agree closely with laboratorymore » velocity measurements of Orca Group phyllites and quartzofeldspathic graywackes (the chief components of the Prince William terrane) to hydrostatic pressures as high as 600 MPa (6 KBAR). An interpretation consistent with these data extends the Prince William terrane to at least 18-km depth. A landward dipping reflection at depths of 16--24 km is interpreted as the base of the Prince William terrane. This reflector corresponds to the top of the Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and is interpreted as the megathrust. Beneath this reflector is a 6.9-km/s refractor, that is strongly reflective and magnetic, and is interpreted to be gabbro in Eocene age oceanic crust of the underthrust Yakutat terrane. Both wide-angle seismic and magnetic anomaly data indicate that the Yakutat terrane has been underthrust beneath the Prince William terrane for at least a few hundred kilometers. Wide-angle seismic data are consistent with a 9 to 10[degree] landward dip of the subducting Pacific plate, distinctly different from the inferred average 3 to 4[degree] dip of the overlying 6.9-km/s refractor and Wadati-Benioff seismic zone. The preferred interpretation of the geophysical data is that one composite plate, composed of the Pacific and Yakutat plates, is subducting beneath southern Alaska.« less

  20. Topography of Upper Mantle Seismic Discontinuities Beneath the North Atlantic: The Azores, Canary and Cape Verde Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Saki, M.; Nippress, S. E. J.; Lessing, S.

    2014-12-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analysed over 1700 seismograms from MW>5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of known hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 50-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from known hotspots, ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be blocked by endothermic phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone except for those branches which appear as the Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  1. Topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic: the Azores, Canary and Cape Verde plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Lessing, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We are mapping the topography of upper mantle seismic discontinuities beneath the North Atlantic and surrounding regions by using precursor arrivals to PP and SS seismic waves that reflect off the seismic discontinuities. Many source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a large dataset of reflection points beneath our investigating area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from MW>5.8 events using array seismic methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. The measured time lag between PP (SS) arrivals and their corresponding precursors on robust stacks are used to measure the depth of the transition zone boundaries. The reflectors' depths show a correlation between the location of hotspots and a significantly depressed 410 km discontinuity indicating a temperature increase of 200-300 K compared to the surrounding mantle. For the 660 km discontinuity three distinct behaviours are visible: i) normal depths beneath Greenland and at a distance of a few hundred kilometres away from the hotspots and ii) shallower 660 km discontinuity compared with the global average value near hotspots closer to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and iii) very few observations of a 660 km discontinuity at the hotspot locations. We interpret our observations as a large upwelling beneath the southern parts of our study region, possibly due to the South Atlantic convection cell. The thermal anomaly may be blocked by endothermic phase transformation and likely does not extend through the top of the transition zone as whole except for those branches which appear as the Azores, Canaries and Cape Verde hotspots at the surface.

  2. Stratification of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Eaton, D. W.; Bastow, I. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Hudson Bay region has a complex tectonic history spanning ~4 Ga of Earth's evolution. During the ~1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny, the Archean Superior and Western Churchill cratons collided following the subduction of a Pacific-scale ocean. It is thought that a significant amount of juvenile material is preserved in the Trans-Hudson Orogen, in part due to the complex double-indentor geometry of the Superior-Churchill collision. In the region of interest, the orogen lies beneath a large but shallow Paleozoic intra-cratonic basin. Studies of the crust and upper mantle beneath this region have been enabled through the HuBLE (Hudson Bay Lithospheric Experiment) project, through the deployment of broadband seismographs around the Bay and across the islands to the north. A surface-wave tomography study has taken advantage of the data coverage, providing new information on phase velocity heterogeneity and anisotropy for wave periods of 25-200 seconds (equivalent to depths from the lower crust to ~300 km). On a large scale, our results show that the entire region is underlain by a seismically fast lithospheric lid corresponding to the continental keel. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ~180km in the northeast, beneath a zone of Paleozoic rifting, to ~280km beneath central Hudson Bay. Within the lithosphere, seismic velocities vary laterally, including high-velocity material wrapping around the Bay in the uppermost mantle. In the mid-lithosphere, two high-velocity cores are imaged, with a zone of lower velocity between them beneath the Bay. We interpret these high-velocity structures to represent the strongest central cores of the Superior and Churchill cratons, with more-juvenile material preserved between them. The near-vertical geometry of the lower-velocity zone suggests that it is only the effects of terminal collision of the cratonic cores, rather than any preceding subduction, that is preserved today. The lowermost lithosphere has a more uniform velocity, and

  3. Crustal seismic structure beneath the Deccan Traps area (Gujarat, India), from local travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Srichand; Kukarina, Ekaterina; Mishra, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    The Gujarat region in western India is known for its intra-plate seismic activity, including the Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake, a reverse-faulting event that reactivated normal faults of the Mesozoic Kachchh rift zone. The Late Cretaceous Deccan Traps, one of the largest igneous provinces on the Earth, cover the southern part of Gujarat. This study is aimed at bringing light to the crustal rift zone structure and likely origin of the Traps based on the velocity structure of the crust beneath Gujarat. Tomographic inversion of the Gujarat region was done using the non-linear, passive-source tomographic algorithm, LOTOS. We use high-quality arrival times of 22,280 P and 22,040 S waves from 3555 events recorded from August 2006 to May 2011 at 83 permanent and temporary stations installed in Gujarat state by the Institute of Seismological Research (ISR). We conclude that the resulting high-velocity anomalies, which reach down to the Moho, are most likely related to intrusives associated with the Deccan Traps. Low velocity anomalies are found in sediment-filled Mesozoic rift basins and are related to weakened zones of faults and fracturing. A low-velocity anomaly in the north of the region coincides with the seismogenic zone of the reactivated Kachchh rift system, which is apparently associated with the channel of the outpouring of Deccan basalt.

