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Sample records for zone bw pioneer

  1. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  2. 75 FR 19880 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER at Walker Ridge 249, Outer Continental Shelf FPSO, Gulf of Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, at Walker Ridge 249 in the... point at 26[deg]41'46.25'' N and 090[deg]30'30.16'' W. This action is based on a thorough and... regulations. The FPSO can swing in a 360 degree arc around the center point. The safety zone will reduce...

  3. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico at Walker Ridge 249. The FPSO can swing in a 360 degree arc... point at 26°41′46.25″ N and 090°30′30.16″ W is a safety zone. (b) Regulation. No vessel may enter or...

  4. Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fimmel, Richard O.; Colin, Lawrence; Burgess, Eric

    1983-01-01

    Venus before Pioneer, the Pioneer Venus mission, Pioneer Venus spacecraft, scientific investigation, mission to Venus scientific results, and results of Soviet studies of Venus are addressed. A chronology of exploration of Venus from Earth before the Pioneer Venus mission and Venus nomenclature and mythology are provided.

  5. Period Variation in BW Vulpeculae (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D. E.; Odell, A. P.

    2018-06-01

    (Abstract only) BW Vulpeculae (BW Vul) has the largest amplitude of the beta Cephei stars. An observing campaign on this star using the AAVSOnetís Bright Star Monitor (BSM) telescopes was begun in December of 2015 and has yielded 66 nights of observations to date. A period analysis will be presented using the BSM data set in combination with unpublished data from the Lowell Observatory. Over almost 80 years of observations, BW Vul has closely followed a parabolic ephemeris (period increasing by 2.4 seconds/century) plus a light-travel-time effect. This parabola with excursions on either side also could be viewed as a sequence of straight lines (constant period) with abrupt period increases. The first paradigm predicted a necessary change in slope around 2004, which did not occur. Instead, the period decreased abruptly in 2009. That maximum occurred 250 minutes early compared to the first paradigm, and about 25 minutes early compared to the straight-line paradigm from 1982ñ2009.

  6. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  7. Programming for Pioneer 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shem, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Background on Pioneer probes 6 to 11 is given as well as an overview of the Pioneer Venus mission. A computer program was written in C language for analyzing radio signals from the Pioneer Venus orbiter. A second program was written to facilitate high gain antenna commands to move the antenna itself, to set the simulated spin period, and to set the attitude control system angle.

  8. Pioneers in Alaskan Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    Serious problems were posed by North American pioneer efforts to force their traditions on Eskimos, Indians, and Aleuts. Fortunately, other pioneers, such as home economists and district agents with the University of Alaska Cooperative Extension Service, responded to villagers' home and community needs. The University of Alaska also pioneered in…

  9. Pioneer Venus Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Douglas E.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

  10. Rapid Pinhole Growth in the F160BW Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biretta, J.; Verner, E.

    2009-03-01

    The WFPC2 Filter F160BW, also known as WOOD's filter, was designed to transmit UV emission around 150nm and strongly block all other wavelengths. The filter has a unique construction where a thin film of sodium metal serves as the spectral element. However, sodium is a highly unstable and reactive metal, which makes the filter susceptible to changes over time. Herein we report a rapidly growing pinhole in the filter located in the field of view of the WF2 CCD. Observers requiring a high rejection of out-of-band light (i.e. red leak) should take note of this feature, and avoid the affected region in the field-of-view.

  11. The interplanetary pioneers. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Space Probe Project is explained to document the events which occurred during the project. The subjects discussed are: (1) origin and history of interplanetary Pioneer program, (2) Pioneer system development and design, (3) Pioneer flight operations, and (4) Pioneer scientific results. Line drawings, circuit diagrams, illustrations, and photographs are included to augment the written material.

  12. Pioneers in Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Healy, David

    1998-12-01

    In pursuing the history of any field, even one in which many of the main exponents are still alive, it can be very difficult to establish facts and priorities. Detailed scrutiny of the events leading to the recognition of the antidepressant effects of iproniazid, in which Nathan Kline was involved, may fail to establish the exact sequence of events or the sources of inspiration for a discovery (Healy, 1997). Quite apart from the 'facts' behind the antidepressant story, Kline's role in the story beautifully illustrates one of the sayings of Francis Galton, to the effect that in history the driving force may not lie with the first discoverer of a new scientific fact, but rather with the individual who was the first to persuade the world of the importance of a particular discovery. This maxim applies with some force to the three individuals who have been honoured by the CINP in 1998 for their pioneering roles in psychopharmacology - Pierre Deniker, Joel Elkes and Heinz Lehmann whose contributions to the field have included original research and also key initiatives to capture the central ground of academic and public opinion for the new science. They have been science makers rather than just scientists.

  13. Pioneer 11's New Saturn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

  14. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  15. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzalez-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as part of our

  16. Photographer: JPL P-21740 BW Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21740 BW Range: 2,318,000 kilometers (1,438,000 miles) This picture of Callisto taken by Voyager 2 shows the moon covered with bright spots which are metoerite impact craters--a fact originally discovered from the high resolution pictures taken by Voyager 1. Scientists believe that heavily cratered terrains like these on Callisto are indicative of ancient planetary surfaces. Voyager 2 mapped the side of Callisto not seen by Voyager 1. The obsure dark streaks in this area may be fault zones, but higher resolution pictures are needed for identification.

  17. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aschliman, Dave; Lubbehusen, Mike

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of themore » data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode« less

  18. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

  19. Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

  20. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... the Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In ...

  1. Pioneer Mars 1979 mission options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Hartmann, W. K.; Niehoff, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of lower cost Mars missions which perform useful exploration objectives after the Viking/75 mission was conducted. As a study guideline, it was assumed that significant cost savings would be realized by utilizing Pioneer hardware currently being developed for a pair of 1978 Venus missions. This in turn led to the additional constraint of a 1979 launch with the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle which has been designated for the Pioneer Venus missions. Two concepts, using an orbiter bus platform, were identified which have both good science potential and mission simplicity indicative of lower cost. These are: (1) an aeronomy/geology orbiter, and (2) a remote sensing orbiter with a number of deployable surface penetrometers.

  2. Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest revisited

    Treesearch

    R.C. Schlesinger; D.T. Funk; P.L. Roth; C.C. Myers

    1991-01-01

    The area now known as Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest was acquired by Joseph Cox in 1816 from the public domain. In 1944, a portion of that property, including the area referred to as Cox Woods, was established as a National Forest Research Natural Area. This beech-maple forest, located in the Knobs area of southern Indiana, is considered to be one of the few...

  3. Redox Pioneer: Professor Helmut Sies

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Professor Helmut Sies Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2459–2468. The joy of exploring the unknown and finding something novel and noteworthy: what a privilege! —Prof. Helmut Sies PMID:25178739

  4. Sir Almroth Wright: pioneer immunologist.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-03-01

    This year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Almroth Edward Wright, whose pioneer work in immunology saved countless lives, especially in the First World War, but whose name and work are all but forgotten today. Wright was born in 1861 in Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, where his father, an Irish protestant and considerable Hebrew scholar, was the minister. Almroth's Swedish mother, the daughter of NW Almroth, governor of the mint in Stockholm, was responsible for his unusual first name. She had the rare distinction of having served as a nurse with Florence Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari in the Crimean War.

  5. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  6. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  7. Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

  8. Absolute Parameters for the F-type Eclipsing Binary BW Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, P. F. L.

    2018-05-01

    BW Aqr is a bright eclipsing binary star containing a pair of F7V stars. The absolute parameters of this binary (masses, radii, etc.) are known to good precision so they are often used to test stellar models, particularly in studies of convective overshooting. ... Maxted & Hutcheon (2018) analysed the Kepler K2 data for BW Aqr and noted that it shows variability between the eclipses that may be caused by tidally induced pulsations. ... Table 1 shows the absolute parameters for BW Aqr derived from an improved analysis of the Kepler K2 light curve plus the RV measurements from both Imbert (1979) and Lester & Gies (2018). ... The values in Table 1 with their robust error estimates from the standard deviation of the mean are consistent with the values and errors from Maxted & Hutcheon (2018) based on the PPD calculated using emcee for a fit to the entire K2 light curve.

  9. Space Pioneers and where they are now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the Pioneer project, its history and achievements is given. Major discoveries concerning near and interplanetary space, the planets, and various comets are outlined. Anticipated future observations are considered. A list of Pioneer project launches, 1986 statuses, and project firsts is given.

  10. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  11. Repair of Budd Pioneer Coach car crush zones

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-05-01

    The research team conducted a project to repair cars for use in a full-scale train-to-train collision test with crash energy management systems. The two cars had been damaged in previous dynamic tests. Several components required replacement, and som...

  12. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

  13. The Interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 3: Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The operational aspects of the Pioneer program are described. The phases of the program discussed include: prelaunch operations, launch to DSS acquisition, near-earth operations, nominal and extended cruise, and scientific results.

  14. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  15. Pioneer to encounter Saturn on September 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The encounter of the Pioneer 11 Spacecraft with Saturn, designed to provide information on the evolution of the Sun and its planets, is described. Photographs and measurements of Saturn, its rings, and several of its 10 satellites, including Titan, to be taken by Pioneer instruments, are emphasized. The encounter sequence and spacecraft trajectory are discussed. A description of Saturn and its atmosphere is included. Onboard instruments and experiments are also described.

  16. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, Palmer

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  17. Trapping {BW12}2 tungstoborate: synthesis and crystal structure of hybrid [{(H2BW12O42)2O}{Mo6O6S6(OH)4(H2O)2}]14- anion.

    PubMed

    Korenev, V S; Abramov, P A; Vicent, C; Mainichev, D A; Floquet, S; Cadot, E; Sokolov, M N; Fedin, V P

    2012-12-28

    Reaction between monolacunary {BW(11)} tungstoborate and oxothiocationic building block, {Mo(2)O(2)S(2)}, results in the formation of a new polyoxothiometalate with a unique architecture in which two [H(2)BW(12)O(43)](9-) tungstoborate subunits are linked together with a hexamolybdate [Mo(V)(6)O(6)S(6)(OH)(4)(H(2)O)(2)](2+) bridge.

  18. Three-dimensional structural modelling and calculation of electrostatic potentials of HLA Bw4 and Bw6 epitopes to explain the molecular basis for alloantibody binding: toward predicting HLA antigenicity and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Dermot H; Bradley, J Andrew; Winn, Peter J; Taylor, Craig J; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that qualitative assessment of surface electrostatic potential of HLA class I molecules helps explain serological patterns of alloantibody binding. We have now used a novel computational approach to quantitate differences in surface electrostatic potential of HLA B-cell epitopes and applied this to explain HLA Bw4 and Bw6 antigenicity. Protein structure models of HLA class I alleles expressing either the Bw4 or Bw6 epitope (defined by sequence motifs at positions 77 to 83) were generated using comparative structure prediction. The electrostatic potential in 3-dimensional space encompassing the Bw4/Bw6 epitope was computed by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and quantitatively compared in a pairwise, all-versus-all fashion to produce distance matrices that cluster epitopes with similar electrostatics properties. Quantitative comparison of surface electrostatic potential at the carboxyl terminal of the α1-helix of HLA class I alleles, corresponding to amino acid sequence motif 77 to 83, produced clustering of HLA molecules in 3 principal groups according to Bw4 or Bw6 epitope expression. Remarkably, quantitative differences in electrostatic potential reflected known patterns of serological reactivity better than Bw4/Bw6 amino acid sequence motifs. Quantitative assessment of epitope electrostatic potential allowed the impact of known amino acid substitutions (HLA-B*07:02 R79G, R82L, G83R) that are critical for antibody binding to be predicted. We describe a novel approach for quantitating differences in HLA B-cell epitope electrostatic potential. Proof of principle is provided that this approach enables better assessment of HLA epitope antigenicity than amino acid sequence data alone, and it may allow prediction of HLA immunogenicity.

  19. Atlas/Centaur Pioneer G operations summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Specifications of the Pioneer G and Atlas/Centaur 30 Launch Vehicle are provided, along with information concerning mission objectives. The Atlas/Centaur engine group will generate a 431,383 lb. thrust for an injection velocity of approximately 32,400 miles per hour using liquid oxygen and RP-1 propellants. In addition to detailed diagrams of equipment aboard the Pioneer G, an account is given of intended investigations of the interplanetary medium beyond the orbit of Mars, the nature of the asteroid belt, and the environmental and atmospheric characteristics of Jupiter. Pertinent data regarding the option of a Saturn-oriented trajectory are also reviewed and evaluated.

  20. The long life of Pioneer interplanetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Pioneer 6 to 9 interplanetary spacecraft were launched in 1965, 66, 67, and 68. All continue to operate in various orbits about the sun, gathering data on the solar system environment. Pioneer 10 was launched in 1972, and is now more than halfway to Jupiter, with all systems performing their required functions. The paper reviews these programs and the few anomalies which have been observed. The long-term mission success is discussed in terms of possible causative factors: simplicity in design and operation, redundancy in function and in equipment, comprehensive development and acceptance tests, the mildness of the space environment, and luck.

  1. Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Peter

    1983-01-01

    On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

  2. Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeng, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…

  3. A Pioneer of Collegiate Women's Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This article features North Carolina State University's Kay Yow, a pioneer of collegiate women's sports. An Olympic gold medal champion whose entire coaching career has been spent in her home state of North Carolina, Yow has amassed a remarkable lifetime win-loss record of 729-337. She is one of only six coaches to have won at least 700 career…

  4. Argonne Nuclear Pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2017-12-09

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  5. Competing Environmental Ethics in Cooper's "The Pioneers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnassar, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers" and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the…

  6. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Judi

    2014-01-01

    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  7. Definitions from Pioneers in the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Presents classical definitions and explanations of distance education selected from pioneers of the field or those who have made seminal contributions to the conceptualization of distance education and related fields. Discusses definitions by Desmond Keegan, Michael G. Moore, Borje Holmberg, and Otto Peters. (AEF)

  8. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykora, F.

    1977-01-01

    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  9. Argonne Nuclear Pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  10. Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students";…

  11. Chandra Observations of the X-Ray Environs of SN 1998BW / GRB 980425

    SciTech Connect

    Kouveliotou , C.

    2004-07-14

    We report X-ray studies of the environs of SN 1998bw and GRB 980425 using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory 1281 days after the GRB. Eight X-ray point sources were localized, three and .ve each in the original error boxes--S1 and S2--assigned for variable X-ray counterparts to the GRB by BeppoSAX. The sum of the discrete X-ray sources plus continuous emission in S2 observed by CXO on day 1281 is within a factor of 1.5 of the maximum and the upper limits seen by BeppoSAX. We conclude that S2 is the sum of several variable sources that have not disappeared, and thereforemore » is not associated with the GRB. Within S1, clear evidence is seen for a decline of approximately a factor of 12 between day 200 and day 1281. One of the sources in S1, S1a, is coincident with the well-determined radio location of SN 1998bw, and is certainly the remnant of that explosion. The nature of the other sources is also discussed. Combining our observation of the supernova with others of the GRB afterglow, a smooth X-ray light curve, spanning {approx} 1300 days, is obtained by assuming the burst and supernova were coincident at 35.6 Mpc. When this X-ray light curve is compared with those of the X-ray ''afterglows'' of ordinary GRBs, X-ray Flashes, and ordinary supernovae, evidence emerges for at least two classes of lightcurves, perhaps bounding a continuum. By three to ten years, all these phenomena seem to converge on a common X-ray luminosity, possibly indicative of the supernova underlying them all. This convergence strengthens the conclusion that SN 1998bw and GRB 980425 took place in the same object. One possible explanation for the two classes is a (nearly) standard GRB observed at different angles, in which case X-ray afterglows with intermediate luminosities should eventually be discovered. Finally, we comment on the contribution of GRBs to the ULX source population.« less

  12. SU-E-I-62: Reduction of Susceptibility Artifacts by Increasing the Bandwidth (BW) and Echo Train Length (ETL)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavroidis, P; Boci, N; Kostopoulos, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this present study is to increase bandwidth (BW) and echo train length (ETL) in Proton Density Turbo Spin Echo (PD TSE) sequences with and without fat saturation (FS) as well as in Turbo Inversion Recovery Magnitude sequences (TIRM) in order to assess whether these sequences are capable of reducing susceptibility artifacts. Methods: We compared 1) TIRM coronal (COR) with the same sequence with increased both BW and ETL 2) Conventional PD TSE sagittal (SAG) with FS with an increased BW 3) Conventional PD TSE SAG without FS with an increased BW 4) Conventional PD TSE SAGmore » without FS with increased both BW and ETL. A quantitative analysis was performed to measure the extent of the susceptibility artifacts. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis was performed by two radiologists in order to evaluate the susceptibility artifacts, image distortion and fat suppression. The depiction of cartilage, menisci, muscles, tendons and bone marrow were also qualitatively analyzed. Results: The quantitative analysis found that the modified TIRM sequence is significantly superior to the conventional one regarding the extent of the susceptibility artifacts. In the qualitative analysis, the modified TIRM sequence was superior to the corresponding conventional one in eight characteristics out of ten that were analyzed. The modified PD TSE with FS was superior to the corresponding conventional one regarding the susceptibility artifacts, image distortion and depiction of bone marrow and cartilage while achieving effective fat saturation. The modified PD TSE sequence without FS with a high (H) BW was found to be superior corresponding to the conventional one in the case of cartilage. Conclusion: Consequently, TIRM sequence with an increased BW and ETL is proposed for producing images of high quality and modified PD TSE with H BW for smaller metals, especially when FS is used.« less

  13. Evaluation of BW942C, a novel antidiarrheal agent, against enterotoxins of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D R; Sellin, J; Gutierrez, L; DuPont, H L; Wood, L V

    1985-01-01

    BW942C, an enkephalin-like pentapeptide with anti-diarrheal activity, was tested against crude toxins of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae in the Y-1 adrenal cell assay, rabbit ileal loop assay, and suckling mouse assay. The effects of BW942C on in vitro ion transport were measured in rabbit ileum mounted in Ussing chambers. In vitro, BW942C decreased basal short-circuit current (2.26 and 3.15 mueq cm-2 h-1 in experimental samples and controls, respectively; n = 7, P less than 0.05) and increased basal net Cl absorption (1.59 and 0.50 mueq cm-2 h-1 in experimental samples and controls, respectively; P less than 0.025). Net Na absorption was also increased, but not significantly. BW942C did not block the secretory response to a maximal dose of purified heat-stable toxin. BW942C directly enhanced intestinal fluid absorption. In the Y-1 adrenal cell assay, 5 mg of BW942C per ml inhibited the cytopathic effect caused by cholera toxin or heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli. In the rabbit ileal loop assay, E. coli heat-stable toxin, E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin, and cholera toxin were inhibited 35 to 70% by administration of BW942C. With the suckling mouse model, the fluid accumulation caused by E. coli heat-stable toxin was ablated by prior treatment with BW942C. The drug is currently being evaluated in patients with acute secretory diarrhea to determine its effect on clinical symptoms. PMID:3838969

  14. New beamline optics of the x-ray undulator BW1 at DORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, U.; Frahm, R.; Guertler, P.

    1996-12-31

    The X-ray undulator BW1 at the storage ring DORIS is a high brightness source for the spectral range from 2 to 20 keV. The undulator beam is used by three experiments with different distances to the source. The new optical elements allow the adaptation of the focal lengths to the needs of the experimental set-ups. The optical concept consists of a premirror with different optical surfaces, a double crystal monochromator and a focusing second mirror. Sagittal focusing is achieved either by using the cylindrical part of the premirror or by a bend crystal for a monochromatic beam, meridional focusing ismore » done with a pneumatic driven mirror bender for the second mirror.« less

  15. BOULDER-PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Boulder-Pioneer Wilderness study area in the Pioneer and Boulder Mountains of south-central Idaho, was made. The area has demonstrated resources of about 1. 7 million tons of lead-zinc-silver ore, mostly in the Phi Kappa mine, and an additional 2. 5 million tons of demonstrated resources in areas of substantiated potential for these metals and for tungsten, molybdenum, and fluorite. The survey indicates substantiated resource potential in eight areas and probable mineral-resource potential in seven. Mineral commodities of greatest intertest include tungsten, copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, molybdenum, vanadium, and barite. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources.

  16. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  17. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive?

    PubMed

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D

    1973-12-07

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  18. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  19. Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

  20. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1–9. PMID:26984707

  1. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Dolph L

    2016-07-01

    Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1-9.

  2. Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

    2007-12-01

    In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that

  3. Sigmund Freud: pioneer in energy healing.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stephen D; Edwards, David J

    2010-02-01

    Energy healing is a popular contemporary term for forms of healing that facilitate a natural healing process through harmonizing, rebalancing, and releasing energy flow disturbed or blocked by disease and illness. Biographical evidence indicates that Freud used physical, suggestive, and radiant forms of energy healing, and that his personal life, metapsychology, and psychoanalysis were founded on dynamic, energetic experiences and conceptualizations. Analysis of Freud's life and work leads to the conclusion that in experience, theory, and practice, Freud typified the traditional role of therapist and was a pioneer in modern forms of energy healing.

  4. Pioneer surgeon drove ultra clean technology.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Amanda

    2013-04-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the development of his ground-breaking hip replacement surgical technique, Amanda Parkin, communications consultant with clean air technology specialist, Howorth Air Technology, examines Professor Sir John Charnley's influence on orthopaedic surgery, and explains how his realisation that any subsequent infection may not appear until long after the operation, and that keeping bacteria away from the wound during the procedure is the the key to minimising the risk, led to the emergence of 'ultra clean' operating theatre technology - within which Howorth was an early pioneer.

  5. Feast day service honoring pioneers in medicine.

    PubMed

    Menninger, W Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Standing Liturgical Commission of the Anglican Church in the United States has identified persons whom they consider Holy men or Holy women, and who are celebrated in Lesser Feast and Fast day services. In 2009, the triennial General Convention of the Anglican Church, USA, ratified the recommendation of the Commission that Dr. William W. Mayo and Dr. Charles Menninger and their sons, as pioneers in medicine, were worthy of such a designation. The author was approached to deliver the following homily at a service at the Palmer Memorial Episcopal Church in Houston, Texas, March 6, 2013.

  6. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Virobik, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus plasma wave instrument has a self-contained balanced electric dipole (effective length = 0.75 m) and a 4-channel spectrum analyzer (30% bandwidth filters with center frequencies at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, and 30 kHz). The channels are continuously active and the highest Orbiter telemetry rate (2048 bits/sec) yields 4 spectral scans/sec. The total mass of 0.55 kg includes the electronics, the antenna, and the antenna deployment mechanism. This report contains a brief description of the instrument design and a discussion of the in-flight performance.

  7. The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly

    ScienceCinema

    Nieto, Michael

    2017-12-09

    The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

  8. Raymond Dart as a pioneering primatologist.

    PubMed

    Strkalj, G; Tobias, P V

    2008-01-01

    Raymond Dart is best known today for his groundbreaking research in palaeoanthropology. It is often forgotten, however, that Dart was a scientist of many interests, who made significant contributions to various disciplines. One of these is the study of living non-human primates. Dart became aware of the importance of primate studies and their relevance for research in other disciplines early in his career. In the late 1920s Dart established a colony of captive baboons in the Anatomy Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. On these animals, members of his Department, most notably Joseph Gillman and Christine Gilbert, carried out a number of significant behavioural and endocrinological researches. In 1930, as a member of an Italian Scientific Expedition, Dart was involved in hunting a mountain gorilla (for research purposes). He was also active in primate field studies. In 1957 he and Phillip Tobias founded a Witwatersrand University Uganda Gorilla Research Unit for the study of the Virunga mountain gorillas. The unit produced pioneering studies, conducted by Jill Donisthorpe, on the behaviour of these primates in their natural habitat. At the same time Dart was actively engaged in conservation of the mountain gorillas. He also studied South African chacma baboons in the wild. In the field of primate studies Raymond Dart figures prominently as a pioneering catalyst as well as researcher and conservationist.

  9. Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    status can sometimes be reflected in the infectious potential or drug resistance of those pathogens. For example, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis , its antibiotic resistance and prediction of pathogenicity amongst Mycobacterium spp. based on signature lipid biomarkers ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. 49 CFR 178.61 - Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded longitudinal seam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 4BW cylinder is a welded type steel cylinder with a longitudinal electric-arc welded seam, a water... a maximum wall stress of 24,000 p.s.i. in the formula described in paragraph (f)(4) of this section... any case the minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress calculated by the formula listed...

  11. 49 CFR 178.61 - Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded longitudinal seam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOT 4BW cylinder is a welded type steel cylinder with a longitudinal electric-arc welded seam, a water... a maximum wall stress of 24,000 p.s.i. in the formula described in paragraph (f)(4) of this section... any case the minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress calculated by the formula listed...

  12. The pioneer projects: Economical exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of the various organizational elements of the Pioneer Project Office at Ames Research Center are described in terms of their management responsibilities and interactions with other elements of the Project Office and with external organizations having Pioneer Project responsibilities. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  13. Adolf Friedrich Fercher: a pioneer of biomedical optics.

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2017-11-01

    Adolf Friedrich Fercher, an outstanding pioneer of biomedical optics, passed away earlier this year. He was a brilliant and visionary researcher who pioneered various fields of biomedical optics, such as laser speckle flowgraphy, tissue interferometry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of OCT, this paper reviews and commemorates Fercher's pioneering work. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  15. An historical perspective on the pioneering experiments of John Saunders.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2017-09-15

    John Saunders was a highly skilled embryologist who pioneered the study of limb development. His studies on chick embryos provided the fundamental framework for understanding how vertebrate limbs develop. This framework inspired generations of scientists and formed the bridge from experimental embryology to molecular mechanisms. Saunders investigated how feathers become organized into tracts in the skin of the chick wing and also identified regions of programmed cell death. He discovered that a region of thickened ectoderm that rims the chick wing bud - the apical ectodermal ridge - is required for outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (long axis) of the wing, identified the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA; polarizing region) that controls development across the anteroposterior axis ("thumb to little finger "axis) and contributed to uncovering the importance of the ectoderm in development of structures along the dorso-ventral axis ( "back of hand to palm" axis). This review looks in depth at some of his original papers and traces how he made the crucial findings about how limbs develop, considering these findings both in the context of contemporary knowledge at the time and also in terms of their immediate impact on the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  17. Modeling Jupiter's current disc - Pioneer 10 outbound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. E.; Melville, J. G.; Blake, M. L.

    1980-07-01

    A model of the magnetic field of the Jovian current disk is presented. The model uses Euler functions and the Biot-Savart law applied to a series of concentric, but not necessarily coplanar current rings. It was found that the best fit to the Pioneer 10 outbound perturbation magnetic field data is obtained if the current disk is twisted, and also bent to tend toward parallelism with the Jovigraphic equator. The inner and outer radii of the disk appear to be about 7 and 150 Jovian radii, respectively; because of the observed current disk penetrations, the bent disk also requires a deformation in the form of a bump or wrinkle whose axis tends to exhibit spiraling. Modeling of the azimuthal field shows that it is due to a thin radial current sheet, but it may actually be due in large part to penetration of a tail current sheet as suggested by Voyager observations.

  18. David Lasser: An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the prospects of human spaceflight. Yet his involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he soon moved on to pursue a distinguished career in the cause of workers rights. In lieu of an oral history, the author corresponded with Mr. Lasser on a regular basis in the years before his death in 1996 to gather Mr. Lasser's views on human spaceflight activities as viewed from his unique perspective. This paper will document that correspondence with one of America's original spaceflight pioneers.

  19. Thomas K. Jeffers: pioneer of coccidiosis research.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D

    2012-01-01

    Thomas K. Jeffers has made many significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the parasite Eimeria, the cause of coccidiosis in poultry. His work has had direct practical application for the control of this widespread disease. Topics discussed include Jeffers' pioneering work concerned with genetics of the host response to infection, the nature of biological and immunological intraspecific variation, drug resistance and discovery, field surveys of resistance, and his most recognized achievement-the demonstration that the lifecycle of coccidia may be altered by artificial selection. Parasites so modified are attenuated but retain their immunogenicity, a discovery that has led to the development of live vaccines that are inherently non-pathogenic. This article provides a brief biography and describes the contributions that Jeffers has made to our knowledge of coccidiosis.

  20. TDRS-A - The pioneering payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The first launch of a Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-A) on board the Shuttle Orbiter 'Challenger' of the Space Transportation System (STS) provided many pioneering events as a payload/user. The TDRS-A was launched as a payload of the STS as well as a payload of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) on April 4, 1983. This paper traces the payload processing flow of the TDRS-A from its arrival at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), through its launch on Challenger and its trans-orbit flight on the IUS to geosynchronous orbit. The TDRS-A, as a customer/user of these launch systems, is examined and reviewed and lessons learned are noted.

  1. A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.

    1993-01-01

    The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

  2. Pioneer probe mission with orbiter option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A spacecraft is described which is based on Pioneer 10 and 11, and existing propulsion technology; it can transport and release a probe for entry into Jupiter's atmosphere, and subsequently maneuver to place the spacecraft in orbit about Jupiter. Orbital operations last 3 years and include maneuvers to provide multiple close satellite encounters which allow the orbit to be significantly changed to explore different parts of the magnetosphere. A mission summary, a guide to related documents, and background information about Jupiter are presented along with mission analysis over the complete mission profile. Other topics discussed include the launch, interplanetary flight, probe release and orbit deflection, probe entry, orbit selection, orbit insertion, periapsis raising, spacecraft description, and the effects of Jupiter's radiation belt on both orbiter and the probe.

  3. Lightning measurements from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency signals when the spacecraft traverses the nightside ionosphere near periapsis. These particular noise bursts appear only when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere thus; the signals have all characteristics of lightning whistlers. We have tried to identify lightning sources between the cloud layers and the planet itself by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set, consisting of measurements through Orbit 1185, strongly indicates a clustering of lightning sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with an additional significant cluster near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized lightning sources at or near the planetary surface.

  4. Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Professor Stuart A. Lipton Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764. PMID:23815466

  5. Lu-Hf systematics of magmatic zircons reveal a Proterozoic crustal boundary under the Cretaceous Pioneer batholith, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David A.; Mueller, Paul A.; Heatherington, Ann; Gifford, Jennifer N.; Kalakay, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Lu-Hf systematics of magmatic zircons from quartz diorite and granodiorite plutons of the Late Cretaceous Pioneer batholith, Montana, indicate involvement of distinctly different crustal sources in the petrogensis of individual components of the batholith. Plutons of the eastern Pioneer batholith contain magmatic zircons with initial ɛHf values of - 28 to - 34 that crystallized in magmas likely derived from dominantly Archean and earliest Paleoproterozoic crust. Contemporaneous granodiorite in the western Pioneer batholith contains magmatic zircons with initial ɛHf values ranging from - 9 to - 33, but dominated by values between - 18 and - 22, which suggest a mixture of Paleoproterozoic and possible Mesoproterozoic sources. These data suggest that distinct segments of crust juxtaposed and produced during formation of the Great Falls tectonic zone (1.78-1.86 Ga) and the Belt basin (~ 1.43-1.47 Ga) contributed to magmatic compositions in the batholith and that these contributions are recorded in the magmatic zircons. The contrasting ɛHf distributions between eastern and western components of the Pioneer batholith suggest that an important crustal and/or lithospheric boundary underlies the Pioneer batholith. The Hf-isotopic results also suggest that the high P-wave velocity lower crust of the northern Rocky Mountains did not form in a single event.

  6. The development of a model to predict BW gain of growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Huhtanen, P

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to develop and validate empirical equations predicting BW gain (BWG) and carcass traits of growing cattle from intake and diet composition variables. The modelling was based on treatment mean data from feeding trials in growing cattle, in which the nutrient supply was manipulated by wide ranges of forage and concentrate factors. The final dataset comprised 527 diets in 116 studies. The diets were mainly based on grass silage or grass silage partly or completely replaced by whole-crop silages, hay or straw. The concentrate feeds consisted of cereal grains, fibrous by-products and protein supplements. Mixed model regression analysis with a random study effect was used to develop prediction equations for BWG and carcass traits. The best-fit models included linear and quadratic effects of metabolisable energy (ME) intake per metabolic BW (BW0.75), linear effects of BW0.75, and dietary concentrations of NDF, fat and feed metabolisable protein (MP) as significant variables. Although diet variables had significant effects on BWG, their contribution to improve the model predictions compared with ME intake models was small. Feed MP rather than total MP was included in the final model, since it is less correlated to dietary ME concentration than total MP. None of the quadratic terms of feed variables was significant (P>0.10) when included in the final models. Further, additional feed variables (e.g. silage fermentation products, forage digestibility) did not have significant effects on BWG. For carcass traits, increased ME intake (ME/BW0.75) improved both dressing proportion (P0.10) effect on dressing proportion or carcass conformation score, but it increased (P<0.01) carcass fat score. The current study demonstrated that ME intake per BW0.75 was clearly the most important variable explaining the BWG response in growing cattle. The effect of increased ME supply displayed diminishing responses that could be associated with increased

  7. Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

  8. The interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 2: System design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer systems, subsystems, and ground support activities are described. Details are given on the launch trajectory and solar orbit plans, spacecraft design approach and evolution, scientific instrument, test and ground support equipment, Delta launch vehicle, tracking and communication, and data processing equipment. Pioneer specifications, and reliability and quality assurance are also included.

  9. NREL Pioneers Better Way to Make Renewable Hydrogen | News | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Pioneers Better Way to Make Renewable Hydrogen News Release: NREL Pioneers Better Way to Make Renewable Hydrogen January 9, 2017 A man stands outside on the grounds of the NREL campus. John Turner is a research fellow at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, where he has worked since 1979. Credit: Dennis

  10. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXVIII - Ultraviolet light curves for Alpha Lupi and BW Vulpeculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Photometric data from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on OAO-2 have been used to construct light curves at three ultraviolet wavelengths for Alpha Lup and at seven wavelengths for BW Vul. Both stars are well-known variables of the Beta Cephei (Beta Canis Majoris) type. The light curves for Alpha Lup are in good agreement with the radial-velocity period. A temperature variation of 400-500 K is derived. The BW Vul light curves confirm recent ephemerides based on a secularly varying period and show a stillstand near light maximum at some wavelengths. Both stars exhibit increasing light amplitude at the shortest ultraviolet wavelengths. There is little evidence for cycle-to-cycle variations on a time scale of the order of 1 day.

  11. Photographer: JPL P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed.

  12. 78 FR 62014 - Pioneer Wind Park I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL14-1-000] Pioneer Wind... Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Pioneer Wind Park I, LLC (Pioneer Wind) filed a petition for declaratory... execute a Power Purchase Agreement with Pioneer Wind, unless Pioneer Wind agrees to allow PacifiCorp to...

  13. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  14. After SDSS-IV: Pioneering Panoptic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmeier, Juna; AS4 Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    I will describe the current plans for a next generation sky survey that will begin After SDSS-IV --- AS4. AS4 will be an unprecedented all-sky spectroscopic survey of over six million objects. It is designed to decode the history of the Milky Way galaxy, trace the emergence of the chemical elements, reveal the inner workings of stars, the growth of black holes, and investigate the origin of planets. It will provide the most comprehensive all-sky spectroscopy to multiply the science from the Gaia, TESS and eROSITA missions. AS4 will also create a contiguous spectroscopic map of the interstellar gas in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies that is 1,000 times larger than the state of the art, uncovering the self-regulation mechanisms of Galactic ecosystems. It will pioneer systematic, spectroscopic monitoring across the whole sky, revealing changes on timescales from 20 minutes to 20 years. The project is now developing new hardware to build on the SDSS-IV infrastructure, designing the detailed survey strategy, and actively seeking to complete its consortium of institutional and individual members.