  4. Lithospheric Structure Beneath Taiwan From Sp Converted Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, D.; McGlashan, N.; Brown, L.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan is the product of three dimensionally complex interaction between the Eurasian Plate (EP) and the Philippine Sea plate (PSP), with the EP subducting eastward beneath the PSP in southern Taiwan while the PSP subducts northward beneath the EP in northern Taiwan. The structural emplacement of Philippine Arc lithosphere onto Chinese passive margin lithosphere is an exemplar of continental amalgamation, yet there are relatively few contraints on the geometry of lithosphere involved at depth. We have used teleseismic data recorded by the Broadband Array for Taiwan Seismology (BATS) to compute S-to-p wave receiver functions for the Taiwan region to provide new constraints on deep geometries. Moho conversions provide independent new estimates of crustal thickness, which vary from 35 to 55 km across the island in agreement with previous P to S conversion studies and local tomography. More significantly, our results suggest that the lithosphere- asthenosphere boundary (LAB) varies in depth from ca 140 km beneath northeastern Taiwan to ca 120 km beneath central Taiwan to perhaps less than 80 km beneath southern Taiwan. We attribute this along strike variation to the depression and decapitation of the Eurasian plate in the transition to northward subduction of the PSP.

  5. 33 CFR 165.1123 - Southern California Annual Firework Events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Firework Events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1123 Section 165.1123 Navigation and... Diego Captain of the Port Zone. (a) General. Safety zones are established for the events listed in Table..., or local agencies. Table 1 to § 165.1123 [All coordinates referenced use datum NAD 83.] 1. San Diego...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1123 - Southern California Annual Firework Events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Firework Events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1123 Section 165.1123 Navigation and... Diego Captain of the Port Zone. (a) General. Safety zones are established for the events listed in Table..., or local agencies. Table 1 to § 165.1123 [All coordinates referenced use datum NAD 83.] 1. San Diego...

  7. Mantle structure beneath Africa and Arabia from adaptively parameterized P-wave tomography: Implications for the origin of Cenozoic Afro-Arabian tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Benoit, Margaret H.

    2012-02-01

    While the Cenozoic Afro-Arabian Rift System (AARS) has been the focus of numerous studies, it has long been questioned if low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle beneath eastern Africa and western Arabia are connected, forming one large anomaly, and if any parts of the anomalous upper mantle structure extend into the lower mantle. To address these questions, we have developed a new image of P-wave velocity variations in the Afro-Arabian mantle using an adaptively parameterized tomography approach and an expanded dataset containing travel-times from earthquakes recorded on many new temporary and permanent seismic networks. Our model shows a laterally continuous, low-velocity region in the upper mantle beneath all of eastern Africa and western Arabia, extending to depths of ~ 500-700 km, as well as a lower mantle anomaly beneath southern Africa that rises from the core-mantle boundary to at least ~ 1100 km depth and possibly connects to the upper mantle anomaly across the transition zone. Geodynamic models which invoke one or more discrete plumes to explain the origin of the AARS are difficult to reconcile with the lateral and depth extent of the upper mantle low-velocity region, as are non-plume models invoking small-scale convection passively induced by lithospheric extension or by edge-flow around thick cratonic lithosphere. Instead, the low-velocity anomaly beneath the AARS can be explained by the African superplume model, where the anomalous upper mantle structure is a continuation of a large, thermo-chemical upwelling in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa. These findings provide further support for a geodynamic connection between processes in Earth's lower mantle and continental break-up within the AARS.

  8. Differentiation of Secular and Postseismic Deformation in the Mojave Shear Zone in Southern California and Inference of Lithospheric Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z.; Liu, S.; Burgmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    The 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes struck the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) in the Mojave Desert, Southern California. Coseismic and postseismic deformation from these events affect efforts to use Global Positioning System (GPS) observations collected since these events to establish a secular surface velocity field, especially in the near field of the coseismic ruptures. We devise block motion models constrained by both historical pre-Landers triangulation and trilateration observations and post-Landers GPS measurements to recover the secular deformation field and differentiate the postseismic transients in the Mojave region. Postseismic transients are found to remain in various "interseismic" GPS velocity solutions in the form of 2-3 mm/yr excess right-lateral shear across the Landers and Hector Mine coseismic ruptures [Liu et al., 2015 JGR]. Postseismic GPS time series differentiated from the secular velocity field reveal enduring late-stage transient motions in the near field of the coseismic ruptures. Using the postseismic time series data as model constraints, we develop postseismic deformation model invoking afterlip on faults and viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust and upper mantle. A Burgers body material and a Maxwell material are assumed for the lower crust and upper mantle respectively. Our preliminary modeling result, constrained using GPS time series data from the SCEC Crustal Motion Map 4.0 (covering the time period of 1992-2004), reveals that both the long-term viscosities for the lower crust and upper mantle are on the order of e+19 Pa-s. This finding differs significantly from the "Crème Brulee" model predictions about the rheological structure of the lower crust and upper mantle, in which the lower crust has a substantially higher viscosity. We are incorporating more GPS time series data into our model, particularly the ones from continuous sites of the Plate Boundary Observatory network with post-2004

  9. Rapid uplift during 2007-2012 at Laguna del Maule volcanic field, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mevel, H.; Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Cordova V., M. L.; DeMets, C.; Singer, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field includes an unusual concentration of post-glacial rhyolitic lava coulees and domes, dated between 24 to 2 thousand years old that cover more than 100 square kilometers and erupted from 24 vents that encircle a 20-km-diameter lake basin on the range crest. The recent concentration of rhyolite is unparalleled in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Moreover, the western portion of the LdM volcanic field has experienced rapid uplift since 2007, leading to questions about the current configuration of the magmatic system and processes that drive the ongoing inflation. We aim to quantify the active deformation of the LdM volcanic field and its evolution with time. To do so, we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired by three satellite missions: Envisat in 2003 and 2004, ALOS between 2007 and 2010, and TerraSAR-X in 2012. An interferogram spanning March 2003 to February 2004 "shows no deformation" (Fournier et al., 2010). From 2007 through 2012, however, the shortening of the satellite-to-ground distance revealed a range change rate of greater than 200 mm/yr along the radar line of sight. The deformation includes a circular area 20 km in diameter centered on the western portion of the circle of young rhyolite domes. To analyze the InSAR results, we employ the General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT; Feigl and Thurber, 2009; Ali and Feigl, 2012). We have considered several hypotheses to interpret this deformation. Artefacts such as orbital errors, atmospheric perturbations or topographic contribution cannot account for the observed signal. We also reject the hypothesis of uplift due to gravitational unloading of the crust based on our modeling of independently measured lake level variations over the observed time interval. We thus attribute the deformation to the intrusion of magma into the upper crust below the southwest region of the LdM volcanic field. The best fit to the InSAR data is

  10. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic zone (Chile) 2007-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, Kurt L.; Le Mével, Hélène; Tabrez Ali, S.; Córdova, Loreto; Andersen, Nathan L.; DeMets, Charles; Singer, Bradley S.

    2014-02-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field in Chile is an exceptional example of postglacial rhyolitic volcanism in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. By interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired between 2007 and 2012, we measure exceptionally rapid deformation. The maximum vertical velocity exceeds 280 mm yr-1. Although the rate of deformation was negligible from 2003 January to 2004 February, it accelerated some time before 2007 January. Statistical testing rejects, with 95 per cent confidence, four hypotheses of artefacts caused by tropospheric gradients, ionospheric effects, orbital errors or topographic relief, respectively. The high rate of deformation is confirmed by daily estimates of position during several months in 2012, as measured by analysis of signals transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and received on the ground at three stations around the reservoir forming the LdM. The fastest-moving GPS station (MAU2) has a velocity vector of [-180 ± 4, 46 ± 2, 280 ± 4] mm yr-1 for the northward, eastward and upward components, respectively, with respect to the stable interior of the South America Plate. The observed deformation cannot be explained by changes in the gravitational load caused by variations in the water level in the reservoir. For the most recent observation time interval, spanning 44 d in early 2012, the model that best fits the InSAR observations involves an inflating sill at a depth of 5.2 ± 0.3 km, with length 9.0 ± 0.3 km, width 5.3 ± 0.4 km, dip 20 ± 3° from horizontal and strike 14 ± 5° clockwise from north, assuming a rectangular dislocation in a half-space with uniform elastic properties. During this time interval, the estimated rate of tensile opening is 1.1 ± 0.04 m yr-1, such that the rate of volume increase in the modelled sill is 51 ± 5 million m3 yr-1 or 1.6 ± 0.2 m3 s-1. From 2004 January to 2012 April the total increase in volume was at least 0.15 km3 over the 5.2-yr

  11. Petrogenesis of cataclastic rocks within the San Andreas fault zone of Southern California U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford Anderson, J.; Osborne, Robert H.; Palmer, Donald F.

    1980-08-01

    This paper petrologically characterizes cataclastic rocks derived from four sites within the San Andreas fault zone of southern California. In this area, the fault traverses an extensive plutonic and metamorphic terrane and the principal cataclastic rock formed at these upper crustal levels is unindurated gouge derived from a range of crystalline rocks including diorite, tonalite, granite, aplite, and pegmatite. The mineralogical nature of this gouge is decidedly different from the "clay gouge" reported by Wu (1975) for central California and is essentially a rock flour with a quartz, feldspar, biotite, chlorite, amphibole, epidote and oxide mineralogy representing the milled-down equivalent of the original rock. Clay development is minor (less than 4 wt. %) to nonexistent and is exclusively kaolinite. Alterations involve hematitic oxidation, chlorite alteration on biotite and amphibole, and local introduction of calcite. Electron microprobe analysis showed that in general the major minerals were not reequilibrated with the pressure—temperature regime imposed during cataclasis. Petrochemically, the form of cataclasis that we have investigated is largely an isochemical process. Some hydration occurs but the maximum amount is less than 2.2% added H 2O. Study of a 375 m deep core from a tonalite pluton adjacent to the fault showed that for Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Na, Li, Rb, and Ba, no leaching and/or enrichment occurred. Several samples experienced a depletion in Sr during cataclasis while lesser number had an enrichment of Ca (result of calcite veining). Texturally, the fault gouge is not dominated by clay-size material but consists largely of silt and fine sand-sized particles. An intriguing aspect of our work on the drill core is a general decrease in particulate size with depth (and confining pressure) with the predominate shifting sequentially from fine sand to silt-size material. The original fabric of these rocks is commonly not disrupted during the

  12. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  13. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. Field relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic field. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that rapid uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation field using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc

  14. A low-temperature ductile shear zone: The gypsum-dominated western extension of the brittle Fella-Sava Fault, Southern Alps.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Esther Maria; Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann

    2014-12-01

    Based on structural and fabric analyses at variable scales we investigate the evaporitic gypsum-dominated Comeglians-Paularo shear zone in the Southern Alps (Friuli). It represents the lateral western termination of the brittle Fella-Sava Fault. Missing dehydration products of gypsum and the lack of annealing indicate temperatures below 100 °C during development of the shear zone. Despite of such low temperatures the shear zone clearly exhibits mylonitic flow, thus evidencing laterally coeval activity of brittle and viscous deformation. The dominant structures within the gypsum rocks of the Lower Bellerophon Formation are a steeply to gently S-dipping foliation, a subhorizontal stretching lineation and pure shear-dominated porphyroclast systems. A subordinate simple shear component with dextral displacement is indicated by scattered σ-clasts. Both meso- and microscale structures are characteristic of a subsimple shear type of deformation with components of both coaxial and non-coaxial strain. Shortening in a transpressive regime was accommodated by right-lateral displacement and internal pure shear deformation within the Comeglians-Paularo shear zone. The shear zone shows evidence for a combination of two stretching faults, where stretching occurred in the rheologically weaker gypsum member and brittle behavior in enveloping lithologies.

  15. The role of detachment and interlayer shear zones in the structural evolution of the southern Espinhaço range, eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchenbecker, Matheus; Sanglard, Júlio Carlos Destro

    2018-07-01

    Sedimentary rocks usually show a significant mechanical anisotropy due to its layered nature. Because of this, they play an important role controlling rock deformation and the study of the deformation partitioning caused by rheological heterogeneities becomes a crucial step to understand the inversion of sedimentary basins. The detachment and interlayer shear zones, described at southern Espinhaço range, correspond to part of the structural collection that records the compressive deformation which is associated to the Brazilian-Pan African orogeny during Gondwana amalgamation. The mechanical contrast between lithological units is the main parameter of control for the occurrence of these zones which can be found with variable thickness from millimeter interlayer shear zones to regional-sized basement-cover detachment zones. The phyllitic layers are the most incompetent lithotype among metasedimentary rocks and they play an important role in the ductile-brittle regional deformation by accommodating much of the deformation during faulting and/or folding. Even though being a more competent rock, internal interlayer shear zones and other shear structures can be found in quartzite when in contact with weaker rocks. These structures accommodate a significant amount of deformation at the southern Espinhaço range and, because of this, they are of great value in understanding the inversion of the Espinhaço basins during West Gondwana assembly. The focus of the present paper is to discuss the main situations where interlayer shear occurs, to present a brief compendium of the main structures associated to this process and to add parameters to its recognition and interpretation.

  16. Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Whitmore Mountains, West Antarctic Rift System, and Marie Byrd Land from Body-Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyblade, A.; Lloyd, A. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.; Shore, P.; Zhao, D.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the International Polar Year in Antarctica, 37 seismic stations have been installed across West Antarctica as part of the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET). 23 stations form a sparse backbone network of which 21 are co-located on rock sites with a network of continuously recording GPS stations. The remaining 14 stations, in conjunction with 2 backbone stations, form a seismic transect extending from the Ellsworth Mountains across the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and into Marie Byrd Land. Here we present preliminary P and S wave velocity models of the upper mantle from regional body wave tomography using P and S travel times from teleseismic events recorded by the seismic transect during the first year (2009-2010) of deployment. Preliminary P wave velocity models consisting of ~3,000 ray paths from 266 events indicate that the upper mantle beneath the Whitmore Mountains is seismically faster than the upper mantle beneath Marie Byrd Land and the WARS. Furthermore, we observe two substantial upper mantle low velocity zones located beneath Marie Byrd Land and near the southern boundary of the WARS.

  17. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F(ST) = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic.

  18. Late Pleistocene drainage systems beneath Delaware Bay

    Knebel, H.J.; Circe, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of an extensive grid of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously published sedimentary data and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the ancestral drainage systems of the Delaware River beneath lower Delaware Bay. Major paleovalleys within these systems have southeast trends, relief of 10-35 m, widths of 1-8 km, and axial depths of 31-57 m below present sea level. The oldest drainage system was carved into Miocene sands, probably during the late Illinoian lowstand of sea level. It followed a course under the northern half of the bay, continued beneath the Cape May peninsula, and extended onto the present continental shelf. This system was buried by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and shallow-marine sediments during Sangamonian time. At the height of the Sangamonian sea-level transgression, littoral and nearshore processes built the Cape May peninsula southward over the northern drainage system and formed a contiguous submarine sedimentary ridge that extended partway across the present entrance to the bay. When sea level fell during late Wisconsinan time, a second drainage system was eroded beneath the southern half of the bay in response to the southerly shift of the bay mouth. This system, which continued across the shelf, was cut into Coastal Plain deposits of Miocene and younger age and included not only the trunk valley of the Delaware River but a large tributary valley formed by the convergence of secondary streams that drained the Delaware coastal area. During the Holocene rise of sea level, the southern drainage system was covered by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and paralic deposits that accumulated due to the passage of the estuarine circulation cell and to the landward and upward migration of coastal sedimentary environments. Some Holocene deposits have been scoured subsequently by strong tidal currents. The southward migration of the ancestral drainage systems beneath Delaware

  19. Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kekeunou, Sévilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamò, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

  20. A Magnitude 7.1 Earthquake in the Tacoma Fault Zone-A Plausible Scenario for the Southern Puget Sound Region, Washington

    Gomberg, Joan; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Frankel, Art

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating scientists have recently assessed the effects of a magnitude 7.1 earthquake on the Tacoma Fault Zone in Pierce County, Washington. A quake of comparable magnitude struck the southern Puget Sound region about 1,100 years ago, and similar earthquakes are almost certain to occur in the future. The region is now home to hundreds of thousands of people, who would be at risk from the shaking, liquefaction, landsliding, and tsunamis caused by such an earthquake. The modeled effects of this scenario earthquake will help emergency planners and residents of the region prepare for future quakes.