  15. Chemical pump study for Pioneer Venus program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rotheram, M.

    1973-01-01

    Two chemical pumps were designed for the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer. Factors involved in the design selection are reviewed. One pump is designed to process a sample of the Venus atmosphere to remove the major component, carbon dioxide, so that the minor, inert components may be measured with greater sensitivity. The other pump is designed to promote flow of atmospheric gas through a pressure reduction inlet system. This pump, located downstream from the mass spectrometer sampling point, provides the pressure differential required for flow through the inlet system. Both pumps utilize the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide. The available data for this reaction was reviewed with respect to the proposed applications, and certain deficiencies in reaction rate data at higher carbon dioxide pressures noted. The chemical pump designed for the inert gas experiment has an estimated volume of 30 cu cm and weight of 80 grams, exclusive of the four valves required for the operation. The chemical pump for the pressure reduction inlet system is designed for a total sample of 0.3 bar liter during the Venus descent.

  16. Precision medicine needs pioneering clinical bioinformaticians.

    PubMed

    Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cigudosa, Juan C; Valencia, Alfonso; Al-Shahrour, Fátima

    2017-10-25

    Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine. Secondly, we review the currently ongoing clinical trials in precision medicine, introducing the concept of 'precision bioinformatics', and we describe current pioneering bioinformatics efforts aimed at implementing tools and computational infrastructures for precision medicine in health institutions around the world. Thirdly, we discuss the challenges related to the clinical training of bioinformaticians, and the urgent need for computational specialists capable of assimilating medical terminologies and protocols to address real clinical questions. We also propose some skills required to carry out common tasks in clinical bioinformatics and some tips for emergent groups. Finally, we explore the future perspectives and the challenges faced by precision medicine bioinformatics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. On the possible onset of the Pioneer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michael R.; Anderson, John D.

    2015-06-01

    We explore the possibility that the observed onset of the Pioneer anomaly after Saturn encounter by Pioneer 11 is not necessarily due to mismodeling of solar radiation pressure but instead reflects a physically relevant characteristic of the anomaly itself. We employ the principles of a recently proposed cosmological model termed "the theory of inertial centers" along with an understanding of the fundamental assumptions taken by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to attempt to model this sudden onset. Due to an ambiguity that arises from the difference in the DSN definition of expected light-time with light-time according to the theory of inertial centers, we are forced to adopt a seemingly arbitrary convention to relate DSN-assumed clock-rates to physical clock-rates for this model. We offer a possible reason for adopting the convention employed in our analysis; however, we remain skeptical. Nevertheless, with this convention, one finds that this theory is able to replicate the previously reported Hubble-like behavior of the "clock acceleration" for the Pioneer anomaly as well as the sudden onset of the anomalous acceleration after Pioneer 11 Saturn encounter. While oscillatory behavior with a yearly period is also predicted for the anomalous clock accelerations of both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, the predicted amplitude is an order of magnitude too small when compared with that reported for Pioneer 10.

  18. Pioneer spacecraft operation at low and high spin rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of executing major changes upward or downward from the nominal spin rate for which the Pioneer F&G spacecraft was designed was investigated along with the extent of system and subsystem modifications required to implement these mode changes in future spacecraft evolving from the baseline Pioneer F and G. Results of a previous study are re-examined and updated for an extended range of spin rate variations for missions that include outer planet orbiters, outer planet flyby and outer planet probe delivery. However, in the interest of design simplicity and cost economy, major modifications of the baseline Pioneer system and subsystem concept were avoided.

  19. [Theodor Emil Kocher, modern surgery pioneer].

    PubMed

    Chigot, J P

    2000-11-01

    Theodore Kocher was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1909 for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland. He was the first Swiss citizen and the first surgeon to ever receive such a distinction. He was a pioneer and a world leader in the surgical revolution of the end of the nineteenth century. After graduation in 1865, he traveled in Germany, England, France and Austria to observe the work of Langenbeck, Paget, Wells, Nelaton, Billroth.... In 1866, he returned to Bern and was appointed assistant in the surgical clinic of Lücke. In 1872 he applied for the succession of Lücke. After a lively debate, he was appointed by the Board of Regents against the recommendation of the faculty who wished to nominate a German surgeon, König. It proved to be a good choice, as, over a period of 45 years, Kocher developed a considerable activity in various fields of surgery leading to world-wide acclaim and renown. Kocher's most significant contribution to medicine concerned the thyroid gland. He considerably improved thyroid surgery. His anatomical knowledge, precise operating technic and respect of the aseptic principles defined by Lister, whom he had met in Glasgow, contributed to a reduction of mortality from 13% to 0.18%. He described postoperative hypothyroidism, which he called cachexia strumipriva and concluded that total thyroidectomy was not indicated in benign diseases. When he died, more than 7,000 thyroidectomies had been performed in his clinic. Kocher was also interested in orthopedics, abdominal and genitourinary surgery, surgical oncology, neurosurgery (Cushing conducted experimental research with him). He developed or modified many surgical instruments. He conducted a large number of experimental studies and published 249 articles and books.

  20. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor BW284c51 is a potent blocker of Torpedo nicotinic AchRs incorporated into the Xenopus oocyte membrane

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2004-01-01

    This work was aimed to determine if 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide (BW284c51), the most selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI), affects the nicotinic acetylcholine (Ach) receptor (AchR) function. Purified Torpedo nicotinic AchRs were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and BW284c51 effects on Ach- and carbamylcholine (Cch)-elicited currents were assessed using the voltage-clamp technique. BW284c51 (up to 1 mM) did not evoke any change in the oocyte membrane conductance. When BW284c51 (10 pM–100 μM) and Ach were coapplied, Ach-evoked currents (IAch) were reversibly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (Hill coefficient, 1; IC50, 0.2–0.5 μM for 0.1–1000 μM Ach). Cch-elicited currents showed a similar inhibition by BW284c51. IAch blockade by BW284c51 showed a strong voltage dependence, being only apparent at hyperpolarising potentials. BW284c51 also enhanced IAch desensitisation. BW284c51 changed the Ach concentration-dependence curve of Torpedo AchR response from two-site to single-site kinetics, without noticeably affecting the EC50 value. The BW284c51 blocking effect was highly selective for nicotinic over muscarinic receptors. BW284c51 inhibition potency was stronger than that of tacrine, and similar to that of d-tubocurarine (d-TC). Coapplication of BW284c51 with either tacrine or d-TC revealed synergistic inhibitory effects. Our results indicate that BW284c51 antagonises nicotinic AchRs in a noncompetitive way by blocking the receptor channel, and possibly by other, yet unknown, mechanisms. Therefore, besides acting as a selective AchEI, BW284c51 constitutes a powerful and reversible blocker of nicotinic AchRs that might be used as a valuable tool for understanding their function. PMID:15644872

  1. Evaluation of B&W UO2/ThO2 VIII experimental core: criticality and thermal disadvantage factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlo Parisi; Emanuele Negrenti

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the OECD/NEA International Reactor Physics Experiment (IRPHE) Project, an evaluation of core VIII of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Spectral Shift Control Reactor (SSCR) critical experiment program was performed. The SSCR concept, moderated and cooled by a variable mixture of heavy and light water, envisaged changing of the thermal neutron spectrum during the operation to encourage breeding and to sustain the core criticality. Core VIII contained 2188 fuel rods with 93% enriched UO2-ThO2 fuel in a moderator mixture of heavy and light water. The criticality experiment and measurements of the thermal disadvantage factor were evaluated.

  2. Photographer : JPL Range : 12 million km. ( 7.56 million miles) P-23057C & BW This Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 12 million km. ( 7.56 million miles) P-23057C & BW This Voyager 1 photograph of Titan, the largest of Saturn's 14 known satellites, shows little more than the upper layers of clouds covering the moon. The orange colored haze, is believed to be composed of photochemically produced hydrocarbons, hides Titan's solid surface from Voyager's camera. Some weak shadings in the clouds are becoming visible. However, note that the satellite's southern, lower, hemisphere is brighter than the northern. It is not known whether these subtle shadings are on the surface or are due to clouds below a high haze layer.

  3. Geology of the Venus equatorial region from Pioneer Venus radar imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senske, D. A.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The surface characteristics and morphology of the equatorial region of Venus were first described by Masursky et al. who showed this part of the planet to be characterized by two topographic provinces, rolling plains and highlands, and more recently by Schaber who described and interpreted tectonic zones in the highlands. Using Pioneer Venus (PV) radar image data (15 deg S to 45 deg N), Senske and Head examined the distribution, characteristics, and deposits of individual volcanic features in the equatorial region, and in addition classified major equatorial physiographic and tectonic units on the basis of morphology, topographic signature, and radar properties derived from the PV data. Included in this classification are: plains (undivided), inter-highland tectonic zones, tectonically segmented linear highlands, upland rises, tectonic junctions, dark halo plains, and upland plateaus. In addition to the physiographic units, features interpreted as coronae and volcanic mountains have also been mapped. The latter four of the physiographic units along with features interpreted to be coronae.

  4. Changes in spatial point patterns of pioneer woody plants across a large tropical landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Eduardo; De la Cruz, Marcelino; Gómez-Sal, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    We assessed whether the relative importance of positive and negative interactions in early successional communities varied across a large landslide on Casita Volcano (Nicaragua). We tested several hypotheses concerning the signatures of these processes in the spatial patterns of woody pioneer plants, as well as those of mortality and recruitment events, in several zones of the landslide differing in substrate stability and fertility, over a period of two years (2001 and 2002). We identified all woody individuals with a diameter >1 cm and mapped them in 28 plots measuring 10 × 10-m. On these maps, we performed a spatial point pattern analysis using univariate and bivariate pair-correlation functions; g (r) and g12 (r), and pairwise differences of univariate and bivariate functions. Spatial signatures of positive and negative interactions among woody plants were more prevalent in the most and least stressful zones of the landslide, respectively. Natural and human-induced disturbances such as the occurrence of fire, removal of newly colonizing plants through erosion and clearcutting of pioneer trees were also identified as potentially important pattern-creating processes. These results are in agreement with the stress-gradient hypothesis, which states that the relative importance of facilitation and competition varies inversely across gradients of abiotic stress. Our findings also indicate that the assembly of early successional plant communities in large heterogeneous landslides might be driven by a much larger array of processes than previously thought.

  5. Pioneer unmanned air vehicle accomplishments during Operation Desert Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, James H.

    1991-12-01

    This paper will describe the accomplishments and lessons learned of the Pioneer Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The Pioneer UAV has been deployed with three branches of the U.S. military (USA, USN, and USMC) for the past four years. Although the system has compiled over 6,000 flight hours, the recent conflict in the Gulf is the first opportunity to demonstrate its true value in a combat scenario. In a relatively short time (42 days), 307 flights and 1,011 flight hours were completed on Operation Desert Storm. This, coupled with the accuracy of various weapons systems that Pioneer observed/cued for, resulted in timely target engagements. This paper will chronicle the Pioneer deployment and accomplishments on Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Various employment methods, tactics, doctrine, and lessons learned will be presented.

  6. 9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, artist, c. 1870) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF MISSION AND CONVENTO, C. 1870 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  7. 16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. 1890) EXTERIOR, EAST SIDE OF MISSION, C. 1890 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Painting by Renaud Original: Before 1835 Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers From Vischer Drawing Original: After 1859 Re-photo: January 1940 CHURCH (VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST) - Mission San Rafael Archangel, San Rafael, Marin County, CA

  10. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From Vischer Drawing REAR VIEW OF MISSION About 1870 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  11. 111. White House Dept. store and Mills Building, 127 Pioneer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. White House Dept. store and Mills Building, 127 Pioneer Plaza and 393 North Oregon St., looking north - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  12. WHITE HOUSE DEPARTMENT STORE AND MILLS BUILDING, 127 PIONEER PLAZA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WHITE HOUSE DEPARTMENT STORE AND MILLS BUILDING, 127 PIONEER PLAZA AND 393 N. OREGON ST., LOOKING NORTH - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. Does Increased Spending on Pharmaceutical Marketing Inhibit Pioneering Innovation?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1870's Re- photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Mission San Antonio de Padua, Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, Jolon, Monterey County, CA

  15. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1885 Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Mission San Antonio de Padua, Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, Jolon, Monterey County, CA

  16. The Pioneer Projects - Economical exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of various organizational elements of the project are described. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  17. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1850's Re-photo: January 1940 CONVENTO (VIEW FROM SOUTH) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  18. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1850's Re-photo: January 1940 MISSION BUILDINGS NORTH OF CHURCH; VIEW FROM WEST - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  19. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1860's Re-photo: January 1940 MISSION BUILDING OPPOSITE MISSION (NOW DESTROYED) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: Early 1860'2 Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  1. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1860's Re-photo: January 1940 CONVENTO - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  2. Robert J. Genco: Pioneer in Oral Science Advancement.

    PubMed

    Taubman, M A

    2018-07-01

    Professor Robert J. Genco made extraordinary research advances in immunology, periodontology, and microbiology research, pioneering major advances in oral science. In addition to his extraordinary research advancements in oral biology, his pioneering advances in oral science leadership at the local/university, national, and international levels are recognized worldwide, as are his educational advancements. In his era, he is truly the "father" of oral science.

  3. Pioneers of high-speed photography and motion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddleton, Graham P.

    2005-03-01

    In many ways this paper continues from the one presented at the 25th ICHSPP held in Beaune, France in 2002. That paper was on Etienne-Jules Marey, a true pioneer of high speed photographic techniques and cinematography, who was born in Beaune. Whilst researching for that paper the author became fascinated by the efforts and results of many pioneers in the field at the turn of the 19th century.

  4. Background starlight observed from Pioneer 10. [beyond asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.; Hanner, M. S.; Beeson, D. E.; Deshields, L. M., II; Green, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results of background starlight observations are reviewed that were obtained by the Pioneer 10 asteroid-Jupiter probe when, after passage beyond the asteroid belt, its imaging photopolarimeter observed integrated starlight and diffuse galactic light for the first time in the absence of zodiacal light. Brightnesses in the blue are presented with and without individually resolved stars for regions of the sky observed when Pioneer 10 was 4.64 astronomical units from the sun.

  5. Pioneer Venus orbiter search for Venusian lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, W.J.; Dyer, J.W.; Phillips, J.R.

    1991-07-01

    During the 1988 and 1990, the star sensor aboard the Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO) was used to search for optical pulses from lightning on the nightside of Venus. Useful data were obtained for 53 orbits in 1988 and 55 orbits in 1990. During this period, approximately 83 s of search time plus 7749 s of control data were obtained. The results again find no optical evidence for lightning activity. With the region that was observed during 1988, the results imply that the upper bound to short-duration flashes is 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} flashes/km{sup 2}/s for flashes that are at leastmore » 50% as bright as typical terrestrial lightning. During 1990, when the 2-Hz filter was used, the results imply an upper bound of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} flashes/km{sup 2}/s for long-duration flashes at least 1.6% as bright as typical terrestrial lightning flashes or 33% as bright as the pulses observed by the Venera 9. The upper bounds to the flash rates for the 1988 and 1990 searches are twice and one half the global terrestrial rate, respectively. These two searches covered the region from 60{degrees}N latitude to 30{degrees}S latitude, 250{degrees} to 350{degrees} longitude, and the region from 45{degrees}N latitude to 55{degrees}S latitude, 155{degrees} to 300{degrees} longitude. Both searches sampled much of the nightside region from the dawn terminator to within 4 hours of the dusk terminator. These searches covered a much larger latitude range than any previous search. The results show that the Beat and Phoebe Regio areas previously identified by Russell et al. (1988) as areas with high rates of lightning activity were not active during the two seasons of the observations. When the authors assume that their upper bounds to the nightside flash rate are representative of the entire planet, the results imply that the global flash rate and energy dissipation rate derived by Krasnopol'sky (1983) from his observation of a single storm are too high.« less

  6. Lessons From the Pioneer Venus Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfman, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    We began the Pioneer Venus contract in late 1974 with a planned launch of the Orbiter in May 1978 and the Multiprobe in August 1978. Because we had four years, we thought there was plenty of time. As it turned out, we barely made the launch dates. The Orbiter was relatively straightforward, compared to the Multiprobe Bus and Probes that had to survive descent through the harsh Venusian atmosphere. To help overcome our many Multiprobe problems we formed a strong global team. The GE reentry team in Philadelphia, experienced in designing vehicles to enter the earth s atmosphere, was assigned the responsibility for the Probe entry system, including protective heat shielding and parachute design to extract the scienceladen Large Probe pressure vessel and control its descent through the Venusian clouds. Since the Probes had to remain stable as they descended through the Venus atmosphere, we used the aerodynamic expertise at the Hughes Missile Division, NASA s Ames Research Center and the Langley Research Center. Since the pressure at the surface of Venus was equivalent to an ocean depth of 3300 feet, we went to the Navy s David Taylor Research Center for their deepsea expertise. To test the pressure vessel at the high pressure and temperatures anticipated at Venus we went to the only facility capable of simulating the Venus surface environment, the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. We had dozens of subcontractors all over the world. As we developed our design, we began an extensive program to validate the ability of our Probe hardware to withstand the Venus environment. During this testing, we encountered numerous problems, mostly associated with adapting earth-based hardware to operate in the anticipated Venus environment. For example, the Large Probe pressure vessel imploded with a very loud bang the first time we tested its ability to withstand the high pressure and temperature on the Venusian surface. We had to go back and redesign, increasing the

  7. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    PubMed

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    education. Women's groups are also questioning policies that bar girls from reentering school after a childhood pregnancy. Uganda has a program to help girls resume their studies after pregnancy, but not within the main educational system. Pioneering new approaches is occurring and the Rockefeller Foundation is taking the lead in an 18-member international donor group in supporting the promotion of female education.

  8. Pioneer 10 and 11 Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, Walker

    1997-01-01

    This report finishes the work of NASA Grant NAS2-153, which supported data analysis for the UCSD instruments on Pioneers 10 and 11. The data analyzed under this grant span 22 years of interplanetary measurements in the inner and outer heliosphere. The UCSD instruments made their mark in cosmic ray research based upon their high energy thresholds, directional responses, and reliable data streams. one of their primary scientific objectives concerns the size, configuration, and time behavior of the heliosphere. The size scale is inferred from the radial intensity gradient, which is measured between the two spacecraft and extrapolated to interstellar intensity levels at the cosmic ray modulation boundary. This boundary still eludes us, and its position, motion, and the best method of extrapolation are ongoing problems. Current projections place the boundary beyond 100 AU, which may be beyond the termination shock, and raises the question of possible modulation in the heliosheath. Probably our only hope of seeing this region in the immediate future rides on the possibility that the boundary will move inward. Our instruments have recorded many Forbush, or transient, decreases in the outer heliosphere. These observations led us to a model that attributes many of the decreases to solar wind stream-stream interactions, and relates the cosmic ray variations to the locally observed magnetic field magnitude. As the cosmic ray variations in this model result only from topological changes in the modulation integral, the model is a tool for studying the possibility that the 11 year cosmic ray modulation cycle can be accounted for by a superposition of Forbush decreases. The cosmic ray angular distribution function is measurable, given a good telemetry rate, by the UCSD Cerenkov detector which counts particles of energy greater than 500 MeV/n. We obtained statistically significant samples from 1 to 9 AU, at 13 AU, and at 34 AU. The anisotropy tends to be a few tenths of a per cent

  9. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  10. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  11. Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands

    PubMed Central

    Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. PMID:24383765

  12. Pioneer 10. [observations of Jupiter environment and asteroid belt hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    On Dec. 4, 1973, after 21 months in flight, Pioneer 10 passed by Jupiter at a distance within 130,000 km of its cloud tops. During the month before and after, instrumentation on the spacecraft made a number of scientific measurements of the Jupiter environment, thus completing one of three scientific objectives of the mission. Previously, Pioneer 10 had explored the asteroid belt and had completed the second scientific objective by determining that the belt did not present a hazard to spacecraft passing through it. The third objective, the exploration of interplanetary phenomena, started with the launch of Pioneer 10 and will not be completed until 1977 when the spacecraft nears the orbit of Uranus and the signal from the spacecraft becomes too weak to be heard at ground receivers.

  13. Scientific results from the Pioneer Saturn encounter - Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opp, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The scientific results of the Pioneer Saturn encounter with Saturn are summarized. The Pioneer mission was designed to image the planet, its satellites and rings, and measure its particulate environment and the magnetic field and photon and charged particle radiation by means of 11 operational scientific instruments and its 2.293-GHz telemetry carrier signal. Principle results of the mission include the discovery of an additional ring and a previously unidentified satellite, the further characterization of the physical properties of Saturn and its magnetic field, and the description of the planetary magnetosphere. The successful completion of the mission demonstrated the ability of spacecraft such as Voyager 1 and 2 to survive the particle environments of Saturn's rings and trapped radiation environments, and Pioneer Saturn is expected to continue transmitting information on the interplanetary medium and the solar wind interaction with the interstellar medium until the mid-1980's.

  14. Discovering Jupiter. I. [state of knowledge with Pioneer 11 contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge regarding the planet Jupiter is examined, taking into account data obtained with the aid of the spacecraft Pioneer 11. A description is given of Jupiter's weather. The Pioneer 11 pictures show that the planet's banded cloud structure breaks down above 50 deg latitude, and turns into relatively small, mostly circular cloud features in the polar regions. Attention is given to Jupiter's heat balance, aspects of internal heat flow, questions of atmospheric circulation, the turbulence in Jupiter's atmosphere, the effects of coriolis forces, Jupiter's upper atmosphere, the Great Red Spot, and the Jovian magnetosphere and radiation belts.

  15. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Five Pioneers with Scale Models of Their Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Five pioneers pose with scale models of their missiles they created in the 1950s. From left to right: Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger, a member of the original German rocket team who directed the Research Projects Office, Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA); Major General Holger Toftoy, who consolidated U.S. missile and rocketry development; Professor Herman Oberth, a rocket pioneer and Dr. von Braun's mentor; Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director, Development Operation Division, ABMA; and Dr. Robert Lusser, who served as assistant director for Reliability Engineering for ABMA. This photographis was taken February 1, 1956 by Hank Walker and appeared in February 27, 1956 issue of Life magazine.

  17. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Hiroki; Ohba, Koji; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  18. Regional Fluctuation in the Functional Consequence of LINE-1 Insertion in the Mitf Gene: The Black Spotting Phenotype Arisen from the Mitfmi-bw Mouse Lacking Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes. The black spotting mouse shows multiple black patches on the white coat, with age-related graying. Importantly, each black patch also contains hair follicles lacking melanocytes, whereas the white-coat area completely lacks melanocytes. RT-PCR analyses of the pigmented patches confirmed that the LINE-1 insertion is retained in the Mitf gene of the black spotting mouse, thereby excluding the possibility of the somatic reversion of the Mitfmi-bw allele. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining intensity for beta-catenin was noticeably lower in hair follicles lacking melanocytes of the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse and the black spotting mouse, compared to the control mouse. In contrast, the staining intensity for beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was higher in keratinocytes of the black spotting mouse, compared to keratinocytes of the control mouse and the Mitfmi-bw mouse. Moreover, the keratinocyte layer appears thicker in the Mitfmi-bw mouse, with the overexpression of Ki-67, a marker for cell proliferation. We also show that the presumptive black spots are formed by embryonic day 15.5. Thus, the black spotting mouse provides the unique model to explore the molecular basis for the survival and death of developing melanoblasts and melanocyte stem cells in the epidermis. These results indicate that follicular melanocytes are responsible for maintaining the epidermal homeostasis; namely, the present study has provided

  19. Phase II study of the oxygen saturation curve left shifting agent BW12C in combination with the hypoxia activated drug mitomycin C in advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Braybrooke, J P; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Thompson, C H; Rajagopalan, B; Littlewood, T J; Dixon, R M; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    BW12C (5-[2-formyl-3-hydroxypenoxyl] pentanoic acid) stabilizes oxyhaemoglobin, causing a reversible left-shift of the oxygen saturation curve (OSC) and tissue hypoxia. The activity of mitomycin C (MMC) is enhanced by hypoxia. In this phase II study, 17 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) received BW12C and MMC. BW12C was given as a bolus loading dose of 45 mg kg−1over 1 h, followed by a maintenance infusion of 4 mg kg−1h−1for 5 h. MMC 6 mg m−2was administered over 15 min immediately after the BW12C bolus. The 15 evaluable patients had progressive disease after a median of 2 (range 1–4) cycles of chemotherapy. Haemoglobin electrophoresis 3 and 5 h after the BW12C bolus dose showed a fast moving band consistent with the BW12C-oxyhaemoglobin complex, accounting for approximately 50% of total haemoglobin. The predominant toxicities – nausea/vomiting and vein pain – were mild and did not exceed CTC grade 2. Liver31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of patients with hepatic metastases showed no changes consistent with tissue hypoxia. The principle of combining a hypoxically activated drug with an agent that increases tissue hypoxia is clinically feasible, producing an effect equivalent to reducing tumour oxygen delivery by at least 50%. However, BW12C in combination with MMC for 5-FU-resistant colorectal cancer is not an effective regimen. This could be related to drug resistance rather than a failure to enhance cytotoxicity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839290

  20. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  1. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture. PMID:28094350

  2. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  3. A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education…

  4. The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

  5. Oneida Cockrell: Pioneer in the Field of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author profiles Oneida Cockrell, a pioneer in the field of early childhood education. She was the founder and director of the Garden Apartments Nursery School and Kindergarten, located in the prestigious Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments building (commonly known as the Rosenwald Apartments) in Chicago's West Hyde Park…

  6. Star field attitude sensor study for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolf, W. P.; Reed, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of a star field attitude sensor for use with the Pioneer Venus spacecraft are presented. The aspects of technical feasibility, system interface considerations, and cost of flight hardware development are discussed. The tradeoffs which relate to performance, design, cost, and reliability are analyzed. The configuration of the system for installation in the spacecraft is described.

  7. Marketing Reference Services through Bibliographic Instruction at Northland Pioneer College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlisberg, Allen P.

    This report describes how the bibliographic instruction program at the learning resource center of Arizona's Northland Pioneer College (NPC) tries to encourage potential patrons to become aware of, and use, the library's services. It is noted that NPC serves a widely scattered geographic area with a diverse, isolated service population which is…

  8. Pioneer Venus observations during Comet Halley's inferior conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    On Feb. 4, 1986, Halley passed through inferior conjunction with Venus but was at high latitudes. Not all data for this time period have been received. However, the data that are available suggest that at most only weak effects associated with Halley were seen at Pioneer Venus. The data during this time, however, are useful for correlating with the behavior of the plasma tail.

  9. 700 Honor ARC Pioneers and Founders at Gathering in Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Commission celebrated its 20th anniversary by honoring commission pioneers and founders at a Washington, DC, gathering. A new program aimed at lowering the region's school dropout rate was announced at the banquet. State plans and investment programs and a finish-up program accomplishments were approved at a business…

  10. Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space between Saturn and its rings.

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1790 Re- photo: January 1940 (From old drawing by Sukes, showing first church at left, second church being built near center - about 1790) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  12. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines,…

  13. Particle concentration in the asteroid belt from Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soberman, R. K.; Neste, S. L.; Lichtenfeld, K.

    1974-01-01

    The spatial concentration and size distribution for particles measured by the asteroid/meteoroid detector on Pioneer 10 between 2 and 3.5 AU are presented. The size distribution is from about 35 micrometers to 10 centimeters. The exponent of the size dependence varies from approximately -1.7 for the smallest to approximately -3.0 for the largest size measured.

  14. Particle concentration in the asteroid belt from pioneer 10.

    PubMed

    Soberman, R K; Neste, S L; Lichtenfeld, K

    1974-01-25

    The spatial concentration and size distribution for particles measured by the asteroid/meteoroid detector on Pioneer 10 between 2 and 3.5 astronomical units are presented. The size distribution is from about 35 micrometers to 10 centimeters. The exponent of the size dependence varies from approximately -1.7 for the smallest to approximately -3.0 for the largest size measured.

  15. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  16. Photographer: JPL P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21758 BW Range: 246,000 kilometers (152,000 miles) This picture by Voyager 2 is the first close look ever obtained of Jupiter's satellite, Europa. The linear crack-like features had been seen from a much greater distance by Voyager 1 but this image provides a resolution of about four kilometers (2.5 miles). The complicated linear features appear even more like cracks or huge fractures in these images. Also seen are somewhat darker mottled regions which appear to have a slightly pitted appearance, perhaps due to small scale craters. No large craters (more than five kilometers in diameter) are easily identifiable in the Europa photographs to date, suggesting that this satellite has a young surface relative to Ganymede and Callisto, although not perhaps as young as Io's. Various models for Europa's structure will be tested during analysis of these images, including the possibility that the surface is a thin ice crust overlying water or softer ice and that the fracture systems seen are breaks in that crust. Resurfacing mechanisms such as production of fresh ice or snow along the cracks and cold glacier-like flows are being considered as possibilities for removing evidence of impact events. Europa thus appears to truly be a satellite with many properties intermediate between Ganymede and Io.

  17. Pulsation, binarity and close frequency spacing in $delta Scuti ta$ Scuti stars: BQ and BW Cancri. Results of the STEPHI VI campaign in Praesepe Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M.; Hernandez, M. M.; Michel, E.; Jiang, S. Y.; Belmonte, J. A.; Chevreton, M.; Massacrier, G.; Liu, Y. Y.; Li, Z. P.; Goupil, M. J.; Cortes, T. Roca; Mangeney, A.; Dolez, N.; Valtier, J. C.; Vidal, I.; Sperl, M.; Talon, S.

    1998-12-01

    New pulsation modes in two delta Scuti stars of Praesepe cluster, BQ and BW Cnc, have been detected during the STEPHI VI campaign in 1995. In particular, 3 frequencies for BQ Cnc and 9 frequencies for BW Cnc have been found above a 99% confidence level. The possibility of the presence of a g-mode present in BQ Cnc is discussed, considering its binarity. The effect of mutual interference between very close detected frequencies in BW Cnc during the observations, is also considered. This last effect reveals the necessity of long-period observing runs, in order to avoid its influence in the final number of detected modes. In such situation, studies of secular amplitude changes can be strongly affected.

  18. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 4: Pioneer 10, from January 1974 - January 1975 and Pioneer 11, from 1 May 1973 through Jupiter encounter period January 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.; Barton, W. R.; Cloonan, E. A.; Nash, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Systems support of Pioneer 10 from January 1974 through January 1975 is described along with Pioneer 11 support from May 1973 through Jupiter encounter. Topics covered include: operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that led to Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60-day encounter period for Pioneer 11.

  19. Zone lines

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Zone lines are narrow, usually dark markings formed in decaying wood. Zone lines are found most frequently in advanced white rot of hardwoods, although they occasionally are associated both with brown rot and with softwoods.

  20. KIR Polymorphisms Modulate Peptide-Dependent Binding to an MHC Class I Ligand with a Bw6 Motif

    PubMed Central

    Colantonio, Arnaud D.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; Neidermyer, William J.; Reeves, R. Keith; Alter, Galit; Altfeld, Marcus; Johnson, R. Paul; Carrington, Mary; O'Connor, David H.; Evans, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their MHC class I ligands play a central role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell responses to viral pathogens and tumors. Here we identify Mamu-A1*00201 (Mamu-A*02), a common MHC class I molecule in the rhesus macaque with a canonical Bw6 motif, as a ligand for Mamu-KIR3DL05. Mamu-A1*00201 tetramers folded with certain SIV peptides, but not others, directly stained primary NK cells and Jurkat cells expressing multiple allotypes of Mamu-KIR3DL05. Differences in binding avidity were associated with polymorphisms in the D0 and D1 domains of Mamu-KIR3DL05, whereas differences in peptide-selectivity mapped to the D1 domain. The reciprocal exchange of the third predicted MHC class I-contact loop of the D1 domain switched the specificity of two Mamu-KIR3DL05 allotypes for different Mamu-A1*00201-peptide complexes. Consistent with the function of an inhibitory KIR, incubation of lymphocytes from Mamu-KIR3DL05+ macaques with target cells expressing Mamu-A1*00201 suppressed the degranulation of tetramer-positive NK cells. These observations reveal a previously unappreciated role for D1 polymorphisms in determining the selectivity of KIRs for MHC class I-bound peptides, and identify the first functional KIR-MHC class I interaction in the rhesus macaque. The modulation of KIR-MHC class I interactions by viral peptides has important implications to pathogenesis, since it suggests that the immunodeficiency viruses, and potentially other types of viruses and tumors, may acquire changes in epitopes that increase the affinity of certain MHC class I ligands for inhibitory KIRs to prevent the activation of specific NK cell subsets. PMID:21423672

  1. Performance Differences in Year 1 of Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, J. Michael; Chernew, Michael E.; Landon, Bruce E.; Schwartz, Aaron L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2012, a total of 32 organizations entered the Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) program, in which providers can share savings with Medicare if spending falls below a financial benchmark. Performance differences associated with characteristics of Pioneer ACOs have not been well described. METHODS In a difference-in-differences analysis of Medicare fee-for-service claims, we compared Medicare spending for beneficiaries attributed to Pioneer ACOs (ACO group) with other beneficiaries (control group) before (2009 through 2011) and after (2012) the start of Pioneer ACO contracts, with adjustment for geographic area and beneficiaries’ sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. We estimated differential changes in spending for several subgroups of ACOs: those with and those without clear financial integration between hospitals and physician groups, those with higher and those with lower baseline spending, and the 13 ACOs that withdrew from the Pioneer program after 2012 and the 19 that did not. RESULTS Adjusted Medicare spending and spending trends were similar in the ACO group and the control group during the precontract period. In 2012, the total adjusted per-beneficiary spending differentially changed in the ACO group as compared with the control group (−$29.2 per quarter, P = 0.007), consistent with a 1.2% savings. Savings were significantly greater for ACOs with baseline spending above the local average, as compared with those with baseline spending below the local average (P = 0.05 for interaction), and for those serving high-spending areas, as compared with those serving low-spending areas (P = 0.04). Savings were similar in ACOs with financial integration between hospitals and physician groups and those without, as well as in ACOs that withdrew from the program and those that did not. CONCLUSIONS Year 1 of the Pioneer ACO program was associated with modest reductions in Medicare spending. Savings were greater for ACOs with higher

  2. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  3. The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Godel Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas; Blome, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of approx. 8x10(exp -10) m/sq s was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating Godel Universe, will be introduced and examined.

  4. Pioneers of paediatrics: Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the contributions of Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha (1927–1988), one of the pioneers in paediatrics in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. He graduated from Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum[U of K]) in 1952 and was awarded an MD from the U of K in 1973, having accomplished a survey on the prevalence and underlying causes of childhood malnutrition in 14 villages. His impact was remarkable in establishing child health services in Sudan and Saudi Arabia, and in laying the foundation of the Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University. He was also an active researcher in various fields in child health, and was pioneering in those related to nutrition. Following his return to Sudan, Dr Salah A Taha was elected Member of Parliament from his rural district in Gezira State and was the Speaker of the House of Parliament in 1986. PMID:27493360

  5. Retarding potential analyzer for the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.; Bakke, J.; Spenner, K.; Novak, V.

    1979-01-01

    The retarding potential analyzer on the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter Mission has been designed to measure most of the thermal plasma parameters within and near the Venusian ionosphere. Parameters include total ion concentration, concentrations of the more abundant ions, ion temperatures, ion drift velocity, electron temperature, and low-energy (0-50 eV) electron distribution function. To accomplish these measurements on a spinning vehicle with a small telemetry bit rate, several functions, including decision functions not previously used in RPA's, have been developed and incorporated into this instrument. The more significant functions include automatic electrometer ranging with background current compensation; digital, quadratic retarding potential step generation for the ion and low-energy electron scans; a current sampling interval of 2 ms throughout all scans; digital logic inflection point detection and data selection; and automatic ram direction detection. Extensive numerical simulation and plasma chamber tests have been conducted to verify adequacy of the design for the Pioneer Mission.

  6. PIONEER VENUS 2 MULTI PROBE IS ENCAPSULATED IN PROTECTIVE SHROUD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Encapsulation of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe in its protective nose fairing is closely monitored by technicians in Hangar AO. The 2,000-pound spacecraft is one of two being launched toward the planet Venus. The Multiprobe is scheduled for launch aboard an Atlas Centaur rocket on August 7. Flying a direct path to the cloud-shrouded planet, the Multiprobe will reach Venus five days after the arrival of its sister spacecraft, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, which was launched May 20, 1978. Three weeks before the Multiprobe reaches Venus, its four heavily instrumented scientific probes (seen on top of the spacecraft's main body or ''bus'') will be released and will impact at various points on the planet's surface. Together, the two spacecraft will conduct a thorough scientific exploration of the planet Venus.

  7. The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Gödel Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas

    The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of ˜8x10-10 m/s2 was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating G¨del Universe, will be introduced and examined. o

  8. A new 3D POMOF based on CuI/CuII-bis(triazole) complexes and BW12 Keggin polyoxoanions: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Chunjing; Pang, Hainjun; Ma, Huiyuan; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Cheng

    2018-02-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, {[CuI(btpe)2][CuII2(H2O)2(btpe)2][BW12O40]}·2H2O, (btpe = 1,5-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentane) (1) has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction, and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, TG and single X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is composed of α-Keggin type [BW12O40]5- (BW12) polyoxoanions and copper-btpe complexes. The copper-btpe complexes are stagger-packed to form an open framework containing the two kinds of channels with parallelogram-like apertures, in which the BW12 guests are encapsulated into the bigger channels. The electrochemical studies show that 1 has a good electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thanking to its special porous POMOF structure. The molecular design of 1 not only generates a new POMOF, but also opens a new avenue to the electrocatalytic materials.

  9. Infrared radiometer for the Pioneer Venus orbiter. I - Instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, F. W.; Vescelus, F. E.; Locke, J. R.; Beer, R.; Foster, G. T.; Forney, P. B.; Houghton, J. T.; Delderfield, J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    A ten-channel IR radiometer for the Pioneer Venus orbiter is described. The experimental techniques used and the design of the instrumentation by which they were implemented are considered. Emphasis is placed on temperature sounding, limb sounding, limb darkening, zenith scanning, cloud top temperature, spectral albedo and water vapor measurements. Instrumentation description is also given including optics, detectors, and electronics. Attention is given to data acquisition and handling, calibration, and in-flight performance.

  10. Eleventh Street and Bronx frontier: urban pioneering with wind power

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwood, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Wind energy is being applied to electricity generation at two locations in New York City. These small-scale systems (2 KW and 40 KW) are pioneering efforts contrasting with large wind turbines (such as the 2 MW experimental DOE-NASA unit in the Blue Ridge Mountains near Boone, N.C.), in that they are located in an urban setting, and represent initiatives by neighborhood associations and community groups rather than by government or utilities. 54 refs.

  11. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acheson, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

  12. Gravity results from Pioneer 10 Doppler data. [during Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Wong, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    Two-way Doppler data received from Pioneer 10 during its encounter with Jupiter have been analyzed, and preliminary results have been obtained on the mass and the gravity field of Jupiter and on the masses of the four Galilean satellites. The ratios of the masses of the satellites to the mass of Jupiter are approximately 0.00004696 for Io, 0.00002565 for Europa, 0.00007845 for Ganymede, and 0.00005603 for Callisto (all error estimates presented in this paper are standard errors; those for Pioneer 10 represent our evaluation of the real errors as distinguished from formal errors). The ratio of the mass of the sun to the mass of the Jupiter system is about 1047.342, which is in good agreement with recent determinations from the motions of asteroids. The second- and fourth-degree zonal harmonic coefficients in the gravity field of Jupiter are 0.014720 and -0.00065, respectively, based on an equatorial planetary radius of 71,400 km, and the derived dynamical oblateness is 0.0647 at the same radius. The Pioneer 10 data are consistent with the assumption that Jupiter is in hydrostatic equilibrium at all levels.

  13. Pioneering Objectives and Activities on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mars missions have been a topic of sustained interest within NASA, which continues to use its resources to examine many different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies, the combinations of which are often referred to as reference missions or architectures. The current investigative effort, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), is examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. These alternatives involve combinations of all the factors just mentioned. This paper is focused on the subset of these factors involved with objectives and activities that take place on the surface of Mars. "Pioneering" is a useful phrase to encapsulate the current approach being used to address this situation - one of its primary definitions is "a person or group that originates or helps open up a new line of thought or activity or a new method or technical development". Thus, in this scenario, NASA would be embarking on a path to "pioneer" a suite of technologies and operations that will result in an Earth independent, extended stay capability for humans on Mars. This paper will describe (a) the concept of operation determined to be best suited for the initial emplacement, (b) the functional capabilities determined to be necessary for this emplacement, with representative examples of systems that could carry out these functional capabilities and one implementation example (i.e., delivery sequence) at a representative landing site, and will (c) discuss possible capabilities and operations during subsequent surface missions.

  14. Independent Confirmation of the Pioneer 10 Anomalous Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, Craig B.

    2002-01-01

    I perform an independent analysis of radio Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft for the time period 1987-1994. All of the tracking data were taken from public archive sources, and the analysis tools were developed independently by myself. I confirm that an apparent anomalous acceleration is acting on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is not accounted for by present physical models of spacecraft navigation. My best fit value for the acceleration, including corrections for systematic biases and uncertainties, is (8.60 plus or minus 1.34) x 10(exp -8) centimeters per second, directed towards the Sun. This value compares favorably to previous results. I examine the robustness of my result to various perturbations of the analysis method, and find agreement to within plus or minus 5%. The anomalous acceleration is reasonably constant with time, with a characteristic variation time scale of greater than 70 yr. Such a variation timescale is still too short to rule out on-board thermal radiation effects, based on this particular Pioneer 10 data set.

  15. Pioneer Venus data analysis for the retarding potential analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, William C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the data analysis and archiving activities, analysis results, and instrument performance of the orbiter retarding potential analyzer (ORPA) flown on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft during the period, Aug. 1, 1988 to Sept. 30, 1993. During this period, the periapsis altitude of the Orbiter spacecraft descended slowly from 1900 km altitude, at which altitude the spacecraft was outside the Venus ionosphere, to approximately 130 km altitude in Oct. 1992 at which time communication with the spacecraft ceased as a result of entry of the spacecraft into the Venus atmosphere. The quantity of ORPA data returned during this reporting period was greatly reduced over that recovered in the previous years of the mission because of the reduced power capability of the spacecraft, loss of half of the onboard data storage, and partial failure of the ORPA. Despite the reduction in available data, especially ionospheric data, important scientific discoveries resulted from this extended period of the Pioneer Venus mission. The most significant discovery was that of a strong solar cycle change in the size of the dayside ionosphere and the resulting shutoff of flow of dayside ions into the nightside hemisphere. The large, topside O+ F2 ionospheric layer observed during the first three years of the Pioneer Venus mission, a period of solar cycle maximum activity, is absent during the solar cycle minimum activity period.

  16. Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetic field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Magnet field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) during the encounters of Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11) was analyzed and interpreted. The puzzling characteristics of the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheric magnetic fields were studied. An apparent substorm (including thinning of the dayside tail current sheet) was observed at Jupiter, as well as evidence suggesting that at the magnetopause the cusp is at an abnormally low latitude. The characteristics of Saturn's ring current as observed by Pioneer 11 were dramatically different from those suggested by the Voyager observations. Most importantly, very strong perturbations in the azimuthal ring current magnetic field suggest that the plane of the ring was not in the dipole equatorial plane, being tilted 5 to 10 deg. relative to the dipole and undergoing significant changes during the encounter. When these changing currents were corrected for, an improved planetary field determination was obtained. In addition, the ring and azimuthal currents at Saturn displayed significantly different time dependences.

  17. Pioneer 11 encounter: preliminary results from the ames research center plasma analyzer experiment.

    PubMed

    Mihaloy, J D; Collard, H R; McKibbin, D D; Wolfe, J H; Intriligator, D S

    1975-05-02

    Pioneer 11 observations of the interaction of Jupiter's magnetosphere with the distant solar wind have confirmed the earlier Pioneer 10 observations of the great size and extreme variability of the outer magnetosphere. The nature of the plasma transitions across Jupiter's bow shock and magnetopause as observed on Pioneer 10 have also been confirmed on Pioneer 11. However, the northward direction of the Pioneer 11 outbound trajectory and the distance of the final magnetopause crossing (80 Jupiter radii) now suggest that Jupiter's magnetosphere is extremely broad with a half-thickness (normal to the ecliptic plane in the noon meridian) which is comparable to or greater than the sunward distance to the nose.

  18. Telecommunications and data acquisition support for the Pioneer Venus Project: Pioneers 12 and 13, prelaunch through March 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.; Ryan, R. E.; Renzetti, N. A.; Traxler, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The support provided by the Telecommunications and Data Acquisition organization of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to the Pioneer Venus missions is described. The missions were the responsibility of the Ames Research Center (ARC). The Pioneer 13 mission and its spacecraft design presented one of the greatest challenges to the Deep Space Network (DSN) in the implementation and operation of new capabilities. The four probes that were to enter the atmosphere of Venus were turned on shortly before arrival at Venus, and the DSN had to acquire each of these probes in order to recover the telemetry being transmitted. Furthermore, a science experiment involving these probes descending through the atmosphere required a completed new data type to be generated at the ground stations. This new data type is known as the differential very long baseline interferometry. Discussions between ARC and JPL of the implementation requirements involved trade-offs in spacecraft design and led to a very successful return of science data. Specific implementation and operational techniques are discussed, not only for the prime mission, but also for the extended support to the Pioneer 12 spacecraft (in orbit around Venus) with its science instruments including that for radar observations of the planet.

  19. Note: Comparison of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering of a titania sponge structure at the beamlines BW4 (DORIS III) and P03 (PETRA III)

    SciTech Connect

    Rawolle, M.; Koerstgens, V.; Ruderer, M. A.

    2012-10-15

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful technique for morphology investigation of nanostructured thin films. GISAXS measurements at the newly installed P03 beamline at the storage ring PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, are compared to the GISAXS data from the beamline BW4 at the storage ring DORIS III, which had been used extensively for GISAXS investigations in the past. As an example, a titania thin film sponge structure is investigated. Compared to BW4, at beamline P03 the resolution of larger structures is slightly improved and a higher incident flux leads to a factor of 750 in scatteredmore » intensity. Therefore, the acquisition time in GISAXS geometry is reduced significantly at beamline P03.« less

  20. Jovian magnetic fields is complex, Pioneer 11 shows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.; Waller, P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the magnetic field of the planet Jupiter is presented. The data are based on the information returned by Pioneer 11 space probe. It was determined that the magnetic field stretches across 9 million miles of space at some times and shrinks in volume by three-fourths or more at other times. It was also determined that electrons trapped in the magnetic field of Jupiter are 10,000 times more intense than those in the Van Allen radiation belts which circle the earth. Additional data were obtained on the polar regions, atmospheric circulation, and the nature of the moons.

  1. Outer planet Pioneer imaging communications system study. [data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of different types of imaging data compression on the elements of the Pioneer end-to-end data system were studied for three imaging transmission methods. These were: no data compression, moderate data compression, and the advanced imaging communications system. It is concluded that: (1) the value of data compression is inversely related to the downlink telemetry bit rate; (2) the rolling characteristics of the spacecraft limit the selection of data compression ratios; and (3) data compression might be used to perform acceptable outer planet mission at reduced downlink telemetry bit rates.

  2. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  3. SNAP 19 Pioneer F and G. Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1973-06-01

    The generator developed for the Pioneer mission evolved from the SNAP 19 RTG`s launched aboard the NIMBUS III spacecraft. In order to satisfy the power requirements and environment of earth escape trajectory, significant modifications were made to the thermoelectric converter, heat source, and structural configuration. Specifically, a TAGS 2N thermoelectric couple was designed to provide higher efficiency and improved long term power performance, and the electrical circuitry was modified to yield very low magnetic field from current flow in the RTG. A new heat source was employed to satisfy operational requirements and its integration with the generator required alteration to the method of providing support to the fuel capsule.

  4. Controllable two-scale network architecture and enhanced mechanical properties of (Ti5Si3+TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Y.; Huang, L. J.; Duan, T. B.; Wei, S. L.; Kaveendran, B.; Geng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties. Apart from the reinforcement distribution and the volume fraction, the ratio between Ti5Si3 and TiBw fraction were controlled. The prepared (Ti5Si3 + TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites showed higher tensile strength and ductility than the composites with a one-scale microstructure, and superior wear resistance over the Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding wear conditions at room temperature. PMID:27622992

  5. Controllable two-scale network architecture and enhanced mechanical properties of (Ti5Si3+TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Y; Huang, L J; Duan, T B; Wei, S L; Kaveendran, B; Geng, L

    2016-09-13

    Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties. Apart from the reinforcement distribution and the volume fraction, the ratio between Ti5Si3 and TiBw fraction were controlled. The prepared (Ti5Si3 + TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites showed higher tensile strength and ductility than the composites with a one-scale microstructure, and superior wear resistance over the Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding wear conditions at room temperature.

  6. The Pioneer Ultramafic Complex of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M. R.; Byerly, G. R.; Lowe, D. R.; Thompson, M. E.

    2005-12-01

    The 3.55-3.22 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt is an approximately 100km x 30km northeast trending, isoclinally folded, volcanic and sedimentary succession surrounded by intrusive granitic rocks. It is perhaps Earth's best preserved mid-Archean supracrustal sequence and also among the most magnesian, making it an ideal location for studying compositionally distinct rocks of the Archean, such as komatiites. The Pioneer Ultramafic Complex has been interpreted as a komatiitic intrusion but we argue that it is a sequence of layered komatiitic flows and interbedded tuffs correlative with other komatiitic extrusive units of the 3.29 Ga Weltevreden Formation, the uppermost formation of the Onverwacht Group. The Pioneer Ultramafic Complex contains at least 900m of section in the study area, including at least 5 flow sets, with individual flows up to 100 m thick, sections of tuff up to 100m thick and additional thinner tuff units. The base of the sequence is in fault contact with the Sawmill Ultramafic Complex, which is similar to and perhaps correlative with the Pioneer. The top of the sequence is bounded by the Moodies Fault and slightly younger sedimentary rocks of the Fig Tree and Moodies Groups. Typical flows of the Pioneer have highly serpentinized olivine-rich cumulate bases, fresh olivine bearing peridotitic lithologies in central portions, and increasing pyroxene content, pyroxene size, and elongation of grains toward the flow tops. Three of the five flows are capped with random and/or oriented spinifex layers. The tuffs within this and other layered ultramafic complexes of the Barberton Greenstone Belt are mostly fine grained, slaty serpentinites that were previously interpreted as bedding horizontal zones of shearing. However, rare preservation of angular and vesicular lapilli, and more commonly cross-stratification in finer grained layers, provide strong evidence that these layers represent tuffs. High chromium and other trace element contents suggest they are

  7. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  8. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B

    1993-05-01

    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  9. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-05-23

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  10. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  11. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer

    PubMed Central

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20th century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous “glass ceilings” that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women. PMID:27607140

  12. Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2008-09-01

    In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics.

  13. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer.

    PubMed

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women.

  14. Flight performance of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Powe, J. S.; Smith, Marcie

    1987-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) solar panel power output capability has degraded much more severely than has the power output capability of solar panels that have operated in earth-orbiting spacecraft for comparable periods of time. The incidence of solar proton events recorded by the spacecraft's scientific instruments accounts for this phenomenon only in part. It cannot explain two specific forms of anomalous behavior observed: 1) a variation of output per spin with roll angle, and 2) a gradual degradation of the maximum output. Analysis indicates that the most probable cause of the first anomaly is that the solar cells underneath the spacecraft's magnetometer boom have been damaged by a reverse biasing of the cells that occurs during pulsed shadowing of the cells by the boom as the spacecraft rotates. The second anomaly might be caused by the effects on the solar array of substances from the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  15. Franz von Leydig (1821-1908), pioneer of comparative histology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marlon R

    2012-05-01

    Franz von Leydig, a German histologist and zoologist, is known to every student of human or animal anatomy because of the testicular testosterone-producing cells carrying his name. However, he made many contributions to our knowledge of the fine structure of animal tissues, including more than 200 scientific articles and several books. His most important work, the book Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der Thiere, established him as a pioneer if not the founder of comparative histology. Leydig taught at three different universities (Würzburg, Tübingen and Bonn) and received many honours from scientific organizations worldwide, including the Royal Society. He died in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, the town of his birth, aged 86 years.

  16. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Global view of Venus from Magellan, Pioneer, and Venera data

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-10-29

    This global view of Venus, centered at 270 degrees east longitude, is a compilation of data from several sources. Magellan synthetic aperature radar mosaics from the first cycle of Magellan mapping are mapped onto a computer-simulated globe to create the image. Data gaps are filled with Pioneer-Venus orbiter data, or a constant mid-range value. Simulated color is used to enhance small-scale structure. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The image was produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Multimission Image Processing Laboratory and is a single frame from a video released at the JPL news conference, 10-29-91. View provided by JPL with alternate number P-39225 MGN81.

  18. Future exploration of Venus (post-Pioneer Venus 1978)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, L.; Evans, L. C.; Greeley, R.; Quaide, W. L.; Schaupp, R. W.; Seiff, A.; Young, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to determine the major scientific unknowns about the planet Venus to be expected in the post-Pioneer Venus 1978 time frame. Based on those results the desirability of future orbiters, atmospheric entry probes, balloons, and landers as vehicles to address the remaining scientific questions were studied. The recommended mission scenario includes a high resolution surface mapping radar orbiter mission for the 1981 launch opportunity, a multiple-lander mission for 1985 and either an atmospheric entry probe or balloon mission in 1988. All the proposed missions can be performed using proposed space shuttle upper stage boosters. Significant amounts of long-lead time supporting research and technology developments are required to be initiated in the near future to permit the recommended launch dates.

  19. [Boleslas Matuszewki--pioneer of medical film-making].

    PubMed

    Matanović, Dragana

    2005-01-01

    Boleslas Matuszewski, born in 1856, was a pioneer in medical film-making. He worked simultaneously on improving his movie camera, film-making, collecting film documentation, and the idea of establishing an archive of medical films. Although his first attempts at filming and showing surgical operations didn't gain widespread approval, he was not discouraged, and succeeded in garnering support from a number of French doctors, who realised the importance of his ideas, not only in filming and forming medical film documentation, but also in the use of film for educative purposes. His visionary ideas gained acceptance when Dr. Doyen, on the occasion of the 66th Convention of the British Medical Society, in 1898, used film material as part of his lecture. Shortly afterwards, the Medical Academy took steps to show certain operative techniques, which represented both the confirmation and fruition of Matuszewski's ideas about filmmaking and the establishment of an archive of medical films.

  20. Role of pioneer species in revegetation of disturbed desert areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    The northern Mojave Desert, as are many deserts, is characterized in part by small fertile islands in which exist individual shrub clumps each containing two or more plants. These fertile sites promote characteristic organization of both plant and animal activity in the desert. Destruction of these fertile sites make revegetation extremely difficult because most seedlings germinate in these sites. Some pioneer species do, however, germinate and survive in the bare areas between the fertile sites. Four such species in the northern Mojave Desert are Acamptopappus shockleyi Gray, Lepidium fremontii Wats., Sphaeralcea ambigua Gray, and Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem.) Wats.more » These four-species may have a role in starting new fertile islands.« less

  1. The Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer results at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported for the Pioneer 10 plasma-analyzer experiment at Jupiter. The analyzer system consisted of dual 90-deg quadrispherical electrostatic analyzers, multiple charged-particle detectors, and attendant electronics; it was capable of determining the incident plasma-distribution parameters over the energy range from 100 to 18,000 eV for protons and from approximately 1 to 500 eV for electrons. Data are presented on the interaction between the solar wind and the Jovian magnetosphere, the interplanetary ion flux, observations of the magnetosheath plasma, and traversals of the bow shock and magnetopause. Values are estimated for the proton isotropic temperature, number density, and bulk velocity within the magnetosheath flow field as well as for the beta parameter, ion number density, and magnetic-energy density of the magnetospheric plasma. It is argued that Jupiter has a reasonably thick magnetosphere somewhat similar to earth's except for the vastly different scale sizes involved.

  2. Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

    2002-09-01

    The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

  3. Pioneer Venus Orbiter planar retarding potential analyzer plasma experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.; Bakke, J.; Spenner, K.; Novak, V.

    1980-01-01

    The retarding potential analyzer (RPA) on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Mission measures most of the thermal plasma parameters within and near the Venusian ionosphere. Parameters include total ion concentration, concentrations of the more abundant ions, ion temperatures, ion drift velocity, electron temperature, and low-energy (0-50 eV) electron distribution function. Several functions not previously used in RPA's were developed and incorporated into this instrument to accomplish these measurements on a spinning spacecraft with a small bit rate. The more significant functions include automatic electrometer ranging with background current compensation; digital, quadratic retarding potential step generation for the ion and low-energy electron scans; a current sampling interval of 2 ms throughout all scans; digital logic inflection point detection and data selection; and automatic ram direction detection.

  4. ESA achievements: more than thirty years of pioneering space activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Contents: ESA and science. ESA and Earth observation (Explorer Core missions, Explorer opportunity missions, Earth Watch). ESA and telecommunications. ESA and navigation. ESA and launchers. ESA and manned spaceflight. The ESA Science Programme is one of the Agency's mandatory activities, in which all Member States participate. The origins of the Science Programme, the oldest in the Agency, hark back to the days of ESRO. ESRO's seven successful scientific satellites paved the way for ESA's remarkable series of pioneering missions that have placed Europe at the vanguard of disciplines such as X-ray, gamma-ray and infrared astronomy; astrometry; solar system sciences (especially cometary), solar and heliospheric physics, as well as space plasma physics. Driven by the limited available means, ESA's Science Programme has consistently focused on missions with strong innovative contents. All of the missions launched or approved so far are covered in separate entries in this volume.

  5. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    PubMed

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  6. Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, A. G.

    2006-11-01

    In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975) 1472] on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. This work and its history are briefly reviewed in this paper.

  7. An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, Paul

    2010-01-28

    The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a 'young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectorymore » of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the 'dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies.The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky

  8. Radiative-transfer models for explosions from rotating and non-rotating single WC stars. Implications for SN 1998bw and LGRB/SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; John Hillier, D.; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2017-07-01

    Using 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and time-dependent radiative transfer simulations, we study the ejecta properties required to match the early- and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of supernovae (SNe) associated with long-duration γ-ray bursts (LGRBs). Matching the short rise time, narrow light curve peak and extremely broad spectral lines of SN 1998bw requires a model with ≲3 M⊙ ejecta but a high explosion energy of a few 1052 erg and 0.5 M⊙ of 56Ni. The relatively high luminosity, presence of narrow spectral lines of intermediate mass elements, and low ionisation at the nebular stage, however, are matched with a more standard C-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) star explosion, an ejecta of ≳10 M⊙, an explosion energy ≳1051 erg, and only 0.1 M⊙ of 56Ni. As the two models are mutually exclusive, the breaking of spherical symmetry is essential to match the early- and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of SN 1998bw. This conclusion confirms the notion that the ejecta of SN 1998bw is highly aspherical on large scales. More generally, with asphericity, the energetics and 56Ni masses of LGRB/SNe are reduced and their ejecta masses are increased, favouring a massive fast-rotating Wolf-Rayet star progenitor. Contrary to persisting claims in favour of the proto-magnetar model for LGRB/SNe, such progenitor/ejecta properties are compatible with collapsar formation. Ejecta properties of LGRB/SNe inferred from 1D radiative-transfer modelling are fundamentally flawed.

  9. "Fairy Tale for Pioneers": Deconstruction of Official Ideology in Memories about Artek 1960s-1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the memories of the Soviet pioneer camp Artek among camp leaders and Pioneers who visited this camp in the 1960s-1980s. The study examines the interaction between the ideology discourse of the late Soviet epoch about Artek and personal autobiographical memories. Turning to analysis of narrative structure and the pragmatic…

  10. 75 FR 17798 - Pioneer Bond Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ..., the ``Trusts'') and Pioneer Investment Management, Inc. (the ``Adviser''). Filing Dates: The..., c/o Dorothy E. Bourassa, Esq., Pioneer Investment Management, Inc., 60 State Street, Boston... Mary Kay Frech, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of...

  11. Willem J Kolff (1911-2009): physician, inventor and pioneer: father of artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Megan

    2012-08-01

    Medical pioneer Willem Johan Kolff was an inspirational father, son, physician and inventor. He founded the development of the first kidney dialysis machine, pioneered advances in the heart and lung machine, laid down the foundations for the first mainland blood bank in Europe and successfully implanted the first artificial heart into humans.

  12. RQ-2 Pioneer: The Flawed System that Redefined US Unmanned Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Periscope.com, “RQ-2 Pioneer,” http://www.militaryperiscope.com/weapons/aircraft/rpv- dron /w0004685.html 28 Ibid. 29 Jane’s Unmanned Aerial...Military Periscope.com, “RQ-2 Pioneer.” http://www.militaryperiscope.com/weapons/aircraft/rpv- dron /w0004685.html Polmar, Norman, The Naval

  13. Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Mike

    2007-01-01

    For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new…

  14. Effects of Hot-Hydrostatic Canned Extrusion on the Stock Utilization, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiBw/TC4 Composites with Quasi-Continuous Network

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yangju; Li, Bing; Cui, Guorong; Zhang, Wencong

    2017-01-01

    In-situ TiB whisker-reinforced Ti–6Al–4V (TC4) titanium matrix composites (TiBw/TC4) with quasi-continuous networks were successfully fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. The effects of the hot-hydrostatic canned extrusion on stock utilization, microstructure and mechanical properties of the TiBw/TC4 composites were investigated. It was satisfactory that the utilization of composites could be obviously improved by canned extrusion compared to that extruded without canned extrusion. The microstructure results showed that after canned extrusion the grain was refined and the TiB whiskers were distributed from a random array state to a state in which the whiskers were distributed along the extrusion direction. The properties testing results revealed that the tensile strength, the hardness and the ductility of the composites all significantly improved after extrusion due to the grain refinement and orientation of the TiB whisker caused by extrusion. Tensile fracture results showed that when the TiB whiskers were randomly distributed only part of them played a role in strengthening the matrix during the deformation process (as-sintered composites), while when the TiB whiskers were oriented all whiskers could strengthen the matrix during the tensile testing process (as-extruded composites). PMID:29068416

  15. Cycle oxidation behavior and anti-oxidation mechanism of hot-dipped aluminum coating on TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with network microstructure.

    PubMed

    Li, X T; Huang, L J; Wei, S L; An, Q; Cui, X P; Geng, L

    2018-04-10

    Controlled and compacted TiAl 3 coating was successfully fabricated on the network structured TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by hot-dipping aluminum and subsequent interdiffusion treatment. The network structure of the composites was inherited to the TiAl 3 coating, which effectively reduces the thermal stress and avoids the cracks appeared in the coating. Moreover, TiB reinforcements could pin the TiAl 3 coating which can effectively improve the bonding strength between the coating and composite substrate. The cycle oxidation behavior of the network structured coating on 873 K, 973 K and 1073 K for 100 h were investigated. The results showed the coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of the TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites. The network structure was also inherited to the Al 2 O 3 oxide scale, which effectively decreases the tendency of cracking even spalling about the oxide scale. Certainly, no crack was observed in the coating after long-term oxidation due to the division effect of network structured coating and pinning effect of TiB reinforcements. Interfacial reaction between the coating and the composite substrate occurred and a bilayer structure of TiAl/TiAl 2 formed next to the substrate after oxidation at 973 K and 1073 K. The anti-oxidation mechanism of the network structured coating was also discussed.

  16. Effects of Hot-Hydrostatic Canned Extrusion on the Stock Utilization, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiBw/TC4 Composites with Quasi-Continuous Network.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yangju; Li, Bing; Cui, Guorong; Zhang, Wencong

    2017-10-25

    In-situ TiB whisker-reinforced Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) titanium matrix composites (TiBw/TC4) with quasi-continuous networks were successfully fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. The effects of the hot-hydrostatic canned extrusion on stock utilization, microstructure and mechanical properties of the TiBw/TC4 composites were investigated. It was satisfactory that the utilization of composites could be obviously improved by canned extrusion compared to that extruded without canned extrusion. The microstructure results showed that after canned extrusion the grain was refined and the TiB whiskers were distributed from a random array state to a state in which the whiskers were distributed along the extrusion direction. The properties testing results revealed that the tensile strength, the hardness and the ductility of the composites all significantly improved after extrusion due to the grain refinement and orientation of the TiB whisker caused by extrusion. Tensile fracture results showed that when the TiB whiskers were randomly distributed only part of them played a role in strengthening the matrix during the deformation process (as-sintered composites), while when the TiB whiskers were oriented all whiskers could strengthen the matrix during the tensile testing process (as-extruded composites).

  17. Dubai: A Pioneer Smart City in the Arabian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtudes, Ana; Abbara, Arwa; Sá, João

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, one of the main issues that the cities are facing is related with how they are dealing with the challenges toward smartness, including infrastructures, economic, social and environmental aspects. In this sense, some of the current challenges on the global scale, trying to find solutions regarding urban societies, are based on the concept of “smart city”. Therefore, is clear that new ideas regarding the cities improvements, which are on the top of global agenda, could be found at the concept of “smart city”. As the literature reveals, this is a topic reason among the researchers, which is in a continuous development, in particular regarding societies, countries or regions where it is emerging, such as in the Arabian territories. Dubai, a city in the United Arab Emirates, is an example where in a short period of time, after the oil discovery in the decade of 1970, one small and badly known urban settlement became a pioneer reference in terms of smart cities requirements. Thus, this article presents background information about smart cities, their assets and key pillars, their smart infrastructures and features in cultural, social and environmental terms. The main goals are based on a theoretical approach, developed in order to get more details about smart cities, regarding the features of the Arabian territories. It argues around the case of Dubai, as a pioneer smart city in the Arab world. Among of the main conclusions, there is the idea that the urban transformation process in contemporary societies to secure the smartness, should apply to the use of ICT / information and communication technologies. This use will increase the efficiency concerns to the natural resources, and provide a high quality of life for citizens. The example of Dubai has shown that the decision-makers have built each sector and part of the city in a solid performance, in order to achieve the smart sustainability concept. This city is nowadays a reference on this matter, not

  18. Oxidant-antioxidant balance and tolerance against oxidative stress in pioneer and non-pioneer tree species from the remaining Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Nakazato, Ricardo Keiichi; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Lima, Marcos Enoque Leite; Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Diniz, Adriana Pedrosa; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues; Domingos, Marisa

    2018-06-01

    The extensive land occupation in Southeast Brazil has resulted in climatic disturbances and environmental contamination by air pollutants, threatening the Atlantic forest remnants that still exist in that region. Based on previous results, we assumed that pioneer tree species are potentially more tolerant against environmental oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species from that Brazilian biome. We also assumed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated in higher proportions in leaves of non-pioneer trees, resulting in changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance and in more severe oxidative damage at the cellular level than in the leaves of pioneer trees. We tested these hypotheses by establishing the relationship between oxidants (ROS), changes in key antioxidants (among enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds) and in a lipid peroxidation derivative in their leaves, as well as between ROS accumulation and oscillations in environmental stressors, thus permitting to discuss comparatively for the first time the oxidant-antioxidant balance and the tolerance capacity of tree species of the Atlantic Forest in SE Brazil. We confirmed that the non-pioneer tree species accumulated higher amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in palisade parenchyma and epidermis, showing a less effective antioxidant metabolism than the pioneer species. However, the non-pioneer species showed differing capacities to compensate the oxidative stress in both years of study, which appeared to be associated with the level of ROS accumulation, which was evidently higher in 2015 than in 2016. We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics, which revealed that the oscillations in these biochemical leaf responses in both functional groups coincided with the oscillations in both climatic conditions and air pollutants, seemingly showing that they had acclimated to the stressful oxidative environment observed and may perpetuate in the disturbed forest remnants located in SE Brazil

  19. Hermann Karsten, pioneer of geologic mapping in northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, K. R.

    2015-06-01

    In the late 19th century, a regional map of Nueva Granada (present-day Colombia, Panama and parts of Venezuela and Ecuador) was published by German botanist and geologist Hermann Karsten (1817-1908). Karsten's work was incorporated by Agustín Codazzi (1793-1859), an Italian who emigrated to Venezuela and Colombia to serve as a government cartographer and geographer, in his popular Atlas geográfico e histórico de la Republica de Colombia (1889). Geologic mapping and most observations provided in this 1889 atlas were taken from Karsten's Géologie de l'ancienne Colombie bolivarienne: Vénézuela, Nouvelle-Grenade et Ecuador (1886), as cited by Manual Paz and/or Felipe Pérez, who edited this edition of the atlas. Karsten defined four epochs in Earth history: Primera - without life - primary crystalline rocks, Segunda - with only marine life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, Tercera - with terrestrial quadrupeds and fresh water life forms life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, and Cuarta - mankind appears, includes diluvial (glacigenic) and post-diluvial terranes. He noted that Colombia is composed of chiefly of Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and that Earth's internal heat (calor central) accounted, by escape of inner gases, for volcanism, seismicity and uplift of mountains. Karsten's regional mapping and interpretation thus constitutes the primary source and ultimate pioneering geologic research.

  20. Initial pioneer venus magnetic field results: dayside observations.

    PubMed

    Russell, C T; Elphic, R C; Slavin, J A

    1979-02-23

    Initial observations by the Pioneer Venus mangnetometer in the sunlit ionosphere reveal a dynamic ionosphere, very responsive to external solar-wind conditions. The localtions of the bow shock and ionosphere are variable. The strength of the magnetic field just olutside the ionopause is in approximate pressure balance with the thermal plasma of the ionosphere and changes markedly from day, to day in response to changes in solar wind pressure. The field strength in the ionosphere is also variable from day to day. The field is often weak, at most a few gammas, but reaching many tens of gammas for periods of the order of seconds. These field enchantments are interpreted as due to the passage of spacecraft through flux ropes consisting of bundles of twisted field lines surrounded by the ionospheric plasma. The helicity of the flux varies through the flux tube, with lows pitch angles on the inside and very lage angles in the low-field outer edges of the ropes. These ropes may have external or internal sources. Consistent with previous results, the average position of the bow shock is much closer to the planet than would be expected if the solar wnd were completely deflected by the planet. In total, these observations indicate that the solar wind plays a significant role in the physics of the Venus ionosphere.

  1. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772): pioneer of neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Riech, Sheryl; Verma, Ketan; Loukas, Marios; Mortazavi, Martin; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron

    2011-08-01

    Emanuel Swedenborg is widely accredited for his religious fervor and devout dedication to his spirituality. He spearheaded the creation of what is known today as the New Jerusalem Church. However, Swedenborg also served as a prominent figure in the European Enlightenment, making noteworthy strides in the fields of mathematics and science. His acumen for science instilled in the medical world groundbreaking ideas that would forever innovate the practice of medicine. Not only did Swedenborg describe intricacies of the cerebral cortex but he also discovered the perivascular spaces, the foramen of Magendie, and the cerebrospinal fluid. He noted the importance of the pituitary gland or "arch gland" in maintaining normal neurological function. Lastly, in a period where the cortex was given no significant function, Swedenborg developed the idea of somatotopic organization, and this was almost 100 years prior to Fritsch and Hitzig. It is on the shoulders of such great pioneers as Emanuel Swedenborg that we base our current understanding of the nervous system.