  1. Seismic Discontinuities within the Crust and Mantle Beneath Indonesia as Inferred from P Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelbern, I.; Rumpker, G.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is situated at the southern margin of SE Asia, which comprises an assemblage of Gondwana-derived continental terranes, suture zones and volcanic arcs. The formation of SE Asia is believed to have started in Early Devonian. Its complex history involves the opening and closure of three distinct Tethys oceans, each accompanied by the rifting of continental fragments. We apply the receiver function technique to data of the temporary MERAMEX network operated in Central Java from May to October 2004 by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The network consisted of 112 mobile stations with a spacing of about 10 km covering the full width of the island between the southern and northern coast lines. The tectonic history is reflected in a complex crustal structure of Central Java exhibiting strong topography of the Moho discontinuity related to different tectonic units. A discontinuity of negative impedance contrast is observed throughout the mid-crust interpreted as the top of a low-velocity layer which shows no depth correlation with the Moho interface. Converted phases generated at greater depth beneath Indonesia indicate the existence of multiple seismic discontinuities within the upper mantle and even below. The strongest signal originates from the base of the mantle transition zone, i.e. the 660 km discontinuity. The phase related to the 410 km discontinuity is less pronounced, but clearly identifiable as well. The derived thickness of the mantle-transition zone is in good agreement with the IASP91 velocity model. Additional phases are observed at roughly 33 s and 90 s relative to the P onset, corresponding to about 300 km and 920 km, respectively. A signal of reversed polarity indicates the top of a low velocity layer at about 370 km depth overlying the mantle transition zone.

  2. Influence of frontal zones on the distribution of particulate matter and organic compounds in surface waters of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Redzhepova, Z. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter and organic compounds (chlorophyll, lipids, and hydrocarbons) were analyzed in surface waters along the routes of R/Vs Akademik Fedorov (cruise 32) and Akademik Treshnikov (cruise 2) in February-May of 2012 and 2014, respectively, in the course of the 57th and 59th Russian Antarctic expeditions. It was found that the frontal zones exert the primary influence on the concentrations of the mentioned components in the Southern Ocean and in the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. The supply of pollutants into the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on the shelf of the Iberian peninsula results in a pronounced increase in the concentrations of lipids and hydrocarbons causing local anthropogenic pollution zones.

  3. Shallow depth of seismogenic coupling in southern Mexico: implications for the maximum size of earthquakes in the subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Sánchez, Osvaldo

    1996-01-01

    Studies of locally recorded microearthquakes and the centroidal depths of the largest earthquakes analyzed using teleseismic data show that the maximum depth of thrust faulting along the Mexican subduction zone is anomalously shallow. This observed maximum depth of about 25 ± 5 km is about half of that observed in most subduction zones of the world. A leveling line that crosses the rupture zone of the 19 September 1985 Michoacan event was revisited after the earthquake and it shows anomalously low deformation during the earthquake. The comparison between the observed coseismic uplift and dislocation models of the seismogenic interplate contact that extend to depths ranging from 20 to 40 km shows that the maximum depth at which seismic slip took place is about 20 km. This unusually shallow and narrow zone of seismogenic coupling apparently results in the occurrence of thrust events along the Mexican subduction zone that are smaller than would be expected for a trench where a relatively young slab subducts at a rapid rate of relative motion. A comparison with the Chilean subduction zone shows that the plate interface in Mexico is half that in Chile, not only in the down-dip extent of the seismogenic zone of plate contact, but also in the distance of the trench from the coast and in the thickness of the upper continental plate. It appears that the narrow plate contact produced by this particular plate geometry in Mexico is the controlling variable defining the size of the largest characteristic earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone.

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of riparian zone restoration in the southern Appalachians by assessing soil microbial populations

    Guanglong Tian; James M. Vose; David C. Coleman; Christopher D. Geron; John T. Walker

    2004-01-01

    Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0-10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: ( I ) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation removal, and nutrient addition (mow, roll, and nutrient addition);(2) a degraded (-N)...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RIPARIAN ZONE RESTORATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS BY ASSESSING SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial biomass, nitrifiers and denitrifiers in surface soil (0?10 cm) were quantified in a riparian zone restoration project at Coweeta, North Carolina, USA. Four treatments are included in this study: (1) a degraded (+N) riparian zone with continued compaction, vegetation rem...

  6. Upper mantle electrical resistivity structure beneath back-arc spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seama, N.; Shibata, Y.; Kimura, M.; Shindo, H.; Matsuno, T.; Nogi, Y.; Okino, K.

    2011-12-01

    We compare four electrical resistivity structure images of the upper mantle across back-arc spreading centers (Mariana Trough at 18 N and 13 N, and the Eastern Lau at 19.7 S and 21.3 S) to provide geophysical constraints on issues of mantle dynamics beneath the back-arc spreading system related to the subducting slab. The central Mariana Trough at 18 N has the full spreading rate of 25 km/Myr, and shows characteristic slow-spreading features; existence of median valley neovolcanic zone and "Bull's eyes" mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) along the axes. On the other hand, the southern Mariana Trough at 13 N shows an EPR type axial relief in morphology and lower MBA than that in the central Mariana Trough (Kitada et al., 2006), suggesting abundance of magma supply, even though the full spreading rate is 35 km/Myr that is categorized as a slow spreading ridge. At the Eastern Lau spreading center, crustal thickness and morphology vary systematically with arc proximity and shows the opposed trends against spreading rate: The full spreading rate increases from 65 km/Myr at 21.3 S to 85 km/Myr at 19.7 S, while the crustal thicknesses decrease together with morphology transitions from shallow peaked volcanic highs to a deeper flat axis (Martinez et al., 2006). Matsuno et al. (2010) provides a resistivity structure image of the upper mantle across the central Mariana subduction system, which contains several key features: There is an uppermost resistive layer with a thickness of 80-100 km beneath the central Mariana Trough, suggesting dry residual from the plate accretion process. But there is no evidence for a conductive feature beneath the back-arc spreading center at 18 N, and this feature is clearly independent from the conductive region beneath the volcanic arc below 60 km depth that reflects melting and hydration driven by water release from the subducting slab. The resultant upper mantle resistivity structure well support that the melt supply is not abundant, resulting in

  7. Spatial Distribution of earthquakes off the coast of Fukushima Two Years after the M9 Earthquake: the Southern Area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2014-12-01

    Huge earthquakes cause vastly stress field change around the rupture zones, and many aftershocks and other related geophysical phenomenon such as geodetic movements have been observed. It is important to figure out the time-spacious distribution during the relaxation process for understanding the giant earthquake cycle. In this study, we pick up the southern rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). The seismicity rate keeps still high compared with that before the 2011 earthquake. Many studies using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) have been doing since soon after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in order to obtain aftershock activity precisely. Here we show one of the studies at off the coast of Fukushima which is located on the southern part of the rupture area caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We deployed 4 broadband type OBSs (BBOBSs) and 12 short-period type OBSs (SOBS) in August 2012. Other 4 BBOBSs attached with absolute pressure gauges and 20 SOBSs were added in November 2012. We recovered 36 OBSs including 8 BBOBSs in November 2013. We selected 1,000 events in the vicinity of the OBS network based on a hypocenter catalog published by the Japan Meteorological Agency, and extracted the data after time corrections caused by each internal clock. Each P and S wave arrival times, P wave polarity and maximum amplitude were picked manually on a computer display. We assumed one dimensional velocity structure based on the result from an active source experiment across our network, and applied time corrections every station for removing ambiguity of the assumed structure. Then we adopted a maximum-likelihood estimation technique and calculated the hypocenters. The results show that intensive activity near the Japan Trench can be seen, while there was a quiet seismic zone between the trench zone and landward high activity zone.

  8. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Pb geochronology of the rocks within the Khlong Marui shear zone, southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong; Klötzli, Urs; Thöni, Martin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Edwards, Michael A.

    2012-08-01

    In southern Thailand, the Khlong Marui shear zone is dominated by a NNE-SSW striking high topographic lozenge shaped area of ca. 40 km long and 6 km wide between the Khlong Marui Fault and the Bang Kram Fault. The geology within this strike-slip zone consists of strongly deformed layers of mylonitic meta-sedimentary rocks associated with orthogneisses, mylonitic granites, and pegmatitic veins with a steeply dipping foliation. The strike-slip deformation is characterized by dextral ductile deformation under amphibolite facies and low to medium greenschist facies. In situ U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores from all zircons in the Khlong Marui shear zone indicate that they have the same material from the Archean. Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous ages obtained for zircon outer cores of the mylonitic granite are probably related to a period of magmatic activity that was significantly influenced by the West Burma and Shan-Thai collision and the subduction along the Sunda Trench. The early dextral ductile deformation phase of the Khlong Marui shear zone in the Early Eocene suggested by U-Pb ages of zircon rims, and the later dextral transpressional deformation in the Late Eocene indicated by mica Rb-Sr ages. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Pb dating correlation implies that the major exhumation period of the ductile lens was in the Eocene. This period was tectonically influenced in the SE Asia region by the early India-Asia collision.

  9. Magnetotelluric investigations of the lithosphere beneath the central Rae craton, mainland Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Jessica E.; Skulski, Thomas; Craven, James A.; Jones, Alan G.; Snyder, David B.; Kiyan, Duygu

    2014-03-01

    New magnetotelluric soundings at 64 locations throughout the central Rae craton on mainland Nunavut constrain 2-D resistivity models of the crust and lithospheric mantle beneath three regional transects. Responses determined from colocated broadband and long-period magnetotelluric recording instruments enabled resistivity imaging to depths of > 300 km. Strike analysis and distortion decomposition on all data reveal a regional trend of 45-53°, but locally the geoelectric strike angle varies laterally and with depth. The 2-D models reveal a resistive upper crust to depths of 15-35 km that is underlain by a conductive layer that appears to be discontinuous at or near major mapped geological boundaries. Surface projections of the conductive layer coincide with areas of high grade, Archean metasedimentary rocks. Tectonic burial of these rocks and thickening of the crust occurred during the Paleoproterozoic Arrowsmith (2.3 Ga) and Trans-Hudson orogenies (1.85 Ga). Overall, the uppermost mantle of the Rae craton shows resistivity values that range from 3000 Ω m in the northeast (beneath Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula) to 10,000 Ω m beneath the central Rae craton, to >50,000 Ω m in the south near the Hearne Domain. Near-vertical zones of reduced resistivity are identified within the uppermost mantle lithosphere that may be related to areas affected by mantle melt or metasomatism associated with emplacement of Hudsonian granites. A regional decrease in resistivities to values of 500 Ω m at depths of 180-220 km, increasing to 300 km near the southern margin of the Rae craton, is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