  2. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery."

  3. Optimization and Flight Schedules of Pioneer Routes in Papua Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronting, Y.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Hamid, S.; Hustim, M.

    2018-04-01

    The province of Papua has a very varied topography, ranging from swampy lowlands, hills, and plateaus up steep hills. The total area of land is 410,660 km2, which consists of 28 counties and one city, 389 districts and 5.420 villages. The population of Papua Province in 2017 was 3.265.202 people with an average growth of 4.21% per year. The transportation services is still low, especially in the mountainous region, which is isolated and could only be reached by an air transportation mode, causing a considerable price disparity between coastal and mountainous areas. The purpose of this paper is to develop the route optimization and pioneer flight schedules models as an airbridge. This research is conducted by collecting primary data and secondary data. Data is based on field surveys; interviews; discussions with airport authority, official government, etc; and also from various agencies. The analytical tools used to optimization flight schedule and route are analyzed by add-in solver in Microsoft Excel. The results of the analysis we can get a more optimal route so that it can save transportation costs by 7.26%.

  4. Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chin Ting Justin

    2014-06-01

    Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot.

  5. [The pioneer otolaryngologists in Eretz-Israel: 1911-1948].

    PubMed

    Golz, Avishay

    2013-07-01

    Until 1911 there was no ear nose and throat (ENT) specialist in Eretz-Israel. Dr. Moshe Sherman, an ENT specialist, disembarked at the port of Jaffa on August 4, 1911. He had trained in Moscow, and was the first otolaryngologist in the country. Between 1911 and 1948, over 100 otolaryngologists arrived in Eretz-Israel and were dispersed throughout the country from Safed and Tiberias in the North to Rehovot in the South. These physicians brought modern and advanced European medicine to Israel. Many left their imprint on the development of ENT medicine in the country, laying the foundations of today's otolaryngologic services both in clinical and academic spheres. ENT medicine, like other fields of medicine, evolved following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Many departments were opened and equipped with the best modern instruments and technology. Department heads are the pupils of our pioneer physicians. The memory of these talented and dedicated physicians should be remembered and cherished by their successors and all physicians in Israel.

  6. Steven J. Ostro: Pioneer in Asteroid Lightcurve Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    In 1906, Henry Norris Russell wrote a landmark paper (Astrophys. J. 24, 1-18, 1906) that set the field of lightcurve inversion back by more than three quarters of a century, until Steve Ostro and Robert Connolly published a paper on "convex profile inversion” (Icarus 57, 443-463, 1984). Russell's stifling contribution was innocent enough, and entirely correct: he showed that with "two cans of paint", one can decorate any arbitrarily shaped body in an infinite number of ways to yield any particular lightcurve, even, for example, a cigar shape that is brightest viewed end-on. This sufficed to discourage serious mathematical attack on the problem until Ostro & Connolly's landmark paper of 1984. They showed that if you have only "one can of paint", that is, in the absence of albedo variegation, the problem is tractable and one can make remarkable progress in lightcurve inversion to obtain shapes, or at least the "convex profile” of the real shape. As we now know, nature appears to have only one can of paint (per asteroid), that is, asteroids seem to paint themselves grey so that the uniform reflectivity assumption is quite excellent. Both radar and optical lightcurve inversion techniques are now quite mature, thanks to Steve's pioneering insights.

  7. In-Space Manufacturing: Pioneering a Sustainable Path to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werkheiser, Niki

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide meaningful impacts to exploration technology needs, the In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) Initiative must influence exploration systems design now. In-space manufacturing offers: dramatic paradigm shift in the development and creation of space architectures; efficiency gain and risk reduction for low Earth orbit and deep space exploration; and "pioneering" approach to maintenance, repair, and logistics leading to sustainable, affordable supply chain model. In order to develop application-based capabilities in time to support NASA budget and schedule, ISM must be able to leverage the significant commercial developments, which requires innovative, agile collaborative mechanisms (contracts, challenges, SBIR's, etc.); and NASA-unique investments to focus primarily on adapting the technologies and processes to the microgravity environment. We must do the foundational work - it is the critical path for taking these technologies from lab curiosities to institutionalized capabilities: characterize, certify, institutionalize, design for Additive Manufacturing (AM). Ideally, International Space Station (ISS) U.S. lab rack or partial rack space should be identified for in-space manufacturing utilization in order to continue technology development of a suite of capabilities required for exploration missions, as well as commercialization on ISS.

  8. The Starflight Handbook: A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallove, Eugene F.; Matloff, Gregory L.

    1989-06-01

    The Starflight Handbook A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel "The Starflight Handbook is an indispensable compendium of the many and varied methods for traversing the vast interstellar gulf--don't leave the Solar System without it!" --Robert Forward "Very sensible, very complete and useful. Its good use of references and technical `sidebars' adds to the book and allows the nontechnical text to be used by ordinary readers in an easy fashion. I certainly would recommend this book to anyone doing any thinking at all about interstellar flight or the notion of possibilities of contacts between hypothetical civilizations in different stat systems." --Louis Friedman Executive Director, The Planetary Society The Starflight Handbook is the first and only compendium on planet Earth of the radical new technologies now on the drawing boards of some of our smartest and most imaginative space scientists and engineers. Scientists and engineers as well as general readers will be captivated by its: In-depth discussions of everything from nuclear pulse propulsion engines to in-flight navigation, in flowing, non-technical language Sidebars and appendices cover technical and mathematical concepts in detail Seventy-five elegant and enlightening illustrations depicting starships and their hardware

  9. Pioneer 10 at Silver Au Describes Sun's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Almost 4 billion kilometers from the Sun, Pioneer 10's findings paint a detailed picture of the solar atmosphere. The heliosphere is now believed to be a huge magnetic bubble created by the solar wind and gets its tear-shape from streamlining due to the motion of the solar system through the interstellar gas. The skin of the bubble, the region between stellar and interstellar gas, is believed to lie between 50 and 100 AU from the Sun. The solar wind drags the Sun's magnetic field with it. The bubble, probably extends far beyond Pluto, and is believed to breathe, expanding and contracting like a giant cosmic lung with each 11 year cycle. The most recent findings show that as storms on the Sun build up toward maximum solar activity, they send out shock waves throughout the bubble which cause ripples. This long lived solar storm turbulence accelerates low energy cosmic ray particles coming in from the galaxy, deflecting them out of the solar system, and shielding the planets. As distance from the Sun increases, more and more cosmic ray particles penetrate the heliosphere.

  10. The pioneers of clinical neurology in South America.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo Francisco

    2008-08-15

    The field of neurology in South America (SA) began to emerge towards the end of the nineteenth century, following the origin of the specialty in Europe. There was a consistent and long-standing admiration for European training, which led to the birth of the discipline in South America. The first steps took place almost simultaneously with European countries in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and Peru. This paper will unearth information on the pioneers of clinical neurology in SA. Taken together, these sources reveal several important milestones in the long history of the field. The department of Neurology at the Hospital San Roque de Buenos Aires was created in 1885 and headed by José María Ramos Mejía, who then took over as Professor of Neurology at the University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine in 1887. The first institute of neurology in Latin America, the Instituto Neurológico de Montevideo, was founded in 1926 under Américo Ricaldoni's direction. Seventeen years later, the Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria from San Pablo was created, and is still in existence. Up until the present, South America has made dozens of important research contributions, the most important in the diagnosis and treatment of regional endemic diseases.

  11. Martha Wollstein: A pioneer American female clinician-scientist.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jeanne; Wright, James R

    2018-01-01

    Martha Wollstein was not only the first fully specialized pediatric perinatal pathologist practicing exclusively in a North America children's hospital, she also blazed another pathway as a very early pioneer female clinician-scientist. Wollstein provided patient care at Babies Hospital of New York City from 1891 until her retirement in 1935, and also simultaneously worked for many years as a basic scientist at the prestigious Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Wollstein published over 65 papers, many frequently cited, during her career on a wide range of topics including pediatric and infectious diseases. Wollstein was a rare female in the field of pathology in an era when just a relatively small number of women became doctors in any medical specialty. Wollstein was born into an affluent Jewish American family in New York City in 1868 and graduated from the Women's Medical College in 1889. This paper explores her family support and ethnic and religious background, which helped facilitate her professional success. During her time, she was recognized internationally for her research and was respected for her medical and scientific skills; unfortunately today her important career has been largely forgotten.

  12. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources..., Senior Counsel, Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc., 5205 North O'Connor Blvd., Suite 200, Irving, TX...

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 2.5 vol. % TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites plates fabricated by hot-hydrostatic canned extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wencong; Zhang, Lingjia; Feng, Yangju; Cui, Guorong; Chen, Wenzhen

    2018-04-01

    Plates of 2.5 vol. % TiB whisker-reinforced Ti6Al4V titanium matrix composites (TiBw/Ti64) with network structure were successfully fabricated by hot-hydrostatic extrusion with steel cup at 1100 °C. The dimensions of plates were about 150mm in length, 27mm in width and 2mm in thickness. After extrusion, the original equiaxed-network structure formed by TiB whiskers still existed, but was compressed in cross-section and stretched in longitudinal section and then the TiB whiskers were directional distribution along the extrusion direction. Furthermore, the mechanical properties results showed that the strength, hardness and ductility of the plates were significantly improved compared to as-sintered composites.

  14. Twin Peaks (B/W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak. The large rock at the right edge of the scene is nicknamed 'Hippo'. This rock is about a meter (3 feet) across and 25 meters (80 feet) distant.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  15. High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schar, C.; Ban, N.; Arteaga, A.; Charpilloz, C.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Leutwyler, D.; Lüthi, D.; Piaget, N.; Ruedisuehli, S.; Schlemmer, L.; Schulthess, T. C.; Wernli, H.

    2017-12-01

    Currently large efforts are underway to refine the horizontal resolution of global and regional climate models to O(1 km), with the intent to represent convective clouds explicitly rather than using semi-empirical parameterizations. This refinement will move the governing equations closer to first principles and is expected to reduce the uncertainties of climate models. High resolution is particularly attractive in order to better represent critical cloud feedback processes (e.g. related to global climate sensitivity and extratropical summer convection) and extreme events (such as heavy precipitation events, floods, and hurricanes). The presentation will be illustrated using decade-long simulations at 2 km horizontal grid spacing, some of these covering the European continent on a computational mesh with 1536x1536x60 grid points. To accomplish such simulations, use is made of emerging heterogeneous supercomputing architectures, using a version of the COSMO limited-area weather and climate model that is able to run entirely on GPUs. Results show that kilometer-scale resolution dramatically improves the simulation of precipitation in terms of the diurnal cycle and short-term extremes. The modeling framework is used to address changes of precipitation scaling with climate change. It is argued that already today, modern supercomputers would in principle enable global atmospheric convection-resolving climate simulations, provided appropriately refactored codes were available, and provided solutions were found to cope with the rapidly growing output volume. A discussion will be provided of key challenges affecting the design of future high-resolution climate models. It is suggested that km-scale RCMs should be exploited to pioneer this terrain, at a time when GCMs are not yet available at such resolutions. Areas of interest include the development of new parameterization schemes adequate for km-scale resolution, the exploration of new validation methodologies and data

  16. Inherited Biotic Protection in a Neotropical Pioneer Plant

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Leroy, Céline; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Rossi, Vivien; Céréghino, Régis

    2011-01-01

    Chelonanthus alatus is a bat-pollinated, pioneer Gentianaceae that clusters in patches where still-standing, dried-out stems are interspersed among live individuals. Flowers bear circum-floral nectaries (CFNs) that are attractive to ants, and seed dispersal is both barochorous and anemochorous. Although, in this study, live individuals never sheltered ant colonies, dried-out hollow stems - that can remain standing for 2 years - did. Workers from species nesting in dried-out stems as well as from ground-nesting species exploited the CFNs of live C. alatus individuals in the same patches during the daytime, but were absent at night (when bat pollination occurs) on 60.5% of the plants. By visiting the CFNs, the ants indirectly protect the flowers - but not the plant foliage - from herbivorous insects. We show that this protection is provided mostly by species nesting in dried-out stems, predominantly Pseudomyrmex gracilis. That dried-out stems remain standing for years and are regularly replaced results in an opportunistic, but stable association where colonies are sheltered by one generation of dead C. alatus while the live individuals nearby, belonging to the next generation, provide them with nectar; in turn, the ants protect their flowers from herbivores. We suggest that the investment in wood by C. alatus individuals permitting still-standing, dried-out stems to shelter ant colonies constitutes an extended phenotype because foraging workers protect the flowers of live individuals in the same patch. Also, through this process these dried-out stems indirectly favor the reproduction (and so the fitness) of the next generation including both their own offspring and that of their siblings, all adding up to a potential case of inclusive fitness in plants. PMID:21483861

  17. [Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

    2003-06-01

    At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents.

  18. The pioneering contribution of italian surgeons to skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Priola, Stefano M; Raffa, Giovanni; Abbritti, Rosaria V; Merlo, Lucia; Angileri, Filippo F; La Torre, Domenico; Conti, Alfredo; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The origin of neurosurgery as a modern, successful, and separate branch of surgery could be dated back to the end of the 19th century. The most important development of surgery occurred in Europe, particularly in Italy, where there was a unique environment, allowing brilliant open-minded surgeons to perform, with success, neurosurgical operations. Neurosurgery began at the skull base. In everyday practice, we still pay tribute to early Italian neuroanatomists and pioneer neurosurgeons who represented a starting point in a new, obscure, and still challenging field of medicine and surgery during their times. In this paper, we report at a glance the contributions of Tito Vanzetti from Padua (1809-1888), for his operation on a destructive skull base cyst that had, indeed, an intracranial expansion; of Davide Giordano (1864-1954) from Venice, who described the first transnasal approach to the pituitary gland; and, most importantly, of Francesco Durante from Messina (1844-1934), who was the first surgeon in the history of neurosurgery to successfully remove a cranial base meningioma. They carried out the first detailed reported surgical excision of intracranial lesions at the skull base, diagnosed only through clinical signs; used many of the advances of the 19th century; and conceived and performed new operative strategies and approaches. Their operations were radical enough to allow the patient to survive the surgery and, in the case of Durante, for the first time, to obtain more than 12 years of good survival at a time when a tumor of this type would have been fatal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 1: Pioneer 10-prelaunch planning through second trajectory correction, 4 December 1969 - 1 April 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmeth, A. J.; Purdue, R. E.; Ryan, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The tracking and data system support of the launch, near-earth, and deep space phases of the Pioneer 10 mission, which sent a Pioneer spacecraft into a flyby of Jupiter that would eventually allow the spacecraft to escape the solar system is discussed. The support through the spacecraft's second trajectory correction is reported. During this period, scientific instruments aboard the spacecraft registered information relative to interplanetary particles and fields, and radiometric data generated by the network continued to improve knowledge of the celestial mechanics of the solar system. In addition to network support activity detail, network performance and special support activities are covered.

  20. 10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. Ford, artist, 1883) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION FROM A DISTANCE, 1883 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  1. 11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION COMPLEX IN 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  2. Pioneer 10 and 11 radio occultations by Jupiter. [atmospheric temperature structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliore, A. J.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Hubbard, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results on the temperature structure of the Jovian atmosphere are reviewed which were obtained by applying an integral inversion technique combined with a model for the planet's shape based on gravity data to Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-occultation data. The technique applied to obtain temperature profiles from the Pioneer data consisted of defining a center of refraction based on a computation of the radius of curvature in the plane of refraction and the normal direction to the equipotential surface at the closest approach point of a ray. Observations performed during the Pioneer 10 entry and exit and the Pioneer 11 exit are analyzed, sources of uncertainty are identified, and representative pressure-temperature profiles are presented which clearly show a temperature inversion between 10 and 100 mb. Effects of zonal winds on the reliability of radio-occultation temperature profiles are briefly discussed.

  3. 109. White House Department Store (Hotel McCoy),127 Pioneer Plaza, perspective ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. White House Department Store (Hotel McCoy),127 Pioneer Plaza, perspective view looking northwest - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  4. 108. White House Department Store (Hotel McCoy),127 Pioneer Plaza, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. White House Department Store (Hotel McCoy),127 Pioneer Plaza, south facade - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  5. WHITE HOUSE DEPARTMENT STORE (HOTEL McCOY), 127 PIONEER PLAZA, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WHITE HOUSE DEPARTMENT STORE (HOTEL McCOY), 127 PIONEER PLAZA, PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  6. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & Functional Imaging

    2018-01-23

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  7. Denver's Pioneer Astronomer: Herbert Alonso Howe (1858-1926)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, H. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Fisher, S.

    1999-05-01

    Herbert A. Howe arrived at Denver University (DU) to teach autumn 1880 classes, in math, astronomy and surveying. Howe established himself with clever solutions to the Kepler problem for orbit determinations in thesis work at Cincinnati Observatory. Riding the economic expansion of Colorado gold and silver mining in 1888, the University accepted a proposed gift of a major observatory, offered by Denver real estate baron, Humphrey Chamberlin. The result features a 20 inch aperture Alvan Clark refractor, which still ranks among the largest telescopes of the era. With the observatory building ready, the Silver Panic of 1893 -- when the US Congress dropped silver reserves from the currency basis -- burst the Denver economic bubble. Chamberlin was unable to complete payments on the balances due. Clark and G.N.Saegmuller (Fauth and Co.) at personal expense, delivered on the optics and telescope assemblies in 1894, but would wait for repayment. Sadly, this fiscal crisis affected DU for over a decade. Professor Howe, while observatory director, found himself consumed as Dean and Acting Chancellor for a young, struggling university, at the expense of the astronomy future that had looked so bright in 1892. Absent the Silver Panic, Howe would have probably been given an endowed chair in astronomy, as promised by Chamberlin. The complexion of American astronomy at the time of the birth of the American Astronomical Society in 1899 might have been different, in terms of US observing sites, etc. We are fortunate to have extensive Prof.Howe's daily diaries now in the University archives. These describe Howe's view of progress on the observatory, meetings with astronomy notables, plus vignettes of the life and times of Denver and the nation. Grandson, Herbert Julian Howe rediscovered their existence and is summarizing them in the form of a biography entitled: The Pioneer Astronomer. DU archival records contain numerous original letters from late 19th century astronomy luminaries

  8. Evidence of mercury trapping in biofilm-EPS and mer operon-based volatilization of inorganic mercury in a marine bacterium Bacillus cereus BW-201B.

    PubMed

    Dash, Hirak R; Basu, Subham; Das, Surajit

    2017-04-01

    Biofilm-forming mercury-resistant marine bacterium Bacillus cereus BW-201B has been explored to evident that the bacterial biofilm-EPS (exopolymers) trap inorganic mercury but subsequently release EPS-bound mercury for induction of mer operon-mediated volatilization of inorganic mercury. The isolate was able to tolerate 50 ppm of mercury and forms biofilm in presence of mercury. mer operon-mediated volatilization was confirmed, and -SH was found to be the key functional group of bacterial EPS responsible for mercury binding. Biofilm-EPS-bound mercury was found to be internalized to the bacterial system as confirmed by reversible conformational change of -SH group and increased expression level of merA gene in a timescale experiment. Biofilm-EPS trapped Hg after 24 h of incubation, and by 96 h, the volatilization process reaches to its optimum confirming the internalization of EPS-bound mercury to the bacterial cells. Biofilm disintegration at the same time corroborates the results.

  9. A decision-tree model to detect post-calving diseases based on rumination, activity, milk yield, BW and voluntary visits to the milking robot.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Antler, A; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Maltz, E; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of post-calving health problems is critical for dairy operations. Separating sick cows from the herd is important, especially in robotic-milking dairy farms, where searching for a sick cow can disturb the other cows' routine. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply a behaviour- and performance-based health-detection model to post-calving cows in a robotic-milking dairy farm, with the aim of detecting sick cows based on available commercial sensors. The study was conducted in an Israeli robotic-milking dairy farm with 250 Israeli-Holstein cows. All cows were equipped with rumination- and neck-activity sensors. Milk yield, visits to the milking robot and BW were recorded in the milking robot. A decision-tree model was developed on a calibration data set (historical data of the 10 months before the study) and was validated on the new data set. The decision model generated a probability of being sick for each cow. The model was applied once a week just before the veterinarian performed the weekly routine post-calving health check. The veterinarian's diagnosis served as a binary reference for the model (healthy-sick). The overall accuracy of the model was 78%, with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 69%, suggesting its practical value.

  10. Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besser, B. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the "father of rocketry" in Western Europe - is Hermann Oberth. The others were Max Valier, Franz von Hoefft, Guido von Pirquet, Hermann Potocnik, Friedrich Schmiedl, Franz Ulinski, Eugen Saenger and others. Franz Ulinski (1890-1974) was born 1890 in Blosdorf, Moravia (now Mljadejow, Czech Republic). After attending schools in Wels, Upper Austria, he started a career in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910. During his service he worked beginning 1917 at an airplane engine plant in Fischamend and in 1919/20 at the "Fliegerarsenal" (aircraft arsenal) in Vienna. End of 1920 the army of the remaining republic of Austria had to severely reduce its forces and Ulinski was superannuated without further payment. Since 1917 he was also inscribed at the College for Advanced Technology in Vienna ("Technische Hochschule Wien"), but he never graduated, instead he autodidactically attained the VDI-Engineering-Diploma (VDI = "Verein Deutscher Ingenieure"- Association of German Engineers). During 1921-1924 he worked as a development engineer and later as a design engineer for a car factory. In 1925 he set up and ran his own company (radio sale enterprise) and in 1929 an engineering workshop. From 1938 to 1945 he first served as technical staff and later as a design engineer at the Siebel- Flugzeugwerke (Airplane-Factory) in Halle/Saale, Germany. After the Second World War he was employed as a design engineer at different engineering companies in Austria and he died 1974 in Wels. Ulinski's first contact with the topic of space flight occurred during the time period when he was a member of the Austro- Hungarian Army. Ulinski was one of the first in the german speaking part of Europe to publish an article with his ideas about space flight in 1920 (three years before Herman Oberth

  11. a Study of the Pioneer Anomaly:. New Data and Objectives for New Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Kellogg, Larry R.; Lau, Eunice L.; Lee, Kyong J.

    The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, their radiometric tracking data has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue shift, uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10-9 Hz/s and can be interpreted as a constant sunward acceleration of each particular spacecraft of aP = (8.74±1.33) × 10-10 m/s2 (or, alternatively, a time acceleration of at = (2.92±0.44) × 10-18 s/s2). This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. We discuss the current state of the efforts to retrieve the entire data sets of the Pioneer 10 and 11 radiometric Doppler data. We also report on the availability of recently recovered telemetry files that may be used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacecraft using original project documentation and newly developed software tools. We discuss possible ways to further investigate the discovered effect using these telemetry files in conjunction with the analysis of the much extended Pioneer Doppler data. In preparation for this new upcoming investigation, we summarize the current knowledge of the Pioneer anomaly and review some of the mechanisms proposed for its explanation. We emphasize the main objectives of this new study, namely (i) analysis of the early data that could yield the true direction of the anomaly and thus, its origin, (ii) analysis of planetary encounters, which should say more about the onset of the anomaly (e.g. Pioneer 11's Saturn flyby), (iii) analysis of the entire dataset, which should lead to a better determination of the temporal behavior of the anomaly, (iv) comparative analysis of individual anomalous accelerations for the two Pioneers with the data taken from similar heliocentric distances, (v) the detailed study of on-board systematics, and (vi) development of a thermal-electric-dynamical model using on-board telemetry. The outlined

  12. The Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

  13. The Z3 model of Saturn's magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1 percent) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

  14. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  15. Simultaneous optical/X-ray study of GS 1354-64 (=BW Cir) during hard outburst: evidence for optical cyclo-synchrotron emission from the hot accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Gandhi, Poshak; Charles, Philip A.; Kotze, Marissa M.; Altamirano, Diego; Misra, Ranjeev

    2017-07-01

    We present results from simultaneous optical [South African Large Telescope (SALT)] and X-ray (Swift and INTEGRAL) observations of GS 1354-64/BW Cir during the 2015 hard state outburst. During the rising phase, optical/X-ray time series shows a strong anti-correlation with X-ray photons lagging optical. Optical and X-ray power spectra show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at a frequency of ˜18 mHz with a confidence level of at least 99 per cent. Simultaneous fitting of Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL spectra in the range 0.5-1000.0 keV shows non-thermal, power-law-dominated (>90 per cent) spectra with a hard power-law index of 1.48 ± 0.03, inner disc temperature of 0.12 ± 0.01 keV and an inner disc radius of ˜3000 km. All evidence is consistent with cyclo-synchrotron radiation in a non-thermal, hot electron cloud extending to ˜100 Schwarzschild radii being a major physical process for the origin of optical photons. At outburst peak about one month later, when the X-ray flux rises and the optical drops, the apparent features in the optical/X-ray correlation vanish and the optical auto correlation widens. Although ˜0.19 Hz QPO is observed from the X-ray power spectra, the optical variability is dominated by the broad-band noise, and the inner disc temperature increases. These results support a change in the dominant optical emission source between outburst rise and peak, consistent with a weakening of hot flow as the disc moves in.

  16. The changing roles of registered nurses in Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Patricia; Forrest, Emily

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on whether and how Pioneer Accountable Care Organization (ACO) leaders believe the deployment of the registered nurse workforce is changing in response to the shared savings incentives. Semistructured phone interviews with leaders from 18 of the original 32 Pioneer ACOs were conducted. Narrative analysis suggests that all of the organizations are developing new and enhanced roles for registered nurses across the continuum of care. Overall, eight types of changes were reported: enhancement of roles, substitution, delegation, increased numbers of nurses, relocation of services, transfer of nurses from one setting to another, the use of liaison nurses across settings, and partnerships between nurses coordinating care in primary and acute care settings. This exploratory study suggests that Pioneer ACO leaders believe that payment models are affecting the deployment of the health workforce and that these changes are, in turn, driving outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 3: Pioneer 10 from 1 April 1972 through the Jupiter encounter period, January 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Systems support of the Pioneer 10 mission from April 1, 1972 through the Jupiter encounter period which ended January 5, 1974 is described. The period covered involves operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that lead to the Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60 day encounter period.

  18. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 2: Pioneer 11 prelaunch planning through second trajectory correction, to 1 May 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, W. R.; Miller, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The tracking and data system support of the planning, testing, launch, near-earth, and deep space phases of the Pioneer 11 Jupiter Mission are described, including critical phases of spacecraft flight and guidance. Scientific instruments aboard the spacecraft registered information relative to interplanetary particles and fields. Knowledge of the celestial mechanics of the solar system was improved through radiometric data gathering. Network performance, details of network support activity, and special support activities are discussed.

  19. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  20. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  1. Orbit determination strategy and results for the Pioneer 10 Jupiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, S. K.; Lubeley, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Pioneer 10 is the first earth-based vehicle to encounter Jupiter and occult its moon, Io. In contributing to the success of the mission, the Orbit Determination Group evaluated the effects of the dominant error sources on the spacecraft's computed orbit and devised an encounter strategy minimizing the effects of these error sources. The encounter results indicated that: (1) errors in the satellite model played a very important role in the accuracy of the computed orbit, (2) encounter strategy was sound, (3) all mission objectives were met, and (4) Jupiter-Saturn mission for Pioneer 11 is within the navigation capability.

  2. Study of the adaptability of existing hardware designs to a Pioneer Saturn/Uranus probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The basic concept of designing a scientific entry probe for the expected range of environments at Saturn or Uranus and making the probe compatible with the interface constraints of the Pioneer spacecraft was investigated for launches in the early 1980's. It was found that the amount of hardware commonality between that used in the Pioneer Venus program and that for the Saturn/Uranus probe was approximately 85%. It is recommended that additional development studies be conducted to improve the hardware definitions of the probe design for the following: heat shield, battery, nose cap jettisoning, and thermal control insulation.

  3. Pioneer and Voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Data obtained from the electrostatic analyzers aboard the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft and from the Faraday cup aboard Voyager 2 were used to study spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Prior to mid-1985, both spacecraft observed nearly identical solar wind structures. After day 150 of 1985, the velocity structure at Voyager 2 became flatter, and the Voyager 2 velocities were smaller than those observed by Pioneer 11. It is suggested that these changes in the solar wind at low latitudes may be related to a change which occurred in the coronal hole structure in early 1985.

  4. 2015 Summer Series - Jason Crusan - Pioneering Space - Not Your Great-Great-Grandparent's Manifest Destiny

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-14

    Exploration is an innate characteristic of the human species. By launching into the unknown, NASA drives our expeditions beyond Earth and embarks in the long-term efforts of 'pioneering space' for this and future generations. NASA will develop the ability for humans to go farther and stay longer in space with an ever-decreasing need to be reliant on Earth. Jason Crusan, Director of Advanced Exploration Systems Division at NASA Headquarters, describes what the future of pioneering space will look like in the galactic Wild West.

  5. Maneuver sequence design for the post-Jupiter leg of Pioneer Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frauenholz, R. B.; Brady, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    After passing the planet Jupiter in December 1974, Pioneer 11 is on a flight path on which it will encounter Saturn in late 1979. Following an uncorrected trajectory, the spacecraft would pass 2 million km behind Saturn. A sequence of midcourse maneuvers for modifying the Pioneer trajectory is discussed. The corrected flight path is to bring the spacecraft within 500,000 km of Saturn's satellite Titan. Attention is given to maneuver capabilities and constraints, the maneuver design concept, questions related to the selection of an interim aimpoint, and aspects of maneuver implementation.

  6. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: the 60th anniversary of Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Kay, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi; Werneck, Lineu Cesar; Scola, Rosana Herminia

    2018-02-01

    This historical review describes the contribution of Drs. Lee M. Eaton and Edward H. Lambert to the diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome on the 60th anniversary of their pioneering article (JAMA 1957) on the disease. There are important landmarks in their article on a disorder of the neuromuscular junction associated with thoracic neoplasm and the electrophysiological criteria for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). After 60 years, the main electrophysiological criteria described in Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article are still currently useful in the diagnosis of LEMS.

  7. Membrane Peeling-Induced Retinal Alterations on Intraoperative OCT in Vitreomacular Interface Disorders From the PIONEER Study.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Justis P; Han, Jaehong; Petkovsek, Daniel; Kaiser, Peter K; Singh, Rishi P; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2015-11-01

    To assess retinal architectural alterations that occur following membrane peeling procedures and the impact of peel technique on these alterations utilizing intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). This is a subanalysis of the prospective PIONEER iOCT study of eyes undergoing a membrane peeling for a vitreomacular interface (VMI) disorder. Intraoperative scanning was performed with a microscope-mounted OCT system. Macroarchitectural alterations (e.g., full-thickness retinal elevations) and microarchitectural alterations (e.g., relative layer thickness alterations) were analyzed. Video/iOCT correlation was performed to identify instrument-tissue manipulations resulting in macroarchitectural alterations. One hundred sixty-three eyes were included in the macroarchitectural analysis. Instrumentation utilized for membrane peeling included forceps alone for 73 eyes (45%), combined diamond-dusted membrane scraper (DDMS) and forceps for 87 eyes (53%), and other techniques in three eyes (2%). Focal retinal elevations were identified in 45 of 163 eyes (28%). Video/iOCT correlation identified 69% of alterations involved forceps compared to 26% due to DDMS. Sixteen percent of retinal alterations persisted 1 month following surgery. The microarchitectural analysis included 134 eyes. Immediately following membrane peeling, there was a significant increase in the ellipsoid zone to retinal pigment epithelium height (+20%, P < 0.00001) and the cone outer segment tips to retinal pigment epithelium height (+18%, P < 0.00001). Significant subclinical retinal architectural changes occur during membrane peeling for VMI conditions. Differences in surgical instruments may impact these architectural alterations.

  8. Vegetation as self-adaptive coastal protection: Reduction of current velocity and morphologic plasticity of a brackish marsh pioneer.

    PubMed

    Carus, Jana; Paul, Maike; Schröder, Boris

    2016-03-01

    By reducing current velocity, tidal marsh vegetation can diminish storm surges and storm waves. Conversely, currents often exert high mechanical stresses onto the plants and hence affect vegetation structure and plant characteristics. In our study, we aim at analysing this interaction from both angles. On the one hand, we quantify the reduction of current velocity by Bolboschoenus maritimus, and on the other hand, we identify functional traits of B. maritimus' ramets along environmental gradients. Our results show that tidal marsh vegetation is able to buffer a large proportion of the flow velocity at currents under normal conditions. Cross-shore current velocity decreased with distance from the marsh edge and was reduced by more than 50% after 15 m of vegetation. We were furthermore able to show that plants growing at the marsh edge had a significantly larger diameter than plants from inside the vegetation. We found a positive correlation between plant thickness and cross-shore current which could provide an adaptive value in habitats with high mechanical stress. With the adapted morphology of plants growing at the highly exposed marsh edge, the entire vegetation belt is able to better resist the mechanical stress of high current velocities. This self-adaptive effect thus increases the ability of B. maritimus to grow and persist in the pioneer zone and may hence better contribute to ecosystem-based coastal protection by reducing current velocity.

  9. The D prostanoid receptor agonist BW245C [(4S)-(3-[(3R,S)-3-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxypropyl]-2,5-dioxo)-4-imidazolidineheptanoic acid] inhibits fibroblast proliferation and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    van den Brule, Sybille; Wallemme, Laurent; Uwambayinema, Francine; Huaux, François; Lison, Dominique

    2010-11-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D(2) exerts contrasting activities in the inflamed lung via two receptors, the D prostanoid receptor (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper 2 lymphocytes. DP activation is known mainly to inhibit proinflammatory cell functions. We tested the effect of a DP-specific agonist, (4S)-(3-[(3R,S)-3-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxypropyl]-2,5-dioxo)-4-imidazolidineheptanoic acid (BW245C), on pulmonary fibroblast functions in vitro and in a mouse model of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin. DP mRNA expression was detected in cultured mouse lung primary fibroblasts and human fetal lung fibroblasts and found to be up- and down-regulated by interleukin-13 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, respectively. Although micromolar concentrations of BW245C and PGD(2) did not affect mouse fibroblast collagen synthesis or differentiation in myofibroblasts, they both inhibited fibroblast basal and TGF-β-induced proliferation in vitro. The repeated administration of BW245C (500 nmol/kg body weight instilled transorally in the lungs 2 days before and three times per week for 3 weeks) in bleomycin-treated mice significantly decreased both inflammatory cell recruitment and collagen accumulation in the lung (21 days). Our results indicate that BW245C can reduce lung fibrosis in part via its activity on fibroblast proliferation and suggest that DP activation should be considered as a new therapeutic target in fibroproliferative lung diseases.

  10. Impact of amino acid and CP restriction from 20 to 140 kg BW on performance and dynamics in empty body protein and lipid deposition of entire male, castrated and female pigs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ascacibar, I; Stoll, P; Kreuzer, M; Boillat, V; Spring, P; Bee, G

    2017-03-01

    Breeding leaner pigs during the last decades may have changed pig's empty body (EB) composition, a key trait for elaborating feeding recommendations. This research aimed to provide new experimental data on changes in the chemical composition of the EB of pigs from 20 to 140 kg BW. In addition, the impact of a reduction in the dietary CP associated with lower lysine, methionine+cystine, threonine and tryptophan levels was determined. In total, 48 males, castrates and females weighing 20 kg BW were allocated either to a control grower-finisher diet formulated according to current Swiss feeding recommendations, or a low CP grower-finisher diet (80% of control). Feed intake was monitored and pigs were weighed weekly. The chemical composition of EB (blood, hairs and hoofs, offals, bile, carcass) was determined at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg BW on four pigs per gender and diet (eight pigs per gender at 20 kg). The five fractions were weighed and samples were analysed for dry matter, protein, fat and energy. Nutrient deposition rates and N efficiency were calculated by using the 20 kg BW category as reference. Analysis revealed an accurate feed optimisation for the aforementioned essential amino acids (EAA), whereas digestible isoleucine content in the low CP diet was at 70% of the control diet. Despite similar feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency were impaired (P<0.01) from 20 to 100 kg BW in the low CP compared with the control pigs. In the same growth period, castrates had the greatest feed intake but, together with females, displayed the lowest (P<0.01) feed efficiency. Protein deposition was reduced (P<0.01) by up to 31% with low CP diet and was lower (P<0.01) in castrates and females than males at 100 kg BW. The greatest fat deposition rates were found with low CP diet and castrates. N efficiency improved (P<0.05) by 10% with the low CP diet from 100 to 140 kg. The males displayed the greatest (P<0.05) N efficiency. These findings suggest that the CP

  11. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases unmasks vasoconstriction and potentiates calcium signaling in rat aorta smooth muscle cells in response to an agonist of 5-HT2B receptors BW723C86.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Galina Y; Avdonin, Piotr P; Goncharov, Nikolay V; Jenkins, Richard O; Avdonin, Pavel V

    2017-01-29

    In blood vessels, serotonin 5-HT2B receptors mainly mediate relaxation, although their activation by the selective agonist BW723C86 is known to exert contraction of aorta in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME) hypertensive rats [Russel et al., 2002; Banes et al., 2003] and in mice with type 2 diabetes [Nelson et al., 2012]. The unmasking effect on vasoconstriction can be caused by a shift in the balance of tyrosine phosphorylation in smooth muscle cells (SMC) due to oxidative stress induced inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP). We have demonstrated that BW723C86 which does not cause contraction of rat aorta and mesenteric artery rings, evoked a vasoconstrictor effect in the presence of PTP inhibitors sodium orthovanadate (Na 3 VO 4 ) or BVT948. BW723C86 induced a weak rise of [Ca 2+ ] i in the SMC isolated from rat aorta; however, after pre-incubation with Na 3 VO 4 the response to BW723C86 increased more than 5-fold. This effect was diminished by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein, inhibitor of Src-family kinases PP2, inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase VAS2870 and completely suppressed by N-acetylcysteine and 5-HT2B receptor antagonist RS127445. Using fluorescent probe DCFH-DA we have shown that Na 3 VO 4 induces oxidative stress in SMC. In the presence of Na 3 VO 4 BW723C86 considerably increased formation of reactive oxygen species while alone had no appreciable effect on DCFH oxidation. We suggest that oxidative stress causes inhibition of PTP and unmasking of 5-HT2B receptors functional activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  13. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results inmore » the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.« less

  14. Robert Owen: A Historiographic Study of a Pioneer of Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ideals and activities of the nineteenth century Welsh industrialist and reformer Robert Owen (1771-1858), and how they informed modern human resource development (HRD) concepts and practices and provided evidence of Owen as a HRD pioneer. Design/methodology/approach: Historiography provided…

  15. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically Engineered for Herbicide and Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  16. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2007-0156] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically Engineered High-oleic Soybeans AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are...

  17. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0031] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...

  18. Pioneer Mentoring in Teacher Preparation: From the Voices of Women Religious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Kevina; Traviss, Mary Peter

    This book includes the observations of educational leaders and classroom teachers within religious institutions recognized as pioneers in implementing a teacher preparation model that has prepared thousands of Catholic school teachers nationwide. It is based on a study that interviewed 60 women religious belonging to 12 religious institutions that…

  19. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 14: Test planning trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedretti, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pioneer Venus system test plans and trade studies which were first published as Study Tasks (References 1 through 5) are reviewed. The plan and trade studies are presented in a condensed form. Greater detail may be found in the referenced study tasks if desired. All significant conclusions and plan outlines of the original studies are, presented.

  20. Pioneering Deans of Women: More Than Wise and Pious Matrons. Athene Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidiffer, Jana

    This book examines the careers and contributions of four pioneering deans of women and the innovations they created as they worked to enhance opportunities and community for women. The women are Marion Talbot, Mary Bidwell Breed, Ada Louise Comstock, and Lois Kimball Mathews. The book analyzes how they developed a profession out of their…

  1. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Finance Docket No. 35341] Pioneer... trackage rights, to shippers located on, or that may in the future locate on, the southern and northern..., referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35341, must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street...

  2. Turning Points in the Lives of Two Pioneer Arab Women Principals in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid Husny; Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the managerial career development of two Arab women, pioneer principals within the Arab education system in Israel. Using in-depth interviews relating to the characteristics of the different stages leading up to and within their careers as school principals (childhood and academic studies; the struggle to achieve the…

  3. Charles W. Stuber: Maize geneticist and pioneer of marker-assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charles W. Stuber is considered a pioneer of quantitative genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection in maize. The achievements of his four decade career in research include the development of genetic marker systems used in maize and adapted in many other crops, the first methods and studies to i...

  4. 77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Certificate of Authority issued by the Treasury to the above-named company under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as...

  5. Shaping the Reading Field: The Impact of Early Reading Pioneers, Scientific Research, and Progressive Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Susan E., Ed.; Monaghan, E. Jennifer, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Only by exploring the past of the reading field can the literacy leaders of today make informed decisions about reading education in the future. This indispensable resource offers new insight into the development of reading education by examining the groundbreaking contributions of the "early reading pioneers"--16 reading researchers, reading…

  6. Age-dependent radial increases in wood specific gravity of tropical pioneers in Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    Wood specific gravity is the single best descriptor of wood functional properties and tree life-history traits, and it is the most important variable in estimating carbon stocks in forests. Tropical pioneer trees produce wood of increasing specific gravity across the trunk radius as they grow in stature. Here, we tested whether radial increases in wood specific gravity...

  7. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  8. Limit on the photon mass deduced from Pioneer-10 observations of Jupiter's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.; Goldhaber, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the Pioneer-10 data on Jupiter's magnetic field, in which the mass of the photon was treated as a free parameter. An upper limit of 8 to the negative 49th grams was set for the photon mass. This is the smallest limit so far obtained from direct measurements.

  9. Harry E. Burke and John M. Miller, pioneers in Western forest entomology.

    Treesearch

    Boyd E. Wickman

    2005-01-01

    This history was compiled from the memoirs, diaries, and other personal documents of the two forest entomologists in charge of the first forest insect laboratories on the west coast. It traces the lives of the two pioneers from 1902 to 1952 as they pursued their careers in the USDA Bureau of Entomology, Division of Forest Insect Investigations. Cooperative bark beetle...

  10. PC-403: Pioneer Venus multiprobe spacecraft mission operational characteristics document, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus spacecraft primary and backup operational modes and operational limitations for maneuvers, roll references transfer, attitude determination, spacecraft power discipline and spacecraft thermal discipline, are described. The functions and operations of the large and small probes, as well detailed performance in the normal operating modes and backup modes are presented.

  11. Two Good Gay Teachers: Pioneering Advocate-Practitioners Confronting Homophobia in Schooling in British Columbia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, André P.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the political, cultural, and educational work of two pioneering Canadian gay teachers during the 1990s: James Chamberlain and Murray Corren. These advocate-practitioners took up roles as social activists, cultural workers, and engaged teachers whose transgressive acts focused on the social and cultural transformation of…

  12. Resource Sharing for Better Service: The Northland Pioneer College/Mogollon High School Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlisberg, Allen P.

    Northland Pioneer College, a decentralized community college serving rurally populated Northeastern Arizona, has a cooperative agreement with Mogollon High School Library in Heber to serve both college and high school students and faculty. Under this experimental agreement, on-site learning resource center services are provided by the high school,…

  13. 76 FR 83 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for... Plants AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising...

  14. 77 FR 41364 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0031] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Canola Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Tolerance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  15. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically Engineered To Produce Male Sterile/Female Inbred Plants AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...

  16. Remembering in a Context of Forgetting: Hauntings and the Old Durham Road Black Pioneer Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norquay, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the data produced from an oral history project about a Black pioneer settlement in Grey County, Ontario. Twelve area residents were interviewed and the data produced points to various community practices of both remembering and forgetting. I employ Avery Gordon's (2008) theorization of ghosts and hauntings to make sense of the…

  17. Pioneer forest - a half century of sustainable uneven-aged forest management in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Greg F. Iffrig; Susan L. Flader

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers analyzes the Pioneer Forest, a privately owned 150,000-acre working forest in the Missouri Ozarks, on which the science and art of forest management has been practiced for more than 50 years. The papers discuss how this half century of management has contributed to forest restoration and sustainability on the forest itself and, through its...

  18. Pioneers: A Simulation of Decision-Making on a Wagon Train.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, John

    This simulation allows students to participate in situations and events similar to those experienced by pioneers who headed west in early wagon trains. Students face problems such as floods, droughts, blocked trails, snakes, Indians, and the lack of food. Students must make numerous individual and small-group decisions that provide them with a…

  19. On the Frontier of School Reform with Trailblazers, Pioneers, and Settlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1993-01-01

    Educators leading restructuring efforts must recognize five roles people play in the change process (trailblazers, pioneers, settlers, stay-at-homes, and saboteurs) and provide training, encouragement, and support differentially for each role. The article examines four questions that must be answered to move the restructuring process forward…

  20. Black Skin, White Pioneer: Non-Traditional Casting in an Israeli School Pageant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2013-01-01

    The casting of a black Ethiopian Jewish girl to play a white Zionist pioneer character in an Israeli school pageant causes feelings of discomfort among the teachers, especially the vice-principal. The vice-principal uses theatrical and historical reasons to justify her opposition to the casting which can actually be perceived as new/colour-blind…

  1. 76 FR 29249 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model: Request for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... on the Innovation Center Web site http://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated... Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Mail Stop S3-13-05, 7500... and Medicaid Innovation (Innovation Center). The Pioneer ACO Model is an Innovation Center initiative...

  2. 76 FR 33306 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model, Request for Applications; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... information posted on our Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) Web site and in the Pioneer ACO Application. (For more information see http://innovations.cms.gov/areas-of-focus/seamless-and-coordinated-care... postmarked on or before July 18, 2011.'' Authority: Section 1115A of the Social Security Act. Dated: June 2...

  3. Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with Earth's Smallest Settlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie; Milroy, Scott; Reider, David; Skelton, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with the Earth's Smallest Settlers (http://pioneeringmars.org) provides a partnership model for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning that brings university scientists together with high school students to investigate whether cyanobacteria from Antarctica could survive on…

  4. Bronislawa and Mieczyslaw Konopacki - pioneers of the application of histochemistry to embryology in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bielanska-Osuchowska, Zofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the life and work of Mieczyslaw Konopacki and his wife Bronislawa Konopacka. These Polish scientists introduced histochemical methods to embryological studies at the beginning of the XXth century; they were pioneers in this regard in Poland and among the first in the world to implement such methods in this way.

  5. The mechanical design of an imaging photopolarimeter for the Jupiter missions (Pioneer 10 and 11)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodak, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical design and fabrication are discussed of the imaging photopolarimeter (IPP), a multifunction space-qualified instrument used on the Jupiter Pioneer missions. The extreme environmental requirements for the structural design, optical system, and mechanisms are described with detailed discussion of some of the design and fabrication problems encountered.

  6. [Plant biomorphology and seed germination of pioneer species of the Kamchatka volcanoes].

    PubMed

    Voronkova, N M; Kholina, A B; Verkholat, V P

    2008-01-01

    Biomorphology, quantitative characters and seed germination of 17 pioneer plant species friable materials of volcanic eruptions (Kamchatka Peninsula) were studied. Adaptive trends in survival stress conditions are discussed. To evaluate a possibility of the cryogenic seed storage, their response to ultra low temperatures (-196 degrees C) was determine.

  7. Expanding Role Options through Vocational Education. Phase II of the North Dakota Pioneers in Equality Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    Developed during the course of the North Dakota Pioneers in Equality Project and originally used in a series of regional workshops for vocational teachers and school administrators, this handbook deals with ways in which vocational educators can help to eliminate sex role and occupational stereotyping. It consists of a series of 11 chapters…

  8. Pioneer neurog1 expressing cells ingress into the otic epithelium and instruct neuronal specification

    PubMed Central

    Hoijman, Esteban; Fargas, L; Blader, Patrick; Alsina, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Neural patterning involves regionalised cell specification. Recent studies indicate that cell dynamics play instrumental roles in neural pattern refinement and progression, but the impact of cell behaviour and morphogenesis on neural specification is not understood. Here we combine 4D analysis of cell behaviours with dynamic quantification of proneural expression to uncover the construction of the zebrafish otic neurogenic domain. We identify pioneer cells expressing neurog1 outside the otic epithelium that migrate and ingress into the epithelialising placode to become the first otic neuronal progenitors. Subsequently, neighbouring cells express neurog1 inside the placode, and apical symmetric divisions amplify the specified pool. Interestingly, pioneer cells delaminate shortly after ingression. Ablation experiments reveal that pioneer cells promote neurog1 expression in other otic cells. Finally, ingression relies on the epithelialisation timing controlled by FGF activity. We propose a novel view for otic neurogenesis integrating cell dynamics whereby ingression of pioneer cells instructs neuronal specification. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25543.001 PMID:28537554

  9. The Now Frontier. Pioneer to Jupiter. Man Links Earth and Planets. Issue No. 1-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    This packet of space science instructional materials includes five issues related to the planet Jupiter. Each issue presents factual material about the planet, diagramatic representations of its movements and positions relative to bright stars or the earth, actual photographs and/or tables of data collected relevant to Pioneer 10, the spacecraft…

  10. PC-403: Pioneer Venus multiprobe spacecraft mission operational characteristics document, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The data handling subsystem, command subsystem, communications subsystem, power subsystem, and mission operations of the Pioneer Venus multiprobe are presented. The multiprobe spacecraft performance in normal operating modes that correspond to the performance of specific functions at the time of specific events in the mission is described.

  11. Jupiter's Magnetic Field. Magnetosphere, and Interaction with the Solar Wind: Pioneer 11.

    PubMed

    Smith, E J; Davis, L; Jones, D E; Coleman, P J; Colburn, D S; Dyal, P; Sonett, C P

    1975-05-02

    The Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer provided precise, contititious measurements of the magnetic fields in interplanetary space, inside Jupiter's magnetosphere, and in the near vicinity of Jupiter. As with the Pioneer 10 data, evidence was seen of the dynanmic interaction of Jupiter with the solar wind which leads to a variety of phenomena (bow shock, upstream waves, nonlinear magnetosheath impulses) and to changes in the dimension of the dayside magnetosphere by as much as a factor of 2. The magnetosphere clearly appears to be blunt, not disk-shaped, with a well-defined outer boundary. In the outer magnetosphere, the magnetic field is irregular but exhibits a persistent southward component indicative of a closed magnetosphere. The data contain the first clear evidence in the dayside magnetosphere of the current sheet, apparently associated with centrifugal forces, that was a donminatnt feature of the outbound Pionieer 10 data. A modest westward spiraling of the field was again evident inbound but not outbound at higher latitudes and nearer the Sun-Jupiter direction. Measurements near periapsis, which were nearer the planet and provide better latitude and longitude coverage than Pioneer 10, have revealed a 5 percent discrepancy with the Pioneer 10 offset dipole mnodel (D(2)). A revised offset dipole (6-parameter fit) is presented as well as the results of a spherical harmonic analysis (23 parameters) consisting of an interior dipole, quadrupole, and octopole and an external dipole and quadrupole. The dipole moment and the composite field appear moderately larger than inferred from Pioneer 10. Maximum surface fields of 14 and 11 gauss in the northern and southern hemispheres are inferred. Jupiter's planetary field is found to be slightly more irregular than that of Earth.

  12. Short dry spells in the wet season increase mortality of tropical pioneer seedlings.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Dalling, James W; Pearson, Timothy R H; Wolf, Robert L; Gálvez, David A; Koehler, Tobias; Tyree, Melvin T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2006-06-01

    Variation in plant species performance in response to water availability offers a potential axis for temporal and spatial habitat partitioning and may therefore affect community composition in tropical forests. We hypothesized that short dry spells during the wet season are a significant source of mortality for the newly emerging seedlings of pioneer species that recruit in treefall gaps in tropical forests. An analysis of a 49-year rainfall record for three forests across a rainfall gradient in central Panama confirmed that dry spells of > or = 10 days during the wet season occur on average once a year in a deciduous forest, and once every other year in a semi-deciduous moist and an evergreen wet forest. The effect of wet season dry spells on the recruitment of pioneers was investigated by comparing seedling survival in rain-protected dry plots and irrigated control plots in four large artificially created treefall gaps in a semi-deciduous tropical forest. In rain-protected plots surface soil layers dried rapidly, leading to a strong gradient in water potential within the upper 10 cm of soil. Seedling survival for six pioneer species was significantly lower in rain-protected than in irrigated control plots after only 4 days. The strength of the irrigation effect differed among species, and first became apparent 3-10 days after treatments started. Root allocation patterns were significantly, or marginally significantly, different between species and between two groups of larger and smaller seeded species. However, they were not correlated with seedling drought sensitivity, suggesting allocation is not a key trait for drought sensitivity in pioneer seedlings. Our data provide strong evidence that short dry spells in the wet season differentially affect seedling survivorship of pioneer species, and may therefore have important implications to seedling demography and community dynamics.

  13. Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Pioneers 6-9, extended missions: 1 July 1972 - 1 July 1973, volume 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Tracking and Data System supported the deep space phases of the Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9 missions, with two spacecraft in an inward trajectory and two spacecraft in an outward trajectory from the earth in heliocentric orbits. During the period of this report, scientific instruments aboard each of the spacecraft continued to register information relative to interplanetary particles and fields, and radiometric data generated by the network continued to contribute to knowledge of the celestial mechanics of the solar system. In addition, to network support activity detail, network performance and special support activities are covered.

  14. Tracking and data system support for the pioneer project. Volume 11 Pioneers 6-9. Extended missions: 1 July 1971 - 1 July 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Siegmeth, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Tracking and Data System supported the deep space phases of the Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9 missions, with two spacecraft in an inward trajectory and two spacecraft in an outward trajectory from the earth in heliocentric orbits. Scientific instruments aboard each of the spacecraft continued to register information relative to interplanetary particles and fields, and radio metric data generated by the network continued to improve our knowledge of the celestial mechanics of the solar system. In addition to network support activity detail, network performance and special support activities are covered.

  15. Mechanism of improved maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in stored blood by the xanthone compound 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-6-(1-H-tetrazole-5-yl)xanthen-9-one (BW A440C).

    PubMed

    Beutler, E; Forman, L; West, C; Gelbart, T

    1988-03-15

    The effect of the xanthone derivative 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-6-(1-H-tetrazole-5-yl)xanthen-9-one (BW A440C) on red cells was studied. When added to stored red cells at a concentration of 6 mM, greatly improved preservation of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was observed. There was no effect on internal pH of the erythrocyte. At a concentration 0.500 mM, many red cell enzyme activities were inhibited completely. At a 0.500 mM concentration, however, inhibition of pyruvate kinase and diphosphoglycerate phosphatase was most striking. Inhibition of either of these enzymes could result in elevation of 2,3-DPG levels. BW A440C in concentrations which elevated 2,3-DPG levels in humans caused a decrease in 2,3-DPG levels in rabbits and markedly impaired the viability of 21-day stored rabbit erythrocytes.

  16. New models of Saturn's magnetic field using Pioneer 11 Vector Helium Magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    In a reanalysis of the Vector Helium Magnetometer data taken by Pioneer 11 during its Saturn encounter in 1979, using improvements in the data set and in the procedures, studies are made of a variety of models. The best is the P(11)84 model, an axisymmetric spherical harmonic model of Saturn's magnetic field within 8 Saturn radii of the planet. The appropriately weighted root mean square average of the difference between the observed and the modeled field is 1.13 percent. For the Voyager-based Z3 model of Connerney, Acuna, and Ness, this average difference from the Pioneer 11 data is 1.81 percent. The external source currents in the magnetopause, tail, bow shock, and perhaps ring currents vary with time and can only be crudely modeled. An algebraic formula is derived for calculating the L shells on which energetic charged particles drift in axisymmetric fields.

  17. W. Grey Walter, pioneer in the electroencephalogram, robotics, cybernetics, artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bladin, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    With the announcement by William Lennox at the 1935 London International Neurology Congress of the use of electroencephalography in the study of epilepsy, it became evident that a new and powerful technique for the investigation of seizures had been discovered. William Grey Walter, a young researcher finishing his post-graduate studies at Cambridge, was selected to construct and study the EEG in clinical neurology at the Maudsley Hospital, London. His hugely productive pioneering career in the use of EEG would eventually lead to groundbreaking work in other fields --the emerging sciences of robotics, cybernetics, and early work in artificial intelligence. In this historical note his pioneering work in the fields of clinical neurophysiology is documented, both in the areas of epileptology and tumour detection. His landmark contributions to clinical neurophysiology are worthy of documentation.

  18. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the magnetic field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in support of the Pioneer missions to Jupiter (10,11), and Saturn (11) as well as the reduction, analysis and interpretation of magnetic field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is summarized. Initial efforts concentrated primarily on the interplanetary data, and those aspcts of the data of relevance to obtaining a better understanding of the interaction of the magnetized solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field. After encounters of Jupiter and Saturn, the emphasis of research was directed primarily to an analysis of the planetary data. In particular, it soon became clear that there was a need for modelling of the various candidate magnetospheric currents suggested by the data. Results not published as yet, are also summarized.

  19. Stream interfaces and energetic ions II: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George L.; Wibberenz, Gerd; Kunow, Horst; Gosling, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic and solar wind particles taken near 5 AU between 20 and 30 degrees south latitude during a well-developed recurring corotating interaction region (CIR) show that the CIR's corotating energetic ion population (CEIP) associated with the trailing reverse shock starts within the CIR at the stream interface. This is consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11 in the ecliptic plane between 4 and 6 AU. The Ulysses/Pioneer finding is noteworthy since the stream interface is not magnetically connected to the reverse shock, but lies 12-17 corotation hours from it. Thus, the finding seems to be inconsistent with the basic model that generates CEIP particles at the reverse shock and propagates them along field lines. Eliminating the inconsistency probably entails an extension of the standard model such as cross-field diffusion or a non-shock energization process operating near the stream interface closer to the sun.

  20. Dr. William Theodore Hodge: pioneer surgeon-apothecary in early-twentieth-century Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Max

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 I chanced upon the lonely grave of Dr. William Theodore Hodge, buried in 1934, in the Derby Pioneer and Aboriginal Cemetery. He turned out to be the founding doctor of the practice in which I have worked for the past thirty years. Dr. Hodge migrated from England in 1896. He was the first western trained doctor to work in the Perth suburb of Claremont and in the wheat-belt town of Kellerberrin. He was an innovative and inventive modern doctor who became a legend in the Kimberley where he died tragically, on the day prior to his retirement, at the age of seventy-five. His story is illustrative of the life and medical practice of a pioneering doctor in metropolitan, rural, and remote practice in Western Australia at the end of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth centuries.

  1. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 9: Attitude control/mechanisms subsystems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus mission study was conducted for a probe spacecraft and an orbiter spacecraft to be launched by either a Thor/Delta or an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. Both spacecraft are spin stabilized. The spin speed is controlled by ground commands to as low as 5 rpm for science instrument scanning on the orbiter and as high as 71 rpm for small probes released from the probe bus. A major objective in the design of the attitude control and mechanism subsystem (ACMS) was to provide, in the interest of costs, maximum commonality of the elements between the probe bus and orbiter spacecraft configurations. This design study was made considering the use of either launch vehicle. The basic functional requirements of the ACMS are derived from spin axis pointing and spin speed control requirements implicit in the acquisition, cruise, encounter and orbital phases of the Pioneer Venus missions.

  2. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies.

  3. Preliminary pioneer 10 encounter results from the ames research center plasma analyzer experiment.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J H; Collard, H R; Mihalov, J D; Intriligator, D S

    1974-01-25

    Preliminary results from the Ames Research Center plasma analyzer experiment for the Pioneer 10 Jupiter encounter indicate that Jupiter has a detached bow shock and magnetopause similar to the case at Earth but much larger in spatial extent. In contrast to Earth, Jupiter's outer magnetosphere appears to be highly inflated by thermal plasma and therefore highly responsive in size to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure.

  4. Science aspects of a 1980 flyby of Comet Encke with a Pioneer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Elachi, C.; Giffin, C. E.; Huntress, W.; Newburn, R. L.; Parker, R. H.; Taylor, F. W.; Thorpe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the feasibility of a 1980 flyby of Comet Encke using a Pioneer class spacecraft. Specific areas studied include: science objectives and rationale; science observables; effects of encounter velocity; science encounter and targeting requirements; selection and description of science instruments; definition of a candidate science payload; engineering characteristics of suggested payload; value of a separable probe; science instruments for a separable probe; science payload integration problems; and science operations profile.

  5. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  6. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 3: Systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The mission, systems, operations, ground systems, and reliability analysis of the Thor/Delta baseline design used for the Pioneer Space Probe are discussed. Tradeoff decisions concerning spin axis orientation, bus antenna design, communication system design, probe descent, and reduced science payload are analyzed. The reliability analysis is made for the probe bus mission, large probe mission, and small probe mission. Detailed mission sequences were established to identify critical areas and provide phasing of critical operation.

  7. Detecting the Influence of Initial Pioneers on Succession at Deep-Sea Vents

    PubMed Central

    Mullineaux, Lauren S.; Le Bris, Nadine; Mills, Susan W.; Henri, Pauline; Bayer, Skylar R.; Secrist, Richard G.; Siu, Nam

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are subject to major disturbances that alter the physical and chemical environment and eradicate the resident faunal communities. Vent fields are isolated by uninhabitable deep seafloor, so recolonization via dispersal of planktonic larvae is critical for persistence of populations. We monitored colonization near 9°50′N on the East Pacific Rise following a catastrophic eruption in order to address questions of the relative contributions of pioneer colonists and environmental change to variation in species composition, and the role of pioneers at the disturbed site in altering community structure elsewhere in the region. Pioneer colonists included two gastropod species: Ctenopelta porifera, which was new to the vent field, and Lepetodrilus tevnianus, which had been rare before the eruption but persisted in high abundance afterward, delaying and possibly out-competing the ubiquitous pre-eruption congener L. elevatus. A decrease in abundance of C. porifera over time, and the arrival of later species, corresponded to a decrease in vent fluid flow and in the sulfide to temperature ratio. For some species these successional changes were likely due to habitat requirements, but other species persisted (L. tevnianus) or arrived (L. elevatus) in patterns unrelated to their habitat preferences. After two years, disturbed communities had started to resemble pre-eruption ones, but were lower in diversity. When compared to a prior (1991) eruption, the succession of foundation species (tubeworms and mussels) appeared to be delayed, even though habitat chemistry became similar to the pre-eruption state more quickly. Surprisingly, a nearby community that had not been disturbed by the eruption was invaded by the pioneers, possibly after they became established in the disturbed vents. These results indicate that the post-eruption arrival of species from remote locales had a strong and persistent effect on communities at both disturbed and undisturbed

  8. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 5: Probe vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, L. J.; Stephenson, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A summary of the key issues and studies conducted for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft and the resulting probe designs are presented. The key deceleration module issues are aerodynamic configuration and heat shield material selection. The design and development of the pressure vessel module are explained. Thermal control and science integration of the pressure vessel module are explained. The deceleration module heat shield, parachute and separation/despin are reported. The Thor/Delta and Atlas/Centaur baseline descriptions are provided.

  9. Turhan Baytop (1920-2002): A pioneer historian of pharmacy from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, Halil

    2017-11-01

    Turhan Baytop, a Turkish professor of pharmacognosy (the scientific study of crude drugs of animal, vegetable, and mineral origin), received international acclaim not only for his contributions in collecting and identifying the Anatolian plants, but also for his extensive research shedding light on the history of Turkish pharmacy. As a devoted researcher, collector, and lecturer, T Baytop was a genuine pioneer of the history of pharmacy as a discipline in Turkey.

  10. Pioneers Past and Present: Curriculum Insights from Stories that Link through Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Gail M.

    2005-01-01

    Stories that were written by my grandfather at the turn of the 20th century spiraled into my daily life as a nurse-teacher at the turn of the 21st century. In this paper, I explore a common plotline of my Afi (Islandic for grandfather) and me as pioneers by linking his life stories to the tensions I experience in my contemporary professional…

  11. Pioneer 10/11 data analysis of the trapped radiation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.

    1982-01-01

    The data handling operations and the database produced by the Trapped Radiation Experiment on the NASA Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft are outlined. In situ measurements of trapped radiation at both Jupiter and Saturn, the extension of cosmic ray observations to the outer heliosphere, the presence of Jovian electrons in interplanetary space, analyses of the interaction between planetary satellites and the trapped radiation that engulfs them, and further investigations of the radiation enviroments of both planets are reported.

  12. A history of pediatric anesthesia: a tale of pioneers and equipment.

    PubMed

    Mai, Christine L; Coté, Charles J

    2012-06-01

    The history of pediatric anesthesia is fascinating in terms of how inventive anesthesiologists became over time to address the needs for advances in surgery. We have many pioneers and heroes. We hope you will enjoy this brief overview and that we have not left out any of the early contributors to our speciality. Obviously there is insufficient space to include everyone. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

  14. Social insect histology from the nineteenth century: the magnificent pioneer sections of Charles Janet.

    PubMed

    Billen, Johan; Wilson, Edward O

    2008-05-01

    Charles Janet (1849-1932) was the leading pioneer in the histological description of the internal anatomy of social insects, in particular of ants and wasps. Because many of the original Janet sections still exist, this article is able to illustrate the amazing skills through some selected pictures taken from this more than a century old material, and thus to pay tribute to this French founder of insect morphology.

  15. Comment on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter event of February 11, 1982 - Of cometary or solar origin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The evidence presented by Russell et al. (1985) for the cometary origin of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter event of Febr. 11, 1982, is examined critically. It is argued that the field fluctuations and He enhancements seen at Venus and near earth, the sequence of the events, and a number of related observations all indicate that the event is of solar origin. These objections are discussed individually in a reply by Russell et al., and the claim of cometary origin is defended.

  16. Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962): A pioneer in human brain tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2018-05-16

    The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. Research with the developmental biologist Theodor Boveri (1862-1915) in Würzburg, Germany, resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Hogue transitioned from studying protozoa to the culture of human brain tissue in the 1940s and 1950s, when she was one of the first to culture cells from human fetal, infant, and adult brain explants. We review Hogue's pioneering contributions to the study of human brain cells in culture, her putative identification of progenitor neuroblast and/or glioblast cells, and her use of the cultures to study the cytopathogenic effects of poliovirus. We also put Hogue's work in perspective by discussing how other women pioneers in tissue culture influenced Hogue and her research.

  17. Exploration of pioneering as a major element of ethical leadership in nursing: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2017-01-01

    Background Commitment to ethical behavior is considered as an essential part of occupational responsibilities of nursing, and leaders’ pioneering in ethical growth and development has led to the emergence of the concept of ethical leadership. Objective The purpose of this study was to explain the nursing leaders’ perception and experiences of pioneering in the field of ethical leadership. Methods In this qualitative study, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews. A total of 14 nursing leaders at different levels who were selected by purposeful sampling method participated in the study. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Of 14 participants of the study, 8 were male and 6 were female aged 38 to 56 years old with a mean managerial experience of 12 years. In the analysis of interviews, 4 subcategories of “Role Modeling”, “Empowerment”, “Knowledge and Skill”, and “Recognition” were obtained which formed two main categories. These categories included “Leader as mentor” and “Professional insight”. Conclusion Pioneering leaders are an important part of ethical leadership, and nursing leaders should not only be moral people, but also go a step further and actively promote moral behavior with a role as a mentor and model as well as having professional insight. Nursing leaders with a better understanding of these aspects can develop their capacity of strong ethical leadership and consider the aspects in their activities. PMID:28894529

  18. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  19. PIONEERS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Lamborn, Doug [R-CO-5

    2011-11-14

    House - 01/03/2013 Laid on the table. (All Actions) Notes: The House passed H.R.3408, amended, on February 16, 2012, but held the bill at the desk. It was not engrossed and not sent to the Senate. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Magnetic Anomalies Associated With Fracture Zones in the Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Zone in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, T.

    2003-12-01

    The existence of magnetic anomalies along east-west trending fracture zones in the north Pacific is well known. These anomalies are particularly prominent in the Cretaceous magnetic quiet zone, where no comparable anomalies are observed other than those associated with the Hawaiian Ridge and the Musician Seamounts in a newly compiled magnetic anomaly map. Model calculation was conducted using old magnetic and bathymetric data collected in the Cretaceous magnetic quiet zone. Two-dimensional simple models along north-south lines, which cross the Mendocino, Pioneer, Murray, Molokai and Clarion Fracture Zones, were constructed in order to clarify the sources of these magnetic anomalies. In these model calculations, it was assumed that the source bodies have normal remanent magnetizations with their inclinations of about 5 (for Mendocino FZ) to -25 degrees (for Clarion FZ), corresponding to the latitudes 40 degrees south of the present locations, as was suggested to have been in the late Cretaceous by some of paleomagnetic studies. This assumption is consistent with the dominance of negative anomalies in the observation. The model calculations suggest that under assumption of 0.5 km thick magnetic source bodies, remanent magnetizations more than 10 A/m should occur below some of the ridges and troughs in these fractures zones. Alternatively, in more plausible models with a remanent magnetization of 3 A/m, the magnetic source bodies should have thicknesses of up to about 5 km there.

  1. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  2. Architecture of orogenic belts and convergent zones in Western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    Linear mountain belts in Ishtar Terra were recognized from Pioneer-Venus topography, and later Arecibo images showed banded terrain interpreted to represent folds. Subsequent analyses showed that the mountains represented orogenic belts, and that each had somewhat different features and characteristics. Orogenic belts are regions of focused shortening and compressional deformation and thus provide evidence for the nature of such deformation, processes of crustal thickening (brittle, ductile), and processes of crustal loss. Such information is important in understanding the nature of convergent zones on Venus (underthrusting, imbrication, subduction), the implications for rates of crustal recycling, and the nature of environments of melting and petrogenesis. The basic elements of four convergent zones and orogenic belts in western Ishtar Terra are identified and examined, and then assess the architecture of these zones (the manner in which the elements are arrayed), and their relationships. The basic nomenclature of the convergent zones is shown.

  3. In vitro and in vivo comparison of binding of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Oriuchi, N; Sugiyama, S; Kuroki, M; Matsuoka, Y; Tanada, S; Murata, H; Inoue, T; Sasaki, Y

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for radio-immunodetection (RAID) of murine anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (MAb) F33-104 labeled with technetium-99m (99m-Tc) by a reduction-mediated labeling method. The binding capacity of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with CEA by means of in vitro procedures such as immunoradiometric assay and cell binding assay and the biodistribution of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 in normal nude mice and nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma LS180 tumor were investigated and compared with 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26. The in vitro binding rate of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with CEA in solution and attached to the cell membrane was significantly higher than 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/261 (31.4 +/- 0.95% vs. 11.9 +/- 0.55% at 100 ng/mL of soluble CEA, 83.5 +/- 2.84% vs. 54.0 +/- 2.54% at 10(7) of LS 180 cells). In vivo, accumulation of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 was higher at 18 h postinjection than 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26 (20.1 +/- 3.50% ID/g vs. 14.4 +/- 3.30% ID/g). 99m-Tc-activity in the kidneys of nude mice bearing tumor was higher at 18 h postinjection than at 3 h (12.8 +/- 2.10% ID/g vs. 8.01 +/- 2.40% ID/g of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104, 10.7 +/- 1.70% ID/g vs. 8.10 +/- 1.75% ID/g of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26). 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 is a potential novel agent for RAID of recurrent colorectal cancer.