  10. Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: Implications for subduction zone magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, William P.; Smith, Diane R.; Hildreth, Wes; Palacz, Zen; Rogers, Nick

    1990-11-01

    Major volcanoes of the Southern Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large Quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The stratovolcanoes consist largely of andesitic to dacitic lavas and pyroclastics with minor basalt flows. IH consists dominantly of basaltic with minor andesite lavas, all erupted from monogenetic rift and cinder cone vents. SIM has a poorly exposed andesite to rhyolite core but mainly consists of basaltic lavas erupted from numerous widely dispersed vents; it has the morphology of a shield volcano. Distribution of mafic lavas across the SWC is related to north-northwest trending faults and fissure zones that indicate a significant component of east-west extension within the area. There is overlap in eruptive history for the areas studied, but it appears that peak activity was progressively older (MSH (<40 Ka), IH (mostly <0.5 Ma), MA (<0.5 Ma), SIM (1-4 Ma)) and more alkalic toward the east. A variety of compositionally distinct mafic magma types has been identified in the SWC, including low large ion lithophile element (LILE) tholeiitic basalts, moderate LILE calcalkalic basalts, basalts transitional between these two, LILE-enriched mildly alkalic basalts, and basaltic andesites. Compositional diversity among basaltic lavas, both within individual centers as well as across the arc, is an important characteristic of the SWC traverse. The fact that the basaltic magmas either show no correlation between isotopic and trace element components or show trends quite distinct from those of the associated evolved lavas, suggests that their compositional variability is attributable to subcrustal processes. Both the primitive nature of the erupted basalts and the fact that they are relatively common in the SWC sector also imply that such

  11. Processes controlling silicon isotopic fractionation in a forested tropical watershed: Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory (Southern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riotte, Jean; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Zambardi, Thomas; Audry, Stéphane; Barboni, Doris; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Poitrasson, Franck; Sekhar, Muddu; Braun, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of the silica cycle in the critical zone remains challenging, particularly within the soil, where multiple processes are involved. To improve our understanding of this cycle in the Tropics, and more specifically the role played by vegetation, we combined elemental Si mass balance with the δ30Si signatures of the compartments involved in the water-plant-rock interactions of a tropical forested watershed, Mule Hole (Southern India). To accomplish this, we analysed (1) the δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths from tree leaves and grass, as well as soil amorphous silica (ASi); (2) the Si isotope fractionation induced by phytolith dissolution; (3) the silicon mass balance inferred from isotopes at the soil-plant scale; and (4) the consistency between water sources and the δ30Si signatures in the ephemeral stream. The δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths and soil ASi vary within a narrow range of 1.10-1.40‰ for all samples, but two deep vertisol samples which likely trapped phytoliths from different vegetation growing under more humid conditions, as indicated by pollen analysis. A homogeneous signature of litter is a minimum condition for using δ30Si as a proxy for the litter/phytolith source of Si. However, litter-ash dissolution experiments demonstrate that the incipient dissolution of phytoliths fractionates Si isotopes, with the preferential dissolution of 28Si over 30Si yielding δ30Si values as low as -1.41‰. Values close to the whole-sample signatures, i.e., above 1‰, were recovered in the solution after a few hours of water-ash interaction. At the soil-plant scale, the average δ30Si value of soil-infiltrating solutions is slightly lighter than the average phytolith signature, which suggests phytoliths as the source of soil dissolved Si. The isotopic budget of dissolved Si within the soil layer, which was obtained based on previous elemental fluxes, is imbalanced. Equilibrating the isotopic budget would imply

  12. Mapping Tectonic features beneath the Gulf of California using Rayleigh and Love Waves Group Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, P.; Di Luccio, F.; Clayton, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the Pacific-North America lithospheric structure beneath the Gulf of California and its western and eastern confining regions, by mapping fundamental mode surface wave group velocities. We measure the dispersion of Rayleigh and Love surface waves to create a series of 2D maps of group velocities, which provide important information on the earth structure beneath the study region. Although several surface waves studies were published in the last decade, all of them were done using phase velocity measurements based on the two stations method. Here we combine dispersion measurements at the regional scale with data at teleseismic distances to provide a more complete dataset for studies of earth structure. We also analyze group velocities from short to long periods in order to define structural features at both crustal and mantle scales. Our study uses earthquakes recorded by the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS-Baja), a set of 14 broadband seismic stations that flank the Gulf of California. From the NEIC bulletin we selected 140 events recorded by the NARS-Baja array. In order to have dispersion measurements in a wide range of periods, we used regional earthquakes with M > 4.2 and teleseismic events with M > 6.9. We first computed the dispersion curves for the surface wave paths crossing the region. Then, the along path group velocity measurements for multiple periods are converted into tomographic images using kernels which vary in off-path width with the square root of the period. Dispersion measurements show interesting and consistent features for both Rayleigh and Love waves. At periods equal to or shorter than 15 s, when surface waves are primarily sensitive to shear velocity in the upper 15 km of the crust, slow group velocities beneath the northern-central Gulf reveal the presence of a thick sedimentary layer, relative to the southern Gulf. Group velocities beneath the northwestern side of Baja