  4. LipidPioneer: A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g. serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template, and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data. PMID:28074328

  5. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  6. Pioneers and laggards - is the effect of gender equality on health dependent on context?

    PubMed

    Backhans, Mona Christina; Burström, Bo; Lindholm, Lars; Månsdotter, Anna

    2009-04-01

    This study combines data at individual and area level to examine interactions between equality within couples and gender equality in the municipality in which individuals live. The research question is whether the context impacts on the association between gender equality and health. The material consists of data on 37,423 men and 37,616 women in 279 Swedish municipalities, who had their first child in 1978. The couples were classified according to indicators of their level of gender equality in 1980 in the public sphere (occupation and income) and private sphere (child care leave and parental leave) compared to that of their municipality. The health outcome is compensated days from sickness insurance during 1986-1999 with a cut-off at the 85% percentile. Data were analysed using logistic regression with the overall odds as reference. The results concerning gender equality in the private sphere show that among fathers, those who are equal in an equal municipality have lower levels of sick leave than the average while laggards (less equal than their municipality) and modest laggards have higher levels. In the public sphere, pioneers (more equal t han their municipality) fare better than the average while laggards fare worse. For mothers, those who are traditional in their roles in the public sphere are protected from high levels of sick leave, while the reverse is true for those who are equal. Traditional mothers in a traditional municipality have the lowest level of sick leave and pioneers the highest. These results show that there are distinct benefits as well as disadvantages to being a gender pioneer and/or a laggard in comparison to your municipality. The associations are markedly different for men and women.

  7. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  8. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  9. Work zone safety analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  10. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  11. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  12. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  13. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-01-01

    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  14. Pioneer 10 observations of zodiacal light brightness near the ecliptic - Changes with heliocentric distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Beeson, D. E.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.

  15. Gravitational parameters of the Jupiter system from the Doppler tracking of Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Wong, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of Doppler data from Pioneer 10 during its encounter with Jupiter indicate that the mass of Io is about 20% greater than previously thought and that Io's mean density is about 3.5 grams per cubic centimeter. A determination of the dynamical flattening of Jupiter (a - b)/a (where a is the semimajor axis and b is the semiminor axis) is found to lie in the neighborhood of 0.065, which agrees with the value determined from satellite perturbations.

  16. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  17. Ion measurements during Pioneer Venus reentry: Implications for solar cycle variation of ion composition and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Hartle, R. E.; Kar, J.; Cloutier, P. A.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    During the final, low solar activity phase of the Pioneer Venus (PV) mission, the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer (OIMS) measurements found all ion species, in the midnight-dusk sector, reduced in concentration relative to that observed at solar maximum. Molecular ion species comprised a greater part of the total ion concentration as O(+) and H(+) had the greatest depletions. The nightside ionospheric states were strikingly similar to the isolated solar maximum 'disappearing' ionospheres. Both are very dynamic states characterized by a rapidly drifting plasma and 30-100 eV superthermal O(+) ions.

  18. The emergence of pioneering public health education programs in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the social forces leading to the establishment of pioneering public health education programs in the United States. Schools of Public Health emerged in the United States as the result of a confluence of factors, including the changing nature of higher education, the development of commerce and industry, the rise to prominence of the science of bacteriology, and the urbanization of the nation, all coupled with a pervasive spirit of utility and a desire to be, in a word, useful. Each line leading to the establishment of five public health institutions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard-M.I.T., Yale, Michigan, and Pennsylvania is explored. PMID:3071923

  19. [Eugenio Espejo, the Quito physician: pioneer of bacteriology in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Fierro Benítez, Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Eugenio Espejo (1747-1795). Mestizo. Was born in the Royal Audience of Quito. Today, the Republic of Ecuador. The 18th century was isf illustration and enlightment for the Quiteños. Espejo's extraordinary erudition is explained by the full access he had to yhe libraries created in Quito by the Jesuits. The best in the continent at that time. His work, Reflections on Smallpox, makes or Espejo outstanding in his field. Pioneer in bacteriology and of the biopathological observations in America. The first newspaper in Quito, Primicies of the culture of Quito, was his own work. Furthermore, Espejo is considered the precursor of the independence of Hispanoamerica.

  20. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  1. Adrian Grant's pioneering use of evidence synthesis in perinatal medicine, 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Iain

    2018-05-15

    Systematic reviews of existing research are needed to help reduce the enormous amount of wasted resources in biomedical research. Whether already available or needed but unavailable, systematic reviews are a key element in prioritising questions for new research, and for informing the design of additional studies. One of the most important of Adrian Grant's many contributions was to recognise this a decade before it began to become more widely accepted. In this sphere, as well as in many others, he was a real pioneer.

  2. Zodiacal light and the asteroid belt - The view from Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Deshields, L. M., II; Green, B. A.; Toller, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Brightnesses measured by the Pioneer 10 imaging photopolarimeter in two regions of sky were compared on sky maps at sun-spacecraft distances from 2.4 to 4.8 AU to determine the spatial extent of the zodiacal light. Data in the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 deg show negligible contribution to the zodiacal light beyond 3.3 AU, the 2:1 Jupiter resonance. The zodiacal light brightness at 2.4 AU is less than 10% of that observed at 1 AU.

  3. Effects of contrasting wave conditions on scour and drag on pioneer tidal marsh plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silinski, Alexandra; Heuner, Maike; Troch, Peter; Puijalon, Sara; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Schoelynck, Jonas; Schröder, Uwe; Fuchs, Elmar; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-02-01

    Tidal marshes are increasingly valued for protecting shorelines against wave impact, but waves in turn may limit the initial establishment of tidal marsh pioneer plants. In estuaries, the shorelines typically experience a wide range of wave periods, varying from short period wind waves (usually of around 1-2 s in fair weather conditions) to long ship-generated waves, with secondary waves in the order of 2-7 s and primary waves with periods that can exceed 1 min. Waves are known to create sediment scour around, as well as to exert drag forces on obstacles such as seedlings and adults of establishing pioneer plant species. In intertidal systems, these two mechanisms have been identified as main causes for limiting potential colonization of bare tidal flats. In this paper, we want to assess to which extent common quantitative formulae for predicting local scour and drag forces on rigid cylindrical obstacles are valid for the estimation of scour and drag on slightly flexible plants with contrasting morphology, and hence applicable to predict plant establishment and survival under contrasting wave conditions. This has been tested in a full-scale wave flume experiment on two pioneer species (Scirpus maritimus and Scirpus tabernaemontani) and two life stages (seedlings and adults of S. maritimus) as well as on cylindrical reference sticks, which we have put under a range of wave periods (2-10 s), intended to mimic natural wind waves (short period waves) and ship-induced waves (artificial long period waves), at three water levels (5, 20, 35 cm). Our findings suggest that at very shallow water depths (5 cm) particular hydrodynamic conditions are created that lead to drag and scour that deviate from predictions. For higher water levels (20, 35 cm) scour can be well predicted for all wave conditions by an established formula for wave-induced scour around rigid cylinders. Drag forces can be relatively well predicted after introducing experimentally derived drag coefficients

  4. Robert Mandell: a pioneer and giant in the art and science of contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2008-10-01

    Robert B. Mandell is the quintessential modern clinical scientist. Over his long academic career, he has pioneered many advances in contact lens practice, ranging from a more complete understanding of corneal shape to the effects of contact lenses on corneal health. His classic text, Contact Lens Practice, first published in 1965, was reprinted 14 times in four editions up to 1988. Mandell's contributions to the advancement of the profession of optometry have always been characterized by a genuine concern for the patient and a steadfast belief that his research must have relevance to the practice of optometry.

  5. A portrait of Fielding H Garrison (1870-1935): America's pioneering medical historian.

    PubMed

    Colman, Eric G

    2004-11-01

    Fielding Hudson Garrison once remarked that because his birthday fell on 5 November, Guy Fawkes Day, he was "fated to suffer from in-ward hell-fire and brimstone all [his] life". Though said in jest, Garrison was a vulnerable, melancholic and self-confessed lonely man who found solace in the papers, periodicals and books of the Army Medical Library-today's National Library of Medicine. Over the course of approximately 25 years, and often while working in his spare time, Garrison went from a clerk in the world's largest medical library to America's pioneering and, arguably, most prolific medical historian, past or present.

  6. TNFa/TNFR2 signaling is required for glial ensheathment at the dorsal root entry zone

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cody J.; Bagnat, Michel; Deppmann, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Somatosensory information from the periphery is routed to the spinal cord through centrally-projecting sensory axons that cross into the central nervous system (CNS) via the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ). The glial cells that ensheath these axons ensure rapid propagation of this information. Despite the importance of this glial-axon arrangement, how this afferent nerve is assembled during development is unknown. Using in vivo, time-lapse imaging we show that as centrally-projecting pioneer axons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) enter the spinal cord, they initiate expression of the cytokine TNFalpha. This induction coincides with ensheathment of these axons by associated glia via a TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2)-mediated process. This work identifies a signaling cascade that mediates peripheral glial-axon interactions and it functions to ensure that DRG afferent projections are ensheathed after pioneer axons complete their navigation, which promotes efficient somatosensory neural function. PMID:28379965

  7. Habitable Zone Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, D.; Lota, J.

    2012-12-01

    The location of the habitable zone around a star depends upon stellar luminosity and upon the properties of a potentially habitable planet such as its mass and near-surface volatile inventory. Stellar luminosity generally increases as a star ages whilst planetary properties change through time as a consequence of biological and geological evolution. Hence, the location of the habitable zone changes through time as a result of both stellar evolution and planetary evolution. Using the Earth's Phanerozoic temperature history as a constraint, it is shown that changes in our own habitable zone over the last 540 My have been dominated by planetary evolution rather than solar evolution. Furthermore, sparse data from earlier times suggests that planetary evolution may have dominated habitable zone development throughout our biosphere's history. Hence, the existence of a continuously habitable zone depends upon accidents of complex bio-geochemical evolution more than it does upon relatively simple stellar-evolution. Evolution of the inner margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations. Evolution of the outer margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations.

  8. Optimized tracking of RF carriers with phase noise, including Pioneer 10 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.; Hurd, W. J.; Brown, D. H.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to track very weak signals from distant spacecraft is limited by the phase instabilities of the received signal and of the local oscillator employed by the receiver. These instabilities ultimately limit the minimum loop bandwidth that can be used in a phase-coherent receiver, and hence limit the ratio of received carrier power to noise spectral density which can be tracked phase coherently. A method is presented for near real time estimation of the received carrier phase and additive noise spectrum, and optimization of the phase locked loop bandwidth. The method was used with the breadboard Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver to optimize tracking of very weak signals from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is now more distant that the edge of the solar system. Tracking with bandwidths of 0.1 Hz to 1.0 Hz reduces tracking signal threshold and increases carrier loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) by 5 dB to 15 dB compared to the 3 Hz bandwidth of the receivers now used operationally in the DSN. This will enable the DSN to track Pioneer 10 until its power sources fails near the end of the century.

  9. From chemotherapy to signal therapy (1909-2009): A century pioneered by Paul Ehrlich.

    PubMed

    Maruta, H

    2009-04-01

    Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), a German microbiologist who was awarded a 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine for his pioneer work on the antibody production, pioneered the modern chemotherapy by discovering his magic bullet for syphilis, called "606" or "Salvarsan" in 1909 with a Japanese young scientist, Sahachiro Hata (1873-1938) from "Denken" (Institute for Infectious Diseases, now called IMS for Institute for Medical Sciences) in Tokyo. His magic bullet was used to eradicate syphilis for more than a half century until a more safe and effective antibiotic called "Penicillin" was introduced to this world towards the end of WWII by Howard Florey (1898-1968). Celebrating this year the 100th anniversary of his discovery, this brief review will discuss how Ehrlich, now known as the Father of Chemotherapy, managed to design the first effective therapeutic for this then formidable sexually transmitted disease, which is equivalent to AIDS, HIV-infection, in the present century, and how so many new chemotherapeutics have been successfully developed during the past 100 years for other formidable diseases such as cancers and AIDS by his followers (microbe hunters and oncogene hunters) such as Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Hamao Umezawa (1914-1986) and Brian Druker, culminating in the first signal therapeutics of cancers such as "Gleevec" that block the oncogenic signaling, around the turn of this century.

  10. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist].

    PubMed

    Bergljung, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  11. Stream interfaces and energetic ions 2: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George L.; Wibberez, Gerd; Kunow, Horst; Gosling, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic and solar wind particles taken near 5 AU between 20 and 30 degrees south latitude during a well-developed recurring corotating interaction region (CIR) show that the CIR's corotating energetic ion population (CEIP) associated with the trailing reverse shock starts within the CIR at the stream interface. This is consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11 in the ecliptic plane between 4 and 6 AU. The Ulysses/Pioneer finding noteworthy since the stream interface is not magnetically connected to the reverse shock but lies 12-17 corotation hours from it. Thus, the finding to be inconsistent with the basic model that generates CEIP particles at the reverse shock and propagates them along field lines Eliminating the inconsistency probably entails an extension of the standard model. We consider two possible extensions cross-field diffusion and energetic particles generation closer to the sun in the gap between the stream interface and the reverse shock.

  12. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, Joshua L.

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating tomore » the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.« less

  13. Vertical structure of the ionosphere and upper neutral atmosphere of saturn from the pioneer radio occultation.

    PubMed

    Kliore, A J; Lindal, G F; Patel, I R; Sweetnam, D N; Hotz, H B; McDonough, T R

    1980-01-25

    Radio occultation measurements at S band (2.293 gigahertz) of the ionosphere and upper neutral atmosphere of Saturn were obtained during the flyby of the Pioneer 11 Saturn spacecraft on 5 September 1979. Preliminary analysis of the occultation exit data taken at a latitude of 9.5 degrees S and a solar zenith angle of 90.6 degrees revealed the presence of a rather thin ionosphere, having a main peak electron density of about 9.4 x 10/(3) per cubic centimeter at an altitude of about 2800 above the level of a neutral number density of 10(19) per cubic centimeter and a lower peak of about 7 x 10(3) per cubic centimeter at 2200 kilometers. Data in the neutral atmosphere were obtained to a pressure level of about 120 millibars. The temperature structure derived from these data is consistent with the results of the Pioneer 11 Saturn infrared radiometer experiment (for a helium fraction of 15 percent) and with models derived from Earth-based observations for a helium fraction by number of about 4 to 10 percent. The helium fraction will be further defined by mutual iteration with the infrared radiometer team.

  14. Saturn gravity results obtained from Pioneer 11 tracking data and earth-based Saturn satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Null, G. W.; Lau, E. L.; Biller, E. D.; Anderson, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Improved gravity coefficients for Saturn, its satellites and rings are calculated on the basis of a combination of Pioneer 11 spacecraft Doppler tracking data and earth-based determinations of Saturn natural satellite apse and node rates. Solutions are first obtained separately from the coherent Doppler tracking data obtained for the interval from August 20 to September 4, surrounding the time of closest approach, with the effects of solar plasma on radio signal propagation taken into account, and from secular rates for Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Titan determined from astrometric data by Kozai (1957, 1976) and Garcia (1972). Combination of the data by the use of the Pioneer solution and corresponding unadjusted covariance matrix as a priori information for a secular rate analysis results in values for the total ring mass of essentially zero at a standard error level of 1.7 x 10 to the -6th Saturn masses, a ratio of solar mass to that of the Saturn system of 3498.09 + or - 0.22, masses of Rhea, Titan and Iapetus of 4.0 + or - 0.9, 238.8 + or - 3, and 3.4 + or - 1.3 x 10 to the -6th Saturn masses, respectively, and second and fourth zonal harmonics of 16,479 + or - 18 and -937 + or - 38, respectively. The harmonic coefficients are noted to be important as boundary conditions in the modeling of the Saturn interior.

  15. Pioneering Russian wind tunnels and first experimental investigations, 1871-1915

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbushin, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    A review of foreign and Russian sources is given mentioning the pioneering wind tunnels built in Russia at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. The first wind tunnel in Russia was constructed by V.A. Pashkevich at the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy in St. Petersburg in 1871. In total from 1871 through 1915, 18 wind tunnels were constructed in Russia: 11 in Moscow, 5 in St. Petersburg and 2 in Kaluga. An overview of the pioneering Russian wind tunnels built by V.A. Pashkevich, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, prof. N.E. Zhukovsky, D.P. Ryabushinsky and prof. K.P. Boklevsky is given. Schemes, photographs, formulas, description of the research and test results taken from the original papers published by the wind tunnel designers are given. Photographs from the N.E. Zhukovsky Scientific and Memorial Museum and the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences are used in the article. Methods of flow visualization and results of their application are presented. The Russian scientists and researchers' contribution to the development of techniques and methods of aerodynamic experiment is shown, including one of the most important aspects - the wall interference problem.

  16. Professor Peter Choyce: an early pioneer of intraocular lenses and corneal/refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suresh K; Apple, David J

    2005-06-01

    Professor Peter Choyce, FRCS, DOMS, MS, was one of the pioneers of intraocular lens implant surgery. He developed an interest in artificial lens implantation following cataract surgery, a procedure that was widely criticized by the ophthalmic establishment in the UK, Europe, North America and other countries. Owing to the opposition to the intraocular lenses, Peter Choyce together with Sir Harold Ridley co-founded the International Intraocular Implant Club in 1966, which was responsible for the gradual acceptance of artificial lens implantation. Peter Choyce developed several models of intraocular lens, but did not patent the majority of them. The Choyce Mark IX, manufactured by Rayner Intraocular Lenses, became the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved intraocular lens in 1981. A review of Peter Choyce's record confirms a significant number of original innovations in the field of anterior segment surgery, including many procedures taken for granted today, but not associated with his name. These include early work on both kerato- and intraocular lens-refractive procedures, keratoprosthesis, pioneering paediatric implant procedures and others. Unfortunately his tenacious adherence to anterior chamber lens technology, while in general clinically sound, caused many to question his influence and hence he remained poorly understood even until after his death. He passed away on 8 August 2001 after a long fight with colon cancer. In this article, we provide evidence and elaborate Peter Choyce's accomplishments, which places him as one of the most innovative ophthalmologist in his surgical field in the twentieth century.

  17. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  18. Visualization of soil structure and pore structure modifications by pioneering ground beetles (Cicindelidae) in surface sediments of an artificial catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.; Weller, Ulrich; Vontobel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An artificial catchment was constructed to study initial soil and ecosystem development. As a key process, the pore structure dynamics in the soil at the surface strongly influences erosion, infiltration, matter dynamics, and vegetation establishment. Little is known, however, about the first macropore formation in the very early stage. This presentation focuses on observations of soil pore geometry and its effect on water flow at the surface comparing samples from three sites in the catchment and in an adjacent "younger" site composed of comparable sediments. The surface soil was sampled in cylindrical plastic rings (10 cm³) down to 2 cm depth in three replicates each site and six where caves from pioneering ground-dwelling beetles Cicindelidae were found. The samples were scanned with micro-X-ray computed tomography (at UFZ-Halle, Germany) with a resolution of 0.084 mm. The infiltration dynamics were visualized with neutronradiography (at Paul-Scherer-Institute, Switzerland) on slab-type soil samples in 2D. The micro-tomographies exhibit formation of surface sealing whose thickness and intensity vary with silt and clay content. The CT images show several coarser- and finer-textured micro-layers at the sample surfaces that were formed as a consequence of repeated washing in of finer particles in underlying coarser sediment. In micro-depressions, the uppermost layers consist of sorted fine sand and silt due to wind erosion. Similar as for desert pavements, a vesicular pore structure developed in these sediments on top, but also scattered in fine sand- and silt-enriched micro-layers. The ground-dwelling activity of Cicindelidae beetles greatly modifies the soil structure through forming caves in the first centimetres of the soil. Older collapsed caves, which form isolated pores within mixed zones, were also found. The infiltration rates were severely affected both, by surface crusts and activity of ground-dwelling beetles. The observations demonstrate relatively

  19. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  20. Speeds in school zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  1. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  2. Pioneers and Followers: Migrant Selectivity and the Development of U.S. Migration Streams in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, David P.; Ramírez, Adriana López

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for dividing the historical development of community migration streams into an initial period and a subsequent takeoff stage with the purpose of systemically differentiating pioneer migrants from follower migrants. The analysis is organized around five basic research questions. First, can we empirically identify a juncture in the historical development of community-based migration that marks the transition from an initial stage of low levels of migration and gradual growth into a takeoff stage in which the prevalence of migration grows at a more accelerated rate? Second, does this juncture point exist at roughly similar migration prevalence levels across communities? Third, are first-time migrants in the initial stage (pioneers) different from first-time migrants in the takeoff stage (followers)? Fourth, what is the nature of this migrant selectivity? Finally, does the nature and degree of pioneer selectivity vary across country migration streams? PMID:24489382

  3. Equatorial disc and dawn-dusk currents in the frontside magnetosphere of Jupiter - Pioneer 10 and 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.; Thomas, B. T.; Melville, J. G., II

    1981-01-01

    Observations by Pioneer 10 and 11 show that the strongest azimuthal fields are observed near the dawn meridian (Pioneer 10) while the weakest occur near the noon meridian (Pioneer 11), suggesting a strong local time dependence for the corresponding radial current system. Modeling studies of the radial component of the field observed by both spacecraft suggest that the corresponding azimuthal current system must also be a strong function of local time. Both the azimuthal and the radial field component signatures exhibit sharp dips and reversals, requiring thin radial and azimuthal current systems. There is also a suggestion that these two current systems either are interacting or are due, at least in part, to the same current. It is suggested that a plausible current model consists of the superposition of a thin, local-time-independent azimuthal current system plus the equatorial portion of a tail-like current system that extends into the dayside magnetosphere.

  4. Preliminary results on the plasma environment of saturn from the pioneer 11 plasma analyzer experiment.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J H; Mihalov, J D; Collard, H R; McKibbin, D D; Frank, L A; Intriligator, D S

    1980-01-25

    The Ames Research Center Pioneer 11 plasma analyzer experiment provided measurements of the solar wind interaction with Saturn and the character of the plasma environment within Saturn's magnetosphere. It is shown that Saturn has a detached bow shock wave and magnetopause quite similar to those at Earth and Jupiter. The scale size of the interaction region for Saturn is roughly one-third that at Jupiter, but Saturn's magnetosphere is equally responsive to changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Saturn's outer magnetosphere is inflated, as evidenced by the observation of large fluxes of corotating plasma. It is postulated that Saturn's magnetosphere may undergo a large expansion when the solar wind pressure is greatly diminished by the presence of Jupiter's extended magnetospheric tail when the two planets are approximately aligned along the same solar radial vector.

  5. Pioneer women in veterinary medicine, their history and where they studied.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Howard H

    2012-05-01

    The women described in this paper were the early pioneers in veterinary medicine; they studied in some of the best veterinary colleges in the world at that time. They paved the way for other women who studied veterinary medicine in later years. According to Drum and Whitely,25 by 1936, there were only 30 female veterinarians in the United States; this was an era when admission to veterinary college for women was nearly impossible. In 1963, there were 277 female veterinarians in the United States, but by 1987 women made up 17% of the veterinary profession. The February 15, 2010 issue of the JAVMA reported that male enrollment in U.S. veterinary colleges decreased from 89% for the 1969-70 school year to 22.4% for 2008-09. During the same period female enrollment increased from 11.0% to 77.6%.

  6. Vittorio Marchi, MD (1851-1908): an unsung pioneer of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Talamonti, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Giuseppe; Debernardi, Alberto; Innocenti, Gloria

    2013-11-01

    Vittorio Marchi was an Italian neuroscientist who lived during the second half of the 19th century. He is generally remembered for developing a novel staining method to trace the degeneration of nervous fibers in lesions of the central nervous system. This osmium-based method was used worldwide for approximately a century and continues to be cited in modern textbooks. Despite several important original scientific contributions, Marchi was never awarded a university chair. Discouraged, he left to practice neurology in a rural area but continued to write outstanding articles, and in 1897, he became a pioneer of meningioma surgery. Today, he is remembered only in specialized contexts. We hope this article can provide the recognition that Marchi deserves.

  7. Pioneer Venus 12.5 km Anomaly Workshop Report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, A.; Sromovsky, L.; Borucki, W.; Craig, R.; Juergens, D.; Young, R. E.; Ragent, B.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop was convened at Ames Research Center on September 28 and 29, 1993, to address the unexplained electrical anomalies experienced in December 1978 by the four Pioneer Venus probes below a Venus altitude of 12.5 km. These anomalies caused the loss of valuable data in the deep atmosphere, and, if their cause were to remain unexplained, could reoccur on future Venus missions. The workshop participants reviewed the evidence and studied all identified mechanisms that could consistently account for all observed anomalies. Both hardware problems and atmospheric interactions were considered. Based on a workshop recommendation, subsequent testing identified the cause as being an insulation failure of the external harness. All anomalous events are now explained.

  8. Summary of initial results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The main magnetic field of Jupiter was measured by the Fluxgate Magnetometer on Pioneer 11 and analysis reveals it to be relatively more complex than expected. In a centered spherical harmonic representation with a maximum order of n = 3 (designated GSFC model 04), the dipole term (with opposite polarity to the Earth's) has a moment of 4.28 Gauss x (Jupiter radius cubed), tilted by 9.6 deg towards a system 111 longitude of 232. The quadrupole and octupole moments are significant, 24% and 21% of the dipole moment respectively, and this leads to deviations of the planetary magnetic field from a simple offset tilted dipole for distances smaller than three Jupiter radii. The GSFC model shows a north polar field strength of 14 Gauss and a south polar field strength of 10.4 Gauss. Enhanced absorption effects in the radiation belts may be predicted as a result of field distortion.

  9. Bennett ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Brinton, H. C.; Wagner, T. C. G.; Blackwell, B. H.; Cordier, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Identical Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometer instruments on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter have provided the first in-situ measurements of the detailed composition of the planet's ionosphere. The sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range are sufficient to provide measurements of the solar-wind-induced bow-shock, the ionopause, and highly structured distributions of up to 16 thermal ion species within the ionosphere. The use of adaptive scan and detection circuits and servo-controlled logic for ion mass and energy analysis permits detection of ion concentrations as low as 5 ions/cu cm and ion flow velocities as large as 9 km/sec for O(+). A variety of commandable modes provides ion sampling rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 sec between measurements of a single constituent. A lightweight sensor and electronics housing are features of a compact instrument package.

  10. John Martin Wood (1938-2008)--pioneering biochemist, educator and communicator.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J; Pittelkow, Mark R; Slominski, Andrzej

    2008-07-01

    John Martin Wood, Emeritus Professor of Medical Biochemistry at the University of Bradford died in Wieck by Greifswald, Germany after a short illness on February 5, 2008 - just short of his 70(th) year. John worked as a pioneering biochemist and educator in the US and in Britain across two research careers. He devoted the first twenty-five years to the role of transition metals in biology, and his last twenty-years to cutaneous enzymology and melanogenesis. Working together with his wife Professor Karin U. Schallreuter, his research on oxidative stress handling in skin and on the expression of a cutaneous catecholaminergic system will help direct research in these fields for many years to come. John impressed on his fellow cutaneous researchers and students the critical importance of appreciating the true role of enzymes in skin health and disease. This obituary aims to contextualize the significant contributions made by this remarkable man to experimental dermatology.

  11. The polar ionosphere of venus near the terminator from early pioneer venus orbiter radio occultations.

    PubMed

    Kliore, A J; Woo, R; Armstrong, J W; Patel, I R; Croft, T A

    1979-02-23

    Fourteen profiles of electron density in the ionosphere of Venus were obtainecd by the dual-frequency radio occulation method with the Pioneer Venus orbiter between 5 and 30 December 1978. The solar zenith angles for these measurements were between about 85 degrees and 92 degrees , and the latitudes ranged from about 81 degrees to 88 degrees (ecliptic north). In addition to the expected decreasein peak electron density from about 1.5 x 10(3) to 0.5 x 10(3) per cubic centimeter with increasing solar zenith angle, a region of almost constant electron density above about 250 kilometers was observed. The ionopause height varies from about 300 to 700 kilometers and seems to be influenced by diurnal changes in solar wind conditions. The structures of the profiles are consistent with models in which O(2)(+) dominates near the ionization peak and is replaced by O(+) at higher altitudes.

  12. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 10: Propulsion/orbit insertion subsystem studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenstein, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus orbiter and multiprobe missions require spacecraft maneuvers for successful accomplishment. This report presents the results of studies performed to define the propulsion subsystems required to perform those maneuvers. Primary goals were to define low mass subsystems capable of performing the required missions with a high degree of reliability for low cost. A review was performed of all applicable propellants and thruster types, as well as propellant management techniques. Based on this review, a liquid monopropellant hydrazine propulsion subsystem was selected for all multiprobe mission maneuvers, and for all orbiter mission maneuvers except orbit insertion. A pressure blowdown operating mode was selected using helium as the pressurizing gas. The forces associated with spacecraft rotations were used to control the liquid-gas interface and resulting propellant orientation within the tank.

  13. Pioneer women in engineering studies: what can we learn from their experiences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, P.; Calvet, M. D.; Pons, O.; Martinez, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    Women's access to higher education in Spain began in the last third of the nineteenth century. However, the full incorporation of women into technical studies did not occur until a century later. This article presents the results of research into the access of the first women to do technical studies in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Data have been collected from 11 technical schools belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) with the aim of understanding the dynamics of the incorporation of women into these schools between 1851 (foundation of the first engineering school in Catalonia) and 1980. Interviews were conducted with 21 pioneer women who completed their technical studies. Their experiences show how technical schools had to adapt, both physically and culturally, to female students. Finally, the current status of female engineers in Catalonia is compared with the situation in other Western countries. Similarities are found that show the relevance of gender as a social structuring force.

  14. Jean Marian Purdy remembered - the hidden life of an IVF pioneer.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Roger

    2018-06-01

    Jean Purdy is almost forgotten as one of the British trio that introduced clinical IVF to the world. An unlikely pioneer, she qualified as a nurse but through indefatigable effort and unstinting loyalty to a programme that faced vitriolic opposition she became the clinical embryologist for the first IVF baby. In 1980, she helped to launch fertility services as the 'Technical Director' of Bourn Hall Clinic, near Cambridge. Although Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe generously credited her role in research and clinical care, a premature death in 1985 at age 39 robbed her of the reward of witnessing the blossoming of assisted reproductive technologies for patients around the world. This commentary seeks to recognize her contribution and bring her name to the attention of professionals in reproductive medicine and the patients they care for.

  15. On Lok: a pioneering long-term care organization for the elderly (1971-2008).

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    On Lok is a pioneering nonprofit organization that has delivered services to the frail and elderly since its founding in 1971. The agency began as a grassroots effort focused on improving the health care available to older adults living independently in the community. Over its 40-year history, On Lok has evolved into a $70 million nonprofit human service organization with a national reputation for innovation as a leading provider of care to frail elderly. The agency has developed its own model of care that has been replicated in cities around the country. The history of On Lok represents the important impact that donor and community support plays in an organization's long-term success.

  16. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008).

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  17. Effects of turbulence in the atmosphere of Venus on Pioneer Venus radio, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Kendall, W.; Ishimaru, A.; Berwin, R.

    1973-01-01

    The prediction of the turbulence effects in the Venus atmosphere on Pioneer Venus radio was investigated. A careful investigation based on a theoretical and experimental study of the power spectrum of the Mariner 5 amplitude fluctuations is carried out and the results contribute considerably to our scientific knowledge of turbulence in the atmosphere of Venus. Fully developed turbulence is seen to exist predominantly in the altitude range of 41 - 49 km. This result is consistent with the high wind shear and wind velocities observed by Venera 4 for altitudes higher than 40 km. The outer scale size of turbulence is on the order of 100 m, the structure constant for the dayside atmosphere 3.9 x 10 to the -7 power m to the -1/3rd power, and that for the nightside atmosphere 2.9 x 10 to the -7 power m to the -1/3rd power.

  18. The structure of the inner heliosphere from Pioneer Venus and IMP observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The IMP 8 and Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) spacecraft explore the region of heliographic latitudes between 8 deg N and 8 deg S. Solar wind observations from these spacecraft are used to construct synoptic maps of solar wind parameters in this region. These maps provide an explicit picture of the structure of high speed streams near 1 AU and how that structure varies with time. From 1982 until early 1985, solar wind parameters varied little with latitude. During the last solar minimum, the solar wind developed strong latitudinal structure; high speed streams were excluded from the vicinity of the solar equator. Synoptic maps of solar wind speed are compared with maps of the coronal source surface magnetic field. This comparison reveals the expected correlation between solar wind speed near 1 AU, the strength of the coronal magnetic field, and distance from the coronal neutral line.

  19. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter: 11 years of data. A laboratory for atmospheres seminar talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter has been in operation since orbit insertion on December 4, 1978. For the past 11 years, it has been acquiring data in the salient features of the planet, its atmosphere, ionosphere, and interaction with the solar wind. A few of the results of this mission are summarized and their contribution to our general understanding of the planet Venus is discussed. Although Earth and Venus are often called twin planets, they are only superficially similar. Possessing no obvious evidence of plate tectonics, lacking water and an intrinsic magnetic field, and having a hot, dense carbon dioxide atmosphere with sulfuric acid clouds makes Venus a unique object of study by the Orbiter's instruments.

  20. Venus in motion: An animated video catalog of Pioneer Venus Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1992-01-01

    Images of Venus acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter (OCPP) during the 1982 opportunity have been utilized to create a short video summary of the data. The raw roll by roll images were first navigated using the spacecraft attitude and orbit information along with the CPP instrument pointing information. The limb darkening introduced by the variation of solar illumination geometry and the viewing angle was then modelled and removed. The images were then projected to simulate a view obtained from a fixed perspective with the observer at 10 Venus radii away and located above a Venus latitude of 30 degrees south and a longitude 60 degrees west. A total of 156 images from the 1982 opportunity have been animated at different dwell rates.

  1. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 12: International cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A spectrum of plans has been prepared to illustrate the range of practical sharing possibilities available so as to assist Ames Research Center (ARC) and European Space Research Organization (ESRO) in selection of a program meeting mutual goals. Five plans are described showing increased participation by ESRO WITH ascending plan number. Each of these has sharing properties fulfilling particular requirements such as available ESRO budget level, extent of ESRO program responsibility, matching particular ESRO capability, and cost saving to ARC through sharing. All plans apply to orbiter sharing only. A sharing plan based on the model Plan 4 may offer the most attractive division of Pioneer Venus between ARC and ESRO. This plan allows ESRO to bear primary responsibility for the orbiter and to avoid an extensive financial burden. Savings to ARC are commensurate with ARC loss of program control. Duplication of effort is avoided by using orbiter subsystems that are common to the probe bus and orbiter.

  2. Stem cell research and therapy in the Islamic republic of Iran: pioneering in the Islamic world.

    PubMed

    Miremadi, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Aghdami, Nasser; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Vasei, Mohammad; Kouhkan, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Iranian stem cell research and technology had a relatively strong start that benefited from religious blessings, political and public support, as well as scientific endeavors on the part of non-governmental and public research organizations and universities. Later on, it developed a dynamic niche market of public, private start-up, and spin-off companies and organizations that pioneered in the Islamic world in terms of ISI papers, clinical trials, and cell therapy. However, at present, it faces new challenges stemming from the insufficient finance and a comprehensive law and regulation structure to keep its momentum. To remedy this situation, the scientific community and other stakeholders need to have a series of shared long-time goals and try to build consensus on how to achieve them through nationally approved policy documents.

  3. Professor Monastyrski N.D. (1847–1888): One of the Forgotten Pioneers of Biliary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gachabayov, Mahir; Kubachev, Kubach

    2017-01-01

    Today, the ingenious and untimely deceased surgeon Monastyrski’s name is almost lost in the history of medicine and means little, if anything, to young surgeons. Monastyrski Nestor Dmitrievich was born in 1847 in Czerniowce and graduated from the medical faculty of the University of Vienna. Deeply inspired by the stars of European medicine and surgery: Billroth, Kaposi, Mikulicz, he became a brilliant surgeon and teacher. Monastyrski performed the first gastroenterostomy in Russia and was one of the pioneers of the aseptic method in Russia. In May 1887 he performed the historical first cholecystojejunostomy in the world. In 1888, exhausted by a tumor of the right kidney, Monastyrski insisted on surgery which resulted in his death several hours later. The department of surgery which was founded by Monastyrski N.D. in the Clinical Institute of Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (today – North-Western State Medical Academy named after I.I. Mechnikov) was named after him. PMID:28373287

  4. Study to adapt solar electric propulsion to the Pioneer F and G spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The addition of an electric thrust subsystem to the spin-stabilized Pioneer F and G spacecraft to improve performance capability for certain missions is discussed. The evaluation was performed for the Atlas and Titan launch vehicles with Centaur and TE-364-4 stages and for electric thrust stages of 8- and 5-kw with three 30- and five 15-cm thrusters respectively. The combination of a spinning spacecraft with electric propulsion is a concept only recently evaluated and the penalty from spinning over three-axis stabilized is not as significant as might initally be thought. There are major gains in weight, cost, and reliability, the disadvantages being lower data rate during the thrust phase and less efficient pointing. A variety of missions were evaluated from a solar approach mission into 0.14 AU to a flyby mission of Neptune at approximately 30 AU. Performance improvements were present for all missions evaluated.

  5. Women in Prosthodontics: A Brief Look at Pioneers, Leaders, and Inspirers.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Fatemeh S; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2017-07-01

    There are several women pioneers in prosthodontics, and each deserves recognition and admiration for all she has achieved in helping bridge the gender gap in dentistry. Women have come a long way from being first depicted as a thieving woman assistant in early 1523 to becoming award-winning, Board-certified clinicians, program directors, department chairs, and deans of dental schools. However, current female resident membership in the American College of Prosthodontists is less than 40%. Women in leadership roles are still scarce, and advancement is still needed. This article provides a brief summary of the history of prosthodontics, highlighting prominent women prosthodontists and their stories, while providing inspiration for future prosthodontists, men as well as women. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Study of the effects of condensation on the performance of Pioneer Venus probe windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testerman, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The transmission loss of Pioneer Venus Probe radiation windows if their exposed surfaces become contaminated with droplets of water, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and mercury which may be found in the Venusian atmosphere was investigated. Transmission loss was studied as a function of mass concentration of liquid droplets deposited on one surface of test window materials while the wavelength of the transmitting radiation is in the range of 0.3 to 30 microns. The parameters that affect the transmittance of radiation through a window are: (1) particle size, (2) surface concentration of particles, (3) wavelength of the radiation, (4) angle of acceptance of the radiation by the detector, and (5) the refractive index of the aerosol.

  8. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum - Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in solar wind speed and magnetic polarity observed at the Pioneer spacecraft are discussed here in terms of the changing magnetic geometry implied by SMM coronagraph observations over the period 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations during this epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet, and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum.

  9. PIONEER VENUS 2 MULTI-PROBE PARACHUTE TESTS IN THE VAB SHOWS OPEN PARACHUTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A parachute system, designed to carry an instrument-laden probe down through the dense atmosphere of torrid, cloud-shrouded Venus, was tested in KSC's Vehicle Assembly Building. The tests are in preparation for a Pioneer multi-probe mission to Venus scheduled for launch from KSC in 1978. Full-scale (12-foot diameter) parachutes with simulated pressure vessels weighing up to 45 pounds were dropped from heights of up to 450 feet tot he floor of the VAB where the impact was cushioned by a honeycomb cardboard impact arrestor. The VAB offers an ideal, wind-free testing facility at no additional construction cost and was used for similar tests of the parachute system for the twin Viking spacecraft scheduled for launch toward Mars in August.

  10. PIONEER VENUS 2 MULTI-PROBE PARACHUTE TESTS IN VAB WITH PARACHUTE HOISTED HIGH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A parachute system, designed to carry an instrument-laden probe down through the dense atmosphere of torrid, cloud-shrouded Venus, was tested in KSC's Vehicle Assembly Building. The tests are in preparation for a Pioneer multi-probe mission to Venus scheduled for launch from KSC in 1978. Full-scale (12-foot diameter) parachutes with simulated pressure vessels weighing up to 45 pounds were dropped from heights of up to 450 feet tot he floor of the VAB where the impact was cushioned by a honeycomb cardboard impact arrestor. The VAB offers an ideal, wind-free testing facility at no additional construction cost and was used for similar tests of the parachute system for the twin Viking spacecraft scheduled for launch toward Mars in August.

  11. PIONEER VENUS 2 MULTI-PROBE PARACHUTE TESTS IN VAB PRIOR TO ATTACHING PRESSURE VESSEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A parachute system, designed to carry an instrument-laden probe down through the dense atmosphere of torrid, cloud-shrouded Venus, was tested in KSC's Vehicle Assembly Building. The tests are in preparation for a Pioneer multi-probe mission to Venus scheduled for launch from KSC in 1978. Full-scale (12-foot diameter) parachutes with simulated pressure vessels weighing up to 45 pounds were dropped from heights of up to 450 feet tot he floor of the VAB where the impact was cushioned by a honeycomb cardboard impact arrestor. The VAB offers an ideal, wind-free testing facility at no additional construction cost and was used for similar tests of the parachute system for the twin Viking spacecraft scheduled for launch toward Mars in August.

  12. PIONEER VENUS 2 MULTI-PROBE PARACHUTE TESTS IN THE VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A parachute system, designed to carry an instrument-laden probe down through the dense atmosphere of torrid, cloud-shrouded Venus, was tested in KSC's Vehicle Assembly Building. The tests are in preparation for a Pioneer multi-probe mission to Venus scheduled for launch from KSC in 1978. Full-scale (12-foot diameter) parachutes with simulated pressure vessels weighing up to 45 pounds were dropped from heights of up to 450 feet tot he floor of the VAB where the impact was cushioned by a honeycomb cardboard impact arrestor. The VAB offers an ideal, wind-free testing facility at no additional construction cost and was used for similar tests of the parachute system for the twin Viking spacecraft scheduled for launch toward Mars in August.

  13. Montessus de Ballore, a pioneer of seismology: The man and his work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Ferdinand de Montessus de Ballore was one of the founders of scientific seismology. He was a pioneer in seismology at the same level as Perrey, Mallet, Milne and Omori. He became familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in Central America (1881-1885). After his experience in El Salvador his interest for understanding earthquakes and volcanoes oriented all of his life. Back in France he worked out a most complete world catalogue of earthquakes with 170.000 events (1885-1907), and completed his career being the head of the Chilean Seismological Service (1907-1923). Many of his ideas were in advance of later discoveries. He was an exceptional writer and published more than 30 books and hundreds of papers.

  14. Developing neurons use a putative pioneer's peripheral arbor to establish their terminal fields.

    PubMed

    Gan, W B; Macagno, E R

    1995-05-01

    Pioneer neurons are known to guide later developing neurons during the initial phases of axonal outgrowth. To determine whether they are also important in the formation of terminal fields by the follower cells, we studied the role of a putative leech pioneer neuron, the pressure-sensitive (PD) neuron, in the establishment of other neurons' peripheral arbors. The PD neuron has a major axon that exits from its segmental ganglion to grow along the dorsal-posterior (DP) nerve to the dorsal body wall, where it arborizes extensively mainly in its own segment. It also has two minor axons that project to the two adjacent segments but branch to a lesser degree. We found that the peripheral projections of several later developing neurons, including the AP motor neuron and the TD sensory neuron, followed, with great precision, the major axon and peripheral arbor of the consegmental PD neuron, up to its fourth-order branches. When a PD neuron was ablated before it had grown to the body wall, the AP and TD axons grew normally toward and reached the target area, but then formed terminal arbors that were greatly reduced in size and abnormal in morphology. Further, if the ablation of a PD neuron was accompanied by the induction, in the same segment, of greater outgrowth of the minor axon of a PD neuron from the adjacent segment, the arbors of the same AP neurons grew along these novel PD neuron branches. These results demonstrate that the peripheral arbor of a PD neuron is a both necessary and sufficient template for the formation of normal terminal fields by certain later growing follower neurons.

  15. Science From Beyond: NASA's Pioneer Plaque and the History of Interstellar Communication, 1957- 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, William

    2012-05-01

    In the late twentieth century, science and technology facilitated exploration beyond the Solar System and extended human knowledge through messages comprised of pictures and mathematical symbols, transmitted from radio telescopes and inscribed on material artifacts attached to spacecraft. ‘Interstellar communication' refers to collective efforts by scientists and co-workers to detect and transmit intelligible messages between humans and supposed extraterrestrial intelligence in remote star systems. Interstellar messages are designed to communicate universal knowledge without recourse to text, human linguistic systems or anthropomorphic content because it is assumed that recipients have no prior knowledge of humankind or the planet we inhabit. Scientists must therefore imagine how extraterrestrials will relate to human knowledge and culture. The production and transmission of interstellar messages became interdisciplinary design problems that involved collaboration and exchange of ideas between scientists, visual artists, and others. My proposed paper will review sociocultural aspects of interstellar communication since the late 1950s and focus on key issues regarding conception, design and production of a specific interstellar message launched into space during the early 1970s - NASA's Pioneer plaque. The paper will explore how research on the history of interstellar communication relates to previous historical and sociological studies on rhetorical aspects of visual representation and mathematics in scientific practice. In particular, I will explain how the notion of ‘inscription' is an appropriate conceptual tool for analyzing how scientists have used pictures to articulate and validate knowledge claims and scientific facts. I argue that scientific knowledge carried on interstellar messages such as the Pioneer plaque is constituted in material practices and inscription technologies that translate natural objects, agency and culture into legible forms

  16. Pioneers on the Astrosociological Frontier: Introduction to the First Symposium on Astrosociology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pass, Jim

    2009-03-01

    Astrosociology is a relatively new multidisciplinary field that scientifically investigates astrosocial phenomena (i.e., social, cultural, and behavioral patterns related to space exploration and related issues). The "astrosociological frontier" represents an analogous framework to that of space as the "final frontier," as both territories are quite empty of human activity and ripe for exploration. This focus on the astrosociological frontier provides insights about the need for a social-scientific field to place the human dimension in its proper place alongside familiar space community concerns such as engineering. The astrosociological frontier refers to the lack of development of astrosociology as a scientific field—or anything like it earlier during the space age. It includes both the 1) unoccupied "landscape" in academia characterized by the lack of astrosociology in its curricula and 2) dearth of space research focused on social-scientific (i.e., astrosociological) topics both inside and outside of traditional academia in collaboration with traditional space community members and the new space entrepreneurs. Within academia, the "frontier" is characterized by a lack of courses, programs, and departments dedicated to astrosociology. In the future, proponents of this new field expect the astrosociological frontier to become characterized by a growing number of "settlements" in curricula across the country and world. As things stand, however, the early "astrosociological pioneers" include those who seek to explore these underappreciated issues within academic and professional climates that discourage them from pursuing their interests. Thus, the "1st Symposium on Astrosociology" at the 2009 SPESIF conference represents an important expedition consisting of pioneering participants willing to venture into a little-explored territory with the goal of developing astrosociology.

  17. 360-degree b/w Monster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-10

    This 360 degree "monster" panorama was taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. All three petals, the perimeter of the deflated airbags, deployed rover Sojourner, forward and backward ramps and prominent surface features are visible. The IMP stands 1.8 meters over the Martian surface. The curvature and misalignment of several sections are due to image parallax. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00662

  18. Mushy zone modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Smith, Richard N.; Marsh, Steven P.; Kuklinski, Robert

    A key element of mushy zone modeling is the description of the microscopic evolution of the lengthscales within the mushy zone and the influence of macroscopic transport processes. This paper describes some recent progress in developing a mean-field statistical theory of phase coarsening in adiabatic mushy zones. The main theoretical predictions are temporal scaling laws that indicate that average lengthscale increases as time 1/3, a self-similar distribution of mushy zone lengthscales based on spherical solid particle shapes, and kinetic rate constants which provide the dependences of the coarsening process on material parameters and the volume fraction of the solid phase. High precision thermal decay experiments are described which verify aspects of the theory in pure material mushy zones held under adiabatic conditions. The microscopic coarsening theory is then integrated within a macroscopic heat transfer model of one-dimensional alloy solidification, using the Double Integral Method. The method demonstrates an ability to predict the influence of macroscopic heat transfer on the evolution of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings in Al-Cu alloys. Finally, some suggestions are made for future experimental and theoretical studies required in developing comprehensive solidification processing models.

  19. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  20. Freeway work zone lane capacity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  1. Dike zones on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  2. D. Carlos de Braganca, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…

  3. A Tribute to Thomas P. Carter (1927-2001): Activist Scholar and Pioneer in Mexican American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a testimony to the late Dr. Thomas P. Carter. Well known for his classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect, Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a…

  4. Center-Based Child Care in the Pioneer Smart Start Partnerships of North Carolina. UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Kelly; Bryant, Donna; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Buysse, Virginia

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families to ensure that all children enter school healthy and prepared to succeed. This study acquired a baseline measure of the quality of child care in the 12 pioneer Smart Start…

  5. Aleksandar Kubičcela (1930-2017) - An Astrophysical Research Pioneer at the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, L. Č.; Vince, I.

    2018-06-01

    Here, we give a short biography and summary of scientific contributions of Aleksandar Kubičela, a doyen of astronomy in Serbia, and an astrophysical research pioneer at the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade. Additionally, we evoke some of our memories concerning scientific collaboration with Aleksandar Kubičcela.

  6. 76 FR 10581 - Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2905-000] Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Trail Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  7. The Computer Science Technical Report (CS-TR) Project: A Pioneering Digital Library Project Viewed from a Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Computer Science Technical Report Project, one of the earliest investigations into the system engineering of digital libraries which pioneered multiinstitutional collaborative research into technical, social, and legal issues related to the development and implementation of a large, heterogeneous, distributed digital library. (LRW)

  8. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jean-Christophe Domec

    2012-01-01

    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea...

  9. A New Look at Jupiter: Results at the Now Frontier. [Pioneer 10, interplanetary space, and Jupiter atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10's encounter with Jupiter is discussed along with the interplanetary space beyond the orbit of Mars. Other topics discussed include the size of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, the magnetic field of Jupiter, radiation belts, Jupiter's weather and interior, and future exploration possibilities. Educational projects are also included.

  10. Pioneer Venus: Report of a study by the Science Steering Group, June 1972. [concerning 1976, 77, 78 and 80 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The 1976/77 multiple probe mission of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft is discussed, along with the 1978 and 1980 missions. Various questions about Venus are answered; velocities and temperatures expected in the atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, magnetic measurements, and model atmospheres are included.

  11. Pioneering the Web Enhanced Learning between Taiwan and China (WELTaC) Initiative in Higher Education: Potential and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shelley S.-C.; Ku, H. H.

    2008-01-01

    This study pioneered an innovative project regarding the use of ICT for creating learning resources and opportunities for faculty members and adult learners on both sides of the Taiwan Straits--Taiwan and mainland China--that would not have been possible during the past five decades. This paper is based on a one-year in-depth study of an ICT…

  12. Alex Lord's British Columbia: Recollections of a Rural School Inspector, 1915-36. The Pioneers of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calam, John, Ed.

    Alex Lord, a pioneer inspector of rural British Columbia (Canada) schools, shares in these recollections of his experiences in a province barely out of the stagecoach era. Traveling through vast northern territory, using unreliable transportation, and enduring climate extremes, Lord became familiar with the aspirations of remote communities and…

  13. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and... Tolerance and Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  14. Are We There Yet? A Progress Report from Three Turkish University Pioneers in Distance Education and E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Simsek, Nurettin; Balta, Ozlem Cakir; Torkul, Orhan; Cedimoglu, I. Hakki; Altunkopru, Alpaslan

    2009-01-01

    The international literature provides little in-depth analysis of distance education and e-learning activities, achievements, and challenges in Turkish higher education other than the country's mega-university, Anadolu. This paper examines the development of, and lessons to be learned from, such undertakings by three pioneers--two regular state…

  15. On fundamentally new sources of energy for rockets in the early works of the pioneers of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melkumov, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The research for more efficient methods of propelling a spacecraft, than can be achieved with chemical energy, was studied. During a time when rockets for space flight had not actually been built pioneers in rocket technology were already concerned with this problem. Alternative sources proposed at that time, were nuclear and solar energy. Basic engineering problems of each source were investigated.

  16. Benefits, Barriers and Prerequisites for Web 2.0 Learning Activities in the Classroom: The View of Greek Pioneer Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaigeorgiou, George; Grammatikopoulou, Athina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the learning benefits and the challenges of Web 2.0 educational activities when applied in typical learning settings and as perceived by pioneer educators with extensive Web 2.0 experience. Design/Methodology/Approach: The testimonies of 26 Greek primary and secondary education teachers were collected. All…

  17. Effect of anti-biofouling potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-filled polydimethylsiloxane composites on pioneer microbial colonization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Lang, Yanhe; Sun, Qian; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, namely the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the carboxyl-modified MWCNTs (cMWCNTs), were introduced into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix respectively, in order to produce the PDMS composites with reinforced anti-biofouling properties. The anti-biofouling capacity of the silicone-based coatings, including the unfilled PDMS (P0), the MWCNTs-filled PDMS (PM) and the cMWCNTs-filled PDMS (PC), was examined via the field assays conducted in Weihai, China. The effect of different silicone-based coatings on the dynamic variations of the pioneer microbial-community diversity was analyzed using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The PM and PC surfaces have exhibited excellent anti-biofouling properties in contrast to that of the PDMS surface, with extremely low attachment of the early colonizers, such as juvenile invertebrates, seaweeds and algae sporelings. The PM and PC surfaces can effectively prevent biofouling for more than 12 weeks. These combined results suggest that the incorporation of MWCNTs or cMWCNTs into the PDMS matrix can dramatically reinforce its anti-biofouling properties. The SSCP analysis reveals that compared with the PDMS surfaces, the PM and PC surfaces have strong modulating effect on the pioneer prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities, particularly on the colonization of pioneer eukaryotic microbes. The significantly reduced pioneer eukaryotic-community diversity may contribute to the weakening of the subsequent colonization of macrofoulers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovering a Forgotten Pioneer of Science Studies: C. E. Ayers' Deweyan Critique of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, David I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings to light the ideas of a pioneering but largely forgotten social critic, C. E. Ayres. In his first book, "Science: The False Messiah" (1927), which was written in consultation with John Dewey, Ayres advanced a forceful and original critique of science and technology. He argued that technological change was occurring at a…

  19. Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing Social Issues in the Classroom and Beyond: The Pedagogical Efforts of Pioneers in the Field is comprised of essays that delineate the genesis and evolution of the thought and work of pioneers in the field of social issues and education. The authors (many of whom, themselves, are noted professors of education and who have done…

  20. Soil organic matter from pioneer species and its implications to phytostabilization of mined sites in the Sierra de Cartagena (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ottenhof, C J M; Faz Cano, A; Arocena, J M; Nierop, K G J; Verstraten, J M; van Mourik, J M

    2007-11-01

    Pioneer plant species were observed growing on mined areas despite unfavourable conditions such as extreme pH, high salinity and phytotoxic levels of several elements. This study evaluated the contribution of pioneer species to the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM). We collected 51 samples from 17 non-vegetated, natural and pioneer-vegetated sites in five highly saline mined areas in the Sierra de Cartagena (Spain). The composition of SOM was determined using total C, N and S elemental anlayzer, pyrolysis and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that pioneer species like Lygeum spartum had contributed approximately 11 kg SOM kg(-1) soil into the Balsa Rosa sites since 1991; it will take approximately 120 years of continuous growth for this plant to increase the SOM level comparable to natural site. In the Portman Bay area, Sarconia ramosissima and Phragmites australis can contribute SOM equivalent to present day SOM in natural sites in the next 30 years. Low quality SOM (C/N>20) deposited by pioneer plants was dominated by lignin-derived organic compounds such as phenols, guaiacols, syringols and aromatics while polyssacharides and alkyls were the major components in high quality SOM (C/N<20). The addition of SOM to mine wastes is similar to early stages of soil formation and with time, we expect the formation of well-developed Ah horizon on the surface of mine wastes. The presence of P. australis on several sites makes it a very good candidate for successful revegetation of hostile conditions found in many mined sites.

  1. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  2. Arid Zone Hydrology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  3. Zone of intrusion study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-15

    The Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) performed an analysis using LS-DYNA simulation to investigate the zone of intrusion (ZOI) of an NCHRP Report No. 350 2000p pickup truck when impacting a 40-in. high F-shape parapet. : The ZOI for the 40-in...

  4. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  6. Crossing Comfort Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, D. Soyini

    1993-01-01

    Offers a narrative based on a real event, in the form of a "docustory," describing that moment when teaching worked--when, in an instructional setting, communication was "perfect" or "excellent." Describes how three very different students, in a course on the cultures of women of color, moved beyond comfort zones while working together on a class…

  7. [Axel Ström--pioneer of social medicine and administrator].

    PubMed

    Sundby, Per

    2002-01-10

    Dr Axel Strøm (1901-85), professor in the University of Oslo from 1940 to 1970, was a leader in Norwegian medicine in the latter half of the 20th century. He qualified in 1926 and in 1936 gained a doctorate with a dissertation on the toxin production of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae. His first appointment as a professor was in hygiene. In 1951 he moved on to public health, a field that he pioneered in Norway and the other Scandinavian countries. As a professor during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, he joined the university's resistance against the Nazi authorities' attempts at taking control. When the war was over he became deeply involved in research on the impact of war on health. At a time when the study of the impact of lifestyle factors was still in its infancy, he suggested that the war-induced reduction in dietary fat consumption might be the cause of observed lower cardiovascular mortality. Of more practical importance were the studies he initiated of the mainly psychological late-onset effects of traumas suffered by prisoners in German camps, seamen, soldiers and other exposed groups. In this area, too, he was an early explorer, of what has come to be known as post-traumatic stress disorder. His efforts led to improved war pension entitlements for the victims. Over the years, exposed groups became his major professional interest as a public health specialist. In his academic work, dr Strøm also pioneered medical ethics, care for the elderly, legislation on abortion, and the rapidly expanding field of the medical basis for social security benefits. As a practising physician he was in the vanguard of occupational medicine and other kinds of preventive medicine. What brought him most recognition was, however, his leading role over many years in the Norwegian Medical Association and in the University of Oslo. He served as chairman of the Junior Hospital Doctors Association, president of the Norwegian Medical Association and

  8. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  9. Ir A.H. de Voogt: life and career of a radio pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, R. G.

    2007-06-01

    There are probably few radio astronomers who would be able to recall A.H. de Voogt, which is unfortunate, but at the same time unsurprising: for he published no original astronomical research, never carried out pioneering observations, nor is his name linked to either theoretical or instrumental breakthroughs. Yet he was described by the man who first observed the 21 cm hydrogen line from the Netherlands as a radio astronomy pioneer, at the very birth of the Dutch effort. He was, moreover, a trail blazer at the cutting edge of radio, not once but twice in his career. Without him it is unlikely that the 21 cm line would have been observed in the Netherlands in 1951, and arguably the H I mapping of the Milky Way under Jan Oort's leadership would have taken place much later, if at all. Radio astronomy observing itself might well have been compromised by interference had it not been for De Voogt's foresight. \\ Anthonet Hugo de Voogt (1892-1969) built, while still a teenager, one of the very first amateur radio stations (call letters VO: *** -/- - -) in Holland, earned the radio-telegrapher's diploma during his student days, and was intimately involved in the foundation of the Dutch Society for Radio-Telegraphy in 1916. Until the 1920s, he was very active in amateur radio and astronomy circles. Trained in electrical engineering at Delft, he joined the PTT (Post Office) as a telegraph engineer in 1919, worked his way through the ranks to become head of the telephone district of Breda in 1939, and was promoted to head the PTT Radio Service just days after the end of the war. As his department was responsible for overseas radio communication, he initiated a research effort to study radio propagation in the ionosphere and the effects of solar activity. To this end, he rescued a number of Würzburg-Riese 7.5-m radar antennas abandoned at the end of the war, made one available for Jan Oort's H I work, and launched a series of radio astronomical initiatives. His group also

  10. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  11. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  12. Search for pair production of vector-like quarks in the bW b ‾ W channel from proton-proton collisions at √{ s } = 13TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Croce, D.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Salva, S.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caputo, C.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Melo De Almeida, M.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Misheva, M.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liao, H.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Courbon, B.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Starodumov, A.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; El-khateeb, E.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Dewanjee, R. 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A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Ngadiuba, J.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Selvaggi, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Stakia, A.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Verweij, M.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Caminada, L.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Berger, P.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Klijnsma, T.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Reichmann, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Shchutska, L.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Vesterbacka Olsson, M. L.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D. H.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Del Burgo, R.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Bakirci, M. N.; Boran, F.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Tali, B.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Tekten, S.; Yetkin, E. A.; Agaras, M. N.; Atay, S.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Davignon, O.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wardle, N.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Regnard, S.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Sharma, V.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Padeken, K.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Joyce, M.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    A search is presented for the production of vector-like quark pairs, T T ‾ or Y Y ‾, with electric charge of 2/3 (T) or - 4 / 3 (Y), in proton-proton collisions at √{ s } = 13TeV. The data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.8fb-1. The T and Y quarks are assumed to decay exclusively to a W boson and a b quark. The search is based on events with a single isolated electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum, and at least four jets with large transverse momenta. In the search, a kinematic reconstruction of the final state observables is performed, which would permit a signal to be detected as a narrow mass peak (≈7% resolution). The observed number of events is consistent with the standard model prediction. Assuming strong pair production of the vector-like quarks and a 100% branching fraction to bW, a lower limit of 1295 GeV at 95% confidence level is set on the T and Y quark masses.

  13. Resolution Study of Marine CSEM Imaging of Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, C.; Key, K.

    2016-12-01

    Marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data allow us to image seafloor electrical resistivity from which we can constrain the porosity and fluid content of the subsurface. In subduction zones, CSEM data can be used to constrain geologic structure, hydrogeology and fluid-tectonic processes. The scales of features we are interested in recovering with CSEM data range from large-scale features such as the incoming tectonic plate and subducting slab, to the narrow dipping plate boundary interface where slip occurs, to thin faults that cut the overriding forearc crust and shallow fluid seeps and mounds on the seafloor. Thus electrical structure is expected to vary on scales ranging from scales of meters to tens of kilometers. CSEM data collected by Scripps at the Middle America Trench in 2010 is the first and to-date the only application of the method for studying a subduction zone. The results from this pioneering data set highlight the types of new discoveries that are possible with CSEM data, such as imaging conductive bending faults and a water-rich channel of subducting sediments. In this work we explore the magnitude and scale of 2D resistivity structures that can be resolved with CSEM data through a suite of synthetic inversion studies. We build resistivity models that are representative of various known and hypothesized subduction zone plate boundary structures. We generate synthetic noisy data for these models and invert them using the freely available MARE2DEM inversion code. We compare the recovered models to the original models in order to determine which resistivity structures may be successfully identified using CSEM. We explore the potential effects of receiver spacing, frequency bandwidth and system noise levels on the ability of CSEM to recover these different subduction zone structures.

  14. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  15. Aeration Zone Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, B.

    The International Symposium on Recent Investigations in the Zone of Aeration (RIZA) was organized by the Institute for Hydrogeology and Hydrochemistry of the Technical University of Munich and held October 1-5, 1984, in the lecture halls of the Grosshadern Klinik in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). P. Udluft, B. Merkel, and K.-H. Prüsl, all of the university, were responsible for the organization of the symposium, which was under the patronage of K.-E. Quentin. There were over 200 participants from 22 different countries, among them Australia, Canada, China, India, and the United States. The topics of the symposium were the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes in the unsaturated zone, the region between the surface and the groundwater level. Here a number of complex processes occur that on the one hand are of natural origin and on the other hand are influenced by human activities in a number of ways.

  16. SO2 on Venus: A final cross-calibration with Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The three observing programs under NASA Grant NAG5-1913 are described. They are NSOSS, VEOEB, and PCOEB. The scientific objectives for the IUE observation program NSOSS were to: make the first ever UV observations of a near-earth asteroid (4179 Toutatis), an irregular satellite of Jupiter (Himalia), and the Saturnian satellite Hyperion; obtain the first radially-dependent information on the UV color of Saturn's rings; gather the uncontaminated UV spectra of Iapetus's bright and dark hemispheres; and obtain a spectrum of Titania to initiate the comparitive study of UV photometric properties in Uranian system. The VEOEB program studied Venus SO2, an important indicator of key processes in the Venus atmosphere and perhaps Venus surface. Based on past Pioneer Venus and IUE observations, significant SO2 variations have been interpreted as indicating that the long term atmospheric SO2 abundance may be related to large, episodic injections from the surface or interior of Venus. The PCOEB program studied the Pluto-Charon system, for which evidence of a variable UV light curve has been presented. This program is to complete the coverage of that UV light curve, since only approximately 26% has been observed.

  17. A seven-month solar cycle observed with the Langmuir probe on Pioneer Venus Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Wolff, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected by the Langmuir probe aboard the Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO) over the years 1979 though 1987 were normalized to remove the long-period 11-year solar maximum to minimum trend and were analyzed for periodicity. Results yield evidence for the existence of an approximately 7-month solar cycle, which was also observed from SME Lyman alpha and 2800-MHz radio flux measurements carried out from an earth-based platform. This coincidence suggests that the cycle is an intrinsic periodicity in the solar output. The cycle has a frequency independent of the orbital frequency of the PVO and is distinct from a 'rotating beacon' cycle whose period depends on the orbital motion of the PVO about the sun. The second most dominant cycle discovered was a 5-month period. Results of an oscillation model of solar periodicity indicate that the 7-month and 5-month cycles are caused by long-lived flux enhancements from nonlinear interactions of global oscillation modes in the sun's convective envelope (r modes) and radiative interior (g modes).

  18. Electron temperatures and densities in the venus ionosphere: pioneer venus orbiter electron temperature probe results.

    PubMed

    Brace, L H; Theis, R F; Krehbiel, J P; Nagy, A F; Donahue, T M; McElroy, M B; Pedersen, A

    1979-02-23

    Altitude profiles of electron temperature and density in the ionosphere of Venus have been obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter electron temperatutre probe. Elevated temperatutres observed at times of low solar wind flux exhibit height profiles that are consistent with a model in which less than 5 percent of the solar wind energy is deposited at the ionopause and is conducted downward through an unmagnetized ionosphere to the region below 200 kilomneters where electron cooling to the neutral atmosphere proceeds rapidly. When solar wind fluxes are higher, the electron temperatures and densities are highly structured and the ionopause moves to lower altitudes. The ionopause height in the late afternoon sector observed thus far varies so widely from day to (day that any height variation with solar zenith angle is not apparent in the observations. In the neighborhood of the ionopause, measuremnents of plasma temperatures and densities and magnetic field strength indicate that an induced magnetic barrier plays an important role in the pressure transfer between the solar wind and the ionosphere. The bow, shock is marked by a distinct increase in electron current collected by the instrument, a featutre that provides a convenient identification of the bow shock location.

  19. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA1 Promotes Activation of Estrogen Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Shibazaki, Misato; Yamada, Chiaki; Anzai, Erina; Morii, Mariko; Nakayama, Yuji; Kuga, Takahisa; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-06-01

    The pioneer transcription factor FoxA1 plays an important role in estrogen signaling by opening closed chromatin and promoting recruitment of the estrogen receptor to its target regions in DNA. In this study, we analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation of FoxA1 by the non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase c-Abl. c-Abl was shown to phosphorylate FoxA1 at multiple sites, especially in the N- and C-terminal regions. Tyr429 and Tyr464 were identified as the major phosphorylation sites in the FoxA1 C-terminal region. The phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 mutants were generated by glutamic acid and phenylalanine substitutions at these tyrosine residues, respectively. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 promoted the activation of estrogen signaling, whereas the nonphosphorylatable FoxA1 suppressed its activation. Stimulation with the epidermal growth factor, which activates c-Abl, enhanced the activation of estrogen signaling. In contrast, the c-Abl inhibitor imatinib reduced its activation. The phosphomimetic FoxA1 mutant showed a higher affinity toward histone H3 than the wild-type. These results suggest that c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of FoxA1 promotes the activation of estrogen signaling by inducing its binding to histones. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1453-1461, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Rene C.; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B.; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S.; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) reside in niches which balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, SCs outside their niche often display fate flexibility1-4. Here we show that super-enhancers5 underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult SCs in vivo. Using hair follicle (HF) as model, we map the global chromatin domains of HFSCs and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters (‘epicenters’) of transcription factor (TF) binding sites change upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicenters, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, HFSCs dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicenters, enabling them to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of HFSC super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense TF-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status, but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  1. [Bernhard Schapiro (1888-1966): Talmudic scholar - andrologist - pioneer of hormonal treatment for cryptorchidism].

    PubMed

    Borgwardt, Götz

    2004-01-01

    Bernhard Schapiro was the first to recommend anterior pituitary lobe hormone for the treatment of cryptorchidism. He was born in 1888 into an orthodox family in Dvinsk (Daugavplis/Latvia), in the Pale of Settlements for Jewish Russian subjects. In simple schools he learned Hewbrew and basics of Torah and Talmud. Then he turned to the Talmudic Academy "Slobodka" in Kovno (Kaunas/Lithuania) for advanced studies. Here he internalized the "Musar" teachings, a doctrine of high-standard ethical behavior towards fellow beings, until he was eighteen. He abandoned a rabbincal carrer and studied medicine in Switzerland. After exams in 1919, he received a training in dermatology with JADASSOHN in Breslau. From 1922 until 1933 he worked at HIRSCHFELD's Institute for Sexual Science in Berlin. Here he pioneered in andrology working on the problems of impotency and premature ejaculation and developing new drug combinations. In males with underdeveloped genitalia he proved the cryptorch testicles may descend under treatment with anterior pituitary lobe. After Nazi students had looted the Institute in May, 1933 he left Germany with wife and four children and established a practice in Zurich. He chaired the Swiss branch of Mizrakhi, which aimed at influencing Zionism with orthodox spirituality. In 1940 he turned to New York where even rabbis recommended his treatment as in accordance with talmudic laws. From 1951 until his death in 1966 he lived and worked on the same issues in Jerusalem. His entire life was guided by Musar.

  2. Special article: Horace Nelson MD, John Webster LDS--unrecognized Canadian anesthesia pioneers.

    PubMed

    Craig, Douglas; Chartrand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The timing of the earliest reported ether anesthetics in early 1847, in regions to become Canada in July 1867, was examined using information from on-line and library-based sources. Previous authors had identified the first reported ether anesthetic given by a visiting American dentist in January 1847 in Saint John, New Brunswick. Nevertheless, they had reported three different anesthetics as the second occurrence - which would denote the first anesthetic given by a resident of Canada. We confirmed that there were no reports of ether anesthetics being given in Canada before that reported on January 18, 1847 in Saint John. The information available for our review indicates that the second ether anesthetic, and the first by a Canadian, was given in Montreal by a dentist, Dr. John Horatio Webster, on February 20, 1847. The surgical assistant for that operation, Dr. Horace Nelson, later reported on animal and human experiments with ether, which he had led in Montreal starting in January 1847. Earlier authors, who may not have had access to the information now available, came to incorrect conclusions about the first ether anesthetic reported to have been given by a Canadian. Current information indicates that John Webster gave the first reported anesthetic in Montreal on February 20, 1847 following experiments with ether led by Horace Nelson. Both Webster and Nelson deserve recognition as Canadian anesthesia pioneers.