  13. Continental Assembly and Anisotropy Beneath the CANOE Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Gaherty, J. B.; Revenaugh, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Canadian Northwest Experiment (CANOE) is an array of nearly sixty broadband seismometers reaching from the Slave Craton in the Northwest Territories (NWT), across a series of Proterozoic orogens and the Canadian Rockies in the NWT, northern British Columbia, and southern Yukon, and across the Churchill Province south to Edmonton, Alberta. The array traverses a wide variety of continental settings, allowing the study of mantle variability associated with the formation of continental cratons and continental assembly over a time span of nearly 4 Ga. The close spacing of instruments in the CANOE array provides a detailed view of the mantle and lithosphere across these transitions. We examine splitting of the shear phases SKS, SKKS, and sSKS to study anisotropy beneath the region. The dataset consists of ~~70 teleseismic events of either magnitude > 5.6 and depth > 500 km or magnitude > 6.4 with depth < 500 km. All earthquakes were recorded at CANOE or nearby Canadian National Seismic Network stations between May 2003 and September 2005. Splitting times derived from multi-event station averages average ~1.4 s, and fast directions are coherent yet suggestive of strong variability of mantle anisotropy across the region. Stations on the craton show a dominant NE-SW fast direction that is roughly consistent with mantle flow dominated by plate motion. At the Cordillera boundary, fast directions flip abruptly to NW-SE, and continuing west across the Cordillera the fast directions rotate from NW-SE to roughly E-W before returning to NW-SE near the edge of the continent. These patterns are suggestive of dominant transpressional deformation through the lithosphere during continental accretion. Within the craton, there is an anomalous cluster of stations with N-S fast directions; these stations sit astride an apparent ancient suture zone (subducted slab?) detected through previous scattered-wave and seismic reflection studies. We will explore the possible

  14. Seismic Tomography Reveals Breaking Crust and Lithosphere Beneath a Classic Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. B.; Rau, R.; Kuo-Chen, H.; Lee, Y.; Ouimet, W. B.; Van Soest, M. C.; Huang, C.; Wu, F. T.

    2013-12-01

    The orogenic system in Taiwan is often considered a classic example of an accretionary prism that has grown to a steady-state size and shape above an also steady subduction zone. A new study of vertical and horizontal sections of a tomographic velocity model created by Kuo-Chen et al. (2012) show, however, both a well-developed crack in the subducted crust beneath southern Taiwan and a discontinuous lithosphere beneath northern Taiwan, suggesting that slab breakoff is actively occurring beneath Taiwan. The transition from slab breakoff to cracking crust in southern Taiwan also suggests that slab breakoff is propagating southward, consistent an oblique collision. The crack in the subducting crust is revealed by progressively deeper horizontal sections of the local-scale tomographic model. The sections show an ellipsoidal-shaped area of high velocity that plunges southeast, oblique to all of the regional trends. Taking into account the dip of the slab, however, the area of high velocity is nearly parallel to previously recognized fracture zone in the Eurasian continental margin. We interpret the area of high velocity to be a crack in the Eurasian crust that is filled high velocity Eurasian mantle. Support for this interpretation comes from: 1) new exhumation cooling data from Mt Yu, the highest peak in Taiwan; 2) a recent leveling survey along the South Cross-Island Highway that shows unusually high rates of surface uplift (up to 15 mm/yr; Ching et al., 2011); 3) Vp attenuation studies that suggest anomalously high temperatures and/or the presence of fluids; 4) earthquake focal mechanisms in the core of the southern Central Range that are dominated by NE-SW extension; and finally, 5) the core of the southern Central Range preserves anomalous areas of low topographic relief that straddle the crest of the range. The areas of low relief are fringed by stream channels with relatively high stream gradient indexes and do not appear related to weaker rock types, glacial

  15. Seismic belt in the upper plane of the double seismic zone extending in the along-arc direction at depths of 70-100km beneath NE Japan, and its relation with the dehydration embrittlement hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Okada, T.; Nakajima, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    2006-12-01

    1. Introduction Dehydration embrittlement or CO2¨Cbearing devolatization embrittlement hypothesis has been proposed as a possible cause of intraslab earthquakes in several studies [e.g., Peacock, 2001; Kirby et al., 1996; Meade and Jeanloz, 1991]. Precise location of intraslab seismicity is needed to discuss its cause in these studies. Recently, a very dense nationwide seismic network (Hi-net) has been constructed by NIED in Japan. In this study, we relocate microearthquakes more precisely by using data obtained by this dense seismic network to detect the characteristic distribution of the seismicity within the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido and Tohoku, NE Japan. 2. Data and method In the present study, we relocated events at depths of 20¨C300 km for the period from January 2002 to August 2005 from the JMA earthquake catalog. Hypocenter locations and arrival time data in the JMA catalog were used as the initial hypocenters and data for relocations. We applied the double-difference hypocenter location method (DDLM) by Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) to the arrival time data of the events. We also checked spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms of the events in the seismic belts and the surrounding upper seismic plane. We used focal mechanism solutions determined by Igarashi et al. (2001). 3. Results and discussion 1) There exist earthquakes occurring in the area between the upper and lower seismic planes (interplane earthquakes), and their focal mechanisms tend to be the down-dip compressional (DC-) type like those of upper plane events. 2) We found a seismic "belt" which is parallel to the iso-depth contour of the plate interface beneath the forearc area at depths of 80¨C100 km. The location of the seismic belt seems to correspond to one phase boundary (from jadeite lawsonite blueschist (H2O content: 5.4 wt% ) to lawsonite amphibole eclogite (3.0wt %) (Hacker et al., 2003)) with dehydration reaction. 3) The location of the deeper limit of seismicity of the

  16. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.

    2013-12-01

    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  17. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  18. Azimuthal Anisotropy beneath the Contiguous United States Revealed by Shear Wave Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. H.; Yang, B.; Liu, Y.; Dahm, H. H.; Refayee, H. A.; Gao, S. S.