  3. Findings on rings and inner satellites of Saturn of Pioneer 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Allen, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    The introductory part of this paper gives a short account of the theory of absorption by planetary rings and satellites of energetic charged particles that are trapped in a planet's magnetic field and describes the observable consequences of such absorption processes. The previously published University of Iowa observations of absorption features during Pioneer 11's passage through Saturn's inner radiation belt on 1 September 1979 are critically reanalyzed and related to other evidence on rings and satellites inside 2.9 Saturn radii, especially that from the imaging system on Voyagers 1 and 2. It is found (a) that satellites 1979 S1, 1979 S2, and 1980 S3 are almost certainly identical; (b) that the evidence for 1979 S4 is weak to nonexistent; (c) that 1979 S5 and two other nearby absorption features and 1979 S6 and one other nearby absorption feature are probably caused by longitudinal and radial structure of Ring F and not by satellites; and (d) that absorption feature 1979 S3 at 169,200 + or - 600 km is identified with the optically observed Ring G.

  4. David Price--Pioneer of digital ICP monitoring, neurosurgeon and teacher.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Marek; Kirollos, Ramez; van Hille, Philip

    2015-06-01

    In early 1970s first personal desk-top computers started to be available in hospitals. Mr Price was one of the pioneers introducing his own software to identify Marmarou's model of CSF space during infusion studies to diagnose patients suffering from hydrocephalus. His closed-loop control system for infusion of mannitol to manage patients at risk of intracranial hypertension was designed in 1977. The system worked successfully for 10 years in Pinderfields Hospital in Wakefield, UK. In the middle 1980's he initiated international cooperation with Children's Health Centre in Poland in long-term computer-assisted monitoring and analysis of ICP. Software designed in a course of this cooperation paved the way for contemporary package of ICM+ (Intensive Care Monitor, University of Cambridge, UK). Our scientific portfolio from these years (1985-1995) contains hundreds of head injured patients with waveform ICP analysis, introduction of compensatory reserve index RAP, few highly cited papers. Now, we understand ICP much better thanks to David's personal passion and extremely friendly support.

  5. LCROSS - Lunar Impactor: Pioneering Risk-Tolerant Exploration in Search for Water on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on June 18, 2009 to determine the presence of water-ice in a permanently shadowed crater on the south pole of the Moon. However, an equally important purpose was to pioneer low-cost, quick-turnaround NASA missions that could accept a higher-than-normal-level of technical risk. When the LCROSS mission proposal was competitively selected by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to design, build, and launch a spacecraft in 31 months with a $79M cost-capped budget and a fixed mass allocation, NASA Ames Research Center and its industry partner, Northrop-Grumman, needed a game-changing approach to be successful. That approach was a ground-breaking combination of having a risk-tolerant NASA Class D mission status and finding the right balance point between the inflexible elements of cost and schedule and the newly-flexible element of technical capability.

  6. The life and contribution of Dr. Ronald Gitelman: a pioneer of modern chiropractic science.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The life and contribution to chiropractic science of Dr. Ronald Gitelman is reviewed. Sources for this article included review of the notes prepared by Dr. Joseph Keating in his "biography" of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC); review of the important articles published by Dr. Gitelman; review of the important projects undertaken by him along with various colleagues; notes from reminiscences obtained from many of these colleagues and discussions with his family. Dr. Gitelman's academic career spanned from 1963 to the late 1980's. During that time, he made foundational contributions to the development of chiropractic science including: developing the Archives (1974), the first collection of scientific articles supporting chiropractic science (which was subsequently published as the Chiropractic Archives Research Collection (CRAC)); delivering one of the few chiropractic papers at the seminal NINCDS conference (1975) and, developing the collaboration between CMCC and Dr. Kirkaldy-Willis at the University of Saskatoon (1976). He practiced in Toronto from 1961 to 2007. Dr. Gitelman was a pioneer in the development of chiropractic science. He died on October 7, 2012.

  7. A bacterial pioneer produces cellulase complexes that persist through community succession.

    PubMed

    Kolinko, Sebastian; Wu, Yu-Wei; Tachea, Firehiwot; Denzel, Evelyn; Hiras, Jennifer; Gabriel, Raphael; Bäcker, Nora; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Frey, Dario; Chen, Qiushi; Azadi, Parastoo; Adams, Paul D; Pray, Todd R; Tanjore, Deepti; Petzold, Christopher J; Gladden, John M; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2018-01-01

    Cultivation of microbial consortia provides low-complexity communities that can serve as tractable models to understand community dynamics. Time-resolved metagenomics demonstrated that an aerobic cellulolytic consortium cultivated from compost exhibited community dynamics consistent with the definition of an endogenous heterotrophic succession. The genome of the proposed pioneer population, 'Candidatus Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans', possessed a gene cluster containing multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Purification of the soluble cellulase activity from a 300litre cultivation of this consortium revealed that ~70% of the activity arose from the 'Ca. Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans' multidomain GHs assembled into cellulase complexes through glycosylation. These remarkably stable complexes have supramolecular structures for enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis that are distinct from cellulosomes. The persistence of these complexes during cultivation indicates that they may be active through multiple cultivations of this consortium and act as public goods that sustain the community. The provision of extracellular GHs as public goods may influence microbial community dynamics in native biomass-deconstructing communities relevant to agriculture, human health and biotechnology.

  8. A bacterial pioneer produces cellulase complexes that persist through community succession

    SciTech Connect

    Kolinko, Sebastian; Wu, Yu-Wei; Tachea, Firehiwot

    Cultivation of microbial consortia provides low-complexity communities that can serve as tractable models to understand community dynamics. Time-resolved metagenomics demonstrated that an aerobic cellulolytic consortium cultivated from compost exhibited community dynamics consistent with the definition of an endogenous heterotrophic succession. The genome of the proposed pioneer population, 'Candidatus Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans', possessed a gene cluster containing multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Purification of the soluble cellulase activity from a 300litre cultivation of this consortium revealed that ~70% of the activity arose from the 'Ca. Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans' multidomain GHs assembled into cellulase complexes through glycosylation. These remarkably stable complexes have supramolecular structures formore » enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis that are distinct from cellulosomes. The persistence of these complexes during cultivation indicates that they may be active through multiple cultivations of this consortium and act as public goods that sustain the community. Thus, the provision of extracellular GHs as public goods may influence microbial community dynamics in native biomass-deconstructing communities relevant to agriculture, human health and biotechnology.« less

  9. A bacterial pioneer produces cellulase complexes that persist through community succession

    DOE PAGES

    Kolinko, Sebastian; Wu, Yu-Wei; Tachea, Firehiwot; ...

    2017-11-06

    Cultivation of microbial consortia provides low-complexity communities that can serve as tractable models to understand community dynamics. Time-resolved metagenomics demonstrated that an aerobic cellulolytic consortium cultivated from compost exhibited community dynamics consistent with the definition of an endogenous heterotrophic succession. The genome of the proposed pioneer population, 'Candidatus Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans', possessed a gene cluster containing multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Purification of the soluble cellulase activity from a 300litre cultivation of this consortium revealed that ~70% of the activity arose from the 'Ca. Reconcilibacillus cellulovorans' multidomain GHs assembled into cellulase complexes through glycosylation. These remarkably stable complexes have supramolecular structures formore » enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis that are distinct from cellulosomes. The persistence of these complexes during cultivation indicates that they may be active through multiple cultivations of this consortium and act as public goods that sustain the community. Thus, the provision of extracellular GHs as public goods may influence microbial community dynamics in native biomass-deconstructing communities relevant to agriculture, human health and biotechnology.« less

  10. A pioneering study on cytotoxicity in Australian parakeets (Melopsittacus undulates) exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-05-01

    Waste effluent from the tannery industry is a major source of environmental pollution. Considering that the bird intake of water contaminated with tannery effluent constitutes a potential genotoxic source, especially for birds inhabiting areas closest to tanning industries, the aim of this study is to assess the possible mutagenic effects that the intake may have on Melopsittacus undulatus (Australian parakeet). In order to do so, adult male and female M. undulatus were distributed in two experimental groups: control (drinking water) and TE (5%). After 60 days of exposure, the micronucleus test, as well as tests looking for other nuclear abnormalities in the peripheral blood of the birds were performed. The male and female birds exposed to the pollutant have presented the highest total number of nuclear abnormalities, as well as increased individual abnormalities such as nuclei with symmetrical constricted bi-lobed/bi-nucleated erythrocytes, indented nuclei and micro-lobed nuclei (top)/micro-nuclei (bottom). In addition, the exposure to TE has caused a nuclear variant increase rarely reported in the literature concerning poultry erythrocyte nuclei. The birds exposed to the pollutant have presented the highest frequency of displaced nuclei forming different rotation/displacement angles within the cells. Therefore, the current study confirmed the toxicological potential of TE and was pioneer in showing that male and female M. undulatus exposed to pollutant present the highest frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, thus corroborating the initial hypothesis herein presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pioneer factors, genetic competence, and inductive signaling: programming liver and pancreas progenitors from the endoderm.

    PubMed

    Zaret, K S; Watts, J; Xu, J; Wandzioch, E; Smale, S T; Sekiya, T

    2008-01-01

    The endoderm is a multipotent progenitor cell population in the embryo that gives rise to the liver, pancreas, and other cell types and provides paradigms for understanding cell-type specification. Studies of isolated embryo tissue cells and genetic approaches in vivo have defined fibroblast growth factor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (FGF/MAPK) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways that induce liver and pancreatic fates in the endoderm. In undifferentiated endoderm cells, the FoxA and GATA transcription factors are among the first to engage silent genes, helping to endow competence for cell-type specification. FoxA proteins can bind their target sites in highly compacted chromatin and open up the local region for other factors to bind; hence, they have been termed "pioneer factors." We recently found that FoxA proteins remain bound to chromatin in mitosis, as an epigenetic mark. In embryonic stem cells, which lack FoxA, FoxA target sites can be occupied by FoxD3, which in turn helps to maintain a local demethylation of chromatin. By these means, a cascade of Fox factors helps to endow progenitor cells with the competence to activate genes in response to tissue-inductive signals. Understanding such epigenetic mechanisms for transcriptional competence coupled with knowledge of the relevant signals for cell-type specification should greatly facilitate efforts to predictably differentiate stem cells to liver and pancreatic fates.

  12. Patient Population Loss At A Large Pioneer Accountable Care Organization And Implications For Refining The Program.

    PubMed

    Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Spirt, Jenna; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Mohta, Namita; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    There is an ongoing move toward payment models that hold providers increasingly accountable for the care of their patients. The success of these new models depends in part on the stability of patient populations. We investigated the amount of population turnover in a large Medicare Pioneer accountable care organization (ACO) in the period 2012-14. We found that substantial numbers of beneficiaries became part of or left the ACO population during that period. For example, nearly one-third of beneficiaries who entered in 2012 left before 2014. Some of this turnover reflected that of ACO physicians-that is, beneficiaries whose physicians left the ACO were more likely to leave than those whose physicians remained. Some of the turnover also reflected changes in care delivery. For example, beneficiaries who were active in a care management program were less likely to leave the ACO than similar beneficiaries who had not yet started such a program. We recommend policy changes to increase the stability of ACO beneficiary populations, such as permitting lower cost sharing for care received within an ACO and requiring all beneficiaries to identify their primary care physician before being linked to an ACO. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2013-07-01

    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  14. Pioneers of anti-venomous serotherapy: Dr Vital Brazil (1865-1950).

    PubMed

    Hawgood, B J

    1992-01-01

    Dr Vital Brazil was a great humanitarian and pioneer of medical science. His main work arose from his concern with poisonous snakebite accidents to labourers working the land. Vital Brazil estimated that, at the beginning of this century, deaths due to crotaline snakebites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were nearly 3000 per year, representing a mortality rate of about 25%, the majority being due to bothropic envenomation. After reading a report of Calmette's anti-Naja serum, Vital Brazil raised monovalent serum against the venom of Bothrops jararaca and the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus. In 1989 this led to the first demonstration of the specificity of anti-venomous serum and later, the first production of polyvalent serum for therapeutic use. As Director of the newly founded Institute Butantan in São Paulo, Vital Brazil was actively engaged in every aspect of serotherapeutic treatment. This included organizing a unique system of exchanging anti-ophidic serum for snakes as well as a wide-ranging teaching programme. His many outstanding contributions to the fields of immunology, public health, toxinology and herpetology required not only a very high level of observational, deductive and practical ability but also an unswerving vision and sense of duty; this was allied to great administrative skill and exceptional energy.

  15. John Goodsir FRS (1814-1867): Pioneer of cytology and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Dugald

    2017-05-01

    John Goodsir, pioneer of the concept that all tissues are formed of cells, was born in 1814 into a family of medical practitioners in Anstruther, Fife, Scotland where he was captivated by the marine life he saw daily in his childhood. His ambition was to follow his father and grandfather in medicine. Aged 13, he studied at St Andrews University before being apprenticed to an Edinburgh dentist and completing an original analysis of the embryology of human dentition. He became the student of Robert Knox at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and then Conservator of the University Anatomy museum. He exchanged this position for one at the College of Surgeons before accepting the full University post. Beginning in 1830 with the compound microscope, he studied natural history and anatomy, describing his discoveries to many societies. Appointed to the Edinburgh Chair of Anatomy in 1846, his investigations of the cell as the unit of all tissues were recognised internationally. A critic of Darwin, he believed that Man could not evolve. However, malnutrition, the death of a brother and of a friend and collaborator, Edward Forbes, contributed to progressive illness and Goodsir died at Wardie, Edinburgh in 1867.

  16. François Pourfour du Petit (1664-1741): pioneer in ocular biometry.

    PubMed

    Charman, W Neil

    2016-07-01

    To outline the important contributions of the French physician Petit to the development of ocular biometry. After a brief review of Petit's life and his studies in neurology, anatomy, and cataract surgery, the methodology and results of his work in measuring many of the biometric parameters of the human eye are discussed. Among other techniques, he made use of frozen sections of eyes to explore their dimensions and employed an immersion technique to avoid the effect of corneal refraction on the appearance of the iris. His pioneering biometric results have been largely confirmed by modern studies. Those on the changes in the crystalline lens with age are particularly striking and suggest that these ocular aging effects have changed little over the last 300 years. Although largely forgotten today, his biometric work exercised a considerable influence on his more immediate successors, including Porterfield and Thomas Young. François Pourfour du Petit deserves to be remembered as an important contributor to our understanding of the structure and dimensions of the human eye. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Initial observations of the nightside ionosphere of venus from pioneer venus orbiter radio occultations.

    PubMed

    Kliore, A J; Patel, I R; Nagy, A F; Cravens, T E; Gombosi, T I

    1979-07-06

    Pioneer Venus orbiter dual-frequency radio occultation measurements have produced many electron density profiles of the nightside ionosphere of Venus. Thirty-six of these profiles, measured at solar zenith angles (chi) from 90.60 degrees to 163.5 degrees , are discussed here. In the "deep" nightside ionosphere (chi > 110 degrees ), the structure and magnitude of the ionization peak are highly variable; the mean peak electron density is 16,700 +/- 7,200 (standard deviation) per cubic centimeter. In contrast, the altitude of the peak remains fairly constant with a mean of 142.2 +/- 4.1 kilometers, virtually identical to the altitude of the main peak of the dayside terminator ionosphere. The variations in the peak ionization are not directly related to contemporal variations in the solar wind speed. It is shown that electron density distributions similar to those observed in both magnitude and structure can be produced by the precipitation on the nightside of Venus of electron fluxes of about 108 per square centimeter per second with energies less than 100 electron volts. This mechanism could very likely be responsible for the maintenance of the persistent nightside ionosphere of Venus, although transport processes may also be important.

  18. The Global Drug Facility: a unique, holistic and pioneering approach to drug procurement and management

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In January 2006, the Stop TB Partnership launched the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006–2015, which describes the actions and resources needed to reduce tuberculosis (TB) incidence, prevalence and deaths. A fundamental aim of the Global Plan is to expand equitable access to affordable high-quality anti-tuberculous drugs and diagnostics. A principal tool developed by the Stop TB Partnership to achieve this is the Global Drug Facility (GDF). This paper demonstrates the GDF’s unique, holistic and pioneering approach to drug procurement and management by analysing its key achievements. One of these has been to provide 9 million patient-treatments to 78 countries in its first 6 years of operation. The GDF recognized that the incentives provided by free or affordable anti-tuberculosis drugs are not sufficient to induce governments to improve their programmes’ standards and coverage, nor does the provision of free or affordable drugs guarantee that there is broad access to, and use of, drug treatment in cases where procurement systems are weak, regulatory hurdles exist or there are unreliable distribution and storage systems. Thus, the paper also illustrates how the GDF has contributed towards making sustained improvements in the capacity of countries worldwide to properly manage their anti-TB drugs. This paper also assesses some of the limitations, shortcomings and risks associated with the model. The paper concludes by examining the GDF’s key plans and strategies for the future, and the challenges associated with implementation. PMID:17639218

  19. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  20. Pioneer-Venus radio occultation (ORO) data reduction: Profiles of 13 cm absorptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to characterize possible variations in the abundance and distribution of subcloud sulfuric acid vapor, 13 cm radio occultation signals from 23 orbits that occurred in late 1986 and 1987 (Season 10) and 7 orbits that occurred in 1979 (Season 1) were processed. The data were inverted via inverse Abel transform to produce 13 cm absorptivity profiles. Pressure and temperature profiles obtained with the Pioneer-Venus night probe and the northern probe were used along with the absorptivity profiles to infer upper limits for vertical profiles of the abundance of gaseous H2SO4. In addition to inverting the data, error bars were placed on the absorptivity profiles and H2SO4 abundance profiles using the standard propagation of errors. These error bars were developed by considering the effects of statistical errors only. The profiles show a distinct pattern with regard to latitude which is consistent with latitude variations observed in data obtained during the occultation seasons nos. 1 and 2. However, when compared with the earlier data, the recent occultation studies suggest that the amount of sulfuric acid vapor occurring at and below the main cloud layer may have decreased between early 1979 and late 1986.

  1. Can simple rules control development of a pioneer vertebrate neuronal network generating behavior?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Alan; Conte, Deborah; Hull, Mike; Merrison-Hort, Robert; al Azad, Abul Kalam; Buhl, Edgar; Borisyuk, Roman; Soffe, Stephen R

    2014-01-08

    How do the pioneer networks in the axial core of the vertebrate nervous system first develop? Fundamental to understanding any full-scale neuronal network is knowledge of the constituent neurons, their properties, synaptic interconnections, and normal activity. Our novel strategy uses basic developmental rules to generate model networks that retain individual neuron and synapse resolution and are capable of reproducing correct, whole animal responses. We apply our developmental strategy to young Xenopus tadpoles, whose brainstem and spinal cord share a core vertebrate plan, but at a tractable complexity. Following detailed anatomical and physiological measurements to complete a descriptive library of each type of spinal neuron, we build models of their axon growth controlled by simple chemical gradients and physical barriers. By adding dendrites and allowing probabilistic formation of synaptic connections, we reconstruct network connectivity among up to 2000 neurons. When the resulting "network" is populated by model neurons and synapses, with properties based on physiology, it can respond to sensory stimulation by mimicking tadpole swimming behavior. This functioning model represents the most complete reconstruction of a vertebrate neuronal network that can reproduce the complex, rhythmic behavior of a whole animal. The findings validate our novel developmental strategy for generating realistic networks with individual neuron- and synapse-level resolution. We use it to demonstrate how early functional neuronal connectivity and behavior may in life result from simple developmental "rules," which lay out a scaffold for the vertebrate CNS without specific neuron-to-neuron recognition.

  2. [Pioneering surgical innovations in Germany : Part 2: public funding and origins of surgical innovations].

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Haverich, A

    2016-05-01

    In recent years research that conforms with evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been demanded even in surgery. Uniform studies were carried out to prove the benefits of new procedures; however, compared to other research sectors, public third party funding for surgical research was significantly cut back. Collation of special features in surgery with respect to external funding of surgical top level research. Examination of the benefits of a continuous promotion and of organizations involved in research. Part one of this investigation presented the methods used to identify and analyze pioneering research in surgery. Out of a total of 15 revolutionary innovations only 3 projects were financed by external funding and 2 projects received indirect financial support as a result of a cooperation with the medical industry. This demonstrates that the majority of projects were neither directly nor indirectly subsidized. Apart from one instance the majority of innovations were generated by university hospitals highly active in research. In effect, the non-existing external funding for outstanding surgical innovations and hospitals suggests that a reformation of surgical research is required. To strengthen the quality of innovations in surgery a concentration of funding to institutions that are highly active in research makes sense. Institutional funding directly linked to a project should form a key component of support particularly in the early stages of development.

  3. Blue-Whale Calls Detected at the Pioneer Seamount Underwater Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. D.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Bland, R. W.; Garfield, N.

    2002-12-01

    In September of 2001 a cabled vertical linear array (VLA) of hydrophones was deployed on Pioneer Seamount, 90 km off the California coast near Half Moon Bay, by the NOAA-PMEL and University of Washington-APL. The array of 4 hydrophones is at a depth of 950 m, and the four signals are digitized at the shore end of the cable at 1000 Hz. The data are archived by PMEL, and are available to the public over the internet. Spectrograms of all of the data are accessible on the SFSU web site. A large number of blue-whale calls are evident in the spectrograms. We have employed spectrogram correlation [Mellinger 2000] and a matched-filter detection scheme [Stafford 1998] to automatically identify these whale calls in three months of data. Results on the frequency of calls and their variability will be presented. Mellinger, David K., and Christopher W. Clark [2000], "Recognizing transient low-frequency whale sounds by spectrogram correlation," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107 (3518). Stafford, Kathleen M., Christopher G. Fox, and Davis S. Clark [1998], "Long-range acoustic detection and localization of blue whale calls in the northeast Pacific Ocean," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (3616).

  4. Pioneering Integrated Education and Research Program in Graduate School of Engineering and its Inquiry by Questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamino, Yoritoshi

    Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Department of Materials and Manufucturing Science and Department of Business engineering have constructed the educational programs of consecutive system from master to doctor courses in graduate school of engineering, “Pioneering Integrated Education and Research Program (PP) ”, to produce volitional and original mind researchers with high abilities of research, internationality, leader, practice, management and economics by cooperation between them for reinforcement of their ordinary curriculums. This program consists of the basic PP for master course students and the international exchange PP, leadership pp and tie-up PP of company and University for Doctor course students. In 2005th the basic PP was given to the master course students and then their effectiveness of the PP was investigated by questionnaire. The results of questionnaire proved that the graduate school students improved their various abilities by the practical lesson in cooperation between companies and our Departments in the basic PP, and that the old boys after basic PP working in companies appreciated the advantages to business planning, original conception, finding solution, patents, discussion, report skills required in companies.

  5. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas spp. strains are concentrated in the rhizosphere of alpine pioneer plants.

    PubMed

    Rijavec, Tomaž; Lapanje, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    HCN producing bacteria have previously been isolated from alpine mineral soil and their ecophysiology was presumed to be associated with mineral weathering. Nevertheless, the high ecological patchiness of the alpine environment calls for an extensive and detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of HCN producing bacterial populations and their associated weathering traits. Our results of such an analysis showed that primarily the rhizosphere of pioneer plants was rich in HPPs, harbouring the most potent HCN producers. HCN production incidence and intensity were dependent on the plant-associated microhabitat and type of bedrock/mineral soil, however the HCN+ phenotype was not associated with one of the particular genotypes which we determined by BOX-PCR. In HPP isolates, HCN production most commonly co-occurred with the production of hydroxamate-type siderophores, but was less often associated with inorganic phosphate solubilization activity and the production of catechol-type siderophores. These observations indicate that a plant's physiotype, not species, provide physicochemical conditions that determine selective pressure, which enables the growth of Pseudomonas spp. with a random genotype, but phenotypically predetermined to increase mineral weathering via a particular combination of phosphate solubilization and iron complexation with siderophores and HCN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: A Stellar Pioneer (The Dorritt Hoffleit Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haramundanis, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    In a world of Newtonian mechanics and Darwinian evolution, we also have Paynian composition of the stars and universe. While Payne, later Payne-Gaposchkin, did not extend her data and conclusions to the universe, her 1925 monograph, described by Otto Struve as ``the most brilliant PhD thesis ever written in astronomy,'' is a pioneering landmark that for the first time combined astronomical observations of stellar spectra with the then new atomic theories of Bohr and Saha. Her conclusions were suppressed by her advisor, H.N. Russell, but she wisely published her data with a disclaimer. Though facing overt gender discrimination throughout her career, and suffering the ``pink paycheck'' so well known to many women, she persevered and, towards the end of her working lifetime at Harvard University, became Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, a department she had helped to establish with the exuberant director Harlow Shapley in the 1920s and 1930s. One colleague, who called her ``An Astronomer's Astronomer,'' admired her as a person of great kindness, graciousness, humor and humility, who conveyed her love for the science ``lucidly and enthusiastically.'' She never lost her love and ardor for astronomy and astrophysics and made innumerable contributions to these sciences. Her work continues to inspire and provoke those working in the field, and she remains a model for all scientists to follow.

  7. Substantial Physician Turnover And Beneficiary 'Churn' In A Large Medicare Pioneer ACO.

    PubMed

    Hsu, John; Vogeli, Christine; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Mohta, Namita; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-04-01

    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), attempt to stimulate improvements in care delivery by better alignment of payer and provider incentives. However, limited attention has been paid to the physicians who actually deliver the care. In a large Medicare Pioneer ACO, we found that the number of beneficiaries per physician was low (median of seventy beneficiaries per physician, or less than 5 percent of a typical panel). We also found substantial physician turnover: More than half of physicians either joined (41 percent) or left (18 percent) the ACO during the 2012-14 contract period studied. When physicians left the ACO, most of their attributed beneficiaries also left the ACO. Conversely, about half of the growth in the beneficiary population was because of new physicians affiliating with the ACO; the remainder joined after switching physicians. These findings may help explain the muted financial impact ACOs have had overall, and they raise the possibility of future gaming on the part of ACOs to artificially control spending. Policy refinements include coordinated and standardized risk-sharing parameters across payers to prevent any dilution of the payment incentives or confusion from a cacophony of incentives across payers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944): visionary vascular surgeon and pioneer in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aida, Lai

    2014-08-01

    Alexis Carrel was a French surgeon in the 20th century. He made significant contributions to many advances in the fields of vascular surgery, cardiothoracic surgery and organ transplantation. He demonstrated that blood vessels can be united end-to-end and pioneered the triangulation suturing technique in vascular anastomosis. The methods he developed are still in use to this day. He insisted on the importance of absolute asepsis in vascular surgery when such practices were almost unheard of. He was also considered the father of solid organ transplantation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of his work. Together with Charles Lindbergh, he developed the extracorporeal perfusion pump to keep organs alive outside the human body. His contribution to medicine also extended to tissue culture and wound management. He was one of the most controversial figures of his generation, believing in the idea of genetic superiority and eugenics and he was associated with fascism in the 1930s. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Changes at the nuclear lamina alter binding of pioneer factor Foxa2 in aged liver.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Holly; Singh, Larry N; Patrick, Marissa A; Price, Andrew J; Osorio, Fernando G; López-Otín, Carlos; Bochkis, Irina M

    2018-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regulation of heterochromatin at the nuclear envelope underlies metabolic disease susceptibility and age-dependent metabolic changes, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we profile lamina-associated domains (LADs) using lamin B1 ChIP-Seq in young and old hepatocytes and find that, although lamin B1 resides at a large fraction of domains at both ages, a third of lamin B1-associated regions are bound exclusively at each age in vivo. Regions occupied by lamin B1 solely in young livers are enriched for the forkhead motif, bound by Foxa pioneer factors. We also show that Foxa2 binds more sites in Zmpste24 mutant mice, a progeroid laminopathy model, similar to increased Foxa2 occupancy in old livers. Aged and Zmpste24-deficient livers share several features, including nuclear lamina abnormalities, increased Foxa2 binding, de-repression of PPAR- and LXR-dependent gene expression, and fatty liver. In old livers, additional Foxa2 binding is correlated to loss of lamin B1 and heterochromatin (H3K9me3 occupancy) at these loci. Our observations suggest that changes at the nuclear lamina are linked to altered Foxa2 binding, enabling opening of chromatin and de-repression of genes encoding lipid synthesis and storage targets that contribute to etiology of hepatic steatosis. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Antoni marian gabryszewski as a pioneer of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in poland.

    PubMed

    Jandziś, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the work of Dr. Antoni Marian Gabryszewski, orthopaedic surgeon, associate professor at Lvov University, towards the development of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in Poland before World War I. It is based on archival materials, publications in medical journals and articles from the daily press of that time. The author presents little-known facts concerning Dr. Gabryszewski's occupational and academic activity and his work at the Surgery Dept. of Lvov University as well as his habilitation dissertation, regarded as the first attempt to position orthopaedics as distinct from surgery in Poland. The article also describes his long-term work at the private Orthopaedic Facility established in 1898 in Lvov which later incorporated the Zander Institute in 1908. The Zander Institute was the first in Galicia to offer exercise machines designed by Dr. Gustav Zander, imported from Stockholm and enjoying an extraordinary popularity in the world. Dr. Gabryszewski's practice as a spa doctor, which he pursued in Iwonicz Zdrój in the summer months, is also presented. Dr. A. Gabryszewski introduced comprehensive rehabilitation to the treatment of orthopaedic patients both at the Surgery Dept. of Lvov University and at his Orthopaedic Facility. He used therapeutic gymnastics (particularly mechanotherapy), therapeutic massage, physical therapy and orthopaedic aids. Analysis of the source materials leads to unequivocal conclusions attesting to Dr. A. Gabryszewski's pioneering role and significant contribution to the development of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in Poland.

  11. Hot-spot tectonics of Eistla Regio, Venus: Results from Magellan images and Pioneer Venus gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Eistla Regio (ER) is a broad, low, discontinuous topographic rise striking roughly EW at low northern latitudes of Venus. Some 2000 x 7000 km in dimensions, it is the third largest rise in planform on Venus after Aphrodite Terra and Beta Phoebe Regiones. These rises are the key physiographic elements in a hot spot model of global tectonics including transient plume behavior. Since ER is the first such rise viewed by Magellan and the latitude is very favorable for Pioneer Venus gravity studies, some of the predictions of a time dependent hot spot model are tested. Western ER is defined as the rise including Gula and Sif Mons and central ER as that including Sappho Patera. Superior conjunction prevented Magellan from returning data on eastern ER (Pavlova) during the first mapping cycle. It is concluded that the western and central portions of ER, while part of the same broad topographic rise and tectonic framework, have distinctly different surface ages and gravity signatures. The western rise, including Gula and Sif Mons, is the expression of deep seated uplift with volcanism limited to the individual large shields. The eastern portion has been widely resurfaced more recently by thermal anomalies in the mantle.

  12. Greenhouse models of Venus' high surface temperature, as constrained by Pioneer Venus measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.; Boese, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent measurements conducted from the Pioneer Venus probes and orbiter have provided a significantly improved definition of the solar net flux profile, the gaseous composition, temperature structure, and cloud properties of Venus' lower atmosphere. Using these data, we have carried out a series of one-dimensional radiative-convective equilibrium calculations to determine the viability of the greenhouse model of Venus' high surface temperature and to assess the chief contributors to the greenhouse effect. New sources of infrared opacity include the permitted transitions of SO2, CO, and HCl as well as opacity due to several pressure-induced transitions of CO2. We find that the observed surface temperature and lapse rate structure of the lower atmosphere can be reproduced quite closely with a greenhouse model that contains the water vapor abundance reported by the Venera spectrophotometer experiment. Thus the greenhouse effect can account for essentially all of Venus' high surface temperature. The prime sources of infrared opacity are, in order of importance, CO2, H2O, cloud particles, and SO2, with CO and HCl playing very minor roles.

  13. Exploring the emerging profession of speech-language pathology in Vietnam through pioneering eyes.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Marie; Davidson, Bronwyn; McAllister, Lindy

    2017-04-01

    In September 2012, 18 Vietnamese health professionals graduated as Vietnam's first university qualified speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study details the reflections of these pioneering health professionals at 12 months following their graduation, drawing attention to their scope of practice as SLPs and to the opportunities and challenges to progressing the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP) in Vietnam. Thirteen graduates participated in small group interviews where they described their work and their perceptions of their emerging practice. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was employed to identify key concepts and themes within the data. Four overarching themes were identified-scope of practice, establishing identity, confidence to practise and progressing the profession. Overall analysis revealed evolving professional practice characterised by new learning, fluctuations in confidence and an active forging of professional identity. Mentoring and support by international colleagues and advancing professional recognition were identified as critical to the profession's progression and to the development of context-specific and culturally appropriate services. Participants' reflections draw focus to an important role for the international SLP community as it works in partnership with colleagues to enhance awareness of and services for people with communication disabilities in under-served communities such as Vietnam.

  14. Ted Irving's legacy: recent developments on his pioneering work in paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.; Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Frankel, H. R.; Evans, D. A.; Geissman, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Edward (Ted) Irving (1927-2014) was one of the principal developers of paleomagnetism and an early champion of continental drift. Through careful multidisciplinary research and with great insight, he pioneered many aspects of paleomagnetism which continue to be actively researched. Irving was convinced of the reality of continental drift by 1954 and provided compelling arguments for its support in his classic 1964 textbook, but thought it would take the rest of his career to convince the rest of the scientific community. With the acceptance of plate tectonics in the late 1960s, he then applied his paleomagnetic tools to study young rocks (mid-ocean ridges), old rocks (the Laurentian shield), and mobile belts (the Appalachians and the Cordillera). In this poster we highlight recent work on several of his methods, results and ideas. Topics will include spherical statistics and paleosecular variation, the geomagnetic polarity time scale and the Kiaman superchron, paleoclimatic tests of paleogeography, compilation of paleomagnetic poles and the definition of apparent polar wander paths, and the paleogeography of cratons (e.g., Pangea) and mobile belts (e.g., Baja BC).

  15. NASA Pioneer: Venus reverse playback telemetry program TR 78-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modestino, J. W.; Daut, D. G.; Vickers, A. L.; Matis, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    During the entry of the Pioneer Venus Atmospheric Probes into the Venus atmosphere, there were several events (RF blackout and data rate changes) which caused the ground receiving equipment to lose lock on the signal. This caused periods of data loss immediately following each one of these disturbing events which lasted until all the ground receiving units (receiver, subcarrier demodulator, symbol synchronizer, and sequential decoder) acquired lock once more. A scheme to recover these data by off-line data processing was implemented. This scheme consisted of receiving the S band signals from the probes with an open loop reciever (requiring no lock up on the signal) in parallel with the closed loop receivers of the real time receiving equipment, down converting the signals to baseband, and recording them on an analog recorder. The off-line processing consisted of playing the analog recording in the reverse direction (starting with the end of the tape) up, converting the signal to S-band, feeding the signal into the "real time" receiving system and recording on digital tape, the soft decisions from the symbol synchronizer.

  16. Dr. S. Donald (Don) Stookey (1915-2014): Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, George H.

    2016-07-01

    Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform and Fotoceram, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics, which was contested and affirmed in court. Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass, capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass. In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even in his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes. Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Introduction

  17. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  18. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  19. Crash characteristics at work zones.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-01-01

    Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and traffic. A clear understanding of the characteristics of work zone crashes will enhance the selection...

  20. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources